A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.e. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Picasso. at the east end of a church behind the altar. In Greek and Roman literature. Degas. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. . design. Also known as an exedra. or organization. which is fused to the plate by heating. Lancet and Tudor. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. The term applies also to a print made by this method. arcade (Lat. and Rouault. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. the darker the tone). There are several variants of the technique. piers or pillars. The adjective is apsidal. including Goya. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "architectural") Relating to structure. architectonic (Gk. roofed with a half-dome. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. but in essence the process is as follows. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. the lowest part of the entablature). the moulding around a window or door. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish.A semicircular projection. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arkhitektonikos. arcus. architrave (It.

The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . archivolto. attribute (Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "begin. usually a saint. "golden. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. Ars Moriendi (Lat. attributum.archivolt (Ital. archeiu. In the case of martyrs. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "front arch. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.and the Comedy . aureole (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations." from Gk. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. voltus." and Lat. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. dominate. aureolus. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.

the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. who had been residing in France since 1305. that of Cardano. often anecdotal. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. paintings of everyday life. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. 'Captivity'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). the god of wine and fertility. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. or baldacchino (It. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The actual move was made in 1309. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. in 1377. Later. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. baldachin. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. applied to the physically . Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Six pontificates later.

circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. or forecourt. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. or canopy. Pentecost. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Lebanon. . the Temple of Venus. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. beggars in rags. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. a church. pope between 432 and 440.g. As eight follows the "complete" number. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Florence. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. and Poitiers. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and Epiphany. AD 300).. built by Sixtus III. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. such as those at Pisa. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms.. banderole (It. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. seven. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. a visual metaphor for the number eight.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. banderuola. set beneath a domical ciborium. or connected with. AD 273. and Nocera in Italy. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. France. Easter. Customarily. Spalato [Split. el Kantara. Baalbek. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Parma." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and abject filthy things. Alg. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Croatia].

however. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Théodore Rousseau (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1810-1865). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. barocco. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Vermeer). 1796-1875). or baptismal chapels. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. In architecture. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Also tunnel vault. which is reserved for the clergy. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. and (3) everyday realism. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Originally. Constant Troyon (French. 1811-1889). in its usual location near the church door . 1817-1878). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. basilica (Gk. "king's hall") a church building. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Rubens). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1814-1875).In the 10th century. in the 1840s and 1850s. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. . there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. southeast of Paris. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Jules Dupré (French. stoa basilike. usually facing east. Baroque (Port. and thus a church. were often omitted entirely. Jean-François Millet (French. baptisteries. achieved through scale. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. 1807-1876).

the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. such as Waldmüller. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Book of Hours .and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. in which still-life predominates. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. were referred to by their specific contents. By association. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. or which is to be left as it is. The term was mainly used up to c. 1650 in Spain. Biscuit porcelain. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. also incorrectly called bisque. which is either not yet glazed. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). like their Dutch counterparts. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. domesticity. particularly porcelain. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Bodegónes. It takes its name from its grainy texture. especially Spanish. however. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. often with food and drink. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. and often sentimentality. There were. bodegón Image. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. as is to be expected. Spanish still-lifes. such as those by Diego Velázquez. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). up until the mid-17th century.

bozzetto Strictly speaking.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. and the fact that it is easily workable . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina.both hot and cold . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. Chantilly). a rapid sketch in oil.an advantage over marble sculpture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. See flying buttress. By extension.by a variety of processes. months. varying from silverish to a rich. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. days of the week. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. made as a study for a larger picture. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. but can also be used for painted sketches. coppery red. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. durability. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. . or seasons. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bozzetto(Italian. though these are more often called 'modelli'. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.

an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Among its most distinctive products were icons. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). caisson (Fr.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). glass. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. notable from Syria and Egypt. C cabinet A small. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. manuscript illuminations. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. which was often allegorical. Duccio. and work in precious metals. It also served to glorify the emperor. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. its forms highly stylized. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. cameo Small relief made from gems. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. casson. private room where works of art. camera obscura . ceramics. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. "a chest. and Giotto. box") In architecture. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. mosaics.

usually built beside or attached to a church. The Latin name means "dark chamber. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. cantoria." and the earliest versions. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. . candelabra. Niepce created photography.-N. cantorie (It. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. candlestick. capitellum. only very rough effects will be obtainable. candela. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. followed by smaller and even pocket models. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. and jute. by the 16th century. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. both of which have richly carved marble panels. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. Portable versions were built. hemp. dating to antiquity. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. which isolates the fabric from the paint. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. other materials used are cotton. candelabrum (It. as an aid to drawing. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. sing. "candle") A large. Structurally.Ancestor of the photographic camera. usually in a church. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. usually decorated. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. pl.) A gallery for singers or musicians. capital (Lat. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). which was usually whitened. campanile Bell tower. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. usually with several branches or arms.

