This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
. but in essence the process is as follows. The adjective is apsidal. There are several variants of the technique. arcus. which is fused to the plate by heating. architectonic (Gk. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Lancet and Tudor. In Greek and Roman literature. the darker the tone). design. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arkhitektonikos. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. the lowest part of the entablature). Degas. piers or pillars. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the moulding around a window or door. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. architrave (It. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral.e. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. "architectural") Relating to structure. or organization. including Goya. Also known as an exedra. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. roofed with a half-dome. The term applies also to a print made by this method. and Rouault. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. at the east end of a church behind the altar.A semicircular projection. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. arcade (Lat. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. Picasso.
"the art of dying well") a small book on death. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. archeiu. attribute (Lat. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "begin. usually a saint. attributum. In the case of martyrs. aureole (Lat. archivolto. aureolus. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.and the Comedy . In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Dante's Vita nuova . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). voltus. Ars Moriendi (Lat.archivolt (Ital. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine." from Gk. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "golden. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . dominate.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations." and Lat. "front arch. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.
Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. 'Captivity'. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. or baldacchino (It. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. paintings of everyday life. who had been residing in France since 1305. Later. that of Cardano. applied to the physically . was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the god of wine and fertility. Six pontificates later. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The actual move was made in 1309. in 1377. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. baldachin. often anecdotal. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'.
seven. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. and Epiphany. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Alg. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. . The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. or canopy. Croatia]. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and Nocera in Italy.. Lebanon. a visual metaphor for the number eight. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. Customarily. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. pope between 432 and 440. banderole (It. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and abject filthy things.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. As eight follows the "complete" number. set beneath a domical ciborium. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade.g. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. beggars in rags. banderuola. built by Sixtus III. el Kantara. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. and Poitiers. such as those at Pisa. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. the Temple of Venus. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Baalbek. France. Pentecost. AD 300). or connected with. Florence. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. or forecourt. Spalato [Split. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Parma. Easter.. AD 273. a church.
achieved through scale. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. In architecture. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). in its usual location near the church door . baptisteries. 1796-1875). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1814-1875). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. "king's hall") a church building. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. stoa basilike. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. and thus a church. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Rubens). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Jules Dupré (French. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. were often omitted entirely. Vermeer). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. 1811-1889). and increasingly elaborate decoration. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Constant Troyon (French.In the 10th century. something of earlier symbolism survives. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. basilica (Gk. . and the growth of absolutist monarchies. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. 1807-1876). in the 1840s and 1850s. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Also tunnel vault.an allusion to entering the Christian life. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Théodore Rousseau (French. 1817-1878). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. barocco. southeast of Paris. and (3) everyday realism. usually facing east. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Baroque (Port. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. which is reserved for the clergy. Jean-François Millet (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. or baptismal chapels. Originally. 1810-1865). however.
the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. particularly porcelain. such as Waldmüller. It takes its name from its grainy texture. domesticity. up until the mid-17th century. bodegón Image. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. like their Dutch counterparts. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. also incorrectly called bisque. in which still-life predominates. 1650 in Spain. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Spanish still-lifes. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. often with food and drink. such as those by Diego Velázquez. however. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. There were. and often sentimentality. especially Spanish. By association. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Biscuit porcelain. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). The term was mainly used up to c.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. were referred to by their specific contents. which is either not yet glazed. or which is to be left as it is. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Book of Hours . the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Bodegónes. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. as is to be expected.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.
See flying buttress.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. a rapid sketch in oil. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.by a variety of processes. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. coppery red. or seasons. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. but can also be used for painted sketches. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and the fact that it is easily workable .an advantage over marble sculpture. though these are more often called 'modelli'. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. Chantilly). usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. . They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. durability. bozzetto Strictly speaking. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bozzetto(Italian. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. days of the week. made as a study for a larger picture.both hot and cold . buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. By extension. varying from silverish to a rich. months.
Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. camera obscura . mosaics. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). and work in precious metals. casson. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. private room where works of art. its forms highly stylized. cameo Small relief made from gems. caisson (Fr. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. ceramics. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. and Giotto. It also served to glorify the emperor. Among its most distinctive products were icons. notable from Syria and Egypt. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. "a chest. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. box") In architecture. glass. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. which was often allegorical. manuscript illuminations. C cabinet A small. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Duccio.
Niepce created photography. by the 16th century. dating to antiquity. only very rough effects will be obtainable. followed by smaller and even pocket models. both of which have richly carved marble panels. candelabra. and jute.-N. hemp. Structurally. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.) A gallery for singers or musicians. usually decorated. candelabrum (It. sing. Portable versions were built. as an aid to drawing. pl. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. usually with several branches or arms. other materials used are cotton. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. which was usually whitened. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace.Ancestor of the photographic camera. capitellum. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. candela. cantoria. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. usually in a church. campanile Bell tower. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). . cantorie (It. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. usually built beside or attached to a church. "candle") A large. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting." and the earliest versions. The Latin name means "dark chamber. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. which isolates the fabric from the paint. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candlestick. capital (Lat. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.
the Carmelites were originally hermits. near Grenoble. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Cardinal Virtues (Lat. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartoon (It. or a motto.a humorous drawing or parody. New Charterhouses. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Fortitudo (Fortitude). In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. The order combines reclusive and community life. In fresco painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cardinalis. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). At the height of the Middle Ages. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). pl. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartellini In a painting.both Italians and artists from other countries . An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the date of the painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartone.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cartellino. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. details of the subject. and humanism. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Carmelites (Lat. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. the endeavour to attain true humanity. tapestry. cartouche . "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. or fresco.
