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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
. at the east end of a church behind the altar. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds.e. Lancet and Tudor. the lowest part of the entablature). was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). and Rouault. or organization. the darker the tone). Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. The adjective is apsidal. including Goya. "architectural") Relating to structure. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. The term applies also to a print made by this method. arcade (Lat. roofed with a half-dome. but in essence the process is as follows.A semicircular projection. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Degas. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. arcus. piers or pillars. Picasso. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. Also known as an exedra. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. architrave (It. arkhitektonikos. the moulding around a window or door. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. architectonic (Gk. In Greek and Roman literature. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). design. which is fused to the plate by heating.
voltus.and the Comedy . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. archeiu. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "front arch." from Gk. In the case of martyrs.archivolt (Ital. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. aureolus. attribute (Lat. Ars Moriendi (Lat." and Lat. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "golden. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. dominate. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "begin. usually a saint. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. Dante's Vita nuova . autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. aureole (Lat. archivolto. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. attributum.
paintings of everyday life. or baldacchino (It. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. baldachin.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. the god of wine and fertility. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. who had been residing in France since 1305. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The actual move was made in 1309. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. 'Captivity'. Six pontificates later. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. often anecdotal. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Later. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). that of Cardano. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. applied to the physically . in 1377.
van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants.. Baalbek. set beneath a domical ciborium. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. a visual metaphor for the number eight." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. banderole (It. Parma. Spalato [Split. France. seven.g. or connected with. and Epiphany. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. banderuola. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. a church. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Easter. Customarily. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. the Temple of Venus. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. pope between 432 and 440. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Lebanon. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. AD 273. Alg. As eight follows the "complete" number. Florence. beggars in rags. and Poitiers. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. or forecourt. Croatia]. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. and abject filthy things. built by Sixtus III. or canopy. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Pentecost. el Kantara.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. and Nocera in Italy.. AD 300). baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. such as those at Pisa. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. . circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e.
. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. something of earlier symbolism survives. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1817-1878). and thus a church. 1796-1875).In the 10th century. In architecture. Jean-François Millet (French. in its usual location near the church door . 1811-1889). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Vermeer). Also tunnel vault.an allusion to entering the Christian life. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. or baptismal chapels. however. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. which is reserved for the clergy. Constant Troyon (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. were often omitted entirely. Rubens). Théodore Rousseau (French. 1814-1875). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. barocco. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. achieved through scale. and increasingly elaborate decoration. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. basilica (Gk. Baroque (Port. baptisteries. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Jules Dupré (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. and (3) everyday realism. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. stoa basilike. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. usually facing east. Originally. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. southeast of Paris. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1807-1876). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). "king's hall") a church building. 1810-1865). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. in the 1840s and 1850s.
The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. also incorrectly called bisque. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. such as Waldmüller. like their Dutch counterparts. There were. were referred to by their specific contents. Book of Hours . or which is to be left as it is. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. such as those by Diego Velázquez. in which still-life predominates. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. and often sentimentality. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. domesticity. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848).and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. as is to be expected. The term was mainly used up to c. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. especially Spanish. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Bodegónes. By association. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. often with food and drink. which is either not yet glazed. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. however. bodegón Image. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. 1650 in Spain. Biscuit porcelain. particularly porcelain. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes. up until the mid-17th century. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety.
See flying buttress. bozzetto(Italian. days of the week. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. Chantilly). durability. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. though these are more often called 'modelli'. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. made as a study for a larger picture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. or seasons.an advantage over marble sculpture. and the fact that it is easily workable . and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . a rapid sketch in oil. bozzetto Strictly speaking.both hot and cold . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. coppery red. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.by a variety of processes. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. By extension. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. months. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. varying from silverish to a rich. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. but can also be used for painted sketches.
box") In architecture. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). It also served to glorify the emperor. mosaics. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. "a chest.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. which was often allegorical. and Giotto. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. manuscript illuminations. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. notable from Syria and Egypt. casson. and work in precious metals. Among its most distinctive products were icons. glass. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. camera obscura . which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. ceramics. cameo Small relief made from gems. its forms highly stylized. private room where works of art. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. caisson (Fr. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Duccio. C cabinet A small.
The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. cantorie (It. pl. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. . the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. usually decorated. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. which isolates the fabric from the paint. other materials used are cotton. and jute.Ancestor of the photographic camera. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments." and the earliest versions. campanile Bell tower. both of which have richly carved marble panels.-N. usually built beside or attached to a church. dating to antiquity.) A gallery for singers or musicians. Portable versions were built. candelabra. usually with several branches or arms. Niepce created photography. by the 16th century. candela. as an aid to drawing. candlestick. usually in a church. sing. capitellum. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). capital (Lat. candelabrum (It. "candle") A large. Structurally. The Latin name means "dark chamber. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. which was usually whitened. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. followed by smaller and even pocket models. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. cantoria. hemp. only very rough effects will be obtainable.
cartellino. New Charterhouses. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance).both Italians and artists from other countries . Fortitudo (Fortitude). At the height of the Middle Ages. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). or fresco. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . pl. Carmelites (Lat. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. near Grenoble. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. the date of the painting. Carthusian Order (Lat. In fresco painting. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartouche . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.a humorous drawing or parody. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartellini In a painting. tapestry. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). cartone.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cardinalis. or a motto. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. monasteries containing separate hermitages. the endeavour to attain true humanity. the Carmelites were originally hermits. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. The order combines reclusive and community life. cartoon (It. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . and humanism. details of the subject.