Fortitudo (Fortitude). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . The order combines reclusive and community life. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the Carmelites were originally hermits. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Carmelites (Lat. the endeavour to attain true humanity.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartellini In a painting. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. or fresco. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. pl. cartone. At the height of the Middle Ages. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). the date of the painting. tapestry. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. New Charterhouses. monasteries containing separate hermitages. or a motto. cartouche . were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.both Italians and artists from other countries . Carthusian Order (Lat. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse.a humorous drawing or parody. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cardinalis. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). cartellino. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. In fresco painting. near Grenoble. cartoon (It. details of the subject. and humanism. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.

when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. In the 15th century. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). These lead up to the north and south transepts. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. putti (cupids). chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. and swags of fruit and flowers. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. cathedral (cathedra. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. and many other items of her dowry.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. where the throne of the bishop is placed. linen. a cathedral always faces west . the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular.) "castle". or nave. The altar is placed at the east end. castello (It. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. . A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. cassone (It. palace. caryatid (Gk. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. The main body. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno.toward the setting sun. Cascina. they were also used in other countries. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. or arms of the cross. They contained the bride's clothes. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. decorated with gilt gesso. Paolo Uccello. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo.

continually praise him. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. central perspective (Lat. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). in accordance with their distance from the observer. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. centralis. animal. and Islamic literature. a celestial winged being with human. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. rather than intercessory functions. Relative to the observer. Both the statement of St. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. "in the centre". "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. . In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. a throne bearer of the deity. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. champlevé (Fr. as celestial attendants of God. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. and perspicere. buildings and figures that are being depicted. landscapes. Christian.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. or birdlike characteristics.

The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. Since Carolingian times. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Lastly. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. Hans Burgkmair (1510). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. "light dark") In painting. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. replacing tempera. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro.chiaroscuro (It. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . reserved for the clergy to pray together." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. choros. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. North of the Alps. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. choir (Gk. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. or for choral singing. the Order of the Hospital of St.

if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Very few still exist in their original positions. became the most common motif. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Sculpted clouds. ciborium . and including the apse (a niche in the wall. further enriching the style. The Mexico cathedral (1718). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. undulating cornices. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. an architect. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. reversed volutes. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. The Transparente (completed 1732). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. a massing of carved angels. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and the Churrigueresque column. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and repetition of pattern. balustrades. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. gilded rays.intersect). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). stucco shells. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. and garlands. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. is as typically Churrigueresque. undulating lines.

etc. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. In reaction to this revolutionary . On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. High Renaissance). They were forbidden to form a trade association. controlled by the minor guilds. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. but self-employed. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. combers. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. the wool carder Michele di Lando. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.and post-medieval Italy. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. as also were those in the associated. who were raised to the status of a guild. Members of the lower classes. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. on July 22. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Without being members of a guild. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. The new government. beaters. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Then. Quattrocento (1400s. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. craft of dyeing. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. including the ciompi. Their economic condition worsened. ciompi. placing one of their members. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. or achieve political representation. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them.

clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). philosophy and art . except in cases where . In the 15th century Greek literature. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. however. writers. and politics. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). the ciompi guild was abolished. with Italian scholars. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cithara (Gk.episode. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. scholars patiently finding. clair-obscur (Fr.) An ancient musical instrument. literature. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. . "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. philosophy. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. the black contours usually with a special line plate. resembling a lyre. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. editing and translating a wide range of texts. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. on which strings were plucked. changed greatly from one period to the next. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. Concepts of the classical.

the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Green and red. or "contract. as well as from the Bible. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. cognoscenti. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. [hora] completa. . and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. literature or music. those with refined tastes. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. The name was derived from the condotta. condottiere. when set side by side. condottieri (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. a work's underlying theme. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. sing. blue and orange. concetto. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. intensify one another. Coffered ceilings. pl. the church service at which these prayers are said. terrorized the country. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. compline (Lat. arch or ceiling. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. cognoscente (It. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. occasionally made of wood. pl. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. concetti (It.