In the 15th century. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. caryatid (Gk. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy.) "castle". Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. decorated with gilt gesso. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. linen. where the throne of the bishop is placed. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. The main body. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. and many other items of her dowry. The altar is placed at the east end. or arms of the cross. Cascina. These lead up to the north and south transepts. palace. a cathedral always faces west . and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. putti (cupids). Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. They contained the bride's clothes. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). they were also used in other countries. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. or nave. Paolo Uccello. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. cathedral (cathedra.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. and swags of fruit and flowers. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. castello (It. For reasons lost to time and tradition. cassone (It. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. .toward the setting sun.
continually praise him. and Islamic literature. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. animal. landscapes.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. as celestial attendants of God. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Christian. champlevé (Fr. Relative to the observer. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. central perspective (Lat. . centralis. a throne bearer of the deity. Both the statement of St. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. in accordance with their distance from the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. rather than intercessory functions. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. "in the centre". or birdlike characteristics. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. a celestial winged being with human. and perspicere. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning.
Lastly. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. or for choral singing. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20).chiaroscuro (It." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. reserved for the clergy to pray together. Hans Burgkmair (1510). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. replacing tempera." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. choir (Gk. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . When the contrast of light and dark is strong. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. choros. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. "light dark") In painting. Since Carolingian times. the Order of the Hospital of St. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). North of the Alps. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry.
and repetition of pattern. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Sculpted clouds. an architect. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. ciborium . if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. The Transparente (completed 1732). a massing of carved angels. undulating lines. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. is as typically Churrigueresque. undulating cornices. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Very few still exist in their original positions. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and the Churrigueresque column. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and garlands. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. The Mexico cathedral (1718). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. further enriching the style. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. stucco shells. became the most common motif. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera.intersect). and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. balustrades. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. reversed volutes. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. gilded rays.
the lower classes forcibly took over the government. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Then. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. etc. High Renaissance). Without being members of a guild. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. controlled by the minor guilds.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. beaters. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Quattrocento (1400s. including the ciompi. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. but self-employed. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. the wool carder Michele di Lando. The new government. ciompi. who were raised to the status of a guild. as also were those in the associated. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. on July 22. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Their economic condition worsened. or achieve political representation. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. craft of dyeing. Members of the lower classes. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. combers. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. They were forbidden to form a trade association. In reaction to this revolutionary .and post-medieval Italy. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. placing one of their members.
resembling a lyre. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. the black contours usually with a special line plate. cithara (Gk. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. Concepts of the classical. and politics. the ciompi guild was abolished. with Italian scholars. changed greatly from one period to the next. . cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.) An ancient musical instrument. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. on which strings were plucked. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. literature. philosophy. philosophy and art .episode. In the 15th century Greek literature. scholars patiently finding. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. except in cases where . The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.as in Italy these were dispensed with. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. clair-obscur (Fr. however. writers. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.
. condottieri (It. terrorized the country. those with refined tastes. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. pl. pl. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. a work's underlying theme. occasionally made of wood. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. cognoscenti. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. Green and red. condottiere. blue and orange. arch or ceiling. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). sing. intensify one another. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. as well as from the Bible. concetto. compline (Lat. literature or music. The name was derived from the condotta. when set side by side. Coffered ceilings. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. cognoscente (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. or "contract. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. concetti (It. the church service at which these prayers are said. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. [hora] completa. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work.
i. Umbria. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. clergy. Spanish. often under the direction of. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. commonly called either Compagnia di S. i. Muzio's son. in the service of Perugia. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. and his rival Braccio da Montone. or with the spiritual assistance of. convents of convertite. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. flagellant confraternities. confraternities Confraternities. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. often called compagnie or. and Tuscany. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity.e. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. With no goal beyond personal gain. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. By the 16th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Mark (1432). Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. scuole. Toward the end of the 15th century. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Martino). Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. which spread in the 15th century.e. Francesco Sforza. disappeared. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. in the service of Naples. By the end of the 14th century. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. primarily for syphilitics. in Venice. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Carmagnola. who won control of Milan in 1450. and German--the condottieri. .devastating Romagna. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides.
Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. which accompanied condemned prisoners. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Later. while the Venetian government. however. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. and refuges for maidens. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. reformed prostitutes. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. e. contour. flat outlines. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contrapposto (It. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contours were initially regular. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the Florentine Neri. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. in Florence. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Dorotea in Trastevere. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. notwithstanding their location. but sometimes had their own premises. 1514 in S. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contour (Fr. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. In medieval painting. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the Venetian parliament of noblemen.g. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. founded c.e.g.i. Confraternities.
Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. large cornice or other feature. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. cuprum. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull.weight on one leg. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. corbel In architecture. whose names are inscribed on several works. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Lat. conventicle (Lat. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). declining moral standards. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. aes cyprium. . Reform programs. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. The style spread as far as England. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. did not achieve any lasting results. started the process of inner reform in the Church. 1100 and 1300. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. an engraving produced in this way. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. conventiculurn. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. 1280). a bracket of stone. They are often ornamented.
apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Constantine the Great. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Seleucids. "small vat") In architecture. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. There were various methods of performing the execution. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. or "scourged. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Death. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the condemned man. reedy sound.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. D dado . crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Next. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Usually." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. the most famous victim of crucifixion. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. the first Christian emperor. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. after being whipped. Carthaginians. Jews. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. particularly among the Persians.e. cupola (Lat. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. An ancestor of the oboe. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. a small dome. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. cupula. a semi-circular vault. i. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.