An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and many other items of her dowry. or arms of the cross. a cathedral always faces west . The main body. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Paolo Uccello. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. These lead up to the north and south transepts. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. In the 15th century. or nave. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. they were also used in other countries. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework.) "castle". A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. decorated with gilt gesso. cathedral (cathedra. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. The altar is placed at the east end. cassone (It. linen. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. caryatid (Gk. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. . Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.toward the setting sun. palace. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. and swags of fruit and flowers. putti (cupids). castello (It. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Cascina. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. They contained the bride's clothes.
a celestial winged being with human. landscapes. continually praise him. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. in accordance with their distance from the observer. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. central perspective (Lat. animal. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. buildings and figures that are being depicted. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. a throne bearer of the deity. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. champlevé (Fr. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). "in the centre". Relative to the observer. rather than intercessory functions. Christian. . "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Both the statement of St. or birdlike characteristics. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. as celestial attendants of God. and Islamic literature. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. and perspicere. centralis.
encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. the Order of the Hospital of St. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. replacing tempera. Hans Burgkmair (1510). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. choir (Gk. or for choral singing. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Since Carolingian times. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). choros." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times.chiaroscuro (It. Lastly." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. reserved for the clergy to pray together. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . North of the Alps. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. "light dark") In painting. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20).
The Transparente (completed 1732). In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Sculpted clouds. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments.intersect). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). undulating cornices. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Very few still exist in their original positions. is as typically Churrigueresque. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. ciborium . An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. stucco shells. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and garlands. and the Churrigueresque column. The Mexico cathedral (1718). an architect. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. became the most common motif. balustrades. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. which was shaped like an inverted cone. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). undulating lines. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. gilded rays. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. further enriching the style. a massing of carved angels. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. reversed volutes. and repetition of pattern.
combers. including the ciompi. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. beaters. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. but self-employed. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. High Renaissance). the lower classes forcibly took over the government. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. In reaction to this revolutionary . was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. as also were those in the associated. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. craft of dyeing. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. placing one of their members. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. ciompi. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. controlled by the minor guilds. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. the wool carder Michele di Lando. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Members of the lower classes. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. who were raised to the status of a guild. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Without being members of a guild. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.and post-medieval Italy. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. on July 22. etc. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Quattrocento (1400s. The new government. Their economic condition worsened. Then. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. or achieve political representation.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July.
and politics. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. literature. on which strings were plucked. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. Concepts of the classical. philosophy. philosophy and art . resembling a lyre. the black contours usually with a special line plate. In the 15th century Greek literature. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. however. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.) An ancient musical instrument. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. except in cases where . cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. the ciompi guild was abolished. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. scholars patiently finding. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.as in Italy these were dispensed with. changed greatly from one period to the next. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). with Italian scholars. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). cithara (Gk.episode. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. clair-obscur (Fr. . and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). writers. editing and translating a wide range of texts.
arch or ceiling. the church service at which these prayers are said. [hora] completa. blue and orange. The name was derived from the condotta. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. occasionally made of wood. cognoscente (It. those with refined tastes. when set side by side. compline (Lat. concetto." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. a work's underlying theme. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. . In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. terrorized the country. intensify one another. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. literature or music. or "contract. Green and red. cognoscenti. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. sing. pl. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Coffered ceilings. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. condottiere. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. as well as from the Bible. pl. concetti (It. condottieri (It. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners.
(3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in the service of Naples.e. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. or with the spiritual assistance of. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. and German--the condottieri. and Tuscany. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. commonly called either Compagnia di S. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. in the service of Perugia. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. . who won control of Milan in 1450. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. primarily for syphilitics. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Carmagnola. (2) Confraternite del Rosario.e. Toward the end of the 15th century. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Spanish. Umbria. disappeared. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. often under the direction of. clergy. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. convents of convertite. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. By the 16th century. often called compagnie or. Martino). With no goal beyond personal gain. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. i. confraternities Confraternities. Mark (1432). flagellant confraternities. By the end of the 14th century. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. scuole.devastating Romagna. in Venice. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. i. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Francesco Sforza. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. which spread in the 15th century. Muzio's son.
Dorotea in Trastevere. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership).g. e. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. in Florence. and refuges for maidens. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. 1514 in S. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. In medieval painting. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. however. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. reformed prostitutes. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. While the Doge ranked above the Council. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contrapposto (It. notwithstanding their location. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. contours were initially regular. founded c. flat outlines. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. e.i. the Florentine Neri. Confraternities. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. while the Venetian government. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. but sometimes had their own premises. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies.g. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. contour (Fr. contour. Later.e.
Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Lat. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. 1280). With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. conventicle (Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. a bracket of stone. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics.weight on one leg. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. aes cyprium. . In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. They are often ornamented. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. declining moral standards. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. cuprum. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. corbel In architecture. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). conventiculurn. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. whose names are inscribed on several works. Reform programs. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. did not achieve any lasting results. The style spread as far as England. an engraving produced in this way. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. 1100 and 1300. large cornice or other feature.
or "scourged. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Death. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. particularly among the Persians. cupola (Lat. the condemned man. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the most famous victim of crucifixion. a small dome. "small vat") In architecture. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Carthaginians. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Seleucids. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. D dado . after being whipped. Constantine the Great. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Usually. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Next. There were various methods of performing the execution. i. the first Christian emperor. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook.e. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. a semi-circular vault. Jews. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. cupula. An ancestor of the oboe. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. reedy sound." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment.
Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. a favorite late medieval picture subject. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. diptychum. Passau. diptych (Lat. Anglican and Orthodox churches. and Linz possessed common characteristics. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. e. "drawing. disegno (It. but the concept behind an art work. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. design") In Renaissance art theory. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. The term stresses not the literal drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Deësis (Gk.g. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diakonos. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. deacon (Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Germany. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . danse macabre The dance of death. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. Gk. usually in matching pairs. an expressive use of nature. diptychos. often an altarpiece. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder.
such as we still use today. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.fully realize. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. doublet A male garment. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). formerly worn under armour. distemperare. Ordo Praedictatorum. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). "to mix. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. also used it on canvas. donator. As disegno appeals to the intellect. dome in architecture. when painters took to working out of doors. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). distemper (Lat. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . though a few artists. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. donor (Lat. which runs on castors or wheels. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. The studio easel. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. is a heavy piece of furniture. usually forming a ceiling or roof.Thomas Aquinas. Dominicans (Lat. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. a 19th-century invention.
and logos. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. ensemble (Fr. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. Ecce Homo (Lat. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschatology (Gk. the frieze. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. "word") . bound and flogged. and architecture. full face. sculpture. a depiction of Jesus. It consists of the architrave. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. in art. entablature In classical architecture. epitaph (Gk.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. sometimes combining panel painting. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. en face In portraiture. Hence. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. fresco. "last". eschaton. John (19. and the cornice.
was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. which is called "delftware. Contarini. Spain. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. which was famous for maiolica. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. . Augustine. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Equated with the Greek god Pan." and charis. fields and livestock. Giovanni Morone. particularly ware made in France. "good. protector of shepherds." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Eucharist (Gk. Italy. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Vittoria Colonna. 4500 BCE. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. eu. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Jerome. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. which is called "maiolica. Marcantonio Flaminio. Germany. and of the last things. farmers. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. notably Cardinal Pole. and Scandinavia. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Saints Ambrose. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. and is named for Faenza. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion.death and resurrection. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. which was developed in the Near East ca. celebrated with bread and wine. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification.
"festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. frescos in Italy . drying to a slightly different tint. black and dun. and these areas. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. The colour of his horse is white. and flowers suspended in a loop. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). fresco (It. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth.8). usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. a technique known as a secco fresco. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. famine and death. sword and set of balances. relaxed. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. 2 . fluted of a column or pillar. leaves. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. war. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. a swag. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. that of the others red. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. can in time be seen. Committed to charitable and missionary work. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ.festoni (It. such as plague. Only a small area can be painted in a day. Their attributes are the bow.
During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. for example. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. a person's invisible tutelary god. genre In a broad sense. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The technique of buon fresco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Final details. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. usually childish figure. or fresco secco. landscape and portraiture.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. G Garter. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. where the atmosphere was too damp. Genius in classical Rome. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. are genres of painting. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints.Save in Venice. In art from the classical period onwards. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the intonaco. covings and ceilings. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. or true fresco. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing .
Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. in portraits and on tombs. Maso di Banco. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Gobelins . In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). how it differed from notoriety. Maria Gloriosa). to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and as spurring on men of action. As such. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. whether it must be connected with the public good. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. as well as writers and artists. Bernardo Daddi.
Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. thereafter it made only tapestries. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. and although it reopened in 1699. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church.French tapestry manufactory. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. who appointed Lebrun Director. This ratio is approximately 8:13. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. still in existence today. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Golden Fleece. In other Italian cities. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. golden section (Lat. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Paris. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. .
that the effects are to be felt. In thinking of Nicola (d. The artistic. In sculpture and in painting. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. like the cultural and commercial. Denis. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. 1270. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. painting. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. painting. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. There is a transcendental quality. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. the superficial particularities of form. Amiens. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. . It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. and lies much deeper than. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Gothic Gothic. or the influence of one building. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). Nevertheless. In particular. c. 1200 and c. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. from the 13th until the 17th century. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated.
and the great style. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Dubuffet. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. to white or tinted paper and card and. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. and above all Italy. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. notably in the writings of Bellori. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Such tours often took a year or more. the Netherlands. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Pannini. These qualities. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Canaletto. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and taste among the English. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Honey. Klee. without visible brush marks. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). . starch. if required. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. the beau idéal of the French. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. occasionally. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. with sable. genius. and Morris Graves.and hog-hair brushes. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. chiefly to France. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. and Piranesi. It is thinned with water for applying. to silk.
when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. usually gray.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In Florence. From 1266 to 1268. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. however. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. after this. and Waiblingen. grisaille (Fr. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. exclude drawing from this definition. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. the parties taking a multitude of local names. gris. internal factions in Florence went under other names. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. became an abiding feature of European politics. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. including text as well as illustrations.e. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. to Provence and Paris. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. 1216. then as now. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. In another sense. Some writers. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. . with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. brother of Louis IX. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. c. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. however. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. through central Italy. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. In the context of the fine arts.
contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. such as Brescia and Vicenza. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. surgeons. The guilds were not equal. The guild also monitored standards of work. notably Florence in the 14th century. but in time they acquired other functions. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and provided assistance to members in need. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. or professions. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. trades. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In some cities. héraut. as some did). goldsmiths. trade or profession (painters. heraldry (Fr. In Italy they go back a long way. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. Guilds were also patrons of art. "herald") . [science] héraldique. and greater hostility between master and man. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries." from Fr. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. print or painting. In 16th century Venice. In some towns. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. for example. In Florence. H hatching In a drawing.
similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. The main impact of the . They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. head of the 'carnal Church'. while others merged with the Waldensians. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. i. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. as Antichrist. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. together with brethren north of the Alps. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. the followers of Juan de Valdes. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. By contrast. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. one great missionary community. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. d. and regarded themselves as forming. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. with the rules governing their use. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. the Waldensian. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. the Cathars were an anti-church. normative for churchmen. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. they were condemned in 1184. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. from the start. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. indeed. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. However.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty.