i. which spread in the 15th century. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Francesco Sforza. and German--the condottieri. often called compagnie or. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. With no goal beyond personal gain. in the service of Perugia.e. clergy. Toward the end of the 15th century. or with the spiritual assistance of. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Martino). The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Spanish. scuole. in the service of Naples. i. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. commonly called either Compagnia di S. flagellant confraternities. convents of convertite. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Carmagnola. Mark (1432). Muzio's son. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. confraternities Confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Umbria. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases.e. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. and Tuscany. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. primarily for syphilitics. and his rival Braccio da Montone. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. who won control of Milan in 1450. often under the direction of. . In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. By the end of the 14th century.devastating Romagna. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. By the 16th century. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. disappeared. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. in Venice.

e. 1514 in S. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. however. e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. which accompanied condemned prisoners. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. e. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. in Florence. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. reformed prostitutes. but sometimes had their own premises. flat outlines. While the Doge ranked above the Council. and refuges for maidens.g. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Later. notwithstanding their location. contrapposto (It.i. contours were initially regular. contour. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. while the Venetian government. the Florentine Neri. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. In medieval painting. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. founded c. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contour (Fr. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Confraternities. Dorotea in Trastevere. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order.g. the highest political decision-making body in Venice.

Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. The style spread as far as England. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. did not achieve any lasting results. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. large cornice or other feature. whose names are inscribed on several works. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. conventicle (Lat. declining moral standards. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. cuprum. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society.weight on one leg. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. an engraving produced in this way. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. aes cyprium. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. They are often ornamented. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. 1280). Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Reform programs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. corbel In architecture. a bracket of stone. Lat. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. . In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. 1100 and 1300. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. conventiculurn. started the process of inner reform in the Church.

i. "small vat") In architecture. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. cupola (Lat. Death. An ancestor of the oboe. the most famous victim of crucifixion. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. a small dome. reedy sound. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Seleucids. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Constantine the Great. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. or "scourged. Usually. Jews. the first Christian emperor. There were various methods of performing the execution. the condemned man. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Carthaginians. Next.e. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. a semi-circular vault. after being whipped. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. particularly among the Persians. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. cupula. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. D dado .

disegno (It. Passau. design") In Renaissance art theory. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). an expressive use of nature. deacon (Gk. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Gk. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. diptych (Lat. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. but the concept behind an art work. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. decorated diffrently from the upper section. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Germany. Deësis (Gk. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diakonos. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. danse macabre The dance of death. which was help to be the basis of all art. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. diptychos. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. usually in matching pairs. The term stresses not the literal drawing. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. and Linz possessed common characteristics. diptychum. often an altarpiece. e.g. Anglican and Orthodox churches. "drawing. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder.

a 19th-century invention. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). also used it on canvas. is a heavy piece of furniture. "to mix. such as we still use today. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. formerly worn under armour. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. donator. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. which runs on castors or wheels. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. when painters took to working out of doors.Thomas Aquinas. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. distemperare. The studio easel. though a few artists. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. As disegno appeals to the intellect. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. distemper (Lat. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . dome in architecture. Ordo Praedictatorum. donor (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour).fully realize. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. doublet A male garment. Dominicans (Lat.

the frieze. sometimes combining panel painting. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "last". 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. eschaton. full face. "word") . Ecce Homo (Lat. Hence. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. fresco. sculpture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. bound and flogged. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. en face In portraiture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. eschatology (Gk. and architecture. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. and logos. in art. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. and the cornice.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. It consists of the architrave. ensemble (Fr. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. epitaph (Gk. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. a depiction of Jesus. entablature In classical architecture. John (19. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper.

"thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Equated with the Greek god Pan. 4500 BCE. Giovanni Morone. "good. protector of shepherds. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. . hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Italy. eu. particularly ware made in France." and that made in the Netherlands and England. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. which is called "delftware. which was famous for maiolica. notably Cardinal Pole. farmers. Augustine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. and is named for Faenza. Jerome. and of the last things. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. and Scandinavia." and charis. fields and livestock. celebrated with bread and wine. which was developed in the Near East ca. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Vittoria Colonna. Contarini. Saints Ambrose. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Eucharist (Gk. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Marcantonio Flaminio. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church.death and resurrection. Spain. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Germany. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. which is called "maiolica.