design") In Renaissance art theory. diptychum. but the concept behind an art work. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Passau. e. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. usually in matching pairs. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. an expressive use of nature. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Deësis (Gk. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. and Linz possessed common characteristics. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "drawing. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. which was help to be the basis of all art. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. danse macabre The dance of death. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. diptych (Lat. often an altarpiece. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Germany. a favorite late medieval picture subject. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. deacon (Gk. disegno (It. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. diakonos. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. diptychos. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. decorated diffrently from the upper section. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.g.
hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. such as we still use today. a 19th-century invention. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. is a heavy piece of furniture. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. distemper (Lat. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). formerly worn under armour. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Dominicans (Lat. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly .Thomas Aquinas. donor (Lat. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. also used it on canvas. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. dome in architecture.fully realize. "to mix. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. doublet A male garment. which runs on castors or wheels. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. The studio easel. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Ordo Praedictatorum. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. donator. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. distemperare. usually forming a ceiling or roof. when painters took to working out of doors. though a few artists. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes.
and architecture. eschatology (Gk. Ecce Homo (Lat. fresco. in art. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. the frieze. "last". 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. entablature In classical architecture. sometimes combining panel painting. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. Hence. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. en face In portraiture. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. It consists of the architrave. and logos. John (19. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. ensemble (Fr. "word") . a depiction of Jesus.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. and the cornice. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. bound and flogged. full face. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. sculpture. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. eschaton. epitaph (Gk.
notably Cardinal Pole. which was famous for maiolica. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. "good. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. which is called "delftware. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Vittoria Colonna. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and is named for Faenza. Spain. Marcantonio Flaminio. farmers. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. eu. Carnesecchi and Ochino. 4500 BCE." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. fields and livestock. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. and Scandinavia. protector of shepherds. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Equated with the Greek god Pan.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Jerome. Germany." and charis. particularly ware made in France. . convinced of the inefficacy of human works. and of the last things. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Saints Ambrose. Augustine. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. which was developed in the Near East ca.death and resurrection. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Eucharist (Gk. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. celebrated with bread and wine. Contarini. Giovanni Morone. Italy. which is called "maiolica." and that made in the Netherlands and England.
and these areas. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. a swag. can in time be seen. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. a technique known as a secco fresco. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. black and dun.8). relaxed. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. 2 . and flowers suspended in a loop. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. fluted of a column or pillar. leaves. famine and death. The colour of his horse is white. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Committed to charitable and missionary work. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Their attributes are the bow. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. war. frescos in Italy . drying to a slightly different tint. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Only a small area can be painted in a day. fresco (It. that of the others red. sword and set of balances. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. such as plague.festoni (It.
landscape and portraiture. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. are genres of painting.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . The technique of buon fresco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . or fresco secco. Final details. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. usually childish figure. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. covings and ceilings. a person's invisible tutelary god. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. Genius in classical Rome. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster.Save in Venice. genre In a broad sense. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. In art from the classical period onwards. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. G Garter. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. the intonaco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. for example. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. where the atmosphere was too damp. or true fresco.
as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Bernardo Daddi. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. and as spurring on men of action. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as well as writers and artists. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Maso di Banco. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maria Gloriosa). where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. in portraits and on tombs. whether it must be connected with the public good. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. how it differed from notoriety. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Gobelins .such artists as Pieter Bruegel. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. As such. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory.
. Paris. and although it reopened in 1699. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Golden Fleece. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In other Italian cities. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer").French tapestry manufactory. thereafter it made only tapestries. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. This ratio is approximately 8:13. golden section (Lat. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. still in existence today. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. who appointed Lebrun Director. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia.
In particular. from the 13th until the 17th century. and lies much deeper than. c. Amiens. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. There is a transcendental quality. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. painting. 1200 and c.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. or the influence of one building. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. that the effects are to be felt. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Denis. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). like the cultural and commercial. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. In thinking of Nicola (d. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. 1270. painting. . is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. the superficial particularities of form. Gothic Gothic. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. In sculpture and in painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Nevertheless. The artistic. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated.
It is thinned with water for applying. notably in the writings of Bellori. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. with sable. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. occasionally. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. starch. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. if required. Such tours often took a year or more. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Canaletto.and hog-hair brushes. Honey. and taste among the English. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. genius. without visible brush marks. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Dubuffet. Klee. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Pannini. and Piranesi. and Morris Graves. the Netherlands. to silk. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. . and the great style. chiefly to France. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. the beau idéal of the French. to white or tinted paper and card and. and above all Italy. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. are but different appellations of the same thing'.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. These qualities. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault.
the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. usually gray. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. became an abiding feature of European politics. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. In the context of the fine arts. 1216. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. c. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. including text as well as illustrations. the parties taking a multitude of local names. gris. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. through central Italy. Some writers. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. which had recruited most of the merchant class.e. then as now. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. grisaille (Fr. after this. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Although its palace was rebuilt c. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. however. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. In another sense. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. exclude drawing from this definition. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. After the War of the Eight Saints. to Provence and Paris. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. . From 1266 to 1268. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. brother of Louis IX. drawing and the various forms of engraving. however. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. and Waiblingen. In Florence. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218.
The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In 16th century Venice. surgeons. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. héraut. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In some cities. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. Guilds were also patrons of art. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In Florence. and provided assistance to members in need. The guilds were not equal. "[knowledge of] heraldry.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. H hatching In a drawing. heraldry (Fr. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In Italy they go back a long way. goldsmiths. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. or professions. In some towns. trades. print or painting. "herald") . Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. notably Florence in the 14th century. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. for example. such as Brescia and Vicenza. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. as some did). and greater hostility between master and man. but in time they acquired other functions. The guild also monitored standards of work." from Fr. trade or profession (painters. [science] héraldique.