Thomas Cole. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. history (usually classical history). George Inness. American painters were studying in Rome. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. the emancipation of man from God took place. F. Durand. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Jasper Cropsey. and. Morse. humanus. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. At the same time. In humanism. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. hortus conclusus (Lat. humanism (Lat. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. working from 1825 to 1875. F. J. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Germany. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Kensett. Frederick E. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. its subjects considered morally elevating. in his earlier work.movement upon the laity was in southern France. mainly in the south. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. B. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. my spouse'. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Church. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). S. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Henry Inman. and classical literature. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
inventio (It. The terms court style. and the ladder. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Donatallo. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. and they are also depicted on their own. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. or of other saints. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. the scourge that was used in the scourging. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. originality. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the veil of St. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Veronica. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. For instance. Derived from classical rhetoric. the pincers. In the second half of the 14th century. etc.g. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Human figures. invention. usually the donors of a work of art. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the rooster of Peter's denial. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the hammer. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. with many further details added. investiture . beautiful style. trecento rococo and lyrical style. soft style. are also used in art literature. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the ability to create. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory.
Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. The Both brothers. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who traveled in Italy and. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jerome's writings. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. although they are usually called Romanists. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianizers Northern artists. Both and Berchem. principally Dutch. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. bathed in a golden haze. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. of Utrecht. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Andries and Jan Both. Nicolaes Berchem. and Jan Asselijn. . Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Upon his return to Holland. generally Dutch or Flemish. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.
Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). the rite of communion is based on this. lectern A reading stand or desk. Archbishop of Genoa.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . liberal arts .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. especially one at which the Bible is read. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. As their military role grew. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Legenda Aurea (Lat.1519).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). encouraged by the Crusades.
or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). through the use of aerial perspective. Heade (1819-1904). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. It is related to. Tubal for music). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. . geometry. its roof supported by columns.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. then the basis of a philosophical training. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. and Frederick E. comprising arithmetic.g. "little moon") In architecture. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. often standing in markets and town squares. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. together with identifying attributes (e.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. astronomy and music. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). John F. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. that may contain a window. the quadrivium. that could be used for public ceremonies. first the preparatory trivium . By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. commemorating a marriage. lunette (Fr. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. a semicircular space. poetic atmosphere.grammar. often sublime. Pythagoras for arithmetic.g. Church (1826-1900). Martin J. Maria Novella in Florence). Kensett (1816-1872). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. rhetoric and dialectic. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. loggia (It. painting or sculptural decoration.
but they painted genre scenes. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. "almond") . they never lost a sense of solidity of form. being written. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. historical subjects. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. originating in Italy in the 14th century. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. magna mater (Lat. and accompaniments. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. the goddess Cybele. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. antimony yellow. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. particularly such ware produced in Italy. 1855–65. active mainly in Florence c. originally sung without accompaniment. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. for example. Specifically. When white is used for painting. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and iron red. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and however bright their lighting effects. copper green.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. madrigal A part song. usually for the lute. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. and portraits as well as landscapes. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. manganese purple. mandorla (It. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. "great mother") A mother goddess. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour.
Bronzino. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. the Codex manuscriptus. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. marked by flagellation. in a specific sense. which was quarried at Mount . Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. often ornamented with decorative borders. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. bound. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. It reached to the knee or foot. and crowned with thorns. El Greco and Tintoretto. Flanders. maniera. mantle An overcoat. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. In architecture. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. illuminated initials and miniatures. worn open. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Mannerism (It. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. "manner. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Parmigianino. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. more strictly. the hand-written medieval book. In Mannerist painting. and literary texts. Developing out of the Renaissance. ecclesiastical. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. complex and crowded compositions. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. depending on the social class of the wearer. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Burgundy. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. strong. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies.
proof") the sufferings. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. quarried at Massa. Like the finest Imperial coins. gained the rank of'master' in his guild.Pentelicon in Attica. particularly by Michelangelo. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Without monetary value. "witness. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). The pure white Carrara marble. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. a different design on the reverse. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. an inscription running round the rim. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. which were beginning to be reverently collected. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. marmi finti (It. medallion In architecture. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. the medal's purpose was commemorative. having finished his training. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. martyrion. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. martyrdom (Gk. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). sleek surface. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC.
And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. the stress on individual character. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1467-688). Ludwig von Siegen. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. no line drawing is employed. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. 1425-1504). even grain. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. often anonymous. This yields a soft effect in the print. as it were. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. perhaps oddly. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. and of the many. 1452-1526/27). the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. c. In pure mezzotint. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. The process is essentially extinct today. It was. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. . The work of these men. 1640. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. a Gorgon. 14601528). hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. particularly. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. of the person portrayed on the other side. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. for landscapes and portraits. who reflected them. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. c. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Medusa In Greek mythology. Her head features on Minerva's shield.round the neck. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. supposedly to petrify her enemies. When Perseus cuts off her head. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. A Dutch officer. in England. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles.
The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored.g. e. executed on a very small scale. ink and paint. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Parmigianino (d. pointed headdress worn by bishops. monokhromatos. a branch of the Franciscan order. saying") . not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. "one color") Painted in a single color. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. painting in gouache on vellum or card. "word. a painting executed in a single color. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Many such small versions. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. motto (Ital. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. usually portraits.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.. monochrome (Gk. Francis himself. still exist. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. by Tiepolo and Rubens. often quite highly finished. miter A high.
