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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Lancet and Tudor. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. arcus. the darker the tone). architectonic (Gk. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. the lowest part of the entablature). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The adjective is apsidal. In Greek and Roman literature. which is fused to the plate by heating. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. . Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. The term applies also to a print made by this method. There are several variants of the technique. roofed with a half-dome. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Picasso. Also known as an exedra.A semicircular projection. architrave (It. but in essence the process is as follows. the moulding around a window or door. including Goya. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. piers or pillars. arkhitektonikos.e. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. Degas. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. at the east end of a church behind the altar. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. or organization. arcade (Lat. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. design. "architectural") Relating to structure. and Rouault.
From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. attribute (Lat. aureolus. archeiu. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies." from Gk. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . "golden. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "begin. aureole (Lat. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.archivolt (Ital. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. dominate. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). voltus. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. attributum. archivolto. usually a saint. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. In the case of martyrs. "front arch." and Lat. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.and the Comedy .
balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. or baldacchino (It. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. 'Captivity'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the god of wine and fertility. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. The actual move was made in 1309. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). All the popes elected at Avignon were French. paintings of everyday life. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Six pontificates later. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. often anecdotal. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. who had been residing in France since 1305. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. applied to the physically . that of Cardano. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). baldachin. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Later. in 1377. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events.
Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Florence. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. seven. . banderuola. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. el Kantara. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and Nocera in Italy. Customarily. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Alg.. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. set beneath a domical ciborium. the Temple of Venus. and Poitiers. such as those at Pisa.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. pope between 432 and 440. a visual metaphor for the number eight. As eight follows the "complete" number.g. beggars in rags. Parma. banderole (It. a church. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Pentecost. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. and Epiphany." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. AD 300). After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. and abject filthy things. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. built by Sixtus III. Lebanon. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. or connected with. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Spalato [Split. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Baalbek. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Croatia]. Easter. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. or canopy. AD 273.. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. France. or forecourt. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts.
a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. which is reserved for the clergy. 1811-1889). Théodore Rousseau (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. or baptismal chapels. "king's hall") a church building. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. basilica (Gk. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. . "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. were often omitted entirely. achieved through scale. something of earlier symbolism survives. In architecture. 1810-1865). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. 1807-1876). 1817-1878).an allusion to entering the Christian life. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and thus a church. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Jules Dupré (French. Rubens). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. stoa basilike. Vermeer). Jean-François Millet (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Baroque (Port. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. southeast of Paris.In the 10th century. in its usual location near the church door . a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. 1796-1875). and increasingly elaborate decoration. Also tunnel vault. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Constant Troyon (French. barocco. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and (3) everyday realism. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1814-1875). Originally. baptisteries. in the 1840s and 1850s. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. however. usually facing east.
Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. particularly porcelain. however. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. By association. The term was mainly used up to c. or which is to be left as it is. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. which is either not yet glazed. domesticity. up until the mid-17th century. as is to be expected. were referred to by their specific contents.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. 1650 in Spain. Bodegónes. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. such as those by Diego Velázquez. such as Waldmüller.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. and often sentimentality. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Book of Hours . The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Biscuit porcelain. It takes its name from its grainy texture. often with food and drink. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Spanish still-lifes. bodegón Image. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. There were. also incorrectly called bisque. especially Spanish. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). like their Dutch counterparts. in which still-life predominates. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary.
both hot and cold . days of the week. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. varying from silverish to a rich. bozzetto(Italian. bozzetto Strictly speaking.by a variety of processes. a rapid sketch in oil. durability. but can also be used for painted sketches. coppery red. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. See flying buttress. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture.an advantage over marble sculpture. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. By extension. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. or seasons. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. Chantilly). The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. months. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. and the fact that it is easily workable . though these are more often called 'modelli'. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. made as a study for a larger picture. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.
ceramics. camera obscura . an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. notable from Syria and Egypt. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. and work in precious metals. box") In architecture. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. caisson (Fr. which was often allegorical. manuscript illuminations. glass. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). its forms highly stylized. mosaics. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. It also served to glorify the emperor. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. private room where works of art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. casson. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. C cabinet A small. Duccio. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Based largely on Roman and Greek art.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. and Giotto. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. "a chest. cameo Small relief made from gems.
Niepce created photography. candela. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). Structurally. pl.-N. other materials used are cotton. usually in a church. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. as an aid to drawing. sing. candelabra. cantorie (It. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. cantoria. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. capital (Lat. hemp. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. "candle") A large. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. Portable versions were built. candlestick. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. capitellum. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. usually with several branches or arms. followed by smaller and even pocket models. The Latin name means "dark chamber. usually decorated. and jute. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar." and the earliest versions. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. which was usually whitened. by the 16th century. campanile Bell tower. both of which have richly carved marble panels.Ancestor of the photographic camera. . dating to antiquity. usually built beside or attached to a church. candelabrum (It. only very rough effects will be obtainable.) A gallery for singers or musicians. which isolates the fabric from the paint.
Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. near Grenoble. In fresco painting. cartellini In a painting. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the date of the painting. or a motto.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. New Charterhouses. or fresco. details of the subject. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . pl. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cartone. The order combines reclusive and community life. Carmelites (Lat. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartouche . Carthusian Order (Lat. cartoon (It. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Fortitudo (Fortitude).Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. At the height of the Middle Ages. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. and humanism. tapestry. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cardinalis. the endeavour to attain true humanity.both Italians and artists from other countries . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).a humorous drawing or parody. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartellino. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".
or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). palace. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. or arms of the cross. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. The main body. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Cascina. The altar is placed at the east end. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. a cathedral always faces west . seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. decorated with gilt gesso.) "castle". where the throne of the bishop is placed. or nave. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and swags of fruit and flowers. cathedral (cathedra. Worked on at intervals 1504-06.toward the setting sun. and many other items of her dowry. caryatid (Gk. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. . The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. castello (It. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. putti (cupids). cassone (It. they were also used in other countries. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. They contained the bride's clothes. For reasons lost to time and tradition. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. In the 15th century. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. linen. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Paolo Uccello. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy.
central perspective (Lat. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. "in the centre". continually praise him. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. in accordance with their distance from the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. as celestial attendants of God. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. champlevé (Fr. a celestial winged being with human. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. and Islamic literature. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). animal. Christian. or birdlike characteristics. a throne bearer of the deity. Both the statement of St. centralis. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Relative to the observer. and perspicere. landscapes. rather than intercessory functions. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. . chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice.
The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy.chiaroscuro (It. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. reserved for the clergy to pray together." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. Lastly. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. North of the Alps. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. or for choral singing. replacing tempera. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. "light dark") In painting. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. choros. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Hans Burgkmair (1510). the Order of the Hospital of St. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. choir (Gk. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Since Carolingian times. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land.
became the most common motif. undulating cornices. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. a massing of carved angels. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. balustrades. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and repetition of pattern. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and the Churrigueresque column. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. further enriching the style. reversed volutes.intersect). In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The Transparente (completed 1732). Very few still exist in their original positions. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. ciborium . The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. stucco shells. The Mexico cathedral (1718). an architect. is as typically Churrigueresque. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Sculpted clouds. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. undulating lines. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. gilded rays. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and garlands. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera.
as also were those in the associated. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. ciompi. including the ciompi. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. beaters. Their economic condition worsened. the wool carder Michele di Lando. placing one of their members. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. High Renaissance). the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. controlled by the minor guilds. craft of dyeing. Quattrocento (1400s.and post-medieval Italy.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. etc. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. or achieve political representation. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. on July 22. who were raised to the status of a guild. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Then. Without being members of a guild. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. The new government. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. Members of the lower classes. They were forbidden to form a trade association. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. but self-employed. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. In reaction to this revolutionary . the lower classes forcibly took over the government. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. combers.
and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.) An ancient musical instrument. the black contours usually with a special line plate. cithara (Gk. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. on which strings were plucked. literature. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). with Italian scholars. philosophy.as in Italy these were dispensed with. philosophy and art . editing and translating a wide range of texts. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and politics.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.episode. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. except in cases where . The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. . however. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. scholars patiently finding. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. writers. the ciompi guild was abolished. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. clair-obscur (Fr. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. Concepts of the classical. resembling a lyre. changed greatly from one period to the next. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. In the 15th century Greek literature.
"leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). [hora] completa. concetto. cognoscente (It. Green and red. pl. sing. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. blue and orange. those with refined tastes. the church service at which these prayers are said. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. or "contract. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. a work's underlying theme. Coffered ceilings. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. concetti (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. arch or ceiling. pl. when set side by side. . the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. condottieri (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. occasionally made of wood. literature or music. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. as well as from the Bible. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. intensify one another. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. condottiere. The name was derived from the condotta. compline (Lat. terrorized the country. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. cognoscenti.
in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. flagellant confraternities. primarily for syphilitics. often under the direction of. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. in the service of Perugia. commonly called either Compagnia di S. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. or with the spiritual assistance of. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood.e. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. often called compagnie or. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Muzio's son. . and German--the condottieri. disappeared. who won control of Milan in 1450. i. which spread in the 15th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Toward the end of the 15th century. Martino). associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. and his rival Braccio da Montone. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Spanish. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. convents of convertite. in the service of Naples. and Tuscany. By the end of the 14th century. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. scuole. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Carmagnola. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. By the 16th century. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases.devastating Romagna. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. With no goal beyond personal gain. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Mark (1432). Francesco Sforza. Umbria. clergy. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. in Venice.e. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. confraternities Confraternities. i.
the highest political decision-making body in Venice. e.g. the Florentine Neri. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. founded c. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte.g. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . reformed prostitutes. while the Venetian government. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. and those which aided imprisoned debtors.e. but sometimes had their own premises. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. notwithstanding their location. While the Doge ranked above the Council. flat outlines. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. e. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contrapposto (It. Later. contours were initially regular. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. which accompanied condemned prisoners. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. contour (Fr. 1514 in S. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. Confraternities. contour. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Dorotea in Trastevere. however. In medieval painting. and refuges for maidens. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. in Florence. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.i.
With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Lat. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Reform programs. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. did not achieve any lasting results. declining moral standards. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). whose names are inscribed on several works. . "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. They are often ornamented.weight on one leg. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. aes cyprium. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. started the process of inner reform in the Church. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. conventicle (Lat. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. cuprum. large cornice or other feature. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. The style spread as far as England. 1100 and 1300. an engraving produced in this way. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. conventiculurn. corbel In architecture. a bracket of stone. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. 1280). Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration.
craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. reedy sound. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. cupula. There were various methods of performing the execution. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Constantine the Great. after being whipped. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Carthaginians. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Jews. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. a semi-circular vault. cupola (Lat.e. Usually. An ancestor of the oboe. particularly among the Persians. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. or "scourged. i. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Seleucids. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Death. a small dome. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. D dado . the most famous victim of crucifixion. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. "small vat") In architecture. Next. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the condemned man. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the first Christian emperor. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club.