The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. i. The main impact of the . Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. from the start. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. as Antichrist. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. the Cathars were an anti-church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. normative for churchmen. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. the Waldensian. head of the 'carnal Church'. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. together with brethren north of the Alps. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. with the rules governing their use. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. However. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. d. By contrast. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. one great missionary community. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. while others merged with the Waldensians. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. and regarded themselves as forming. they were condemned in 1184. indeed.
his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. F. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. American painters were studying in Rome. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. its subjects considered morally elevating. humanus. George Inness. Jasper Cropsey. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Thomas Cole. J. Durand. mainly in the south. Henry Inman. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. B. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Kensett. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Germany. Church. At the same time. In humanism. humanism (Lat. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and classical literature. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. S. Morse. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting.movement upon the laity was in southern France. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. and. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. working from 1825 to 1875. F. the emancipation of man from God took place. history (usually classical history). and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Frederick E. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. in his earlier work. hortus conclusus (Lat. my spouse'.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Human figures. In the second half of the 14th century. or of other saints. beautiful style. the rooster of Peter's denial. with many further details added. Donatallo. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. it denominates a kind of behaviour. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. soft style. inventio (It.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. are also used in art literature. For instance.g. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the pincers. and they are also depicted on their own. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the hammer. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. the veil of St. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. trecento rococo and lyrical style. originality. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. invention. etc. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. usually the donors of a work of art. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. The terms court style. and the ladder. Derived from classical rhetoric. investiture . inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. the scourge that was used in the scourging. the ability to create. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Veronica.
Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. although they are usually called Romanists.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Both and Berchem. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. . its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. bathed in a golden haze. generally Dutch or Flemish. Nicolaes Berchem. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianizers Northern artists. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Upon his return to Holland. and Jan Asselijn. Jerome's writings. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. The Both brothers. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. who traveled in Italy and. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. principally Dutch. of Utrecht. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Andries and Jan Both. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley.
published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. encouraged by the Crusades. John of Jerusalem . Legenda Aurea (Lat. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Archbishop of Genoa. lectern A reading stand or desk.1519). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. especially one at which the Bible is read. the rite of communion is based on this. liberal arts . L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. As their military role grew. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.
lunette (Fr. together with identifying attributes (e. . Martin J. its roof supported by columns. It is related to.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. often standing in markets and town squares. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). "little moon") In architecture. poetic atmosphere. geometry. the quadrivium. a semicircular space. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). painting or sculptural decoration. Heade (1819-1904). rhetoric and dialectic. commemorating a marriage. astronomy and music. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. that may contain a window. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Kensett (1816-1872). often sublime.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. first the preparatory trivium . Pythagoras for arithmetic.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. John F. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Tubal for music). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Maria Novella in Florence).g. through the use of aerial perspective. loggia (It. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. and Frederick E. then the basis of a philosophical training. Church (1826-1900). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. that could be used for public ceremonies. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. comprising arithmetic. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal.g.grammar.
it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. the goddess Cybele. and however bright their lighting effects. particularly such ware produced in Italy. mandorla (It. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). copper green. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. being written. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. antimony yellow. but they painted genre scenes. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. manganese purple. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). with secular texts replacing sacred ones. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. active mainly in Florence c. magna mater (Lat. "great mother") A mother goddess. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. 1855–65. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. madrigal A part song. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. When white is used for painting. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and portraits as well as landscapes. and accompaniments. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originating in Italy in the 14th century. "almond") . and iron red. originally sung without accompaniment. for example. historical subjects. Specifically. usually for the lute.
and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. bound. ecclesiastical. worn open.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. the Codex manuscriptus. the hand-written medieval book. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. It reached to the knee or foot. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. maniera. "manner. which was quarried at Mount . there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. complex and crowded compositions. depending on the social class of the wearer. Burgundy. marked by flagellation. mantle An overcoat. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and literary texts. El Greco and Tintoretto. Flanders. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. in a specific sense. Mannerism (It. strong. In architecture. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Parmigianino. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. often ornamented with decorative borders. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Bronzino. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. more strictly. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. In Mannerist painting. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. and crowned with thorns. Developing out of the Renaissance. illuminated initials and miniatures. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies.
Without monetary value. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. "witness. proof") the sufferings. medallion In architecture. quarried at Massa. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. sleek surface. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). having finished his training. an inscription running round the rim. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. martyrion.Pentelicon in Attica. particularly by Michelangelo. a different design on the reverse. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. marmi finti (It. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Carrara. martyrdom (Gk. Like the finest Imperial coins. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . the medal's purpose was commemorative. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field.
The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. It was. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. particularly. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. In pure mezzotint. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. a Gorgon. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Medusa In Greek mythology. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. 1467-688).round the neck. even grain. c. Ludwig von Siegen. When Perseus cuts off her head. for landscapes and portraits. perhaps oddly. in England. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. no line drawing is employed. supposedly to petrify her enemies. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. A Dutch officer. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. of the person portrayed on the other side. and of the many. the stress on individual character. Her head features on Minerva's shield. This yields a soft effect in the print. often anonymous. . who reflected them. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The work of these men. 14601528). 1640. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. 1425-1504). Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. The process is essentially extinct today. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. as it were. 1452-1526/27).
executed on a very small scale. motto (Ital. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.g. e. monochrome (Gk.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Parmigianino (d. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. "one color") Painted in a single color. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. usually portraits. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. painting in gouache on vellum or card. pointed headdress worn by bishops. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. saying") . The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. miter A high. ink and paint. a branch of the Franciscan order. a painting executed in a single color. still exist. often quite highly finished. "word. monokhromatos. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Many such small versions. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. by Tiepolo and Rubens.. Francis himself. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.