In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. leaves. The colour of his horse is white. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. that of the others red.festoni (It. Their attributes are the bow. and these areas. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. a swag. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. fluted of a column or pillar. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. famine and death. Only a small area can be painted in a day. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). war. such as plague. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. a technique known as a secco fresco. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. sword and set of balances.8). representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. fresco (It. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. drying to a slightly different tint. can in time be seen. Committed to charitable and missionary work. black and dun. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). 2 . relaxed. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. and flowers suspended in a loop. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. frescos in Italy .

or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. landscape and portraiture. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. both in churches and in private and public palaces. are genres of painting. genre In a broad sense. or true fresco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. Final details. the intonaco. covings and ceilings. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. where the atmosphere was too damp. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The technique of buon fresco. usually childish figure. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or fresco secco. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Genius in classical Rome. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. In art from the classical period onwards. a person's invisible tutelary god. G Garter.Save in Venice. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). for example.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life.

as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maso di Banco. in portraits and on tombs. Gobelins . it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. how it differed from notoriety. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Bernardo Daddi. and as spurring on men of action. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. As such. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. whether it must be connected with the public good. as well as writers and artists. Maria Gloriosa). In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto.

thereafter it made only tapestries. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. This ratio is approximately 8:13. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Golden Fleece. . a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Paris. golden section (Lat. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). who appointed Lebrun Director. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In other Italian cities. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. and although it reopened in 1699. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.French tapestry manufactory. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. still in existence today. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building.

1200 and c. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. In particular. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. that the effects are to be felt. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. c. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Denis. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. There is a transcendental quality. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. Gothic Gothic. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. painting. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. from the 13th until the 17th century. painting. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. the superficial particularities of form. Nevertheless. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and lies much deeper than. . Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The artistic. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. In thinking of Nicola (d. 1270. like the cultural and commercial.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. Amiens. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. In sculpture and in painting. or the influence of one building.

His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. without visible brush marks. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. the beau idéal of the French. . starch. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. genius. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. are but different appellations of the same thing'. and Piranesi.and hog-hair brushes.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and taste among the English. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Pannini. the Netherlands. Dubuffet. and Morris Graves. with sable. These qualities. sometimes in the company of a tutor. if required. and above all Italy. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and the great style. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Such tours often took a year or more. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Canaletto. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. notably in the writings of Bellori. Klee. to white or tinted paper and card and. It is thinned with water for applying. Honey. chiefly to France. to silk. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. occasionally.

Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. After the War of the Eight Saints. drawing and the various forms of engraving. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. exclude drawing from this definition. internal factions in Florence went under other names. became an abiding feature of European politics. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. the parties taking a multitude of local names. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. Although its palace was rebuilt c. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. gris. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. through central Italy. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In another sense. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. c. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. grisaille (Fr. and Waiblingen. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. . In the context of the fine arts. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. then as now. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. brother of Louis IX. 1216. usually gray. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. to Provence and Paris.e. Some writers. In Florence. From 1266 to 1268. after this. including text as well as illustrations. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. however.

trades. trade or profession (painters. In Italy they go back a long way. and provided assistance to members in need. H hatching In a drawing. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In 16th century Venice. goldsmiths. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers." from Fr. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. The guilds were not equal. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In Florence. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and greater hostility between master and man. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The guild also monitored standards of work. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. Guilds were also patrons of art. In some cities. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. [science] héraldique. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. "herald") . and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. surgeons. print or painting. In some towns. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. or professions. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. héraut. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. but in time they acquired other functions. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. as some did). In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. such as Brescia and Vicenza. notably Florence in the 14th century. for example. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. heraldry (Fr.

founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. as Antichrist. The main impact of the . He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. However. d. with the rules governing their use. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. one great missionary community. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. normative for churchmen. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. from the start. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). i. while others merged with the Waldensians. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. together with brethren north of the Alps. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. By contrast. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. the Waldensian. and regarded themselves as forming. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. indeed. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. they were condemned in 1184. the Cathars were an anti-church. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. head of the 'carnal Church'.

hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. humanism (Lat. Kensett. Frederick E. my spouse'. F. S. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Durand. and. Morse. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. working from 1825 to 1875. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. hortus conclusus (Lat. George Inness. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Church. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. At the same time. Thomas Cole. and classical literature. F. In humanism. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters.movement upon the laity was in southern France. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . its subjects considered morally elevating. Germany. humanus. Jasper Cropsey. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. history (usually classical history). B. the emancipation of man from God took place. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. in his earlier work. American painters were studying in Rome. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. mainly in the south. J. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Henry Inman.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

the scourge that was used in the scourging. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Veronica. inventio (It. are also used in art literature. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the rooster of Peter's denial. Donatallo. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. For instance. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. soft style. usually the donors of a work of art. beautiful style. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Human figures. Derived from classical rhetoric. originality. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. or of other saints. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. The terms court style. and they are also depicted on their own. the ability to create. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the pincers. the hammer. the veil of St. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck).g. etc. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. In the second half of the 14th century. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. with many further details added. investiture . and the ladder. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. invention. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture.

