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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Degas. Picasso. Lancet and Tudor. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. In Greek and Roman literature. There are several variants of the technique. "architectural") Relating to structure. architectonic (Gk. roofed with a half-dome. arcade (Lat. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. which is fused to the plate by heating. the moulding around a window or door. including Goya. design.A semicircular projection. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.e. or organization. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arcus. at the east end of a church behind the altar. piers or pillars. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. architrave (It. but in essence the process is as follows. The adjective is apsidal. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. . was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). and Rouault. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. the lowest part of the entablature). arkhitektonikos. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Also known as an exedra. the darker the tone). Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period).
aureolus. usually a saint. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. In the case of martyrs. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. dominate. attribute (Lat. attributum. voltus. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .and the Comedy . aureole (Lat. archeiu. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Dante's Vita nuova . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.archivolt (Ital." from Gk. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Ars Moriendi (Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "begin." and Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "golden. archivolto. "front arch. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.
while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Six pontificates later. the god of wine and fertility. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. 'Captivity'. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. or baldacchino (It. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. who had been residing in France since 1305. that of Cardano. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. often anecdotal. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. applied to the physically . The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. in 1377. baldachin. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Later. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The actual move was made in 1309. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). paintings of everyday life.
malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). beggars in rags. Lebanon. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or forecourt. Alg. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Pentecost. a visual metaphor for the number eight.. and Poitiers. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. and abject filthy things. Customarily. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. el Kantara. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. a church. or canopy. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. AD 300). and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. pope between 432 and 440. built by Sixtus III. As eight follows the "complete" number. or connected with." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. such as those at Pisa. banderuola. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Baalbek. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. France. Easter. Croatia]. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style.g. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. Florence. the Temple of Venus. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Spalato [Split. and Epiphany. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. AD 273.. and Nocera in Italy. seven. Parma. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. banderole (It. .
1807-1876). Constant Troyon (French. Rubens). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. in its usual location near the church door . achieved through scale. In architecture. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. and thus a church. Originally. Jules Dupré (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. 1817-1878). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and (3) everyday realism. Théodore Rousseau (French. Vermeer). basilica (Gk. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. baptisteries. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group.an allusion to entering the Christian life. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1796-1875). something of earlier symbolism survives. barocco. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). which is reserved for the clergy. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1811-1889). 1810-1865). Baroque (Port. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Jean-François Millet (French. 1814-1875). "king's hall") a church building. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. or baptismal chapels. however.In the 10th century. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. southeast of Paris. . Also tunnel vault. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. usually facing east. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and increasingly elaborate decoration. in the 1840s and 1850s. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. were often omitted entirely. stoa basilike.
Book of Hours . particularly porcelain. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. in which still-life predominates. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. like their Dutch counterparts. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. such as those by Diego Velázquez. however. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. and often sentimentality. were referred to by their specific contents.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. also incorrectly called bisque. There were. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Bodegónes. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. as is to be expected. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. domesticity. Biscuit porcelain. It takes its name from its grainy texture. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. especially Spanish. which is either not yet glazed. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. 1650 in Spain. such as Waldmüller. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). The term was mainly used up to c. up until the mid-17th century. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. often with food and drink. By association. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. bodegón Image. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. or which is to be left as it is. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes.
Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.an advantage over marble sculpture. and the fact that it is easily workable . varying from silverish to a rich. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. See flying buttress.both hot and cold . breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. days of the week. months. but can also be used for painted sketches. bozzetto Strictly speaking. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. Chantilly). a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. made as a study for a larger picture. By extension. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. .by a variety of processes. coppery red. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. though these are more often called 'modelli'. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. a rapid sketch in oil. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. or seasons. durability. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. bozzetto(Italian. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.
manuscript illuminations. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. and Giotto. and work in precious metals. mosaics. Duccio. glass. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. camera obscura . from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caisson (Fr. "a chest. its forms highly stylized. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. casson.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. which was often allegorical. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. It also served to glorify the emperor. private room where works of art. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. notable from Syria and Egypt. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). C cabinet A small. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. ceramics. box") In architecture. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. cameo Small relief made from gems. Among its most distinctive products were icons.
) A gallery for singers or musicians. Niepce created photography. only very rough effects will be obtainable. as an aid to drawing. campanile Bell tower. by the 16th century. candela. . canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. followed by smaller and even pocket models. capital (Lat. hemp. which was usually whitened. The Latin name means "dark chamber. both of which have richly carved marble panels. dating to antiquity. candlestick. usually with several branches or arms. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. cantoria. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Structurally. other materials used are cotton. usually built beside or attached to a church. Portable versions were built. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. capitellum. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. pl. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall.Ancestor of the photographic camera. "candle") A large. usually in a church." and the earliest versions.-N. and jute. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. sing. usually decorated. candelabrum (It. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). cantorie (It. candelabra. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.
Carthusian Order (Lat. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cartone. In fresco painting. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartellino. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).a humorous drawing or parody. or a motto. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartouche .both Italians and artists from other countries . tapestry. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . At the height of the Middle Ages. The order combines reclusive and community life. monasteries containing separate hermitages. pl. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cardinalis. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the date of the painting.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cartoon (It. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). or fresco. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. the endeavour to attain true humanity. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cartellini In a painting. details of the subject. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the Carmelites were originally hermits. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. New Charterhouses. near Grenoble. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Carmelites (Lat. and humanism.
palace. . the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. For reasons lost to time and tradition. They contained the bride's clothes. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. The main body. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. cassone (It. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. cathedral (cathedra. a cathedral always faces west . taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). decorated with gilt gesso. These lead up to the north and south transepts.toward the setting sun. caryatid (Gk. and many other items of her dowry.) "castle". The altar is placed at the east end. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. linen. Cascina. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. castello (It. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. putti (cupids).An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. or nave. In the 15th century. and swags of fruit and flowers. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Paolo Uccello. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. they were also used in other countries. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. or arms of the cross. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature.
