A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). and Rouault. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines.A semicircular projection. the moulding around a window or door. at the east end of a church behind the altar. "architectural") Relating to structure. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The term applies also to a print made by this method. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Picasso. including Goya. roofed with a half-dome. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. In Greek and Roman literature. the lowest part of the entablature).
. but in essence the process is as follows. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. arkhitektonikos. Also known as an exedra. which is fused to the plate by heating. design. architrave (It. or organization. There are several variants of the technique. Lancet and Tudor. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface.e. arcus. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Degas. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). the darker the tone). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. architectonic (Gk. The adjective is apsidal. arcade (Lat. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. piers or pillars. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.archivolt (Ital." and Lat.and the Comedy . archeiu. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. attribute (Lat. In the case of martyrs. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. dominate. aureole (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. usually a saint. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person." from Gk. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action:
. archivolto. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "front arch. Dante's Vita nuova . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. attributum. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "golden. aureolus. voltus. "begin.
The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Six pontificates later. applied to the physically
. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. in 1377. 'Captivity'. the god of wine and fertility. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. paintings of everyday life. baldachin. that of Cardano. The actual move was made in 1309. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. or baldacchino (It. who had been residing in France since 1305. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Later. often anecdotal.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Bambocciati Group of relatively small.
After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Croatia]. Baalbek. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. AD 300). or canopy. beggars in rags. or connected with. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. pope between 432 and 440. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. set beneath a domical ciborium. AD 273. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Alg. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. France.g. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. such as those at Pisa.. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Pentecost. built by Sixtus III. Easter. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Parma. Customarily. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and abject filthy things. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. As eight follows the "complete" number. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. banderole (It. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. el Kantara. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. and Epiphany. banderuola.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). or forecourt. Florence.
. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. a church. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Lebanon. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. the Temple of Venus. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and Nocera in Italy.. and Poitiers. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. seven. Spalato [Split.
(2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). and thus a church. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Théodore Rousseau (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Originally. something of earlier symbolism survives. 1796-1875). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. which is reserved for the clergy. usually facing east. Jean-François Millet (French. 1817-1878). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Also tunnel vault. "king's hall") a church building. baptisteries. 1810-1865). In architecture. Vermeer). 1807-1876). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Rubens).
. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. stoa basilike. the dramatic use of light and shadow. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. and (3) everyday realism. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1811-1889). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. or baptismal chapels. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Constant Troyon (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Jules Dupré (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon.In the 10th century. achieved through scale. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. however. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. in the 1840s and 1850s. barocco. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. in its usual location near the church door . the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. southeast of Paris. were often omitted entirely. basilica (Gk. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Baroque (Port. 1814-1875). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories.
were referred to by their specific contents. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. also incorrectly called bisque. up until the mid-17th century. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. often with food and drink. especially Spanish. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. or which is to be left as it is. Spanish still-lifes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. like their Dutch counterparts. and often sentimentality. Bodegónes. Book of Hours
. It takes its name from its grainy texture. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. in which still-life predominates. as is to be expected. Biscuit porcelain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. such as Waldmüller. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. which is either not yet glazed. bodegón Image. however. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. There were. particularly porcelain. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. By association. 1650 in Spain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. The term was mainly used up to c. domesticity. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848).
and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. and the fact that it is easily workable . Chantilly). made as a study for a larger picture. months. days of the week. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. bozzetto Strictly speaking. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.both hot and cold . and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. varying from silverish to a rich. a rapid sketch in oil. or seasons. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bozzetto(Italian. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.by a variety of processes. though these are more often called 'modelli'. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. coppery red. durability.an advantage over marble sculpture. but can also be used for painted sketches. See flying buttress.
. By extension. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture.
Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. and Giotto. notable from Syria and Egypt. which was often allegorical. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. its forms highly stylized. C cabinet A small. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. private room where works of art. Duccio. and work in precious metals. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. It also served to glorify the emperor. glass. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. "a chest. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). over time the term was used for the collections themselves. box") In architecture. casson. caisson (Fr. camera obscura
. Among its most distinctive products were icons. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. mosaics. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. cameo Small relief made from gems. ceramics. manuscript illuminations.
the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and." and the earliest versions. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. hemp. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. usually in a church. candelabra. capitellum. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. which isolates the fabric from the paint. dating to antiquity. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. usually with several branches or arms.-N. and jute. Structurally. usually built beside or attached to a church.) A gallery for singers or musicians. both of which have richly carved marble panels. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. pl. usually decorated. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. candela. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. Portable versions were built.Ancestor of the photographic camera. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. campanile Bell tower. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. Niepce created photography. cantorie (It. as an aid to drawing. other materials used are cotton. candelabrum (It. only very rough effects will be obtainable. by the 16th century. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. sing. candlestick. cantoria. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. followed by smaller and even pocket models. capital (Lat. The Latin name means "dark chamber.
. which was usually whitened. "candle") A large.
both Italians and artists from other countries . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Fortitudo (Fortitude). a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartellino. cardinalis. In fresco painting. The order combines reclusive and community life. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cartellini In a painting. pl.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. or fresco. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. or a motto. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartouche
. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. tapestry. the endeavour to attain true humanity. At the height of the Middle Ages. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Carthusian Order (Lat. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartoon (It. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". the date of the painting. New Charterhouses. near Grenoble. details of the subject. and humanism.a humorous drawing or parody. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartone. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Carmelites (Lat. monasteries containing separate hermitages.
toward the setting sun.
. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. decorated with gilt gesso.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. cathedral (cathedra. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Paolo Uccello. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. They contained the bride's clothes. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. linen. or nave. where the throne of the bishop is placed. cassone (It. they were also used in other countries. and swags of fruit and flowers. palace. Cascina. For reasons lost to time and tradition. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The main body. a cathedral always faces west . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. In the 15th century. These lead up to the north and south transepts. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. caryatid (Gk. The altar is placed at the east end. and many other items of her dowry. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. or arms of the cross. castello (It. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. putti (cupids). or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance.) "castle".
'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. in accordance with their distance from the observer. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. a throne bearer of the deity. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Christian.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. "in the centre". but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. central perspective (Lat. moral laxity in the clergy and so on).
. landscapes. Both the statement of St. as celestial attendants of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. or birdlike characteristics. Relative to the observer. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. champlevé (Fr. a celestial winged being with human. centralis. buildings and figures that are being depicted. and Islamic literature. animal. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. continually praise him. and perspicere. rather than intercessory functions. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass.
choir (Gk.chiaroscuro (It. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept
. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. Lastly. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. "light dark") In painting. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. or for choral singing. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. replacing tempera. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. Since Carolingian times. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Hans Burgkmair (1510). encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. North of the Alps. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. choros. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. the Order of the Hospital of St. reserved for the clergy to pray together. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy.
and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Transparente (completed 1732). and repetition of pattern. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. and garlands. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. undulating cornices. became the most common motif. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. and the Churrigueresque column. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. an architect. ciborium
. balustrades. is as typically Churrigueresque. Sculpted clouds. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. reversed volutes. stucco shells. a massing of carved angels. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Very few still exist in their original positions. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. gilded rays. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. The Mexico cathedral (1718). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758).intersect). The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. further enriching the style. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. undulating lines.
none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. They were forbidden to form a trade association. In reaction to this revolutionary
.and post-medieval Italy. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. High Renaissance). the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. including the ciompi. etc. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. beaters. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. combers. ciompi. the wool carder Michele di Lando. Their economic condition worsened. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. as also were those in the associated. Without being members of a guild. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Quattrocento (1400s. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Members of the lower classes. The new government. or achieve political representation. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. on July 22. but self-employed. Then. placing one of their members. controlled by the minor guilds. craft of dyeing. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. who were raised to the status of a guild.
and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. scholars patiently finding. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. the ciompi guild was abolished. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. changed greatly from one period to the next.episode. literature.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. on which strings were plucked. Concepts of the classical.as in Italy these were dispensed with. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. resembling a lyre. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the black contours usually with a special line plate. and politics. philosophy and art .
. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. except in cases where . philosophy. with Italian scholars. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. editing and translating a wide range of texts. writers. In the 15th century Greek literature.) An ancient musical instrument. clair-obscur (Fr. however. cithara (Gk.
"completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. a work's underlying theme. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. concetto. those with refined tastes. concetti (It. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. pl.
. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. literature or music. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). occasionally made of wood. cognoscente (It. or "contract. condottieri (It. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. blue and orange. cognoscenti. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. intensify one another. pl. sing. the church service at which these prayers are said. arch or ceiling. Coffered ceilings. when set side by side. condottiere. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. terrorized the country. as well as from the Bible. compline (Lat. The name was derived from the condotta. [hora] completa. Green and red.
. who won control of Milan in 1450. clergy. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. i. primarily for syphilitics. Toward the end of the 15th century. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. often under the direction of. confraternities Confraternities. often called compagnie or. Francesco Sforza. i. By the 16th century. convents of convertite. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed.devastating Romagna. With no goal beyond personal gain. and his rival Braccio da Montone. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. and Tuscany. Mark (1432). associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Carmagnola. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. disappeared. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. flagellant confraternities. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Spanish. scuole. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. By the end of the 14th century. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French.e. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops.e. Muzio's son. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Umbria. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. in Venice. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Martino). (2) Confraternite del Rosario. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. and German--the condottieri. or with the spiritual assistance of. which spread in the 15th century. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. in the service of Perugia. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. in the service of Naples. Less fortunate was another great condottiere.
i. Dorotea in Trastevere. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. in Florence. In medieval painting. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their
. the Florentine Neri. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. e. flat outlines. but sometimes had their own premises. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital.g. e. contrapposto (It. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. 1514 in S. contour. contours were initially regular. Later. which accompanied condemned prisoners. however. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. While the Doge ranked above the Council. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). notwithstanding their location. while the Venetian government. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement.g. founded c. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Confraternities. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis.e. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. and refuges for maidens. reformed prostitutes. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contour (Fr. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor.
"ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Reform programs. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. did not achieve any lasting results. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics.
. corbel In architecture. a bracket of stone. 1100 and 1300. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. whose names are inscribed on several works. The style spread as far as England. large cornice or other feature. They are often ornamented.weight on one leg. conventiculurn. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Lat. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. cuprum. declining moral standards. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. 1280). the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. an engraving produced in this way. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. conventicle (Lat. aes cyprium. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen.
he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof.e. reedy sound. Next. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. An ancestor of the oboe. the condemned man. Carthaginians. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Jews. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. a semi-circular vault. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. the first Christian emperor. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Constantine the Great. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. There were various methods of performing the execution." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Seleucids. or "scourged. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. "small vat") In architecture. Usually. D dado
. Death. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. after being whipped. the most famous victim of crucifixion. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. i. cupula. cupola (Lat. a small dome. particularly among the Persians. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD.
and Linz possessed common characteristics. danse macabre The dance of death. diptychos. Passau. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. usually in matching pairs. Deësis (Gk. often an altarpiece. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "drawing. e. Gk. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. diptych (Lat. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. but the concept behind an art work. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diptychum. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). disegno (It. Anglican and Orthodox churches. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. an expressive use of nature. diakonos. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never
. The term stresses not the literal drawing. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. which was help to be the basis of all art. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Germany. deacon (Gk. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. decorated diffrently from the upper section. design") In Renaissance art theory.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase.g.