who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. who traveled in Italy and. bathed in a golden haze. Both and Berchem. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. although they are usually called Romanists. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The Both brothers. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). of Utrecht.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Upon his return to Holland. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Andries and Jan Both. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. generally Dutch or Flemish. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Jerome's writings. Italianizers Northern artists. . were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. and Jan Asselijn. principally Dutch. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Nicolaes Berchem. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley.

and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. lectern A reading stand or desk. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. liberal arts . John of Jerusalem .1519). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Archbishop of Genoa. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). encouraged by the Crusades. the rite of communion is based on this. especially one at which the Bible is read. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). As their military role grew. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Legenda Aurea (Lat.

painting or sculptural decoration. and Frederick E.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. first the preparatory trivium . geometry. commemorating a marriage. its roof supported by columns.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. through the use of aerial perspective. astronomy and music. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Kensett (1816-1872). "little moon") In architecture. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). It is related to. the quadrivium. rhetoric and dialectic. together with identifying attributes (e. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. . Tubal for music). then the basis of a philosophical training. poetic atmosphere. Martin J.g. often standing in markets and town squares. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900).g. that could be used for public ceremonies. loggia (It. that may contain a window. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. a semicircular space. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal.grammar. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. often sublime. comprising arithmetic. Heade (1819-1904). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. lunette (Fr. Church (1826-1900).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Maria Novella in Florence). John F. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. and sometimes refers to Impressionism.

The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. copper green. originally sung without accompaniment. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. being written. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). "almond") . magna mater (Lat. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. When white is used for painting. and however bright their lighting effects. and portraits as well as landscapes. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and iron red. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). manganese purple. 1855–65. and accompaniments. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. Specifically. but they painted genre scenes. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. originating in Italy in the 14th century. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. particularly such ware produced in Italy. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. madrigal A part song. active mainly in Florence c. antimony yellow. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). "great mother") A mother goddess. historical subjects. usually for the lute. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). for example. mandorla (It. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. the goddess Cybele. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it.

strong. Mannerism (It. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Developing out of the Renaissance. Flanders. In architecture. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. mantle An overcoat. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. "manner. and crowned with thorns. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Burgundy. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. the Codex manuscriptus. complex and crowded compositions. ecclesiastical. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. worn open. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. illuminated initials and miniatures. the hand-written medieval book. which was quarried at Mount . marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. in a specific sense. In Mannerist painting. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and literary texts. El Greco and Tintoretto. maniera. Parmigianino. more strictly. often ornamented with decorative borders. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. bound. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. It reached to the knee or foot. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. marked by flagellation. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. depending on the social class of the wearer. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Bronzino.

quarried at Massa. martyrdom (Gk. "witness. medallion In architecture. a different design on the reverse. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones.Pentelicon in Attica. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Like the finest Imperial coins. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). particularly by Michelangelo. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. martyrion. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Carrara. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. proof") the sufferings. The pure white Carrara marble. having finished his training. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. marmi finti (It. the medal's purpose was commemorative. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . sleek surface. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). which were beginning to be reverently collected. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Without monetary value. an inscription running round the rim. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. This was partly because ancient Roman coins.

is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. even grain. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. It was. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. perhaps oddly. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. In pure mezzotint. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. who reflected them. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Ludwig von Siegen. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. c. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. 1425-1504). A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. a Gorgon. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. When Perseus cuts off her head. of the person portrayed on the other side. the stress on individual character. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. 1467-688). This yields a soft effect in the print. The process is essentially extinct today. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The work of these men. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Medusa In Greek mythology. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. c. often anonymous. 1452-1526/27). . no line drawing is employed. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. in England. 14601528). A Dutch officer. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). particularly. 1640.round the neck. for landscapes and portraits. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. as it were. and of the many.