It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. diakonos. The term stresses not the literal drawing.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Gk. diptych (Lat. "drawing. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Passau. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. often an altarpiece. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Anglican and Orthodox churches. but the concept behind an art work. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. danse macabre The dance of death. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. which was help to be the basis of all art. and Linz possessed common characteristics. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Germany. a favorite late medieval picture subject. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. disegno (It. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. an expressive use of nature. decorated diffrently from the upper section. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre.g. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. deacon (Gk. usually in matching pairs. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. diptychos. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Deësis (Gk. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. design") In Renaissance art theory. diptychum. e. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic.
Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. distemper (Lat. also used it on canvas. "to mix. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue.fully realize. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). donator. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Dominicans (Lat.Thomas Aquinas. doublet A male garment. which runs on castors or wheels. dome in architecture. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. a 19th-century invention. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Ordo Praedictatorum. formerly worn under armour. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . donor (Lat. when painters took to working out of doors. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. such as we still use today. distemperare. is a heavy piece of furniture. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. though a few artists. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The studio easel.
a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "word") . It consists of the architrave. sometimes combining panel painting. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. full face. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. and the cornice. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. and logos. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. in art. eschaton. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. Hence. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. a depiction of Jesus. en face In portraiture. ensemble (Fr. John (19. the frieze. Ecce Homo (Lat. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. and architecture. entablature In classical architecture. "last". Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. epitaph (Gk. eschatology (Gk. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. bound and flogged. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. fresco. sculpture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof.
celebrated with bread and wine.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and Scandinavia." and that made in the Netherlands and England. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. farmers. Giovanni Morone. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Saints Ambrose. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Augustine. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Eucharist (Gk. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. which was developed in the Near East ca. and is named for Faenza. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. protector of shepherds. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Germany. Spain. . Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Marcantonio Flaminio. eu. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Carnesecchi and Ochino." and charis. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. and of the last things. Vittoria Colonna. particularly ware made in France. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. which is called "delftware. Italy. It developed in France in the early 16th century. fields and livestock. notably Cardinal Pole. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which was famous for maiolica. Contarini. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. which is called "maiolica.death and resurrection. Equated with the Greek god Pan. "good. Jerome. 4500 BCE. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli.
Their attributes are the bow. famine and death. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. a swag. sword and set of balances. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. The colour of his horse is white. Only a small area can be painted in a day. black and dun. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). fresco (It. and these areas. 2 . that of the others red.festoni (It. and flowers suspended in a loop. drying to a slightly different tint. war.8). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. frescos in Italy . In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. such as plague. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. relaxed. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. can in time be seen. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fluted of a column or pillar. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. leaves. Committed to charitable and missionary work. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. a technique known as a secco fresco. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin.
usually childish figure. or true fresco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. Final details. Genius in classical Rome. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. landscape and portraiture. or fresco secco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). In art from the classical period onwards. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. for example. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. are genres of painting.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. the intonaco. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. both in churches and in private and public palaces. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. covings and ceilings. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. a person's invisible tutelary god.Save in Venice. genre In a broad sense. where the atmosphere was too damp. The technique of buon fresco. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works.
Gobelins . Maria Gloriosa). Bernardo Daddi. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Maso di Banco. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. whether it must be connected with the public good. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. and as spurring on men of action. in portraits and on tombs. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. how it differed from notoriety. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. As such. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. as well as writers and artists. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.
the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. thereafter it made only tapestries. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. This ratio is approximately 8:13. still in existence today. In other Italian cities. Paris. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). . who appointed Lebrun Director. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Golden Fleece. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. golden section (Lat. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. and although it reopened in 1699. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building.French tapestry manufactory.
. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In sculpture and in painting. 1200 and c. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. Amiens. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Denis. In thinking of Nicola (d. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. like the cultural and commercial. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In particular. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Nevertheless. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. 1270. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. and lies much deeper than. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Gothic Gothic. There is a transcendental quality. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. painting. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. from the 13th until the 17th century. that the effects are to be felt. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. painting. the superficial particularities of form. c. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). or the influence of one building. The artistic.
sometimes in the company of a tutor.and hog-hair brushes. without visible brush marks. Dubuffet. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. chiefly to France. with sable. . and the great style. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Honey. starch. Klee. Such tours often took a year or more. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. the Netherlands. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and Morris Graves. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. occasionally. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and above all Italy. to silk. These qualities. and taste among the English. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Pannini. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. the beau idéal of the French. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. if required. It is thinned with water for applying. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. notably in the writings of Bellori. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and Piranesi. are but different appellations of the same thing'. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. genius. Canaletto. to white or tinted paper and card and. There was also a flourishing market in guide books.
c. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. exclude drawing from this definition. brother of Louis IX. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. and Waiblingen.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. . generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. including text as well as illustrations. grisaille (Fr. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. which had recruited most of the merchant class. became an abiding feature of European politics. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. after this. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. then as now. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. drawing and the various forms of engraving. to Provence and Paris. After the War of the Eight Saints. From 1266 to 1268.e. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Although its palace was rebuilt c. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. usually gray. In another sense. however. the parties taking a multitude of local names. In Florence. Some writers. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. however. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. 1216. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In the context of the fine arts. through central Italy. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. gris.
and greater hostility between master and man. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. as some did). but in time they acquired other functions. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. "herald") . trades. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. goldsmiths. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In some cities. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. H hatching In a drawing. In Italy they go back a long way. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. [science] héraldique. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. for example. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. or professions. Guilds were also patrons of art. In Florence. notably Florence in the 14th century. surgeons. print or painting. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The guilds were not equal." from Fr. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In 16th century Venice. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. heraldry (Fr. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In some towns. héraut. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. The guild also monitored standards of work. and provided assistance to members in need. such as Brescia and Vicenza. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. trade or profession (painters. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office.
the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. i. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. d. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. while others merged with the Waldensians. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. head of the 'carnal Church'. as Antichrist. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. normative for churchmen. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. the Waldensian. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. By contrast. they were condemned in 1184. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. together with brethren north of the Alps. and regarded themselves as forming. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The main impact of the . the followers of Juan de Valdes. with the rules governing their use. one great missionary community. However. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. indeed. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. the Cathars were an anti-church. from the start.