dome in architecture. doublet A male garment. donator. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. "to mix. distemperare. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly
. Dominicans (Lat. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. though a few artists. which runs on castors or wheels. The studio easel. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue.fully realize. Ordo Praedictatorum. when painters took to working out of doors. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. formerly worn under armour. such as we still use today. donor (Lat. also used it on canvas.Thomas Aquinas. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. distemper (Lat. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. is a heavy piece of furniture. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. usually forming a ceiling or roof. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. a 19th-century invention. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour).
which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. sometimes combining panel painting. "last". ensemble (Fr. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. eschaton.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. John (19. in art. Ecce Homo (Lat. eschatology (Gk. It consists of the architrave. bound and flogged. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. entablature In classical architecture. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. and the cornice. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. a depiction of Jesus. and logos. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. sculpture. and architecture. "word")
. the frieze. Hence. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. fresco. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. full face. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. epitaph (Gk. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. en face In portraiture.
farmers. which is called "delftware. protector of shepherds. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. It developed in France in the early 16th century. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. fields and livestock. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Contarini. 4500 BCE. Germany. Carnesecchi and Ochino. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification.
. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. which was developed in the Near East ca. Augustine. celebrated with bread and wine. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. which is called "maiolica.death and resurrection. and of the last things. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Vittoria Colonna." and that made in the Netherlands and England. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. notably Cardinal Pole. and Scandinavia. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Spain. Saints Ambrose. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. and is named for Faenza. Jerome. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Eucharist (Gk. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Giovanni Morone. Italy." and charis. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Marcantonio Flaminio. "good. which was famous for maiolica. eu. particularly ware made in France.
In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. 2 . black and dun. Only a small area can be painted in a day. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco).8). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and flowers suspended in a loop. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. frescos in Italy
. a technique known as a secco fresco. Their attributes are the bow. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. leaves. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. fresco (It. fluted of a column or pillar. such as plague.festoni (It. famine and death. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. war. Committed to charitable and missionary work. can in time be seen. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. The colour of his horse is white. sword and set of balances. a swag. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. that of the others red. relaxed. drying to a slightly different tint. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. and these areas. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit.
or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . In art from the classical period onwards. or fresco secco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Final details. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. for example. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. genre In a broad sense. The technique of buon fresco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. the intonaco. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. usually childish figure. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. a person's invisible tutelary god.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. or true fresco. covings and ceilings. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. G Garter. where the atmosphere was too damp. landscape and portraiture. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.Save in Venice. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with
. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. both in churches and in private and public palaces. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). are genres of painting. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Genius in classical Rome.
Bernardo Daddi. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. whether it must be connected with the public good. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Maso di Banco. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi').such artists as Pieter Bruegel. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Gobelins
. in portraits and on tombs. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. as well as writers and artists. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Maria Gloriosa). The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. As such. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. how it differed from notoriety. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. and as spurring on men of action. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant.
The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.French tapestry manufactory. and although it reopened in 1699. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. still in existence today. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. who appointed Lebrun Director. golden section (Lat. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. This ratio is approximately 8:13. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Paris. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. thereafter it made only tapestries. Golden Fleece. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer").
. In other Italian cities. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order.
or the influence of one building. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. There is a transcendental quality. 1200 and c. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. The artistic. and lies much deeper than. Denis. Nevertheless. c. the superficial particularities of form. In thinking of Nicola (d. painting. Gothic Gothic. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Amiens. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. painting. from the 13th until the 17th century.
. like the cultural and commercial. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. In particular. In sculpture and in painting. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. 1270. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. that the effects are to be felt. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries.
The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). starch.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. These qualities.and hog-hair brushes. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and above all Italy. and Piranesi. genius. the beau idéal of the French. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. occasionally. with sable. without visible brush marks. and Morris Graves. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and the great style. chiefly to France. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. the Netherlands. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Canaletto. It is thinned with water for applying. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. to white or tinted paper and card and. and taste among the English. notably in the writings of Bellori. if required.
. Dubuffet. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Such tours often took a year or more. Pannini. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Klee. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Honey. to silk.
internal factions in Florence went under other names. gris. through central Italy. After the War of the Eight Saints. however. In the context of the fine arts. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. to Provence and Paris. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. From 1266 to 1268. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers.e. after this. In Florence. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. exclude drawing from this definition. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. the parties taking a multitude of local names. 1216. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. grisaille (Fr. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Some writers. c.
. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. which had recruited most of the merchant class. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. however. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. brother of Louis IX. became an abiding feature of European politics. usually gray. In 1266-67 the Guelf party.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Although its palace was rebuilt c. drawing and the various forms of engraving. and Waiblingen. then as now. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. including text as well as illustrations. In another sense.
thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. [science] héraldique. heraldry (Fr. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. trades. "herald")
." from Fr. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In 16th century Venice. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In some cities. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. as some did). notably Florence in the 14th century. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. and provided assistance to members in need. for example. The guilds were not equal. or professions. In Florence. goldsmiths. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. Guilds were also patrons of art. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. The guild also monitored standards of work. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. but in time they acquired other functions. "[knowledge of] heraldry. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. H hatching In a drawing. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In Italy they go back a long way.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. trade or profession (painters. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. surgeons. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. print or painting. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In some towns. and greater hostility between master and man. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. héraut.