monochrome (Gk.. miter A high. "one color") Painted in a single color.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. a painting executed in a single color. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. executed on a very small scale. "word. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. usually portraits. still exist. Many such small versions. saying") . The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. Parmigianino (d.g. painting in gouache on vellum or card. monokhromatos. Francis himself. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. motto (Ital. often quite highly finished. by Tiepolo and Rubens. a branch of the Franciscan order. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. e. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. ink and paint. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.

from the Middle Ages. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. Pforr. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. naturalism (Fr. Berlin. Rome. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In 1810 0verbeck. but often insipid. and is intersected by the transept. named after the patron saint of painting. In general. . where they occupied the disused monastery of S. The invention of personal mottos. navis. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. nave (from Lat. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Isidore. often separated from it by pillars. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and two other members moved to Rome. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. 1816-17. Nazarenes A group of young. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. 1817-29). The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and Casino Massimo. It may have parallel aisles on each side.

Nymphaeum (Gk. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. usually golden. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). is as true as it is notorious. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. nigellus. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. but their ideas continued to be influential. moreover. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. were usually old when elected. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Popes. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.) . The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). the style of the Ancien Régime. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. nimbus (Lat. niello (Lat. "aureole") The disc or halo.

original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The Corinthian order was the most ornate.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. a more elaborate base. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. fluted column and a plain capital. walnut. the three basic styles of design. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. They are seen in the form of the columns. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). O obsequies (Lat. the Doric order. observances") Rites performed for the dead. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). such as linseed. was the simplest. capital. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. orders of architecture In classical architecture. inborn sin. and its greater tonal range. with a sturdy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. or poppy. . a small private chapel. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. obsequia. The earliest. its richness of colour. Greek goddesses of Nature. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. and entablatures. "services.

Usually pointed or rounded at the top. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. and large windows appeared on the ground floor.g. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. with biforate windows. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. tradition and social structure.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. standing at the foot of the Cross. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and. designed as a . 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. Palazzo Strozzi). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and the main apartments above. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. while shops came to be thought undignified. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. like cities. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. P pala (Ital. the Cancelleria). Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. palazzo (It. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities.

In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. evolved influential types. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and large households. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Following Oriental patterns.g. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). came to be applied all over Europe. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Rich. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. panel . It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. column-caps. like Genoa. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Palazzo Massimi). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Papal incentives to build. e. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. behind a sober Florentine façade. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Other cities. like the colonnaded vestibule. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. especially after the Sack of Rome. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. In Venice. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces.g. often built next to their titular churches. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and Palladio's in Vicenza.scholarly retreat. cornices and abutments. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). palmette. Movement of patrons and architects. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm".

popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. so that they might have a voice at court. to influence popes in their favour. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals.Term in painting for a support of wood. larch. Many other types were used. the management of clerical dues and taxation. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. as distinct from canvas. fir. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. linden. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. fibre-board. or the incidence of taxation. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. as it were. and other synthetic materials as supports. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and the pressure and temptations . notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. metal. and walnut. On a larger scale. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the. As successors to St Peter. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). The third aspect was administrative. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. including beech. A number of matters. and spanned by a single dome. teak. chestnut. In the 20th century cedar. and dark walnut are favourites. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and modern painters have also used plywood. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Then. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. cedar. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. Having a circular plan. To maintain their authority. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. secular rulers. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. olive. mahogany. or other rigid substance. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. however. slate has occasionally been used as a support. enforce law and order. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar.

in spite of further absences from Rome. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. at Avignon. however. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel.that could be applied to them. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. could supersede that of a pope. to be long delayed. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. There remained. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. the most appropriate . considered perfectly suitable for the role played . had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. which met at Constance 1414-18. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. Colonna and Caetani. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. which seems so inevitable. of individuals. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. By then. So onerous. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. if it did no serious damage to the faith. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). It was argued that such a council. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). in the eyes of God. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. possess an authority which. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. To resolve the problem of divided authority. would. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. however.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . as such. As at Avignon. from the point of view of its religious associations. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. however. was long in doubt. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was.as well. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France.

. in classical literature. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. However. through lavish patronage of artists. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. 400-300 BC). The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. less frequently pig. and with Zeuxis (c. scholars and men of letters. Parrhasius (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. nymphs. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. it has also been used for painting. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Passion . but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum).by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and satyrs. pastor. pastoral (Lat. goat. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). and other animals. as well as a governmental one. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. to a world peopled by shepherds. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. the creation of a cultural capital. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used.