The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Thomas Cole. F. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. At the same time. in his earlier work. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. In humanism. Jasper Cropsey. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. B. Henry Inman. humanism (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. S. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. its subjects considered morally elevating.movement upon the laity was in southern France. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. mainly in the south. the emancipation of man from God took place. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Morse. F. Germany. George Inness. my spouse'. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. hortus conclusus (Lat. Kensett. history (usually classical history). Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. humanus. and. and classical literature. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Church. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Durand. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. working from 1825 to 1875. J. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. American painters were studying in Rome. Frederick E. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
the rooster of Peter's denial. trecento rococo and lyrical style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Human figures. the hammer. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. there are representations of the bundle of rods. beautiful style. Veronica. and they are also depicted on their own. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. For instance. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns.g. the veil of St. etc. investiture . it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. and the ladder. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. with many further details added. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. the ability to create. the scourge that was used in the scourging. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. are also used in art literature. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the pincers. invention. In the second half of the 14th century. soft style. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). inventio (It. originality. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Donatallo. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. usually the donors of a work of art. or of other saints.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Derived from classical rhetoric. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. The terms court style. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge.
who traveled in Italy and. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. generally Dutch or Flemish. Nicolaes Berchem. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. principally Dutch. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Both and Berchem. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. of Utrecht. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Upon his return to Holland. bathed in a golden haze. and Jan Asselijn. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Andries and Jan Both. Italianizers Northern artists. Jerome's writings.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. although they are usually called Romanists. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. . consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The Both brothers. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus.
to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. the rite of communion is based on this. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. liberal arts .1519). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). As their military role grew. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Legenda Aurea (Lat. lectern A reading stand or desk. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Archbishop of Genoa.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . especially one at which the Bible is read. encouraged by the Crusades. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem .
the quadrivium.g. poetic atmosphere. its roof supported by columns. comprising arithmetic. lunette (Fr. Maria Novella in Florence).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. rhetoric and dialectic. Martin J. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. a semicircular space. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.g. Pythagoras for arithmetic. loggia (It. . astronomy and music. painting or sculptural decoration. and Frederick E. that may contain a window. commemorating a marriage.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. through the use of aerial perspective. often standing in markets and town squares. Tubal for music). Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. that could be used for public ceremonies. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. together with identifying attributes (e. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Kensett (1816-1872). first the preparatory trivium . and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. geometry. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. then the basis of a philosophical training. "little moon") In architecture. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. It is related to. often sublime.grammar. John F. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Heade (1819-1904). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Church (1826-1900).
magna mater (Lat. and accompaniments. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. particularly such ware produced in Italy. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. usually for the lute. "great mother") A mother goddess. originating in Italy in the 14th century. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. originally sung without accompaniment. for example. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. active mainly in Florence c. When white is used for painting. manganese purple. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. historical subjects. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and portraits as well as landscapes. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. copper green. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. being written. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. 1855–65. but they painted genre scenes.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. madrigal A part song. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. Specifically. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). mandorla (It. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. antimony yellow. and however bright their lighting effects. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). the goddess Cybele. and iron red. "almond") . The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting.
and literary texts. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. the hand-written medieval book. in a specific sense. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. the Codex manuscriptus. often ornamented with decorative borders. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. ecclesiastical. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. In architecture. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. illuminated initials and miniatures. El Greco and Tintoretto. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. marked by flagellation. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Developing out of the Renaissance. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Flanders.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. "manner. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Parmigianino. strong. It reached to the knee or foot. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. maniera. Mannerism (It. Burgundy. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. which was quarried at Mount . worn open. depending on the social class of the wearer. In Mannerist painting. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. more strictly. mantle An overcoat. Bronzino. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. bound. and crowned with thorns. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. complex and crowded compositions.
martyrion. marmi finti (It. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Carrara. a different design on the reverse. medallion In architecture. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Like the finest Imperial coins. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. an inscription running round the rim. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. proof") the sufferings. The pure white Carrara marble. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. "witness. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Without monetary value. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). quarried at Massa. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead).Pentelicon in Attica. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. sleek surface. martyrdom (Gk. having finished his training. particularly by Michelangelo. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings.
1467-688). The work of these men. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. 14601528). and of the many. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1640. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. It was. no line drawing is employed. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. When Perseus cuts off her head. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. particularly. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). even grain. c. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Ludwig von Siegen. The process is essentially extinct today. of the person portrayed on the other side. . it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. who reflected them. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. as it were. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone.round the neck. in England. a Gorgon. In pure mezzotint. Her head features on Minerva's shield. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. often anonymous. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Medusa In Greek mythology. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. 1425-1504). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1452-1526/27). sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. This yields a soft effect in the print. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. the stress on individual character. A Dutch officer. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. perhaps oddly. c. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. for landscapes and portraits.
which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. motto (Ital.g. monochrome (Gk. "one color") Painted in a single color. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. executed on a very small scale. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. still exist. monokhromatos. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. usually portraits. Parmigianino (d. Francis himself. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. "word. miter A high. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. saying") . 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. by Tiepolo and Rubens.. often quite highly finished. e. ink and paint. Many such small versions. a branch of the Franciscan order.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. a painting executed in a single color. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. painting in gouache on vellum or card. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.
nave (from Lat. naturalism (Fr. and Casino Massimo. In 1810 0verbeck. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. . often separated from it by pillars. Isidore. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. 1817-29). and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. The invention of personal mottos. but often insipid. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In general. Pforr. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Rome.from the Middle Ages. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and is intersected by the transept. named after the patron saint of painting. Berlin. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. navis. and two other members moved to Rome. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Nazarenes A group of young. 1816-17. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins.