The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. However. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. and regarded themselves as forming. normative for churchmen. d. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. as Antichrist. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. By contrast. with the rules governing their use. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. i. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. they were condemned in 1184. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. from the start. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The main impact of the
. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. indeed. the followers of Juan de Valdes. while others merged with the Waldensians. the Waldensian. the Cathars were an anti-church. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. head of the 'carnal Church'. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. together with brethren north of the Alps. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. one great missionary community.
his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery
. the emancipation of man from God took place. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. history (usually classical history). may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. working from 1825 to 1875. At the same time. humanism (Lat. mainly in the south. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. In humanism. Durand. Church. Kensett. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. in his earlier work. hortus conclusus (Lat.movement upon the laity was in southern France. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. F. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Jasper Cropsey. Morse. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Frederick E. B. humanus. American painters were studying in Rome. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and classical literature. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). and. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. J. its subjects considered morally elevating. my spouse'. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Henry Inman. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. F. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Germany. George Inness. S. Thomas Cole.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Judas' thirty pieces of silver. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. originality. the scourge that was used in the scourging. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the veil of St. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. usually the donors of a work of art. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. inventio (It. the rooster of Peter's denial. and the ladder. or of other saints. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). etc. invention. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. are also used in art literature. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. and they are also depicted on their own. The terms court style. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Derived from classical rhetoric. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which.g. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Veronica. Human figures. Donatallo. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. For instance. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. In the second half of the 14th century. beautiful style. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. soft style. with many further details added. the hammer.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the pincers. the ability to create. investiture
who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Nicolaes Berchem. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. The Both brothers. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Italianizers Northern artists. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Both and Berchem. Andries and Jan Both. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. who traveled in Italy and. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. principally Dutch. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Jerome's writings. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. and Jan Asselijn. although they are usually called Romanists.
. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. of Utrecht. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Upon his return to Holland. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. bathed in a golden haze. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. generally Dutch or Flemish. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation).Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office.
The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). encouraged by the Crusades. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. John of Jerusalem . lectern A reading stand or desk. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. the rite of communion is based on this. especially one at which the Bible is read. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Archbishop of Genoa. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Legenda Aurea (Lat. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .1519). liberal arts
love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. John F. lunette (Fr. Church (1826-1900). often standing in markets and town squares. Kensett (1816-1872). Pythagoras for arithmetic.g. together with identifying attributes (e. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Tubal for music). a semicircular space. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. through the use of aerial perspective. geometry. and Frederick E. that may contain a window. the quadrivium. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.g. that could be used for public ceremonies. rhetoric and dialectic. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.
. often sublime. Martin J.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. poetic atmosphere. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. its roof supported by columns. astronomy and music. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides.grammar. Maria Novella in Florence). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. then the basis of a philosophical training. It is related to. Heade (1819-1904). commemorating a marriage. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). "little moon") In architecture. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. painting or sculptural decoration. first the preparatory trivium . Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. comprising arithmetic. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. loggia (It.
Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. magna mater (Lat. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. for example. 1855–65. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. usually for the lute. and accompaniments. madrigal A part song. historical subjects. active mainly in Florence c. copper green. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. particularly such ware produced in Italy. and iron red.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. "great mother") A mother goddess. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). originating in Italy in the 14th century. originally sung without accompaniment. Specifically. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. manganese purple. antimony yellow. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. and however bright their lighting effects. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. "almond")
. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and portraits as well as landscapes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. being written. the goddess Cybele. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). mandorla (It. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). When white is used for painting. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. but they painted genre scenes.
manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. bound. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. strong. ecclesiastical. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Parmigianino. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. "manner. and crowned with thorns. and literary texts. in a specific sense. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Developing out of the Renaissance. It reached to the knee or foot. Flanders. the hand-written medieval book. which was quarried at Mount
. often ornamented with decorative borders. mantle An overcoat. worn open. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. El Greco and Tintoretto. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. more strictly. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. complex and crowded compositions. maniera. Mannerism (It. depending on the social class of the wearer. In architecture.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. In Mannerist painting. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Bronzino. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. illuminated initials and miniatures. the Codex manuscriptus. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. marked by flagellation. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Burgundy.
Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. a different design on the reverse. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn
. quarried at Massa. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Like the finest Imperial coins. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Without monetary value. having finished his training. proof") the sufferings. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. martyrdom (Gk. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. "witness. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. particularly by Michelangelo. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. an inscription running round the rim. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. martyrion. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). the medal's purpose was commemorative. The pure white Carrara marble.Pentelicon in Attica. which were beginning to be reverently collected. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. sleek surface. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. marmi finti (It. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Carrara. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. medallion In architecture.
Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Ludwig von Siegen. who reflected them. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. In pure mezzotint. no line drawing is employed. of the person portrayed on the other side. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. When Perseus cuts off her head. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. the stress on individual character. particularly. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. c. c. 14601528). is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. 1640. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. perhaps oddly. a Gorgon.
. for landscapes and portraits. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. 1452-1526/27). 1467-688). even grain. It was. Medusa In Greek mythology. Her head features on Minerva's shield. supposedly to petrify her enemies. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. as it were. A Dutch officer. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. in England. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). This yields a soft effect in the print. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The work of these men.round the neck. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. often anonymous. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. 1425-1504). Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. and of the many. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The process is essentially extinct today. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone.
.g. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. e. monokhromatos. often quite highly finished. "word.. monochrome (Gk. painting in gouache on vellum or card. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. executed on a very small scale. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. pointed headdress worn by bishops. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. Parmigianino (d. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. ink and paint. by Tiepolo and Rubens. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Francis himself. miter A high. Many such small versions. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. motto (Ital. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. a painting executed in a single color. "one color") Painted in a single color.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. usually portraits. still exist. a branch of the Franciscan order. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored.
and Casino Massimo. In general.
. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In 1810 0verbeck. Nazarenes A group of young. Pforr. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms.from the Middle Ages. but often insipid. and two other members moved to Rome. Berlin. nave (from Lat. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Isidore. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). naturalism (Fr. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. often separated from it by pillars. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. named after the patron saint of painting. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. The invention of personal mottos. It may have parallel aisles on each side. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and is intersected by the transept. navis. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Rome. 1817-29). "ship") the main interior space of a church building. 1816-17. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino.
surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).)
.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Nymphaeum (Gk. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. usually golden. nigellus. is as true as it is notorious. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. were usually old when elected. but their ideas continued to be influential. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). nimbus (Lat. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). niello (Lat. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. the style of the Ancien Régime. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. moreover. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. "aureole") The disc or halo. Popes. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.
a more elaborate base. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. the Doric order. observances") Rites performed for the dead. with a sturdy. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. its richness of colour. orders of architecture In classical architecture. walnut. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. The earliest. and its greater tonal range. fluted column and a plain capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. capital. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). was the simplest. obsequia. or poppy. Greek goddesses of Nature. inborn sin. O obsequies (Lat. the three basic styles of design.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. a small private chapel. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. "services. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge.
. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and entablatures. such as linseed.
with biforate windows. and the main apartments above. and. like cities. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.g. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà).Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. designed as a
. Palazzo Strozzi). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. P pala (Ital. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. while shops came to be thought undignified. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. tradition and social structure. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. the Cancelleria). 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. palazzo (It. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. standing at the foot of the Cross.
g. Papal incentives to build. column-caps. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. panel
. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. often built next to their titular churches. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). like the colonnaded vestibule. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. In Venice. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. behind a sober Florentine façade. Following Oriental patterns. palmette. Other cities. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). cornices and abutments. especially after the Sack of Rome. and Palladio's in Vicenza. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. like Genoa. e. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes.g. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.scholarly retreat. and large households. Rich. Movement of patrons and architects. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. came to be applied all over Europe. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. evolved influential types. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Palazzo Massimi). but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe.
Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. cedar. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and spanned by a single dome. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. however. larch. or other rigid substance. panel painting Painting on wooden panels.Term in painting for a support of wood. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. including beech. teak. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and other synthetic materials as supports. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Many other types were used. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. fibre-board. chestnut. secular rulers. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. Having a circular plan. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and dark walnut are favourites. slate has occasionally been used as a support. as distinct from canvas. to influence popes in their favour. the. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. As successors to St Peter. the management of clerical dues and taxation. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and walnut. A number of matters. so that they might have a voice at court. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. linden. Then. To maintain their authority. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. metal. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. mahogany. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. as it were. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. fir. and modern painters have also used plywood. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). enforce law and order. and the pressure and temptations
. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. or the incidence of taxation. On a larger scale. olive. In the 20th century cedar. The third aspect was administrative. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other.
The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. To resolve the problem of divided authority. as such. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. if it did no serious damage to the faith. of individuals. was long in doubt. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. however.that could be applied to them. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. which seems so inevitable. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. As at Avignon. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). however. the most appropriate .as well. at Avignon. By then. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). the acceptance of the city as the most practical . to be long delayed. would. in spite of further absences from Rome. which met at Constance 1414-18. from the point of view of its religious associations. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. So onerous.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. possess an authority which. There remained. It was argued that such a council. considered perfectly suitable for the role played
. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. could supersede that of a pope. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. Colonna and Caetani. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. in the eyes of God. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence.
Parrhasius (c. However. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Passion
. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and other animals. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. pastor. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. less frequently pig. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. goat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari).. and with Zeuxis (c. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. to a world peopled by shepherds. it has also been used for painting. pastoral (Lat. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. nymphs. through lavish patronage of artists. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. the creation of a cultural capital. 400-300 BC). as well as a governmental one. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and satyrs. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. in classical literature. scholars and men of letters. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier.
1478. Francesco Salviati. patrician (Lat. the crown of thorns. pastiche (fr. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Portrayals of the Passion. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. ornamental building. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence.) or pasticcio (It.
. papilio. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. which focus on the Suffering Christ. patricius. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. such as a garden summerhouse. and so on. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. 1478). but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. and also the archbishop of Pisa. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. "butterfly. a small. Meanwhile.The events leading up to Good Friday. a region in north-central Italy. but not necessarily a direct copy. projecting either centrally or at both ends. wealthy citizen. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pavilion (Lat. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize.
"nature". Peace of Augsburg A treaty.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. or related elements within an art work. "person". often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). personification (Lat. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. perspicere. "to see through. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. perspective (Lat. and facere. physiognomy (Gk. pendant (Fr. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "hanging. physis. and gnomon. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. persona. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence.
. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. concept or deity. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). pergola (It. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. in particular the face. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture.
) The main floor of a building. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). to be expressed in painting. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. containing the public rooms. pigment (Lat. Rome. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.piano nobile (Ital. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. for example. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. pigmentum. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. exemplified. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. usually above the ground floor. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. but may consist of a cluster of columns. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. A pier is generally larger than a column. but full of variety. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Peter's. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. affording a good subject for a landscape. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. remarkable for singularity. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. proper to take a landscape from. Pietà (Lat.