An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. patrician (Lat. patricius. "butterfly. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. but not necessarily a direct copy. pavilion (Lat. papilio. and so on. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.The events leading up to Good Friday. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble.) or pasticcio (It. Francesco Salviati. 1478). . other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. 1478. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. a region in north-central Italy. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. the crown of thorns. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Meanwhile. and also the archbishop of Pisa. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. pastiche (fr. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. projecting either centrally or at both ends. wealthy citizen. a prominent section of a monumental façade. a small. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Portrayals of the Passion. which focus on the Suffering Christ.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. ornamental building. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. such as a garden summerhouse. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26.

personification (Lat. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. or related elements within an art work. "to see through. and gnomon. "hanging. pergola (It. . pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. physis. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "person". often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). perspicere. perspective (Lat. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. physiognomy (Gk.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concept or deity. "nature". "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and facere. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. persona. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. in particular the face. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. pendant (Fr.

curious details.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. exemplified. to be expressed in painting. usually above the ground floor. remarkable for singularity. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Pietà (Lat. for example. Rome. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).) The main floor of a building. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Peter's. A pier is generally larger than a column. containing the public rooms. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. pigmentum. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'.piano nobile (Ital. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. affording a good subject for a landscape. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigment (Lat. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. . proper to take a landscape from. or resin to make paint. both real and painted. striking the imagination with the force of painting. but full of variety. glue. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. but may consist of a cluster of columns.

Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. perhaps. pilastrum. since. however. plague Plague. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. outside Tuscany. though in less widespread. It is often fluted. the burning of 'infected' clothing. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. despite regional variations. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. for instance. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Rocco and Sebastian. and thereafter all Europe. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). more sporadic outbreaks. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. During 1348 the Black Death. such as Florence and Genoa. it has a base. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. also used in Spain's American colonies. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. It seems probable. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. For this reason. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. a shaft. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and capital. it is difficult to find. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. "pillar") A flat. moreover. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries.pilaster (Lat. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Thenceforward. In the 15th century. in October 1347.

the Symposium. are the masterworks of the second style. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style).. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns.e. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. utilized Mudejar ornament -. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. more severe. which lasted only a few decades. and unified style using massive geometric forms. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. i. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The second phase. Phaedo. A student of Socrates. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. or appropriateness. Diego evolved a purer. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Philebus. or simply the Plateresque. The first phase. placement. harmonious. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The first phase. Theatetus and the Laws. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. like its successor. In contrast with Aristotle. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. correct classical orders became frequent. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Phaedrus. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. heraldic escutcheons.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. composition. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Timaeus. and sinuous scrolls. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain.

among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . for example with Symphorian Champier (c. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness.in Plato's thought. near Florence. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. the greatest of his ancient disciples. but not completely. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and the Chaldaic Oracles. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 1472-c. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Unlike the case of Aristotle. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Plotinus. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and Agostino Steuco (c. Iamblichus. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Rather unsystematic. systematized and added to what Plato had done. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. replaced Ficino's. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. all of which he also translated into Latin. partially. including those of Plotinus. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century.1577) becoming particularly popular. A new Latin translation. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. and he utilized many other writings. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony.

where a pectoral is used to close it. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. Plato was read in the universities. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. or statue. poluptukhos. portico (Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Lat. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . plinthos. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. column. porticus. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. pointed arch In architecture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. polyptych (Gk. as in classical architecture). an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. plinth (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. pluvial (Med. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. such as processions and consecrations. Frequently supports a pediment.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. pluviale.

pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. and the . Florence (1486-90). Group portraits. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Siena. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.sculptors such as Donatello. was revived in the 14th century. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Maria Novella. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Venice). Florence. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The realism of the clear. National Gallery). Cathedral) by Uccello. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. flattened image. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Campidoglio). The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. and only a decorative accessory to form. The equestrian portrait. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Colleoni. 1328. Desiderio da Settignano. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. decorating whole rooms. inessential. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Mantua. Palazzo Farnese).. Gattarnelata. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places.e. psychologically more complex. the Carracci. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The 16th century portrait became generalized.

primarily the mendicants. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Correggio. and. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. to discharge their preaching duties. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Fiamma's sermons. are not florid in style. was versed in classical and patristic . the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Charles Le Brun. 1494). minatory exhortations. The styles of S. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Borromeo. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. bishop of Asti. of the sermon as an art form. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. bishops especially." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. however. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. together with the Dominican Savonarola. bishop of Chioggia. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. from the secular clergy. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The sermons of Visdomini. who had as their ideal masters Titian. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. not least those of statesmen and prelates. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. several of whom became bishops. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). and Peter Paul Rubens. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Savonarola and Musso. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. As Poussin was a Frenchman. abrasive even.