It may have parallel aisles on each side. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. naturalism (Fr. Nazarenes A group of young. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. The invention of personal mottos. nave (from Lat. Rome. . Isidore. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. often separated from it by pillars. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. named after the patron saint of painting. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and Casino Massimo. In general. navis. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. 1816-17. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. and is intersected by the transept. In 1810 0verbeck. but often insipid. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. Berlin. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Pforr. and two other members moved to Rome.from the Middle Ages. 1817-29). was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen.
the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. is as true as it is notorious. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nimbus (Lat. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Nymphaeum (Gk. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites.) . the style of the Ancien Régime. niello (Lat. were usually old when elected. Popes. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). moreover. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. nigellus. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. usually golden. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. but their ideas continued to be influential. "aureole") The disc or halo. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum.
It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. inborn sin. Greek goddesses of Nature. orders of architecture In classical architecture. with a sturdy. its richness of colour. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. and entablatures. O obsequies (Lat. "services. . The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). or poppy. and its greater tonal range. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. The earliest. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). walnut. They are seen in the form of the columns. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. such as linseed. the Doric order. obsequia. observances") Rites performed for the dead. fluted column and a plain capital. capital. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. the three basic styles of design. was the simplest. a more elaborate base. a small private chapel. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach.
who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. palazzo (It. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). while shops came to be thought undignified. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. tradition and social structure. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). and. designed as a . Usually pointed or rounded at the top. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. and the main apartments above. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. Palazzo Strozzi). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. like cities. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. with biforate windows. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace.g. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. the Cancelleria). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. standing at the foot of the Cross. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. P pala (Ital. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.
In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and Palladio's in Vicenza. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Papal incentives to build. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere).g. behind a sober Florentine façade. In Venice. cornices and abutments. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. especially after the Sack of Rome. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. like Genoa. palmette. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Following Oriental patterns. e. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. like the colonnaded vestibule. and large households. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal.g. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Movement of patrons and architects. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. panel . Other cities. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. column-caps. Rich. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Palazzo Massimi). Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. often built next to their titular churches. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. came to be applied all over Europe. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). evolved influential types.scholarly retreat. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified.
wooden panels were the standard support in painting. In the 20th century cedar. fibre-board. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. secular rulers. or other rigid substance. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. To maintain their authority. chestnut. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and other synthetic materials as supports. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. including beech. and the pressure and temptations . Having a circular plan. olive. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. metal. mahogany. however. and spanned by a single dome. as it were. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. cedar. so that they might have a voice at court. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. Then. or the incidence of taxation. teak. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. enforce law and order. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. the. linden. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. fir. and dark walnut are favourites. The third aspect was administrative. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. larch. could lead to conflict with secular authorities.Term in painting for a support of wood. A number of matters. to influence popes in their favour. and walnut.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). As successors to St Peter. and modern painters have also used plywood. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. On a larger scale. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Many other types were used. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. as distinct from canvas.
prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). if it did no serious damage to the faith. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). would. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). The identification of the Papacy with Rome. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Colonna and Caetani. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. which seems so inevitable. As at Avignon. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. which met at Constance 1414-18. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.that could be applied to them. however. however. By then. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. the most appropriate . a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. in spite of further absences from Rome. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. was long in doubt. To resolve the problem of divided authority. It was argued that such a council. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. from the point of view of its religious associations. could supersede that of a pope. of individuals. however. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . in the eyes of God. possess an authority which. at Avignon. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. to be long delayed. as such. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence.as well. So onerous. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. There remained.
through lavish patronage of artists.. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Passion . "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. pastoral (Lat. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. and with Zeuxis (c. goat. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and satyrs. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. scholars and men of letters. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. the creation of a cultural capital. 400-300 BC). 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Parrhasius (c. it has also been used for painting.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. in classical literature. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. as well as a governmental one. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. less frequently pig. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). nymphs. and other animals. pastor. However. to a world peopled by shepherds. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents.
the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. 1478. and also the archbishop of Pisa. "butterfly. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. patricius. such as a garden summerhouse. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Portrayals of the Passion. . Meanwhile. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. papilio. Francesco Salviati. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. patrician (Lat. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. projecting either centrally or at both ends. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pastiche (fr. the crown of thorns. a region in north-central Italy. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. which focus on the Suffering Christ. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. wealthy citizen. pavilion (Lat. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.The events leading up to Good Friday. a small. and so on. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. but not necessarily a direct copy. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model.) or pasticcio (It. ornamental building. a prominent section of a monumental façade. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. 1478).
"nature". or related elements within an art work. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. personification (Lat. Peace of Augsburg A treaty.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. in particular the face. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "person". physis. perspective (Lat. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). persona.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. physiognomy (Gk. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). pergola (It. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. "hanging. "to see through. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. and gnomon. concept or deity. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. . and facere. perspicere. pendant (Fr. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture.
both real and painted. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. or resin to make paint. Rome. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. pigmentum. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. glue. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. affording a good subject for a landscape. proper to take a landscape from. Peter's. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. but full of variety. but may consist of a cluster of columns. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. striking the imagination with the force of painting. for example. exemplified. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.) The main floor of a building. to be expressed in painting. usually above the ground floor. pigment (Lat. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. curious details. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. . Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work.piano nobile (Ital. A pier is generally larger than a column. containing the public rooms. remarkable for singularity. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Pietà (Lat.