. curious details. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. striking the imagination with the force of painting. both real and painted. or resin to make paint. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. glue.
however. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. a shaft. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s.pilaster (Lat. the burning of 'infected' clothing. pilastrum. and capital. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. moreover. it has a base. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. For this reason. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. During 1348 the Black Death. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the
. perhaps. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. In the 15th century. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. also used in Spain's American colonies. it is difficult to find. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. despite regional variations. for instance. It seems probable. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. outside Tuscany. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. plague Plague. It is often fluted. in October 1347. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. more sporadic outbreaks. "pillar") A flat. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Thenceforward. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. and thereafter all Europe. since. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. though in less widespread. such as Florence and Genoa. Rocco and Sebastian. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness.
The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Phaedo. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). heraldic escutcheons. harmonious. utilized Mudejar ornament -. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Theatetus and the Laws. the Renaissance-Plateresque. which lasted only a few decades. Diego evolved a purer.. Philebus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. more severe. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate.e. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. i. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In contrast with Aristotle. A student of Socrates. and sinuous scrolls. like its successor. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. correct classical orders became frequent. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. composition. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. are the masterworks of the second style. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Timaeus. The first phase. Phaedrus. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. or appropriateness. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. and unified style using massive geometric forms. The second phase. placement. or simply the Plateresque. Thus empirical science does not have a central role
. The first phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. the Symposium. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding.
Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. partially. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. replaced Ficino's. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Iamblichus. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. near Florence. and he utilized many other writings. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. the greatest of his ancient disciples. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. all of which he also translated into Latin. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. including those of Plotinus. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. but not completely. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. and the Chaldaic Oracles. A new Latin translation. Rather unsystematic. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition.in Plato's thought.1577) becoming particularly popular. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and Agostino Steuco (c. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Plotinus. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. It was especially in a number of academies in France and
. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. 1472-c. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. systematized and added to what Plato had done. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 .
such as processions and consecrations. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. plinth (Gk. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. as in classical architecture). one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. plinthos. portico (Lat. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. polyptych (Gk.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by
. pointed arch In architecture. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Lat. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. pluvial (Med. Frequently supports a pediment. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. porticus. poluptukhos. where a pectoral is used to close it. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Plato was read in the universities. column. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluviale. or statue.
Florence (1486-90). Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. The equestrian portrait. Siena. Florence.e. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Colleoni. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. decorating whole rooms. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Mantua. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Cathedral) by Uccello. Group portraits. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. and only a decorative accessory to form. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Palazzo Farnese). Venice). was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. the Carracci. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. inessential. Desiderio da Settignano. was revived in the 14th century. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli.. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. The realism of the clear. National Gallery). pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. psychologically more complex. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Maria Novella. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Gattarnelata. flattened image. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. 1328. Campidoglio). and the
. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London.
Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. As Poussin was a Frenchman. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Fiamma's sermons. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. 1494). and. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. abrasive even. Borromeo. The sermons of Visdomini. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. was versed in classical and patristic
.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. bishop of Chioggia. several of whom became bishops. primarily the mendicants. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. to discharge their preaching duties. minatory exhortations. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. bishop of Asti. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). are not florid in style." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94)." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. who had as their ideal masters Titian. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. however. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Savonarola and Musso. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The styles of S. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Correggio. from the secular clergy. and Peter Paul Rubens. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). not least those of statesmen and prelates. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. of the sermon as an art form. Charles Le Brun. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. bishops especially. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Cornelio Musso (1511-74).
predella (It. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala).they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. and so forth. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Millais and Rossetti. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. among them Holman Hunt. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.g. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Because of the small size of predelle . The New Testament references in these would. the temptations of Adam and Christ. though often relatively very wide . presbyterion "Council of Elders")
. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. however. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. prefiguration Typology .rhetoric. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Naples). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. tapestries.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.
again indicative of the purpose they served. "evenness") in painting. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The following are important: 1. the Canon of Proportion. intended as complete works of art in themselves. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Prix de Rome A scholarship. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. Girardon. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Fragonard. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. profil perdu (Fr. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. projecting shelf on which to kneel. which uses the square
. proportio. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. sculpture and architecture. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. the quadrature. 2. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. 3. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the golden section.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. notably David. and Houdon among sculptors. proportion (Lat. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. these highly finished drawings.
most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. a fifth = 2:3. a fourth = 3:4. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. It was common in Roman art. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. one half the length of the other). many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo.as a unit of measurement. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. putto (It. Ignazio. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. provenance The origins of an art work. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. "boys") Plump naked little boys. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. triangulation. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. harmonic proportions. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Rome. Unlike Pozzo.
. the steward or treasurer of a church. and 5. 4. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). for example). putti sing.
religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the great orders of monks. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Lat. in which figures are seen half round. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Botticelli. hermits. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. In 16th century Europe. basso rilievo). in which figures are almost detached from their background. Donatello. or the Jesuits. e. also known as the Realist school. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in particular works by Masaccio. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. and high relief (alto rilievo). canons regular. friars and nuns. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. the object of particular veneration. Brunelleschi. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. relicquiae. refectory (Med. relic (Lat. or some item connected with a saint. "remains") a part of the body of a saint.g. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. relevare. with the Anglican Church developing in England. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. relief (Lat. Among the
.Quattrocento (It. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Fra Angelico and others.