"in the centre". buildings and figures that are being depicted. and Islamic literature. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. champlevé (Fr. central perspective (Lat. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. a throne bearer of the deity. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. landscapes. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. a celestial winged being with human. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. or birdlike characteristics. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. animal. as celestial attendants of God. . Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Christian. rather than intercessory functions. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. and perspicere. continually praise him. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. centralis. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Relative to the observer. Both the statement of St.
Hans Burgkmair (1510). "light dark") In painting. North of the Alps. the Order of the Hospital of St. choir (Gk. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. Since Carolingian times. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). reserved for the clergy to pray together. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights.chiaroscuro (It. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choros. replacing tempera. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Lastly." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. or for choral singing.
Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. further enriching the style. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. and repetition of pattern. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. gilded rays. Sculpted clouds. is as typically Churrigueresque. stucco shells. an architect.intersect). seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. undulating lines. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The Transparente (completed 1732). historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. reversed volutes. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and garlands. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Very few still exist in their original positions. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and the Churrigueresque column. undulating cornices. a massing of carved angels. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. balustrades. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. ciborium . became the most common motif. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments.
called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. placing one of their members. who were raised to the status of a guild. Their economic condition worsened. Then. including the ciompi. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. the wool carder Michele di Lando. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. etc. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. The new government.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. controlled by the minor guilds. on July 22. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. but self-employed. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Members of the lower classes. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. beaters. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. as also were those in the associated. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Without being members of a guild. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. or achieve political representation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned.and post-medieval Italy. ciompi. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. High Renaissance). Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. craft of dyeing. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. In reaction to this revolutionary . of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Quattrocento (1400s. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. combers. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts.
in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. resembling a lyre. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. and politics. editing and translating a wide range of texts. the ciompi guild was abolished. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.episode. on which strings were plucked. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.as in Italy these were dispensed with. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. cithara (Gk. scholars patiently finding.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. Concepts of the classical. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).) An ancient musical instrument. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. philosophy. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. writers. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. literature. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). however. the black contours usually with a special line plate. clair-obscur (Fr. changed greatly from one period to the next. except in cases where . cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. with Italian scholars. philosophy and art . Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). . In the 15th century Greek literature.
a work's underlying theme. pl. sing.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. cognoscenti. arch or ceiling. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. Green and red. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. literature or music. Coffered ceilings. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. cognoscente (It. when set side by side. or "contract. concetti (It. compline (Lat. as well as from the Bible. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. condottiere. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary)." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. the church service at which these prayers are said. The name was derived from the condotta. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. occasionally made of wood. blue and orange. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. terrorized the country. pl. condottieri (It. concetto. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. intensify one another. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. [hora] completa. those with refined tastes. . the intellectual or narrative program behind a work.
Martino). who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. who won control of Milan in 1450. Carmagnola. convents of convertite. in the service of Perugia. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. often under the direction of. i. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. By the 16th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Francesco Sforza. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260.e. i. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. often called compagnie or. in Venice. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. which spread in the 15th century. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. By the end of the 14th century. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. With no goal beyond personal gain. Umbria. Muzio's son. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Mark (1432).devastating Romagna. flagellant confraternities. or with the spiritual assistance of. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. and Tuscany. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Toward the end of the 15th century. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. in the service of Naples. disappeared. scuole. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. confraternities Confraternities. . although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. commonly called either Compagnia di S. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. clergy. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. primarily for syphilitics. and German--the condottieri. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Spanish.e.
contour. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. notwithstanding their location. contrapposto (It. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. but sometimes had their own premises. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital.g. 1514 in S. while the Venetian government. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary.g. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). While the Doge ranked above the Council. contours were initially regular. Dorotea in Trastevere. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. Later.e. which accompanied condemned prisoners. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. in Florence. e. Confraternities. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. e. however. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contour (Fr. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. flat outlines. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. the Florentine Neri.i. reformed prostitutes. founded c. In medieval painting. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. and refuges for maidens. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was.
the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. an engraving produced in this way. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. They are often ornamented. conventiculurn. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. whose names are inscribed on several works. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. 1280). the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Lat. large cornice or other feature. conventicle (Lat. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. did not achieve any lasting results. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. 1100 and 1300. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. . With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna.weight on one leg. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. aes cyprium. declining moral standards. The style spread as far as England. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. cuprum. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Reform programs. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. a bracket of stone. started the process of inner reform in the Church. corbel In architecture. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist.
or "scourged. Carthaginians. the most famous victim of crucifixion. a small dome. Seleucids. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. D dado . An ancestor of the oboe." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. reedy sound. Death. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. particularly among the Persians. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. after being whipped. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the first Christian emperor. the condemned man. i. Constantine the Great. Jews. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook.e. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. a semi-circular vault. cupula. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Usually. cupola (Lat. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. "small vat") In architecture. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. There were various methods of performing the execution. Next. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft.