In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. more sporadic outbreaks. In the 15th century. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. It seems probable. Rocco and Sebastian. though in less widespread. and capital. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. a shaft. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). it is difficult to find. in October 1347. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . For this reason. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. for instance. such as Florence and Genoa. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. however. despite regional variations. it has a base. outside Tuscany. pilastrum. perhaps. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. and thereafter all Europe. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. plague Plague. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. "pillar") A flat. It is often fluted. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. During 1348 the Black Death. Thenceforward. the burning of 'infected' clothing.pilaster (Lat. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. also used in Spain's American colonies. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. moreover. since. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out).
and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The second phase. are the masterworks of the second style. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. heraldic escutcheons. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. A student of Socrates.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedo. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . utilized Mudejar ornament -. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. which lasted only a few decades. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. correct classical orders became frequent. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). composition. placement. the Renaissance-Plateresque. or simply the Plateresque. In contrast with Aristotle.. Phaedrus. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Philebus. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Diego evolved a purer. harmonious. i. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). and unified style using massive geometric forms. more severe. Theatetus and the Laws. the Symposium. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. The first phase.e. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. and sinuous scrolls. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Timaeus. The first phase. like its successor. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. or appropriateness.
though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. A new Latin translation. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. but not completely. Iamblichus. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. systematized and added to what Plato had done. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. replaced Ficino's. Plotinus. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. all of which he also translated into Latin. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. partially. 1472-c. including those of Plotinus. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century.1577) becoming particularly popular. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Unlike the case of Aristotle. and he utilized many other writings. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. near Florence. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). and Agostino Steuco (c. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Rather unsystematic. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries.in Plato's thought. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c.
Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. portico (Lat. such as processions and consecrations. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. plinthos. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . porticus. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. where a pectoral is used to close it. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. pluvial (Med. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pluviale. Plato was read in the universities. Frequently supports a pediment. polyptych (Gk. pointed arch In architecture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. plinth (Gk. column. as in classical architecture). or statue. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. poluptukhos. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Lat. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance.
Palazzo Farnese). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. National Gallery). Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait.sculptors such as Donatello. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Florence. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Cathedral) by Uccello. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Campidoglio). Florence (1486-90). and only a decorative accessory to form. was revived in the 14th century. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The realism of the clear. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome.. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. flattened image. Gattarnelata. Siena. and the . inessential. Venice). The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.e. The equestrian portrait. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. decorating whole rooms. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Mantua. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. the Carracci. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. 1328. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Colleoni. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. psychologically more complex. Desiderio da Settignano. Maria Novella. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Group portraits. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. The 16th century portrait became generalized.
bishop of Chioggia. primarily the mendicants. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. are not florid in style. The sermons of Visdomini. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. minatory exhortations. 1494). Savonarola and Musso. to discharge their preaching duties. Borromeo. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. bishop of Asti. Charles Le Brun. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). was versed in classical and patristic . who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. who had as their ideal masters Titian. As Poussin was a Frenchman. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. not least those of statesmen and prelates.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The styles of S. of the sermon as an art form. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. bishops especially. together with the Dominican Savonarola. however. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. from the secular clergy. abrasive even. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Correggio. several of whom became bishops. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Fiamma's sermons. and Peter Paul Rubens. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. but 16th century ones were more cautious here.
have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. though often relatively very wide . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. however. the temptations of Adam and Christ. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and so forth. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). tapestries. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. prefiguration Typology . stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Millais and Rossetti. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The New Testament references in these would. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala).rhetoric. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. predella (It. Because of the small size of predelle .g. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Louis of Toulouse (1317.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Naples). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. among them Holman Hunt.
these highly finished drawings. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. proportion (Lat. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. proportio. the quadrature. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. and Houdon among sculptors. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). "evenness") in painting. 3. The following are important: 1. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. 2. the Canon of Proportion. intended as complete works of art in themselves. profil perdu (Fr. notably David. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. again indicative of the purpose they served.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Prix de Rome A scholarship. Fragonard. which uses the square . The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. sculpture and architecture. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. Girardon. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). the golden section. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries.
The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. Rome.as a unit of measurement. It was common in Roman art. and 5. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provenance The origins of an art work. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. for example). an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. a fifth = 2:3. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. a fourth = 3:4. putti sing. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. . Unlike Pozzo. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. "boys") Plump naked little boys. 4. the steward or treasurer of a church. Ignazio. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). triangulation. harmonic proportions. putto (It. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. one half the length of the other). the history of a work's ownership since its creation. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size.
Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Donatello.Quattrocento (It. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. hermits. or the Jesuits. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. with the Anglican Church developing in England. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. or some item connected with a saint. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Botticelli. the object of particular veneration. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. e. Fra Angelico and others. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. and high relief (alto rilievo). Among the . In 16th century Europe. in which figures are seen half round. canons regular. the great orders of monks. basso rilievo). in particular works by Masaccio. relevare. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Brunelleschi. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. friars and nuns. relief (Lat. in which figures are almost detached from their background. refectory (Med. Lat. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. relicquiae. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). also known as the Realist school.g. relic (Lat. refectorium) Monastic dining hall.