Pforr. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. but often insipid. . Rome. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Berlin. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. nave (from Lat. naturalism (Fr. The invention of personal mottos. navis. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. In 1810 0verbeck. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and two other members moved to Rome. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. often separated from it by pillars. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion.from the Middle Ages. and Casino Massimo. Nazarenes A group of young. and is intersected by the transept. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Isidore. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. In general. 1816-17. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. named after the patron saint of painting. 1817-29). One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy.
the style of the Ancien Régime. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people.) . Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). moreover. is as true as it is notorious. "aureole") The disc or halo. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). were usually old when elected. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nimbus (Lat. Nymphaeum (Gk. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Popes. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. but their ideas continued to be influential. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. usually golden. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. nigellus. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. niello (Lat. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s.
with a sturdy. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. a small private chapel. capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. The earliest. fluted column and a plain capital. and its greater tonal range. orders of architecture In classical architecture. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). The Corinthian order was the most ornate. inborn sin. the three basic styles of design. the Doric order. such as linseed. "services. or poppy. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. . oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. prayer and preaching being central to their mission.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. Greek goddesses of Nature. a more elaborate base. observances") Rites performed for the dead. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. walnut. obsequia. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. its richness of colour. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). and entablatures. was the simplest. O obsequies (Lat.
Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Palazzo Strozzi). designed as a . tradition and social structure.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. like cities. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. palazzo (It. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. the Cancelleria). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. while shops came to be thought undignified. with biforate windows. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. standing at the foot of the Cross.g. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. and the main apartments above. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. and. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. P pala (Ital. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.
Palazzo Massimi). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. evolved influential types. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.scholarly retreat. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. column-caps. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). cornices and abutments. palmette. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Following Oriental patterns. e. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and Palladio's in Vicenza. came to be applied all over Europe. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. behind a sober Florentine façade. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. often built next to their titular churches. Papal incentives to build. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. panel . Rich. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Movement of patrons and architects. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy.g. and large households. like the colonnaded vestibule. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Other cities. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. especially after the Sack of Rome.g. In Venice. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. like Genoa. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds.
the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. cedar. and spanned by a single dome. fibre-board. In the 20th century cedar. The third aspect was administrative. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and modern painters have also used plywood. and dark walnut are favourites. and other synthetic materials as supports. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. secular rulers. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. larch. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. or other rigid substance. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. A number of matters. mahogany. the management of clerical dues and taxation. to influence popes in their favour. linden. as distinct from canvas. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and walnut. the. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. slate has occasionally been used as a support. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. or the incidence of taxation. Having a circular plan.Term in painting for a support of wood. metal. Then. so that they might have a voice at court. enforce law and order. On a larger scale. however. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. as it were. teak.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. olive. To maintain their authority. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and the pressure and temptations . fir. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. chestnut. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. including beech. Many other types were used. As successors to St Peter. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example).
Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. from the point of view of its religious associations. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. at Avignon. possess an authority which. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). could supersede that of a pope. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . as such. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. of individuals.as well. the most appropriate . This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. So onerous. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. which met at Constance 1414-18. however. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. It was argued that such a council. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. however. to be long delayed. in spite of further absences from Rome. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. which seems so inevitable. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. however.that could be applied to them. By then. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. There remained. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). if it did no serious damage to the faith. Colonna and Caetani. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. in the eyes of God. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. To resolve the problem of divided authority. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. would. As at Avignon. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. was long in doubt. considered perfectly suitable for the role played .
by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and with Zeuxis (c. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and satyrs. Passion . Parrhasius (c. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). less frequently pig. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. However. through lavish patronage of artists. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. in classical literature. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. nymphs. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. pastor. pastoral (Lat. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. 400-300 BC). "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. goat. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. to a world peopled by shepherds. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. and other animals. as well as a governmental one. the creation of a cultural capital.. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. scholars and men of letters. it has also been used for painting. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age.
Meanwhile. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. ornamental building. projecting either centrally or at both ends. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. pastiche (fr. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. a prominent section of a monumental façade. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and so on. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. hence tent") A lightly constructed. a region in north-central Italy. papilio. but not necessarily a direct copy. such as a garden summerhouse. . Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26.) or pasticcio (It. 1478). The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Francesco Salviati. which focus on the Suffering Christ.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.The events leading up to Good Friday. "butterfly. pavilion (Lat. a small. wealthy citizen. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. the crown of thorns. Portrayals of the Passion. patricius. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. patrician (Lat. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. and also the archbishop of Pisa. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. 1478.
who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. persona. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "to see through. pergola (It. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "hanging. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "nature". "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. concept or deity. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. pendant (Fr. and gnomon. . though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "person". perspicere. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). perspective (Lat. in particular the face. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. or related elements within an art work. and facere.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. physis. personification (Lat. physiognomy (Gk.
' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. containing the public rooms. both real and painted. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. pigmentum. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. glue. affording a good subject for a landscape. Pietà (Lat. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. remarkable for singularity. Rome. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). to be expressed in painting. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. pigment (Lat. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. but full of variety. curious details. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Peter's. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. . "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St.) The main floor of a building. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. proper to take a landscape from. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. or resin to make paint. for example. A pier is generally larger than a column. exemplified. usually above the ground floor.piano nobile (Ital. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye.
Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Rocco and Sebastian. plague Plague. such as Florence and Genoa. During 1348 the Black Death. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. for instance. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. moreover. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. and capital. a shaft. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. despite regional variations. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. though in less widespread. It is often fluted. it is difficult to find. "pillar") A flat. however. It seems probable. In the 15th century. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Thenceforward. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. more sporadic outbreaks. perhaps. pilastrum. also used in Spain's American colonies. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. and thereafter all Europe. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. it has a base.pilaster (Lat. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. since. outside Tuscany. in October 1347. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. For this reason. the burning of 'infected' clothing. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries.
and unified style using massive geometric forms. Timaeus. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. which lasted only a few decades. like its successor. or simply the Plateresque. composition. harmonious. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). In contrast with Aristotle. Phaedrus. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. The second phase. the Symposium. heraldic escutcheons. Philebus. The first phase. correct classical orders became frequent. A student of Socrates. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Phaedo. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. utilized Mudejar ornament -. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland.. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. more severe. i. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Diego evolved a purer. or appropriateness. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. placement. Theatetus and the Laws. the Renaissance-Plateresque. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The first phase. and sinuous scrolls. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. are the masterworks of the second style.e. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.
1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. replaced Ficino's. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. partially.in Plato's thought. near Florence. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . and Agostino Steuco (c. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Iamblichus. 1472-c. and he utilized many other writings. all of which he also translated into Latin. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. the greatest of his ancient disciples. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe.1577) becoming particularly popular. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Plotinus. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. but not completely. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. and the Chaldaic Oracles. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Unlike the case of Aristotle. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. A new Latin translation. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Rather unsystematic. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. including those of Plotinus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world.
polyptych (Gk. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. where a pectoral is used to close it. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. pluvial (Med. column. plinthos. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluviale. Plato was read in the universities. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Lat. plinth (Gk. Frequently supports a pediment. or statue. such as processions and consecrations. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. poluptukhos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pointed arch In architecture. as in classical architecture). In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. portico (Lat. porticus. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture.
Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. 1328. inessential. the Carracci. The realism of the clear. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. and the . Desiderio da Settignano. Cathedral) by Uccello. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Florence. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. was revived in the 14th century. Florence (1486-90). which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Palazzo Farnese).. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface.sculptors such as Donatello. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. decorating whole rooms. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Mantua. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Siena. The equestrian portrait. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. flattened image. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. National Gallery). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Maria Novella. Campidoglio). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Colleoni. Gattarnelata. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. psychologically more complex. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Venice). and only a decorative accessory to form. Group portraits.e. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474.
was versed in classical and patristic . Borromeo. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishops especially. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. As Poussin was a Frenchman. and. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. minatory exhortations. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). who had as their ideal masters Titian. of the sermon as an art form. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. 1494).severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. are not florid in style. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. from the secular clergy. to discharge their preaching duties. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. abrasive even. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. however. bishop of Asti. and Peter Paul Rubens. Correggio. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Charles Le Brun. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. primarily the mendicants. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The styles of S. Fiamma's sermons. The sermons of Visdomini. bishop of Chioggia. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. together with the Dominican Savonarola. not least those of statesmen and prelates. several of whom became bishops. Savonarola and Musso.
they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. and so forth. prefiguration Typology .g. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. predella (It. Naples). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. among them Holman Hunt. The New Testament references in these would. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Louis of Toulouse (1317. Millais and Rossetti. though often relatively very wide . tapestries. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. the temptations of Adam and Christ. however. presbytery (or choir) (Gk.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.rhetoric. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Because of the small size of predelle . the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).
these highly finished drawings. The following are important: 1. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. proportio. Fragonard. proportion (Lat. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. and Houdon among sculptors. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Girardon. sculpture and architecture. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the golden section. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. profil perdu (Fr. which uses the square . notably David. the Canon of Proportion. the quadrature. intended as complete works of art in themselves. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. "evenness") in painting. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. 2. Prix de Rome A scholarship. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. again indicative of the purpose they served. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. 3.
Rome. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Ignazio.as a unit of measurement. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. Unlike Pozzo. provenance The origins of an art work. a fourth = 3:4. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. putto (It. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. harmonic proportions. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. triangulation. and 5. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. . The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. a fifth = 2:3. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. "boys") Plump naked little boys. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. one half the length of the other). putti sing. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. It was common in Roman art. for example). 4. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. the steward or treasurer of a church.
refectorium) Monastic dining hall. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. or the Jesuits. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo).Quattrocento (It. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relic (Lat. and high relief (alto rilievo). friars and nuns. Donatello. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. basso rilievo). Botticelli. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. In 16th century Europe. Among the . refectory (Med. Lat.g. e. Brunelleschi. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. the great orders of monks. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relief (Lat. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). or some item connected with a saint. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. hermits. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relicquiae. the object of particular veneration. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in particular works by Masaccio. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. with the Anglican Church developing in England. in which figures are seen half round. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Fra Angelico and others. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. canons regular. also known as the Realist school. relevare. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.
were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. was the congregation of S. Venice (1404). In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Maria di Fregonaia. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. In 1517. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Giorgio in Alga. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. The same bull . Salvatore. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. and their more institutionalized brethren. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. however. and the generally moderate Observants. although technically of secular canons. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Lorenzo Giustiniani. which was to become the main Italian one. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. the Conventuals. At the same time. various groups were fused in the latter body. 1012. Bernardino of Siena. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. S. In 1504. Mantua. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. That of S. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance.contemplative orders. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the great patriarch of Venice. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Conventuals. The Silvestrines. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries.e. it became the Cassinese congregation. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Benedetto. Founded by St Romuald c. Padua. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. The Benedictines. Giustina. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the most notable being S. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Lucca. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. i. who had no overall organization originally. After the repression of the Spirituals. presided over by chapters general. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Bologna (1419).
Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. founded by S. Gaetano da Thiene. Gerolamo Aemiliani. a historical period. founded in 1535 by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Venice. the Theatines. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. The first. also. however. however. Angela Merici. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Michele in Isola. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Filippo Neri.
Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. life. however. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. of an energetic revival of interest in. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. was so vast and potent. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. even Amoralism. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. of 'darkness'. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. which had begun early in the 14th century. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of scholarship. because its core of energy. of letters. and his own as potentially one of light. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of arts. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. For long. Thereafter. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. as well as political. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. 1875-86). . Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. increasingly. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. All-Roundness. the historical reality of antiquity.century. however. and competition with. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. too long forgotten glories. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism.
gratefully. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. letters. sometimes. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Though thus challenged. in the more limited sense. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). of industrialization. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . let alone a uniform. There was an early. consist merely of a painting. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Cathedral of SaintBavon. however. candlesticks. especially in the High Gothic period. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. and is decorated with paintings. though sometimes of metal. retables can be detached and. etc. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. mobilized nationalism. The challenges are to be accepted. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. later still to Genoa. Ghent). It is for this additional. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.with all its shabbiness .erased. (3) There is not a true.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. etc. congruence between. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. statues.) was the term chosen. the previous record . (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. and other liturgical objects. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. and mass media. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.
Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. richly decorated with organic forms. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Italy. retables have become extinct. its mood lighthearted and witry. painting. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Romanesque art. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. . Spain . however. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. and architecture dominating the 18th century. As the name suggests. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo A style of design. it indicates a derivation from Roman art.France. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. "relief") In painting. rocaille (French. Louis XV furniture. and 'Romanesque'. Originally commissioned in 976. is a typical product. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. the St. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. almost simultaneously. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. literally. Germany.in the 11th century. rilievo (It. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.of St Mark in Venice. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. With the development of freestanding altars. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. the first style to achieve such international currency. in several countries . like 'Gothic'. More usually.
they maintained. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. M. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Mabuse. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Claude. The aim of painting. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. van Orley. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the development of nationalistic pride. B. Pannini and Mengs. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. . van Heemskerk. stylized design representing an open rose. Massys and M. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. In addition. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Rome. Piranesi. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Q. such as red ochre.
but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents.greatly increased. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. gutted. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. glance and movement . when it finally left the city it had devastated. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). but others were the work of well-known figures. and anointing of the sick. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. supported by lay confraternities. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Clement escaped into Castel S. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Sacra Conversazione (It. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Many compositions were anonymous. holy orders. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. multiple sets used in succession. and Protestant churches. confirmation. and impoverished. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. penance. Written primarily in ottava rima. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. In the . from the Old and New Testaments. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Eastern independent. There were no limits on time. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. matrimony. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Subjects were nominally sacred. local saints.expressed through gesture. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Orthodox. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. pious legend and hagiography. the Eucharist.
fixed the number of sacraments at seven. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Bentivoglio. The classical Protestant churches (i. It is still practiced on special occasions. sacraments. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Anglican. They were still seeking aid. used for drawing. Immediately following baptism. the Rocca Paolina. and then face east. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. was not maintained as a sacrament. make such strict distinctions. in principle. Hence. the symbolic direction of Christ. as an excuse to revolt. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the Orthodox Church does not. Saracens .i. and sacraments. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Candidates first face west." sala (Ital. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. chapter 13.e. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.. The theology of the Orthodox Church. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.) Hall. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. strictly speaking. was buried under a new fortress. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist." which are called sacramentals. Lutheran. the sun of righteousness. baptism and the Eucharist. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.early church the number of sacraments varied. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . that the price of salt should be increased. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Salt War. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. large room.e. notably from Florence and in Germany. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. The chief focus of discontent. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. foot washing. Thus.. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. replaces the Lord's Supper. which in the Gospel According to John.
Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. legs and horns of a goat. are lost. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. the god of wine. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. pl. 360 . human-like woodland deities with the ears. sarcophagus. sarcophagi (Gk. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.c. made of stone. 45 BC). 210 AD). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. whose writings. 270 BC). satyr In Greek mythology. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). and many others. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. The publication of Latin (1562. 160 . and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. the Arabs or Muslims. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity.During the Middle Ages. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. wood or terracotta. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Little known in the Middle Ages.
However. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Charles III of Durazzo (d. As a result. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. 1386) and his son Ladislas. on one side. for. scholasticism . who had the support of the Avignon pope. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). from time to time both he and his opponents. In northern Italy. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. who recognized the Roman pope. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.for example Pieter van Laer. being Frenchmen. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. the Florentines. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Schism. while England. Louis I (d. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. was called Bamboccio. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness.they had individual Bentnames . Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. while devout Christians agonized. than their medieval predecessors. most of whom. on the other. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. one of the early leaders. in June 1409. Alexander V. but with little effect. with France and her allies Aragon. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). and. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense.
history and rhetoric . as it is easier to add details in this way. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.) . the plaster had to be damped before painting. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God.moral philosophy. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Christian. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. notably Aquinas. As such. Often called the burning ones. if lime-water was used. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). university-based study. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). on one side.The term is ambivalent. and Islamic literature. as it were. None the less. textual scholarship. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Medieval scholars. (See also: fresco. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.were different from those of medieval. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Serenissima (Ital. Padua. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. and theology. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. moreover. It was because the central concerns of humanism . that scholasticism was left. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.