It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.g. but the concept behind an art work. diakonos. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. design") In Renaissance art theory.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Deësis (Gk. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Gk. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. an expressive use of nature. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. danse macabre The dance of death. Passau. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. and Linz possessed common characteristics. The term stresses not the literal drawing. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. "drawing. Anglican and Orthodox churches. usually in matching pairs. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. e. which was help to be the basis of all art. Germany. disegno (It. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. diptychum. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diptychos. diptych (Lat. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. often an altarpiece. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. deacon (Gk. a favorite late medieval picture subject.
Thomas Aquinas. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. "to mix. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). donor (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Ordo Praedictatorum. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. though a few artists. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. The studio easel. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). distemperare. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. such as we still use today.fully realize. doublet A male garment. formerly worn under armour. distemper (Lat. a 19th-century invention. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. dome in architecture. which runs on castors or wheels. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. usually forming a ceiling or roof. also used it on canvas. As disegno appeals to the intellect. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Dominicans (Lat. is a heavy piece of furniture. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. when painters took to working out of doors. donator.
"last". and logos. the frieze. a depiction of Jesus. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. in art. full face. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. "word") . Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. Hence. Ecce Homo (Lat. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. bound and flogged. epitaph (Gk. eschaton. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. It consists of the architrave. ensemble (Fr. and architecture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. sometimes combining panel painting. and the cornice. fresco. eschatology (Gk. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. John (19. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. entablature In classical architecture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. sculpture. en face In portraiture.
which is called "delftware." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Equated with the Greek god Pan. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Jerome. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and Scandinavia. Italy.death and resurrection. Marcantonio Flaminio. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Vittoria Colonna." and charis. which was developed in the Near East ca. It developed in France in the early 16th century. particularly ware made in France. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. "good. and of the last things. Saints Ambrose. 4500 BCE. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Contarini. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. protector of shepherds. which is called "maiolica. Eucharist (Gk. fields and livestock. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. and is named for Faenza. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Augustine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. which was famous for maiolica. Giovanni Morone. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. notably Cardinal Pole. eu. farmers. . Germany. celebrated with bread and wine. Spain.
Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. war. a technique known as a secco fresco. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). black and dun. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. that of the others red. leaves. fluted of a column or pillar. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. can in time be seen. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Committed to charitable and missionary work. and these areas. The colour of his horse is white. fresco (It.8). In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. drying to a slightly different tint. Their attributes are the bow. 2 . such as plague. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. sword and set of balances. frescos in Italy . they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. relaxed. a swag. Only a small area can be painted in a day. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. and flowers suspended in a loop.festoni (It. famine and death. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo.
blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. usually childish figure. landscape and portraiture. for example. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. or true fresco. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.Save in Venice. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. In art from the classical period onwards. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. a person's invisible tutelary god. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . It was founded by Edward III in 1348. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. the intonaco. The technique of buon fresco. genre In a broad sense. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. where the atmosphere was too damp.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Genius in classical Rome. covings and ceilings. or fresco secco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). Final details. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. are genres of painting. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. G Garter.
as well as writers and artists. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Maria Gloriosa). The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and as spurring on men of action.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. As such. Bernardo Daddi. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Gobelins . The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. how it differed from notoriety. in portraits and on tombs. Maso di Banco. whether it must be connected with the public good. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso.
Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. and although it reopened in 1699. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In other Italian cities. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring.French tapestry manufactory. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. Golden Fleece. Paris. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. This ratio is approximately 8:13. who appointed Lebrun Director. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). still in existence today. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. thereafter it made only tapestries. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. . golden section (Lat. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole.
The artistic. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In thinking of Nicola (d. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. Nevertheless. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. 1270. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. like the cultural and commercial. that the effects are to be felt. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). In particular. the superficial particularities of form. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. or the influence of one building. painting. c. . In sculpture and in painting. Gothic Gothic. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and lies much deeper than. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. 1200 and c. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. There is a transcendental quality. Amiens. Denis. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. painting. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. from the 13th until the 17th century. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris.
There was also a flourishing market in guide books. and above all Italy. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. These qualities. Pannini. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Canaletto. the Netherlands. and the great style. It is thinned with water for applying. and taste among the English. genius. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and Morris Graves. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. the beau idéal of the French. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. occasionally. sometimes in the company of a tutor.and hog-hair brushes. . where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and Piranesi. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. without visible brush marks. with sable. Honey. to silk. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. to white or tinted paper and card and. Dubuffet. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. if required. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Such tours often took a year or more. chiefly to France. notably in the writings of Bellori. starch. Klee. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.
when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In the context of the fine arts. after this. c. to Provence and Paris. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Although its palace was rebuilt c. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. 1216. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. In Florence. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Some writers. internal factions in Florence went under other names. gris. From 1266 to 1268. which had recruited most of the merchant class. . the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. In another sense. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. After the War of the Eight Saints. and Waiblingen. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. grisaille (Fr. then as now. including text as well as illustrations.e. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. however. usually gray. through central Italy. brother of Louis IX. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. exclude drawing from this definition. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. however. became an abiding feature of European politics.
notably Florence in the 14th century. surgeons. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. print or painting. The guild also monitored standards of work. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft." from Fr. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. heraldry (Fr. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. for example. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and greater hostility between master and man. "[knowledge of] heraldry. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. H hatching In a drawing. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In Florence. In 16th century Venice. In some cities. or professions. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. trades. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. The guilds were not equal. "herald") . there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. goldsmiths. Guilds were also patrons of art. trade or profession (painters. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. [science] héraldique. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and provided assistance to members in need. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Italy they go back a long way. In some towns. as some did). héraut. but in time they acquired other functions. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts.
divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. one great missionary community. from the start. By contrast. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. and regarded themselves as forming. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. they were condemned in 1184. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. the Cathars were an anti-church. as Antichrist. while others merged with the Waldensians. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. head of the 'carnal Church'. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). the Waldensian. together with brethren north of the Alps. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. However. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. with the rules governing their use.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. d. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The main impact of the . i. the followers of Juan de Valdes. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. normative for churchmen. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. indeed. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons.
absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. In humanism. in his earlier work. working from 1825 to 1875. F. Kensett. Jasper Cropsey. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. Morse. F. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. its subjects considered morally elevating. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Church. hortus conclusus (Lat. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. S. mainly in the south. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Henry Inman. J. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and. At the same time. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters.movement upon the laity was in southern France. the emancipation of man from God took place. Germany. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. my spouse'. and classical literature. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. humanus. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Thomas Cole. American painters were studying in Rome. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . George Inness. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. B. Durand. history (usually classical history). 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Frederick E. humanism (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. The terms court style. Donatallo. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. and the ladder. it denominates a kind of behaviour. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. are also used in art literature. and they are also depicted on their own. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. For instance. or of other saints. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. trecento rococo and lyrical style.g. the pincers. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. In the second half of the 14th century. beautiful style. Derived from classical rhetoric. Veronica. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the scourge that was used in the scourging. inventio (It. the veil of St. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. originality. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Human figures. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. investiture . It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. usually the donors of a work of art. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). soft style. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. the ability to create. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. the rooster of Peter's denial. invention. with many further details added. etc. the hammer. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture.
who traveled in Italy and. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. bathed in a golden haze. Italianizers Northern artists. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. although they are usually called Romanists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. . incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. and Jan Asselijn.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Upon his return to Holland. Jerome's writings. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. generally Dutch or Flemish. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. The Both brothers. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). principally Dutch. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Both and Berchem. of Utrecht. Andries and Jan Both.
to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Legenda Aurea (Lat. liberal arts .1519). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). encouraged by the Crusades. especially one at which the Bible is read. As their military role grew.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. John of Jerusalem . lectern A reading stand or desk. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. the rite of communion is based on this. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Archbishop of Genoa.
its roof supported by columns.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. that could be used for public ceremonies.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. loggia (It. together with identifying attributes (e. first the preparatory trivium . such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. "little moon") In architecture. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. and Frederick E. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. a semicircular space. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). often sublime. Pythagoras for arithmetic. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Kensett (1816-1872). commemorating a marriage. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Heade (1819-1904). the quadrivium. rhetoric and dialectic. Tubal for music). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. poetic atmosphere. through the use of aerial perspective.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. lunette (Fr. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.grammar. Church (1826-1900). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.g.g. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. then the basis of a philosophical training. that may contain a window. geometry. often standing in markets and town squares. comprising arithmetic. painting or sculptural decoration. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). It is related to. astronomy and music. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. John F. Martin J. Maria Novella in Florence). .
for example. usually for the lute. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. being written. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and however bright their lighting effects. particularly such ware produced in Italy. originally sung without accompaniment. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. mandorla (It. the goddess Cybele. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but they painted genre scenes. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. "almond") . but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. madrigal A part song. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. antimony yellow. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and accompaniments. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. historical subjects. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. Specifically. When white is used for painting. active mainly in Florence c. manganese purple. copper green. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. and iron red. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and portraits as well as landscapes. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. magna mater (Lat.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. "great mother") A mother goddess. 1855–65.
often ornamented with decorative borders. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. In architecture.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Bronzino. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. ecclesiastical. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Flanders. Mannerism (It. worn open. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. illuminated initials and miniatures. strong. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. maniera. mantle An overcoat. Burgundy. the hand-written medieval book. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and crowned with thorns. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. in a specific sense. El Greco and Tintoretto. Parmigianino. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. depending on the social class of the wearer. the Codex manuscriptus. "manner. complex and crowded compositions. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. bound. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. which was quarried at Mount . Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. It reached to the knee or foot. more strictly. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and literary texts. marked by flagellation. Developing out of the Renaissance. In Mannerist painting.
"pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work.Pentelicon in Attica. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. "witness. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). This was partly because ancient Roman coins. the medal's purpose was commemorative. The pure white Carrara marble. an inscription running round the rim. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Carrara. Without monetary value. marmi finti (It. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). martyrdom (Gk. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). having finished his training. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . gained the rank of'master' in his guild. quarried at Massa. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Like the finest Imperial coins. proof") the sufferings. medallion In architecture. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. sleek surface. a different design on the reverse. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. martyrion. particularly by Michelangelo.
Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. 1467-688). mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. a Gorgon. of the person portrayed on the other side. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. When Perseus cuts off her head. and of the many. even grain. 1425-1504). the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. It was. particularly. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). The process is essentially extinct today. In pure mezzotint.round the neck. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. often anonymous. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. in England. as it were. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. The work of these men. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. A Dutch officer. . Her head features on Minerva's shield. 1640. 1452-1526/27). c. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. no line drawing is employed. for landscapes and portraits. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. the stress on individual character. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Ludwig von Siegen. c. perhaps oddly. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. This yields a soft effect in the print. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. who reflected them. Medusa In Greek mythology. 14601528). not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike.
saying") . 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.. usually portraits. by Tiepolo and Rubens. "one color") Painted in a single color. still exist. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. often quite highly finished. executed on a very small scale. Many such small versions.g. a painting executed in a single color. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. monokhromatos. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. ink and paint. a branch of the Franciscan order. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. Francis himself. Parmigianino (d. monochrome (Gk. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. "word. miter A high. motto (Ital. pointed headdress worn by bishops. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. e.