S. however. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. which was to become the main Italian one. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. i.e. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. After the repression of the Spirituals. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Lucca. Founded by St Romuald c. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Benedetto. Bologna (1419). Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. the Conventuals. Padua. the most notable being S. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S.contemplative orders. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Giustina. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Mantua. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Maria di Fregonaia. In 1517. the great patriarch of Venice. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Bernardino of Siena. Lorenzo Giustiniani. and their more institutionalized brethren. The Benedictines. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. who had no overall organization originally. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. although technically of secular canons. That of S. was the congregation of S. it became the Cassinese congregation. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. In 1504. Venice (1404). various groups were fused in the latter body. At the same time. The Conventuals. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. and the generally moderate Observants. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. presided over by chapters general. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. The Silvestrines. 1012. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Salvatore. The same bull . rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. Giorgio in Alga. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order.
the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. founded by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). however. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The first. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Filippo Neri.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Angela Merici. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded in 1535 by S. Michele in Isola. Gaetano da Thiene. the Theatines. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. a historical period. Gerolamo Aemiliani. however. also. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Venice. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet.
increasingly. of 'darkness'. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. For long. too long forgotten glories. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). 1875-86). and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. and competition with. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. however. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of arts. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and his own as potentially one of light. which had begun early in the 14th century. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. because its core of energy. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. . the historical reality of antiquity.century. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. of letters. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. however. was so vast and potent. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. of an energetic revival of interest in. life. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. of scholarship. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. All-Roundness. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. even Amoralism. Thereafter. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. as well as political. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity).
the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. congruence between. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . later still to Genoa. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. of industrialization. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. let alone a uniform. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. in the more limited sense. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. and mass media.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. etc. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. candlesticks. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice.with all its shabbiness . letters. especially in the High Gothic period. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. and other liturgical objects. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. etc. retables can be detached and. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). The challenges are to be accepted. mobilized nationalism. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. however. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Cathedral of SaintBavon. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). It is for this additional. (3) There is not a true. the previous record .) was the term chosen. There was an early. and is decorated with paintings. though sometimes of metal.erased. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. statues. consist merely of a painting. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Ghent). gratefully. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Though thus challenged. sometimes.
it indicates a derivation from Roman art. and 'Romanesque'. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. literally. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. With the development of freestanding altars. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. its mood lighthearted and witry. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). painting. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. is a typical product. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Spain . Romanesque art. rilievo (It. like 'Gothic'. "relief") In painting. . almost simultaneously. rocaille (French. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.of St Mark in Venice.France.in the 11th century. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Rococo A style of design. As the name suggests. however. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Louis XV furniture. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Germany. Italy. and architecture dominating the 18th century. More usually. Originally commissioned in 976. the first style to achieve such international currency. richly decorated with organic forms. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. in several countries . The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. the St. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. retables have become extinct. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction.
ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. such as red ochre. Q. B. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). van Heemskerk. Pannini and Mengs. M. Massys and M. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. the development of nationalistic pride. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. stylized design representing an open rose. Piranesi. Rome. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Claude. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Mabuse. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. they maintained. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. The aim of painting. . In addition. van Orley. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity.
and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Many compositions were anonymous. and anointing of the sick. and Protestant churches.expressed through gesture. from the Old and New Testaments. Clement escaped into Castel S. Sacra Conversazione (It. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. but others were the work of well-known figures. Eastern independent. pious legend and hagiography. Written primarily in ottava rima. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Subjects were nominally sacred. local saints. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. multiple sets used in succession. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. when it finally left the city it had devastated. confirmation. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . supported by lay confraternities. and Lorenzo de' Medici. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. There were no limits on time. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and impoverished. penance.greatly increased. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. In the . Orthodox. glance and movement . sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). matrimony. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. gutted. holy orders. the Eucharist.
and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts." sala (Ital.) Hall. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. notably from Florence and in Germany. as an excuse to revolt. and sacraments. make such strict distinctions. and then face east. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. foot washing.i. The classical Protestant churches (i.e. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist." which are called sacramentals. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Thus. baptism and the Eucharist. It is still practiced on special occasions.e. the Bentivoglio. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Salt War. the Rocca Paolina. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. chapter 13. the Orthodox Church does not. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Hence. Immediately following baptism. sacraments. that the price of salt should be increased. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. used for drawing. Candidates first face west. strictly speaking. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Saracens . spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. was not maintained as a sacrament. in principle. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. They were still seeking aid.. as in the Church of the Brethren. large room. replaces the Lord's Supper. Anglican.early church the number of sacraments varied. was buried under a new fortress. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.. which in the Gospel According to John. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the symbolic direction of Christ. Lutheran. the sun of righteousness. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. The chief focus of discontent.
the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. pl. human-like woodland deities with the ears. sarcophagi (Gk. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. legs and horns of a goat. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 45 BC). made of stone. Little known in the Middle Ages. 270 BC). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the god of wine. satyr In Greek mythology. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. whose writings.c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. 360 . The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible.c. The publication of Latin (1562.During the Middle Ages. sarcophagus. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. wood or terracotta. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 210 AD). the Arabs or Muslims. and many others. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. are lost. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). 160 .
1386) and his son Ladislas. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. who recognized the Roman pope. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. from time to time both he and his opponents. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. than their medieval predecessors. being Frenchmen. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. one of the early leaders. the Florentines. while England. while devout Christians agonized. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. was called Bamboccio. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Louis I (d. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. with France and her allies Aragon. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. and.they had individual Bentnames . and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. who had the support of the Avignon pope.for example Pieter van Laer. for. scholasticism . However. Charles III of Durazzo (d. As a result. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on one side. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. Alexander V. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Schism. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. in June 1409. In northern Italy. most of whom. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. on the other. but with little effect. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope.