Servite (Lat. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Signoria (It. women who could prophesy. the number gradually rose to ten. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sfumato A technique. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. sibyls (Gk. sinopia . Lat. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. "prophetess") In antiquity.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. at the same time. "the most serene republic of Venice"). there was only one Sibyl. They first appear in alpine monasteries. In Christian legend.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia.. sibylla. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in the period of classical antiquity. in use since the Middle Ages. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Med. which were all identical in thickness. brass. Originally. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. usually presided over by individual families. and the delicate. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. term. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.
brand. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Stanze (Ital. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. Ital. soffit (Lat. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigma (Gk. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.) Wooden ceiling decoration.'Beautiful Madonnas'. as the name implies. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. It is very closely related to International Gothic. especially in the flow of drapery. Francis of Assisi. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. staffage This word. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . in other words. pronounced as French. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. sing. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.. . In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. stigmata. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "mark. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. and. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. sotto in sù (It. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet.
Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. John Milton. studiolo. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The vogue for the Sublime. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. whose verses actually fabrications . Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. studioli (It. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. In a looser sense. both external and internal.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). with that for the Picturesque. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. stucco A type of light. supremacy . The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. pl. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). Indeed.
Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. London. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. or cartoons.Historically. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass.and. But the Italians did not make them. The subject is underexplored. into Italy. was being decorated with frescoes. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.e. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. . These were imported. chiefly from Flanders. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. tempera (Lat. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. both for panel painting and fresco. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. his own headquarters. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. temperare. and in literature. doubtless. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). Salviati and Allori. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. i. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. 1407). then being replaced by oil paint. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk).
and sculptures. in art. pl. topia. vessels. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. topoi (Gk.e. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. figure of speech. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topiary (Gk. i. triumphal arch. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "fields. and other surfaces. and profile. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "a commonplace") In literature. Trajan's Column . "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topos. tondo. model. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. in the architecture of ancient Rome. theme or motif. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. terraferma (Ital. walls. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity.terracotta (It. tondi (It. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. widely used form. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). quarter face. and later to subdivide gable ends. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. pl.
Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. or wings. triptych (Gk.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. patriarchs and prophets. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. as it were. Early triptychs were often portable. Meanwhile. of virtues and of the arts. the wars by which they were won . loot and prisoners was given sparingly. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. death. after 'a countless number of virgins. beside it the army of martyrs. added to the glamour of the triumph.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. usually an altarpiece. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Trinity (Lat. the Son and the Holy Spirit. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Battista Sforza. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. behind it. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. chastity. into a number of less controversial forms. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. tryptychos. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. fame. "threefold") A painting in three sections. a car so brave'. time and eternity. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. . of both sexes'. trinitas. Disseminated soon after his death. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. the military triumph became sublimated. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. "threefold") in Christianity. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .' Before it go the apostles. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits.
tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). "drum") In classical architecture. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. enclosed by an arch. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. through various naturalistic devices. it is usually decorated with carvings.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. It incorporates Renaissance features. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. Dating from classical times. viscous black ink. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. first recorded in 1232. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tusche A thick. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. often decorated with sculptures. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. In medieval architecture. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tympanum (Lat. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. typology .
but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. each had access to his paintings. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). e. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).g.) The Renaissance "universal man". the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. where they were most accessible. killer of Holofernes. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1610). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.Dirck van Baburen (c. knew his former patrons. U uomo universale (It. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. especially his half-length figural groups. . were popular with them also. Judith. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and David. In Christian thought. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. such as five works devoted to the senses. lanterns. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).A system of classification. The numerous candles. 1590-1624). slayer of Goliath.
carriages. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Parisian craftsmen. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. mixed in. the groin vault. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. overturned vessels.). formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Also varietas (Lat. and the rib vault. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. guttering candles. snuff boxes and other objects. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vesper. "evening") . "variety") In Renaissance art theory. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. There are a wide range of forms. hour-glasses and clocks. often gold. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. V vanishing point In perspective. it was used to decorate furniture. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. and even flowers (which will soon fade). varietà (It. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Vespers (Lat. vanitas (Lat. a work's richness of subject matter.
The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. vite (Lat. Fortitude. and Justice. Vestibule (Lat. if you have it not'. Anger. for example. Temperance. the church service at which these prayers are said. In ancient Roman dwellings. "life") . Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Covetousness. vestibulum. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). virtù could be used. 'Assume a virtue. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Prudence. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and Sloth. pl. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. vita. Lust. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Charity. vimperga Of German origin. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. actual or latent. The seven Virtues were: Faith. in which the word signifies efficacy. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. "not exposed to winds". rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Envy. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top.Prayers said in the evening. Gluttony. Hope.
a biography. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Marcus (1st cent. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. Sculptors and Architects"). came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena.An account of someone's life and work. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1482-84). And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1478-80. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. they were from the 18th century . votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Vitruvius Pollio. protection from harm. and appalled recognition of. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. 1472. and of Ferrara. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. in fact. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. published in 1550 and 1568. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. or recovery from illness has been made. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory.g. The wars from 1494 do. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. usually when a prayer for good fortune. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. those of Volterera.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Weltanschauung (Gr. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. woodcut A print made from a wood block. during its subsequent history. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. It was intended to have a variety of functions. gallery. . they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. treasury or a place where justice was administered. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. based on stylization of various animal forms. usually linear. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Westwerk German word. pompous on the floor above. usually restorers. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. "Western work of art". "world view") A comprehensive world view. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. a philosophy of life. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.
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