The Silvestrines. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. however. which was to become the main Italian one. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations.e. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. it became the Cassinese congregation. the great patriarch of Venice. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Giorgio in Alga. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Lucca. the most notable being S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. 1012. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Padua. was the congregation of S. various groups were fused in the latter body. Mantua. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. At the same time. S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order.contemplative orders. presided over by chapters general. Founded by St Romuald c. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Conventuals. Salvatore. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Bologna (1419). with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. who had no overall organization originally. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. After the repression of the Spirituals. and their more institutionalized brethren. and the generally moderate Observants. In 1504. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. although technically of secular canons. Maria di Fregonaia. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. i. Bernardino of Siena. their resources being in the hands of trustees. That of S. Benedetto. the Conventuals. The same bull
. Giustina. The Benedictines. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. In 1517. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Venice (1404). continued to hold the order's great basilicas.
emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Michele in Isola. a historical period. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. founded in 1535 by S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. also. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Gaetano da Thiene. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. founded by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. however. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. S. Angela Merici. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Gerolamo Aemiliani. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th
.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. The first. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Venice. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Filippo Neri. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. the Theatines.
and competition with. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. the historical reality of antiquity. Thereafter. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. and his own as potentially one of light. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. of an energetic revival of interest in. life. as well as political. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of arts. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). however. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. which had begun early in the 14th century.
. increasingly. was so vast and potent. 1875-86). he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of scholarship. of letters.century. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. too long forgotten glories. All-Roundness. For long. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. however. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. because its core of energy. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. of 'darkness'. even Amoralism. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus.
mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. though sometimes of metal. (3) There is not a true. retables can be detached and. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. consist merely of a painting. etc. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Though thus challenged. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. It is for this additional. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Ghent). or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. the previous record . as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. and other liturgical objects. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. however. and is decorated with paintings. candlesticks. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. and mass media. The challenges are to be accepted. There was an early. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. especially in the High Gothic period.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. in the more limited sense. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. statues. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. gratefully. etc. of industrialization. let alone a uniform. mobilized nationalism. letters. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.erased. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. later still to Genoa.with all its shabbiness . Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica
. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). sometimes.) was the term chosen. congruence between.
however. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Louis XV furniture. With the development of freestanding altars. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Romanesque art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Italy. Rococo A style of design. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). its mood lighthearted and witry. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. and 'Romanesque'. retables have become extinct.in the 11th century. almost simultaneously. and architecture dominating the 18th century. the first style to achieve such international currency. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. rilievo (It. the St. literally. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century.of St Mark in Venice. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. rocaille (French.France. More usually. Spain . with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Germany. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Originally commissioned in 976. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. it indicates a derivation from Roman art.
. "relief") In painting. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. As the name suggests. in several countries . is a typical product. richly decorated with organic forms. painting. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. like 'Gothic'. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.
Massys and M. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. In addition. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. M. Rome. such as red ochre. the development of nationalistic pride. Claude. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Pannini and Mengs. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). they maintained. B. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Piranesi. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Q.
. stylized design representing an open rose. van Heemskerk. The aim of painting. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Mabuse. van Orley. ruddle Any red-earth pigment.
and impoverished. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. multiple sets used in succession. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. In the
. glance and movement . among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). but others were the work of well-known figures. holy orders. confirmation. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and Lorenzo de' Medici. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and anointing of the sick. the Eucharist. supported by lay confraternities.expressed through gesture. matrimony. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. gutted. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Written primarily in ottava rima. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. local saints. Eastern independent. There were no limits on time. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. when it finally left the city it had devastated. pious legend and hagiography. Clement escaped into Castel S. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.greatly increased. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Sacra Conversazione (It. penance. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Subjects were nominally sacred. and Protestant churches. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). from the Old and New Testaments. Orthodox. Many compositions were anonymous. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature.
The classical Protestant churches (i. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. that the price of salt should be increased. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Saracens
. Salt War. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. used for drawing. the Bentivoglio. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. large room. as an excuse to revolt. was buried under a new fortress. They were still seeking aid. sacraments. as in the Church of the Brethren. The chief focus of discontent. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.e.. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. notably from Florence and in Germany. the sun of righteousness. the Rocca Paolina. Hence.e. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. the Orthodox Church does not." sala (Ital.i. Anglican.) Hall. replaces the Lord's Supper. which in the Gospel According to John. baptism and the Eucharist. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology." which are called sacramentals. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the symbolic direction of Christ.early church the number of sacraments varied. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Thus. The theology of the Orthodox Church. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. make such strict distinctions. Immediately following baptism. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Candidates first face west. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. chapter 13. Lutheran. and sacraments. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. was not maintained as a sacrament. and then face east. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. It is still practiced on special occasions. strictly speaking. in principle. foot washing.
scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. and many others.c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).c. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. sarcophagi (Gk. legs and horns of a goat. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. wood or terracotta. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.During the Middle Ages. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. The publication of Latin (1562. the god of wine. the Arabs or Muslims. 210 AD). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. sarcophagus. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and
. Little known in the Middle Ages. whose writings. human-like woodland deities with the ears. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 270 BC). are lost. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). made of stone. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 45 BC). satyr In Greek mythology. 360 . pl. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 160 . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ).
causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between.they had individual Bentnames . Charles III of Durazzo (d. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Schism. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. being Frenchmen. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Louis I (d. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. from time to time both he and his opponents. and. In northern Italy. 1386) and his son Ladislas. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. most of whom. As a result. but with little effect. the Florentines. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies.for example Pieter van Laer. who recognized the Roman pope. one of the early leaders. on the other. who had the support of the Avignon pope. for. with France and her allies Aragon. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). scholasticism
. than their medieval predecessors. while England. in June 1409. while devout Christians agonized. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Alexander V. on one side. was called Bamboccio. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. However. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban.
and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). Medieval scholars.The term is ambivalent.moral philosophy. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. as it is easier to add details in this way. It was because the central concerns of humanism . with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. that scholasticism was left. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. if lime-water was used. history and rhetoric . In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). and theology. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. and Islamic literature. as it were. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. moreover. As such. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. university-based study. Christian. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. on one side. textual scholarship. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. (See also: fresco. Serenissima (Ital. the plaster had to be damped before painting. None the less. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. Often called the burning ones. Padua. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. notably Aquinas. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.were different from those of medieval. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.)