The invention of personal mottos. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. 1817-29). It may have parallel aisles on each side. In general. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and two other members moved to Rome. . "ship") the main interior space of a church building. often separated from it by pillars. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). but often insipid. Rome. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. 1816-17. naturalism (Fr. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Pforr. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Isidore. nave (from Lat. navis. and Casino Massimo. In 1810 0verbeck. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Nazarenes A group of young. and is intersected by the transept.from the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. named after the patron saint of painting. Berlin. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol.
It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Popes. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). is as true as it is notorious. Nymphaeum (Gk. moreover. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance.) . This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. but their ideas continued to be influential. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. the style of the Ancien Régime. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. niello (Lat. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. "aureole") The disc or halo. were usually old when elected. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. nigellus. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. usually golden. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. nimbus (Lat. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum.
or poppy. a small private chapel. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. the three basic styles of design. such as linseed. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). capital. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. O obsequies (Lat. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. and entablatures. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. fluted column and a plain capital. . obsequia. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and its greater tonal range. The earliest. a more elaborate base.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). inborn sin. walnut. the Doric order. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. Greek goddesses of Nature. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. was the simplest. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. with a sturdy. its richness of colour. orders of architecture In classical architecture. They are seen in the form of the columns. "services.
like cities. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. Palazzo Strozzi). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. with biforate windows.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. designed as a . 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and the main apartments above. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. while shops came to be thought undignified. standing at the foot of the Cross. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. palazzo (It. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. P pala (Ital. the Cancelleria). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.g. and. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. tradition and social structure.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines.
Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and large households. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. column-caps. cornices and abutments. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). behind a sober Florentine façade. especially after the Sack of Rome. often built next to their titular churches. palmette. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). like the colonnaded vestibule. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. evolved influential types. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. e. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Following Oriental patterns.scholarly retreat. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Palazzo Massimi). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". panel . In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Movement of patrons and architects. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. and Palladio's in Vicenza.g. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In Venice. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. came to be applied all over Europe. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Other cities. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Papal incentives to build. like Genoa. Rich. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall.g. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s).
Then. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. On a larger scale. as distinct from canvas. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. or other rigid substance. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. larch. Having a circular plan. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and the pressure and temptations . As successors to St Peter. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. slate has occasionally been used as a support. as it were. In the 20th century cedar. and walnut. the management of clerical dues and taxation. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and spanned by a single dome. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. chestnut. linden. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and dark walnut are favourites. Many other types were used. The third aspect was administrative. to influence popes in their favour. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. A number of matters. and other synthetic materials as supports. or the incidence of taxation. mahogany. fibre-board. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. so that they might have a voice at court. secular rulers. cedar. teak. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. enforce law and order. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy.Term in painting for a support of wood. the. fir. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. metal. and modern painters have also used plywood. including beech. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. however. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. olive. To maintain their authority.
Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. So onerous. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. would.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. however. could supersede that of a pope. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). of individuals. however. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. which met at Constance 1414-18. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. which seems so inevitable. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. was long in doubt. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. As at Avignon.that could be applied to them. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. if it did no serious damage to the faith. however. in the eyes of God.as well. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). To resolve the problem of divided authority. at Avignon. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). as such. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. Colonna and Caetani. There remained. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. possess an authority which. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). from the point of view of its religious associations. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. in spite of further absences from Rome. to be long delayed. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. It was argued that such a council. the most appropriate . By then. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence.
Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. scholars and men of letters. less frequently pig. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). the creation of a cultural capital. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. However. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. in classical literature. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. to a world peopled by shepherds. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Passion .. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. as well as a governmental one. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. goat. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Parrhasius (c. through lavish patronage of artists. nymphs. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and other animals. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. pastoral (Lat. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and with Zeuxis (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and satyrs. 400-300 BC). "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. it has also been used for painting. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. pastor.
but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. ornamental building. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. Portrayals of the Passion. wealthy citizen. 1478. pavilion (Lat. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. "butterfly. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. projecting either centrally or at both ends. and so on. such as a garden summerhouse. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Meanwhile. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. papilio. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.The events leading up to Good Friday. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Francesco Salviati. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. . patricius. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. patrician (Lat. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. hence tent") A lightly constructed. but not necessarily a direct copy. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. the crown of thorns.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. a region in north-central Italy. a prominent section of a monumental façade. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici.) or pasticcio (It. 1478). which focus on the Suffering Christ. and also the archbishop of Pisa. a small. pastiche (fr. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.
pendant (Fr. "nature". personification (Lat. and facere. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. in particular the face. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. concept or deity. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. "person". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and gnomon. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. pergola (It. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century).The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. persona. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. physis. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). . pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. physiognomy (Gk. "to see through. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. perspective (Lat. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "hanging. perspicere. or related elements within an art work.
to be expressed in painting. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. pigmentum. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. or resin to make paint. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. glue. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. . Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'.piano nobile (Ital. proper to take a landscape from. but full of variety. A pier is generally larger than a column.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period.) The main floor of a building. both real and painted. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. containing the public rooms. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. exemplified. pigment (Lat. for example. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. curious details. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Peter's. but may consist of a cluster of columns. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. remarkable for singularity. affording a good subject for a landscape. usually above the ground floor. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Pietà (Lat. Rome. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.