But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. is as true as it is notorious. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. moreover. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. nigellus. Popes. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. but their ideas continued to be influential. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. "aureole") The disc or halo. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Nymphaeum (Gk.) . Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. niello (Lat. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nimbus (Lat. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. the style of the Ancien Régime. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. were usually old when elected. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). usually golden.
It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. the three basic styles of design. the Doric order. fluted column and a plain capital. inborn sin. O obsequies (Lat. its richness of colour. walnut. was the simplest. and its greater tonal range. orders of architecture In classical architecture. capital. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. such as linseed. "services. or poppy. . oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. a more elaborate base.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The earliest. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. with a sturdy. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. They are seen in the form of the columns. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. obsequia. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. and entablatures. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. observances") Rites performed for the dead. a small private chapel. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. Greek goddesses of Nature. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach.
The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. designed as a .g. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and the main apartments above. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. with biforate windows. the Cancelleria). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. P pala (Ital. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. Palazzo Strozzi). although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. while shops came to be thought undignified. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. tradition and social structure. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. standing at the foot of the Cross. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). Usually pointed or rounded at the top. palazzo (It. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and. like cities.
e. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. cornices and abutments. like Genoa. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome.g. In Venice. came to be applied all over Europe. evolved influential types. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Other cities. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. panel . Movement of patrons and architects. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves.scholarly retreat. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. like the colonnaded vestibule. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Following Oriental patterns. behind a sober Florentine façade. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. especially after the Sack of Rome. palmette.g. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. column-caps. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. often built next to their titular churches. Palazzo Massimi). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Rich. Papal incentives to build. and large households.
or other rigid substance. and modern painters have also used plywood. larch. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and other synthetic materials as supports. fir. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish.Term in painting for a support of wood. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. and dark walnut are favourites. the. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. mahogany. however. and spanned by a single dome. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and the pressure and temptations . To maintain their authority. including beech. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. to influence popes in their favour. so that they might have a voice at court. slate has occasionally been used as a support. linden. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. fibre-board. A number of matters. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. The third aspect was administrative. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. Many other types were used. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Then. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. In the 20th century cedar. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. secular rulers. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. as distinct from canvas. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. On a larger scale. olive. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. and walnut. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. teak. the management of clerical dues and taxation. chestnut. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. As successors to St Peter. metal. cedar. Having a circular plan. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. as it were. or the incidence of taxation. enforce law and order.
which met at Constance 1414-18. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. at Avignon. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. was long in doubt. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. could supersede that of a pope.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. of individuals. possess an authority which. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Colonna and Caetani. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. however. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. It was argued that such a council. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. however. to be long delayed. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope.as well. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. There remained. in spite of further absences from Rome. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. the most appropriate . the acceptance of the city as the most practical . For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.that could be applied to them. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . The identification of the Papacy with Rome. as such. By then. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. So onerous. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. would. which seems so inevitable. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. To resolve the problem of divided authority. however. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. if it did no serious damage to the faith. As at Avignon. in the eyes of God. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. from the point of view of its religious associations. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss).
but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Parrhasius (c. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. the creation of a cultural capital. through lavish patronage of artists. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. pastoral (Lat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. in classical literature. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and satyrs. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. it has also been used for painting. However. nymphs. 400-300 BC).. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. scholars and men of letters. Passion . and other animals. as well as a governmental one. goat. less frequently pig. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and with Zeuxis (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. to a world peopled by shepherds. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). pastor. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book.
from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. "butterfly. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. . A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. the crown of thorns. a prominent section of a monumental façade. and also the archbishop of Pisa. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. a small. 1478). In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. papilio. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. hence tent") A lightly constructed. such as a garden summerhouse. pavilion (Lat.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. pastiche (fr. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. a region in north-central Italy. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.) or pasticcio (It. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. patricius. but not necessarily a direct copy. Francesco Salviati.The events leading up to Good Friday. 1478. which focus on the Suffering Christ. wealthy citizen. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. ornamental building. Meanwhile. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. projecting either centrally or at both ends. patrician (Lat. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. and so on. Portrayals of the Passion.
in particular the face. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). perspicere. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. and gnomon. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. and facere. perspective (Lat. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concept or deity. personification (Lat. physiognomy (Gk. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. "nature". They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "to see through. pergola (It. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. physis. . though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "hanging. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. pendant (Fr. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. or related elements within an art work. persona. "person". The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.
It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity.) The main floor of a building. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. . or resin to make paint. but may consist of a cluster of columns. curious details. to be expressed in painting. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. A pier is generally larger than a column. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. affording a good subject for a landscape. Rome. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. proper to take a landscape from. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. exemplified. both real and painted. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Peter's.piano nobile (Ital. usually above the ground floor. remarkable for singularity. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigment (Lat. glue. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Pietà (Lat. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. containing the public rooms. pigmentum. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. for example. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. but full of variety.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery.