It was because the central concerns of humanism . Often called the burning ones. if lime-water was used. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. notably Aquinas. Serenissima (Ital. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. moreover. Christian.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. as it is easier to add details in this way. textual scholarship. and theology. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). As such. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.The term is ambivalent. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. None the less. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. that scholasticism was left. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. history and rhetoric . The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Padua. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. and Islamic literature. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries.) . as it were. Medieval scholars. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.moral philosophy. (See also: fresco. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. the plaster had to be damped before painting.were different from those of medieval. because the secco technique is much less permanent. university-based study. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. on one side.
in the period of classical antiquity. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. In Christian legend. usually presided over by individual families. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in use since the Middle Ages. there was only one Sibyl. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Signoria (It. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. women who could prophesy.. brass. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. sibyls (Gk. at the same time. They first appear in alpine monasteries. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Originally. sfumato A technique. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sibylla. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Lat. the number gradually rose to ten. Servite (Lat. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sinopia .Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. "prophetess") In antiquity. Med. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. term. which were all identical in thickness. and the delicate. "the most serene republic of Venice"). just as the male prophets of the Bible did.
'Beautiful Madonnas'. . rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. brand. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. sotto in sù (It. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. especially in the flow of drapery. soffit (Lat. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. stigma (Gk. pronounced as French. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. and. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. "mark.) Wooden ceiling decoration.. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). Francis of Assisi. stigmata. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. Ital. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. staffage This word. Stanze (Ital. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. It is very closely related to International Gothic. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . sing. as the name implies. in other words.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear.
Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. John Milton. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. supremacy . usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. In a looser sense. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. studioli (It. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). both external and internal.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. pl. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. stucco A type of light. Indeed. studiolo. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. with that for the Picturesque. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. whose verses actually fabrications . The vogue for the Sublime.
the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. Salviati and Allori. These were imported. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. The subject is underexplored. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. i. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. doubtless. temperare. . both for panel painting and fresco. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. London. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. chiefly from Flanders.Historically. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio).and. and in literature. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. was being decorated with frescoes. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.e. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. tempera (Lat. But the Italians did not make them. then being replaced by oil paint. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. 1407). were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. his own headquarters. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. into Italy. or cartoons. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.
The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. Trajan's Column . In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. walls. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. pl. model. triumphal arch. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. tondi (It. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen).e. terraferma (Ital. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. in the architecture of ancient Rome. quarter face. topos. widely used form. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. figure of speech. i. tondo. and sculptures. pl. in art. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "fields. "a commonplace") In literature. and profile. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. theme or motif. vessels. topoi (Gk. topia. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topiary (Gk. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and later to subdivide gable ends.terracotta (It. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. and other surfaces. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony.
Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. time and eternity. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. tryptychos. patriarchs and prophets. . triptych (Gk. after 'a countless number of virgins. as it were. trinitas. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. usually an altarpiece. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. of virtues and of the arts. fame. Early triptychs were often portable.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Battista Sforza. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Trinity (Lat. "threefold") in Christianity. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. behind it. or wings. into a number of less controversial forms. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. the wars by which they were won . Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. death. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.' Before it go the apostles. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. of both sexes'. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. a car so brave'. added to the glamour of the triumph. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Meanwhile.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. beside it the army of martyrs. Disseminated soon after his death. the Son and the Holy Spirit. chastity. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the military triumph became sublimated. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons.
tusche A thick. viscous black ink. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. often decorated with sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. enclosed by an arch. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. typology . a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tromp l'oeil (Fr. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. "drum") In classical architecture. it is usually decorated with carvings. In medieval architecture. first recorded in 1232. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Dating from classical times. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tympanum (Lat. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. It incorporates Renaissance features. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. through various naturalistic devices. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). the triangular area enclosed by a pediment.
were popular with them also. and David. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. knew his former patrons. slayer of Goliath. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio.g. e. where they were most accessible. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.Dirck van Baburen (c. each had access to his paintings. . 1610). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Judith. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.) The Renaissance "universal man".A system of classification. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. killer of Holofernes.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. especially his half-length figural groups. such as five works devoted to the senses. In Christian thought. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. The numerous candles. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). U uomo universale (It. 1590-1624). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. lanterns. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.
Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. the groin vault. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. There are a wide range of forms. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. carriages. hour-glasses and clocks. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Vespers (Lat.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and the rib vault. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Also varietas (Lat. "evening") . varietà (It. guttering candles. often gold. vesper. mixed in. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. V vanishing point In perspective. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Parisian craftsmen. a work's richness of subject matter. and even flowers (which will soon fade). overturned vessels. vanitas (Lat. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge.). Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. snuff boxes and other objects. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. it was used to decorate furniture. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. "variety") In Renaissance art theory.
actual or latent. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Fortitude. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. virtù could be used. In ancient Roman dwellings. pl. Hope. in which the word signifies efficacy. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. 'Assume a virtue. for example. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Charity. Gluttony.Prayers said in the evening. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Anger. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. vite (Lat. Prudence. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. "life") . Temperance. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vimperga Of German origin. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Covetousness. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. the church service at which these prayers are said. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Vestibule (Lat. Lust. if you have it not'. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and Justice. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vestibulum. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Envy. "not exposed to winds". and Sloth. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. vita.
and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. or recovery from illness has been made.g. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Sculptors and Architects"). 1478-80. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. they were from the 18th century . and of Ferrara. 1472. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Marcus (1st cent. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. in fact. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. protection from harm. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. those of Volterera. 1482-84). provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance.An account of someone's life and work. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Vitruvius Pollio. a biography. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. The wars from 1494 do. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. published in 1550 and 1568. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and appalled recognition of. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
"Western work of art". While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. It was intended to have a variety of functions. Westwerk German word. treasury or a place where justice was administered. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. based on stylization of various animal forms. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "world view") A comprehensive world view. usually restorers. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. woodcut A print made from a wood block.Weltanschauung (Gr. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. . gallery. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. pompous on the floor above. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. during its subsequent history. usually linear. a philosophy of life.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.