moreover. for instance. plague Plague. a shaft. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). In the 15th century. "pillar") A flat. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It seems probable. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Thenceforward. however. since. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. in October 1347. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. it has a base. it is difficult to find. pilastrum. During 1348 the Black Death. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. perhaps. For this reason. despite regional variations. and thereafter all Europe. also used in Spain's American colonies. such as Florence and Genoa. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. more sporadic outbreaks. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). and capital. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . It is often fluted. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. Rocco and Sebastian.pilaster (Lat. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. outside Tuscany. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. though in less widespread. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. the burning of 'infected' clothing.
and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. the Renaissance-Plateresque. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. or appropriateness. like its successor. which lasted only a few decades. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Timaeus. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. and sinuous scrolls. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns.. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. the Symposium. heraldic escutcheons. correct classical orders became frequent. Philebus. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The first phase. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. are the masterworks of the second style. more severe. and unified style using massive geometric forms. In contrast with Aristotle.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The first phase. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Phaedo. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Theatetus and the Laws. i. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings.e. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. or simply the Plateresque. The second phase. Diego evolved a purer. harmonious. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. A student of Socrates. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Phaedrus. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. composition. utilized Mudejar ornament -. placement. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). lasted from about 1480 to about 1540.
as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Rather unsystematic. including those of Plotinus. and Agostino Steuco (c. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. A new Latin translation. and he utilized many other writings. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Unlike the case of Aristotle. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . partially. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Iamblichus. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. 1472-c. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century.in Plato's thought. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. and the Chaldaic Oracles. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). the greatest of his ancient disciples. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. but not completely. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Plotinus. systematized and added to what Plato had done. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. near Florence. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. replaced Ficino's. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. all of which he also translated into Latin. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition.1577) becoming particularly popular. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c.
The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. plinth (Gk. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. column. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pluvial (Med.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. pointed arch In architecture. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. such as processions and consecrations. Plato was read in the universities. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pluviale. Frequently supports a pediment. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. or statue. where a pectoral is used to close it. poluptukhos. portico (Lat. polyptych (Gk. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. porticus. Lat. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. as in classical architecture). The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. plinthos. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance.
and the . decorating whole rooms. Gattarnelata.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. the Carracci. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. inessential. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Campidoglio). Siena. and only a decorative accessory to form. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Cathedral) by Uccello. Maria Novella. Desiderio da Settignano. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Venice). psychologically more complex. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Florence (1486-90). The realism of the clear. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Florence. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Group portraits. Mantua. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. The equestrian portrait. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture.e. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.. 1328. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. was revived in the 14th century. National Gallery). Colleoni. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo Farnese). flattened image.
1494). bishop of Asti. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. several of whom became bishops. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. was versed in classical and patristic . but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Borromeo. who had as their ideal masters Titian. not least those of statesmen and prelates. minatory exhortations. Correggio. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. from the secular clergy. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). of the sermon as an art form. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The sermons of Visdomini. The styles of S. however. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Savonarola and Musso. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. primarily the mendicants. As Poussin was a Frenchman. abrasive even. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. are not florid in style. bishop of Chioggia. Charles Le Brun. Fiamma's sermons. to discharge their preaching duties. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. and. bishops especially. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. and Peter Paul Rubens.
and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. presbytery (or choir) (Gk.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Because of the small size of predelle . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Millais and Rossetti. predella (It. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.rhetoric. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. among them Holman Hunt. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The New Testament references in these would. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). however. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. the temptations of Adam and Christ.g.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. though often relatively very wide . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. and so forth. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. prefiguration Typology . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Naples). tapestries. presbyterion "Council of Elders") .
notably David. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. 3. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. Girardon. The following are important: 1. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the golden section. which uses the square . proportio. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. Fragonard. again indicative of the purpose they served. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. and Houdon among sculptors. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. 2. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. intended as complete works of art in themselves. "evenness") in painting. profil perdu (Fr. the quadrature. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). these highly finished drawings. proportion (Lat. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. sculpture and architecture. the Canon of Proportion. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. projecting shelf on which to kneel.
was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. triangulation. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. "boys") Plump naked little boys. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. putti sing. for example). a fourth = 3:4. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. one half the length of the other). The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. . the steward or treasurer of a church. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Ignazio. Unlike Pozzo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. harmonic proportions. and 5. provenance The origins of an art work. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. a fifth = 2:3. Rome.as a unit of measurement. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). putto (It. 4. It was common in Roman art.
R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R").g. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Donatello. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. canons regular. the great orders of monks. refectory (Med.Quattrocento (It. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. the object of particular veneration. and high relief (alto rilievo). e. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in which figures are almost detached from their background. basso rilievo). "remains") a part of the body of a saint. or some item connected with a saint. or the Jesuits. in particular works by Masaccio. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Lat. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relief (Lat. hermits. in which figures are seen half round. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. In 16th century Europe. relevare. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. relic (Lat. Botticelli. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. friars and nuns. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Brunelleschi. Among the . also known as the Realist school. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Fra Angelico and others. relicquiae.
their resources being in the hands of trustees. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. and their more institutionalized brethren. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation.contemplative orders. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. That of S. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Lucca. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Salvatore. various groups were fused in the latter body. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. presided over by chapters general. Bernardino of Siena. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Mantua. The Conventuals. In 1504. The same bull . i. it became the Cassinese congregation. who had no overall organization originally. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. The Benedictines. The Silvestrines. was the congregation of S. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Giorgio in Alga. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. although technically of secular canons. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. the Conventuals. Giustina. Bologna (1419). Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. After the repression of the Spirituals. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. 1012. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Benedetto. Padua. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Founded by St Romuald c. the most notable being S. Maria di Fregonaia. which was to become the main Italian one. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation.e. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. however. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. S. and the generally moderate Observants. the great patriarch of Venice. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Venice (1404). At the same time. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. In 1517.
Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Filippo Neri. The first. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. however. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. a historical period. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. the Theatines. however. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Gaetano da Thiene.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. founded by S. Angela Merici. Gerolamo Aemiliani. founded in 1535 by S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Michele in Isola. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Venice. also. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order.
life. and his own as potentially one of light. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. . however. of 'darkness'. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of letters. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. was so vast and potent.century. even Amoralism. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. All-Roundness. For long. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of scholarship. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). however. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). as well as political. which had begun early in the 14th century. the historical reality of antiquity. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Thereafter. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. and competition with. because its core of energy. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. of arts. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of an energetic revival of interest in. increasingly. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. 1875-86). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. too long forgotten glories. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon.
though sometimes of metal. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. letters. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.with all its shabbiness . Ghent). Cathedral of SaintBavon. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. congruence between. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. and other liturgical objects.erased. retables can be detached and. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. especially in the High Gothic period. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. (3) There is not a true. The challenges are to be accepted. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. later still to Genoa. statues. Though thus challenged. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. and is decorated with paintings. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. let alone a uniform. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. mobilized nationalism.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. sometimes. It is for this additional. candlesticks. etc. in the more limited sense. the previous record . the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church.) was the term chosen. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. consist merely of a painting. of industrialization. gratefully. however. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. There was an early. etc. and mass media. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science.
for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation.France. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. painting. . "relief") In painting. like 'Gothic'. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. the St. almost simultaneously. Italy. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Originally commissioned in 976. is a typical product. in several countries .of St Mark in Venice. Germany. richly decorated with organic forms. Romanesque art. rocaille (French. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. literally. As the name suggests. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Spain . Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). that it stands out from its background fully rounded. With the development of freestanding altars. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. rilievo (It. retables have become extinct. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century.in the 11th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. and 'Romanesque'. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). often considered the last stage of the Baroque. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Rococo A style of design. however. More usually. Louis XV furniture. its mood lighthearted and witry. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.
The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. In addition. Pannini and Mengs. Mabuse. M. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. B. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The aim of painting. van Orley. Rome. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Massys and M. Claude. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Piranesi. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. stylized design representing an open rose. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). . they maintained. Q. such as red ochre. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. van Heemskerk. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting.
and Protestant churches. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).expressed through gesture. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. penance. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Written primarily in ottava rima. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. gutted. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. when it finally left the city it had devastated. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. confirmation. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).greatly increased. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. matrimony. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. the Eucharist. but others were the work of well-known figures. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. glance and movement . In the . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . multiple sets used in succession. and impoverished. and anointing of the sick. from the Old and New Testaments. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Many compositions were anonymous. local saints. pious legend and hagiography. holy orders. There were no limits on time. Subjects were nominally sacred. Clement escaped into Castel S. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Sacra Conversazione (It. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. supported by lay confraternities. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Orthodox. Eastern independent. and Lorenzo de' Medici. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance.
sacraments. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. and then face east. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. The classical Protestant churches (i. make such strict distinctions. in principle. the Bentivoglio. was not maintained as a sacrament.. notably from Florence and in Germany.e.early church the number of sacraments varied. Hence. the sun of righteousness. that the price of salt should be increased." sala (Ital. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. as an excuse to revolt. Candidates first face west.i. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. chapter 13. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place.. and sacraments. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. replaces the Lord's Supper. Lutheran. was buried under a new fortress. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. strictly speaking. large room. foot washing. Saracens . sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. They were still seeking aid. used for drawing. Immediately following baptism.) Hall. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the Orthodox Church does not. Thus. It is still practiced on special occasions. as in the Church of the Brethren. The chief focus of discontent. the Rocca Paolina. which in the Gospel According to John." which are called sacramentals. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Salt War. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.e. The theology of the Orthodox Church. baptism and the Eucharist. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Anglican. the symbolic direction of Christ. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.
human-like woodland deities with the ears. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the Arabs or Muslims. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades.c. 270 BC). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. and many others. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. are lost. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Little known in the Middle Ages. the god of wine. sarcophagi (Gk. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb.During the Middle Ages. 360 . and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.c. whose writings. wood or terracotta. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 45 BC). 210 AD). The publication of Latin (1562. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). made of stone. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. legs and horns of a goat. 160 . pl. satyr In Greek mythology. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. sarcophagus. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ).
The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages.they had individual Bentnames . one of the early leaders. while England. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). who recognized the Roman pope. who had the support of the Avignon pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. scholasticism . in June 1409. and. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. However. than their medieval predecessors. for. was called Bamboccio. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. the Florentines. from time to time both he and his opponents. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. but with little effect. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. on one side. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. As a result. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. being Frenchmen. Schism. most of whom.for example Pieter van Laer. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Charles III of Durazzo (d. on the other. In northern Italy. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. while devout Christians agonized. Louis I (d. Alexander V. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). with France and her allies Aragon. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob.
notably Aquinas. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers.were different from those of medieval. and Islamic literature. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. textual scholarship. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). As such. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. (See also: fresco. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. on one side. if lime-water was used. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. university-based study. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). as it were. None the less. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. the plaster had to be damped before painting. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Christian.) . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. moreover. history and rhetoric . scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. Padua. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S.moral philosophy. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.The term is ambivalent. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. as it is easier to add details in this way. and theology.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Serenissima (Ital. Often called the burning ones. that scholasticism was left. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Medieval scholars. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy.