It is often fluted. pilastrum. and thereafter all Europe. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. and capital. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). however. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. it is difficult to find. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. more sporadic outbreaks. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. for instance. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. such as Florence and Genoa. since. Thenceforward. "pillar") A flat. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Rocco and Sebastian. a shaft. though in less widespread. plague Plague. in October 1347. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. also used in Spain's American colonies. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. despite regional variations. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. it has a base. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. In the 15th century. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . moreover. the burning of 'infected' clothing.pilaster (Lat. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. perhaps. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. For this reason. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. During 1348 the Black Death. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. It seems probable. outside Tuscany. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness.
Philebus. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. which lasted only a few decades. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. heraldic escutcheons. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy.e. the Symposium. In contrast with Aristotle. The second phase. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. placement. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Phaedrus. i. composition. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. the Renaissance-Plateresque. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. like its successor. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. or simply the Plateresque. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality.. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Phaedo. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The first phase. and unified style using massive geometric forms. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Diego evolved a purer. Timaeus. are the masterworks of the second style. more severe. Theatetus and the Laws. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. harmonious.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The first phase. or appropriateness. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . correct classical orders became frequent. A student of Socrates. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and sinuous scrolls. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. utilized Mudejar ornament -.
Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Rather unsystematic. all of which he also translated into Latin. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. 1472-c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. A new Latin translation. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Plotinus. replaced Ficino's. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts.in Plato's thought. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. including those of Plotinus. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. near Florence. Iamblichus. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and the Chaldaic Oracles. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. and he utilized many other writings. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople.1577) becoming particularly popular. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. and Agostino Steuco (c. but not completely. partially. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'.
The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Plato was read in the universities. porticus. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. or statue. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Lat. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. pluviale. such as processions and consecrations. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. portico (Lat. pointed arch In architecture. polyptych (Gk. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. poluptukhos. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Frequently supports a pediment. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. plinthos. where a pectoral is used to close it. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. plinth (Gk. column. pluvial (Med. as in classical architecture). The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Some polyptychs were very elaborate.
which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Cathedral) by Uccello. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Palazzo Farnese). as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. psychologically more complex. and only a decorative accessory to form. Gattarnelata. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Venice). Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Colleoni. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Mantua. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Florence (1486-90). flattened image. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface.. decorating whole rooms. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The realism of the clear. The 16th century portrait became generalized. the Carracci. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Florence. National Gallery). Maria Novella. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. inessential. Group portraits. was revived in the 14th century. Desiderio da Settignano. Siena.sculptors such as Donatello. Campidoglio). A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The equestrian portrait. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary.e. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. and the . 1328. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i.
Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Borromeo. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. minatory exhortations. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. 1494). Charles Le Brun. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. to discharge their preaching duties. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. several of whom became bishops. not least those of statesmen and prelates. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. and Peter Paul Rubens. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. bishop of Asti. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Savonarola and Musso." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. primarily the mendicants. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. As Poussin was a Frenchman. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Fiamma's sermons. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. The sermons of Visdomini. however. abrasive even. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. from the secular clergy. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. was versed in classical and patristic . of the sermon as an art form. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. and. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). are not florid in style. Correggio. bishop of Chioggia. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. bishops especially. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. The styles of S. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). together with the Dominican Savonarola. but 16th century ones were more cautious here.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists.
The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. tapestries. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Millais and Rossetti. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. predella (It. Naples). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. and so forth. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. prefiguration Typology . among them Holman Hunt.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. however. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.g. Louis of Toulouse (1317. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. The New Testament references in these would. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.rhetoric. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. though often relatively very wide . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Because of the small size of predelle . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. the temptations of Adam and Christ.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.
sculpture and architecture. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. projecting shelf on which to kneel. proportio. which uses the square . and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Fragonard. 3. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. again indicative of the purpose they served. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the golden section. The following are important: 1. Girardon. the quadrature. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. notably David. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. these highly finished drawings. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. profil perdu (Fr. "evenness") in painting. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. 2. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. and Houdon among sculptors. Prix de Rome A scholarship. proportion (Lat. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. the Canon of Proportion. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters.
Rome. Unlike Pozzo. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. a fifth = 2:3. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. harmonic proportions. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putto (It. "boys") Plump naked little boys. for example). The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. provenance The origins of an art work. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. a fourth = 3:4. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. It was common in Roman art. the steward or treasurer of a church. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries.as a unit of measurement. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. 4. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Ignazio. one half the length of the other). and 5. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. triangulation. putti sing. .
the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. hermits. Lat. friars and nuns. in particular works by Masaccio. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relief (Lat. relic (Lat. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. and high relief (alto rilievo). denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Fra Angelico and others. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. the object of particular veneration. Donatello. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the . refectory (Med. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). also known as the Realist school. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in which figures are seen half round. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. with the Anglican Church developing in England. relicquiae. basso rilievo). Botticelli. or some item connected with a saint. Brunelleschi. or the Jesuits. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. In 16th century Europe. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. the great orders of monks. e. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento.Quattrocento (It.g. relevare. canons regular. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission.
i. That of S. Lucca. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. In 1517. was the congregation of S. Venice (1404). whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. presided over by chapters general. Giustina. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. who had no overall organization originally. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. and the generally moderate Observants. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the great patriarch of Venice. Lorenzo Giustiniani. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Maria di Fregonaia. various groups were fused in the latter body. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Silvestrines. The same bull . were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century.e. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. it became the Cassinese congregation. Salvatore. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. however. their resources being in the hands of trustees. although technically of secular canons. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. At the same time. which was to become the main Italian one. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Conventuals. Benedetto. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. In 1504. and their more institutionalized brethren. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. After the repression of the Spirituals. Padua. Founded by St Romuald c. the most notable being S. Giorgio in Alga. S. Mantua. the Conventuals. 1012. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Bernardino of Siena. The Benedictines.contemplative orders. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Bologna (1419).
Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. however. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Michele in Isola. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Venice. founded by S. Angela Merici. however. a historical period. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Filippo Neri. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The first. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Gaetano da Thiene. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded in 1535 by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the Theatines. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Gerolamo Aemiliani. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. also.
too long forgotten glories. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. even Amoralism. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. and competition with. increasingly. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of an energetic revival of interest in. of scholarship. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. and his own as potentially one of light. All-Roundness. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. the historical reality of antiquity. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. life. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. which had begun early in the 14th century. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. because its core of energy. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. of letters. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. however. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Thereafter. For long. . as well as political. of 'darkness'. was so vast and potent. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. however.century. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. 1875-86). To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of arts. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long.
Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. gratefully. and other liturgical objects. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. and is decorated with paintings. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. later still to Genoa. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. of industrialization.) was the term chosen. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). It is for this additional. congruence between. mobilized nationalism. in the more limited sense. candlesticks. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. letters. There was an early. statues. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity.erased. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. (3) There is not a true. the previous record .with all its shabbiness . however. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. and mass media. retables can be detached and. sometimes. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. etc. though sometimes of metal. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Ghent). subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. The challenges are to be accepted. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. especially in the High Gothic period. Though thus challenged. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. etc. let alone a uniform. consist merely of a painting.
With the development of freestanding altars. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. like 'Gothic'. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past.of St Mark in Venice. almost simultaneously. "relief") In painting. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. . Italy. in several countries . and architecture dominating the 18th century. As the name suggests. painting. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Romanesque art. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. richly decorated with organic forms. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. however. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. rilievo (It. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. More usually. literally. Spain . It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. its mood lighthearted and witry. and 'Romanesque'. rocaille (French. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Germany.in the 11th century. Louis XV furniture. the first style to achieve such international currency. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753).France. Originally commissioned in 976. the St. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Rococo A style of design. retables have become extinct. is a typical product.
The aim of painting. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Massys and M. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. such as red ochre. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. van Orley. van Heemskerk. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Q. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. . Claude. Rome. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. M. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Piranesi. In addition. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. B. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. they maintained. the development of nationalistic pride. Pannini and Mengs. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Mabuse. stylized design representing an open rose. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist).
and Lorenzo de' Medici. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. glance and movement . Orthodox. penance. Many compositions were anonymous. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Clement escaped into Castel S. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . the Eucharist. pious legend and hagiography. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Subjects were nominally sacred.greatly increased.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. and anointing of the sick. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). In the . Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. confirmation. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Sacra Conversazione (It. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. local saints. There were no limits on time. Eastern independent. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. but others were the work of well-known figures. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). matrimony. multiple sets used in succession. holy orders. gutted. from the Old and New Testaments. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May.expressed through gesture. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Written primarily in ottava rima. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and impoverished. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. supported by lay confraternities. and Protestant churches. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army.
baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. chapter 13.early church the number of sacraments varied. Candidates first face west. the sun of righteousness.) Hall. which in the Gospel According to John. They were still seeking aid. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place.. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.. replaces the Lord's Supper. as in the Church of the Brethren. as an excuse to revolt. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. the Orthodox Church does not. was not maintained as a sacrament. large room. notably from Florence and in Germany. It is still practiced on special occasions." sala (Ital. foot washing.e. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the Bentivoglio. used for drawing. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Immediately following baptism. and then face east. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. sacraments. Lutheran. was buried under a new fortress. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. the symbolic direction of Christ. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. in principle. and sacraments. Salt War. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The classical Protestant churches (i.e. Saracens .i. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Hence. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. The chief focus of discontent. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology." which are called sacramentals. that the price of salt should be increased. The theology of the Orthodox Church. the Rocca Paolina. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. baptism and the Eucharist. make such strict distinctions. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . strictly speaking. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Anglican. Thus.
210 AD). the Arabs or Muslims. 360 .c. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible.During the Middle Ages. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. whose writings. the god of wine. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. pl. The publication of Latin (1562. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. are lost. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. sarcophagus. satyr In Greek mythology. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). made of stone. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. and many others. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Little known in the Middle Ages. 45 BC). Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. wood or terracotta. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . 160 . sarcophagi (Gk. legs and horns of a goat. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 270 BC).
most of whom. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. scholasticism . Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Louis I (d. who had the support of the Avignon pope. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. while devout Christians agonized. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. but with little effect. the Florentines. on the other. from time to time both he and his opponents. in June 1409. Schism. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. As a result. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. with France and her allies Aragon. was called Bamboccio. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. who recognized the Roman pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. In northern Italy. one of the early leaders. 1386) and his son Ladislas.they had individual Bentnames . the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Alexander V. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. being Frenchmen. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. and. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. for. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. while England. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies.for example Pieter van Laer. However. than their medieval predecessors. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. on one side. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals.
Often called the burning ones. as it were. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. university-based study. (See also: fresco. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. It was because the central concerns of humanism . on one side.) . Padua. because the secco technique is much less permanent.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. as it is easier to add details in this way. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. None the less. Serenissima (Ital.were different from those of medieval. the plaster had to be damped before painting. and Islamic literature. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Christian. that scholasticism was left. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. history and rhetoric . Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. if lime-water was used. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. notably Aquinas. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.moral philosophy. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. and theology. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. textual scholarship. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. moreover. Medieval scholars. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. As such. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest.The term is ambivalent. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.
) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Lat. and the delicate. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. In Christian legend. which were all identical in thickness. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. They first appear in alpine monasteries. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. women who could prophesy. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Sibyls foretold the Birth. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. the number gradually rose to ten. Med. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "prophetess") In antiquity. there was only one Sibyl. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages.. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. at the same time. in use since the Middle Ages. brass. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. usually presided over by individual families. Originally. term. sibylla. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. sibyls (Gk. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. Signoria (It. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Servite (Lat. sfumato A technique. in the period of classical antiquity. sinopia . single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.
brand. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigmata. as the name implies. especially in the flow of drapery. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. soffit (Lat. stigma (Gk. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. staffage This word. Stanze (Ital. sing. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. It is very closely related to International Gothic. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.'Beautiful Madonnas'. "mark. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. .) Wooden ceiling decoration. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. pronounced as French. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. and. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. Ital. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). sotto in sù (It. in other words. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Francis of Assisi.. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case.
sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. supremacy . studioli (It. with that for the Picturesque. studiolo. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). pl. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. John Milton. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. In a looser sense. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Indeed. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The vogue for the Sublime. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. whose verses actually fabrications .stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. both external and internal. stucco A type of light.
tempera (Lat. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . his own headquarters. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.and. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. was being decorated with frescoes. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. i. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. or cartoons. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries.Historically. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. both for panel painting and fresco. Salviati and Allori. chiefly from Flanders. then being replaced by oil paint. temperare. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. doubtless. But the Italians did not make them. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. into Italy. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. The subject is underexplored. . 1407). tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. and in literature. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. London.e. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. These were imported. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c.
"a commonplace") In literature. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topia.e. model. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. topoi (Gk. and sculptures. and later to subdivide gable ends. vessels. terraferma (Ital. widely used form. tondi (It. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. and profile. and other surfaces. in art. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "fields.terracotta (It. walls. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. quarter face. topos. i. tondo. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. theme or motif. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. figure of speech. pl. triumphal arch. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. pl. topiary (Gk. Trajan's Column . It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. usually those of animals or geometrical forms.
trinitas. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. fame. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. time and eternity. Disseminated soon after his death. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . of both sexes'. the military triumph became sublimated.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.' Before it go the apostles. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. of virtues and of the arts. as it were. chastity. Battista Sforza. triptych (Gk. usually an altarpiece. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. tryptychos. beside it the army of martyrs. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. patriarchs and prophets. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Trinity (Lat. the Son and the Holy Spirit. death. Meanwhile. behind it. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. the wars by which they were won . most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. or wings. "threefold") A painting in three sections.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. "threefold") in Christianity. after 'a countless number of virgins. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Early triptychs were often portable.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. added to the glamour of the triumph. . into a number of less controversial forms. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. a car so brave'.
In medieval architecture. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. viscous black ink. tympanum (Lat. typology . the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Dating from classical times. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. it is usually decorated with carvings. tusche A thick. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tromp l'oeil (Fr. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. "drum") In classical architecture. often decorated with sculptures. enclosed by an arch. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. through various naturalistic devices. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. first recorded in 1232. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. It incorporates Renaissance features.
but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.g. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).) The Renaissance "universal man". and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. 1590-1624). 1610). such as five works devoted to the senses. U uomo universale (It. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. . Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).A system of classification.Dirck van Baburen (c. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. e. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). and David. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. killer of Holofernes. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. slayer of Goliath. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). each had access to his paintings. knew his former patrons. The numerous candles. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. were popular with them also. Judith. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. where they were most accessible. lanterns.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. especially his half-length figural groups. In Christian thought.
Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. vanitas (Lat. and the rib vault. "evening") . overturned vessels. a work's richness of subject matter. mixed in. V vanishing point In perspective. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. Vespers (Lat. vesper. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. and even flowers (which will soon fade). snuff boxes and other objects. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.). formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. There are a wide range of forms. it was used to decorate furniture. hour-glasses and clocks. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. often gold. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. the groin vault. Also varietas (Lat. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. varietà (It. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. guttering candles. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. Parisian craftsmen. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time.
vimperga Of German origin. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Envy. and Sloth. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. vite (Lat. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Lust. Prudence. pl. vita. actual or latent. the church service at which these prayers are said. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Temperance. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. in which the word signifies efficacy. Fortitude. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. "not exposed to winds". if you have it not'. Anger. virtù could be used. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Covetousness. Hope. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vestibulum. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Vestibule (Lat. In ancient Roman dwellings. and Justice.Prayers said in the evening. "life") . Gluttony. Charity. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. 'Assume a virtue. for example. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross.
the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. The wars from 1494 do. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. and appalled recognition of. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Sculptors and Architects"). came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. usually when a prayer for good fortune. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. a biography. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. they were from the 18th century . votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. published in 1550 and 1568. 1482-84). Marcus (1st cent. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. and of Ferrara. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1472. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. in fact. those of Volterera. 1478-80. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454.g. Vitruvius Pollio. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. or recovery from illness has been made.An account of someone's life and work. protection from harm.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
treasury or a place where justice was administered. woodcut A print made from a wood block. based on stylization of various animal forms. a philosophy of life. gallery. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. pompous on the floor above. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. . wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands.Weltanschauung (Gr. "world view") A comprehensive world view. It was intended to have a variety of functions. usually linear. during its subsequent history. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. usually restorers. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "Western work of art". Westwerk German word. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting.
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