. because the secco technique is much less permanent.
Originally. sfumato A technique. the number gradually rose to ten. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Sibyls foretold the Birth. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sibyls (Gk. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. In Christian legend. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Servite (Lat. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Signoria (It. and the delicate. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Lat. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Med. usually presided over by individual families. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. "the most serene republic of Venice"). brass. there was only one Sibyl. women who could prophesy. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. at the same time. "prophetess") In antiquity. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. They first appear in alpine monasteries. term.. which were all identical in thickness.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. sibylla. in the period of classical antiquity. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sinopia
. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. in use since the Middle Ages.
One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. Ital. It is very closely related to International Gothic. soffit (Lat. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sotto in sù (It. brand. pronounced as French. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. stigma (Gk. staffage This word. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. in other words. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. especially in the flow of drapery.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. stigmata. as the name implies. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.
. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. and. sing.'Beautiful Madonnas'.) Wooden ceiling decoration. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Stanze (Ital. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.. Francis of Assisi. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. "mark.
studiolo. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. with that for the Picturesque.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. John Milton. Indeed. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. In a looser sense. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. studioli (It. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. stucco A type of light. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. supremacy
. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. both external and internal. pl. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. whose verses actually fabrications . The vogue for the Sublime.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.
The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . London. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. The subject is underexplored. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. i.and. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. But the Italians did not make them. his own headquarters. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now.Historically. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.e. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. both for panel painting and fresco. or cartoons. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. doubtless. These were imported. then being replaced by oil paint. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. into Italy. chiefly from Flanders. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. temperare. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). tempera (Lat. and in literature. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534.
. 1407). was being decorated with frescoes. Salviati and Allori.
"fields. Trajan's Column
. vessels. topos. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). widely used form. and sculptures. theme or motif. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tondi (It. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "a commonplace") In literature. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topiary (Gk. terraferma (Ital. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. in art. topoi (Gk. pl. tondo. and later to subdivide gable ends. and other surfaces. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. topia. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. i. walls. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory.terracotta (It. quarter face. model. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. triumphal arch. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. and profile. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.e. pl. figure of speech. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.
"threefold") in Christianity. a car so brave'. as it were. time and eternity. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. of both sexes'. the Son and the Holy Spirit. into a number of less controversial forms.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. triptych (Gk. after 'a countless number of virgins. added to the glamour of the triumph. usually an altarpiece. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. death. Disseminated soon after his death.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.
. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. "threefold") A painting in three sections. behind it. Meanwhile. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. trinitas. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. chastity. patriarchs and prophets. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. the military triumph became sublimated. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.' Before it go the apostles. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. beside it the army of martyrs.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). tryptychos. Trinity (Lat. of virtues and of the arts. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. the wars by which they were won . Early triptychs were often portable. fame. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. or wings. Battista Sforza. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.
Dating from classical times. tympanum (Lat. viscous black ink. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. It incorporates Renaissance features. often decorated with sculptures. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. "drum") In classical architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tusche A thick. typology
.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. through various naturalistic devices. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. it is usually decorated with carvings. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. first recorded in 1232. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. enclosed by an arch. Tudor An obscure Welsh family.
So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Judith.Dirck van Baburen (c. each had access to his paintings. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. especially his half-length figural groups.
. and David. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. knew his former patrons. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. 1590-1624). 1610). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . were popular with them also.A system of classification. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. killer of Holofernes. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. where they were most accessible. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. such as five works devoted to the senses. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. lanterns. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. U uomo universale (It.g. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. The numerous candles. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. slayer of Goliath. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). In Christian thought. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. e.) The Renaissance "universal man". and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).
veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. often gold. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. snuff boxes and other objects. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. hour-glasses and clocks. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. guttering candles.).Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. There are a wide range of forms. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. "evening")
. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. and the rib vault. vesper. overturned vessels. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Parisian craftsmen. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. Vespers (Lat. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vanitas (Lat. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the groin vault. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. varietà (It. V vanishing point In perspective. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. mixed in. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. carriages. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. a work's richness of subject matter. it was used to decorate furniture. Also varietas (Lat.
pl. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Covetousness. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. in which the word signifies efficacy. 'Assume a virtue. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli.Prayers said in the evening. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Anger. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. vimperga Of German origin. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Prudence. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Fortitude. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. virtù could be used. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. and Sloth. In ancient Roman dwellings. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Charity. if you have it not'. The seven Virtues were: Faith. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Temperance. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. "not exposed to winds". for example. and Justice. vita. Lust. vestibulum. Vestibule (Lat. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Hope. Envy. actual or latent. "life")
. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. vite (Lat. Gluttony. the church service at which these prayers are said.
The wars from 1494 do. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. protection from harm. a biography. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. or recovery from illness has been made. and of Ferrara. 1482-84). in fact. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. and appalled recognition of. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Sculptors and Architects"). Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. 1472. they were from the 18th century
. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena.An account of someone's life and work. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Marcus (1st cent. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory.g. published in 1550 and 1568. those of Volterera. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Vitruvius Pollio. 1478-80. usually when a prayer for good fortune. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
gallery. woodcut A print made from a wood block. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. "world view") A comprehensive world view. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. usually linear. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. pompous on the floor above.Weltanschauung (Gr. a philosophy of life. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. Westwerk German word. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print.
. treasury or a place where justice was administered. during its subsequent history. It was intended to have a variety of functions. based on stylization of various animal forms. usually restorers. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. "Western work of art".