sfumato A technique. "prophetess") In antiquity. In Christian legend. sibylla. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. and the delicate. usually presided over by individual families. the number gradually rose to ten. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century.. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. in the period of classical antiquity. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Signoria (It. Servite (Lat. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "the most serene republic of Venice"). the governing body of some of the Italian city states. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. women who could prophesy. Med. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. sibyls (Gk. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. brass. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. in use since the Middle Ages. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sinopia . sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. term. They first appear in alpine monasteries.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Sibyls foretold the Birth. at the same time.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Lat. which were all identical in thickness. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Originally. there was only one Sibyl. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics.
brand.'Beautiful Madonnas'. in other words. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. It is very closely related to International Gothic. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. Stanze (Ital. "mark. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Ital. sotto in sù (It. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). and. and by a sweet and playful sentiment..The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. sing. stigma (Gk. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. especially in the flow of drapery. .) Wooden ceiling decoration. staffage This word. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. stigmata. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. pronounced as French. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. soffit (Lat. as the name implies. Francis of Assisi. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault.
In a looser sense. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studiolo. John Milton. The vogue for the Sublime. Indeed. studioli (It. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. with that for the Picturesque.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. whose verses actually fabrications . pl. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. supremacy . The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. both external and internal.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. stucco A type of light. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization.
The subject is underexplored. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. Tempera colors are bright and translucent.and.Historically. was being decorated with frescoes. or cartoons. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. then being replaced by oil paint. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Salviati and Allori. i. his own headquarters. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. 1407). London. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. chiefly from Flanders. into Italy. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. temperare. But the Italians did not make them. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). both for panel painting and fresco. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. and in literature. These were imported. tempera (Lat. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. doubtless. . Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.e.
e.terracotta (It. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). terraferma (Ital. topos. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. topia. pl. model. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. figure of speech. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. in the architecture of ancient Rome. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. i. vessels. topiary (Gk. walls. theme or motif. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. triumphal arch. widely used form. "a commonplace") In literature. in art. Trajan's Column . and other surfaces. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and profile. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. and sculptures. "fields. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tondi (It. and later to subdivide gable ends. pl. quarter face. topoi (Gk. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tondo. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child.
Battista Sforza. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Early triptychs were often portable.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. trinitas. time and eternity. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. beside it the army of martyrs. after 'a countless number of virgins. death. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself.' Before it go the apostles. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. patriarchs and prophets. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). "threefold") A painting in three sections.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. of virtues and of the arts. the military triumph became sublimated. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. a car so brave'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the wars by which they were won . In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. chastity. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. of both sexes'. behind it. as it were. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. . fame. triptych (Gk. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. added to the glamour of the triumph. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. tryptychos. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Disseminated soon after his death. usually an altarpiece. or wings. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Meanwhile. into a number of less controversial forms. Trinity (Lat. "threefold") in Christianity. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .
"drum") In classical architecture. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. often decorated with sculptures. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). tympanum (Lat. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Dating from classical times.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. typology . tusche A thick. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. tromp l'oeil (Fr. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. it is usually decorated with carvings. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. first recorded in 1232. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. enclosed by an arch. viscous black ink. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. It incorporates Renaissance features. through various naturalistic devices. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre.
and David. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. e. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. where they were most accessible. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). knew his former patrons. lanterns. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). 1610).) The Renaissance "universal man". of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. U uomo universale (It.A system of classification. especially his half-length figural groups. In Christian thought. . each had access to his paintings. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. slayer of Goliath. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . such as five works devoted to the senses. The numerous candles. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Judith. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. killer of Holofernes. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. 1590-1624).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.g. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.Dirck van Baburen (c. were popular with them also.
Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. and even flowers (which will soon fade). Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. snuff boxes and other objects. hour-glasses and clocks. Vespers (Lat. vesper. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. it was used to decorate furniture. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. the groin vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. a work's richness of subject matter. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. There are a wide range of forms. "evening") . carriages. mixed in. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. and the rib vault. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. overturned vessels. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. vanitas (Lat. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. guttering candles.). Also varietas (Lat. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. V vanishing point In perspective. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Parisian craftsmen. often gold. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. varietà (It.
if you have it not'. vite (Lat. Anger. Gluttony. Charity. vimperga Of German origin. actual or latent. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. "life") . a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Prudence. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vestibulum. Envy. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The seven Virtues were: Faith.Prayers said in the evening. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). and Sloth. the church service at which these prayers are said. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Vestibule (Lat. for example. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. virtù could be used. in which the word signifies efficacy. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. 'Assume a virtue. Fortitude. "not exposed to winds". In ancient Roman dwellings. Lust. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. pl. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Temperance. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Hope. Covetousness. vita. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. and Justice. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha.
Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1478-80. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables.g. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. in fact. Marcus (1st cent. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. those of Volterera. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. a biography. The wars from 1494 do. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1482-84). votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. 1472. and of Ferrara. they were from the 18th century . The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. or recovery from illness has been made. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. published in 1550 and 1568. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte.An account of someone's life and work. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. Sculptors and Architects"). protection from harm. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. usually when a prayer for good fortune. and appalled recognition of. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. Vitruvius Pollio. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
"Western work of art". Westwerk German word. during its subsequent history.Weltanschauung (Gr. usually linear. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. . They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. gallery. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. woodcut A print made from a wood block. a philosophy of life. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. pompous on the floor above. It was intended to have a variety of functions. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. "world view") A comprehensive world view. usually restorers. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. based on stylization of various animal forms.