central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Because of the small size of predelle . prefiguration Typology . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. predella (It. however. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Millais and Rossetti. and so forth.rhetoric.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. though often relatively very wide . among them Holman Hunt. Naples). aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. tapestries. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The New Testament references in these would. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.g. the temptations of Adam and Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.

the quadrature. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. The following are important: 1. projecting shelf on which to kneel. sculpture and architecture. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. intended as complete works of art in themselves. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. Fragonard. the golden section. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. "evenness") in painting. the Canon of Proportion. Girardon. 2. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. 3. proportio. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. profil perdu (Fr. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. and Houdon among sculptors. Prix de Rome A scholarship. again indicative of the purpose they served. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). notably David. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. these highly finished drawings. proportion (Lat. which uses the square . Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723.

The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy.as a unit of measurement. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Rome. putto (It. one half the length of the other). provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. harmonic proportions. and 5. provenance The origins of an art work. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. the steward or treasurer of a church. It was common in Roman art. . 4. triangulation. putti sing. "boys") Plump naked little boys. Ignazio. a fourth = 3:4. Unlike Pozzo. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. for example). psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. a fifth = 2:3. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction.

refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Donatello. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Lat. In 16th century Europe. the object of particular veneration. Among the . in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. relic (Lat. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. e. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relief (Lat. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. relevare. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Fra Angelico and others. Brunelleschi. in which figures are seen half round. hermits. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). basso rilievo). friars and nuns. or the Jesuits. refectory (Med. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R").g. or some item connected with a saint. and high relief (alto rilievo). It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. canons regular. relicquiae. also known as the Realist school.Quattrocento (It. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Botticelli. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. in particular works by Masaccio. the great orders of monks.

The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. i. various groups were fused in the latter body. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Giustina. Bernardino of Siena. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Benedictines. although technically of secular canons. Lucca. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. In 1504. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Salvatore. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. The same bull . was the congregation of S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Mantua. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. 1012.e. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the great patriarch of Venice. After the repression of the Spirituals. however. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. The Conventuals. it became the Cassinese congregation. Founded by St Romuald c. In 1517. That of S. At the same time. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Giorgio in Alga. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Benedetto.contemplative orders. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Bologna (1419). the great issue of contention being the strict observance. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. presided over by chapters general. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. and the generally moderate Observants. the Conventuals. Venice (1404). and their more institutionalized brethren. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Padua. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Maria di Fregonaia. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. which was to become the main Italian one. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. who had no overall organization originally. the most notable being S. The Silvestrines. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance.

a historical period. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Filippo Neri. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Gerolamo Aemiliani. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. also. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Michele in Isola. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Gaetano da Thiene. founded in 1535 by S. The first. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Angela Merici. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. founded by S. the Theatines. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Venice. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. however. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. however. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work.

this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. which had begun early in the 14th century. 1875-86). as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. of 'darkness'. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. All-Roundness. even Amoralism. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. . the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. too long forgotten glories.century. the historical reality of antiquity. increasingly. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. was so vast and potent. however. as well as political. of arts. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of letters. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Thereafter. of scholarship. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. and competition with. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. For long. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. life. because its core of energy. and his own as potentially one of light. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. however. of an energetic revival of interest in. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them.

in the more limited sense. etc. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. and mass media. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.erased. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. and is decorated with paintings. Though thus challenged. sometimes. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. though sometimes of metal. Cathedral of SaintBavon. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. mobilized nationalism. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. however. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. retables can be detached and. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. let alone a uniform. and other liturgical objects. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. of industrialization. Ghent). The panel is usually made of wood or stone. congruence between. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. statues. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. etc. There was an early. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). especially in the High Gothic period. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. later still to Genoa. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (3) There is not a true. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. The challenges are to be accepted. gratefully. the previous record . candlesticks. It is for this additional. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal.with all its shabbiness .) was the term chosen. consist merely of a painting.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. letters.

. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200.in the 11th century. richly decorated with organic forms. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. the first style to achieve such international currency. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. however. almost simultaneously. rocaille (French. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. retables have become extinct. Spain . like 'Gothic'.France. "relief") In painting. literally. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. More usually. is a typical product. and architecture dominating the 18th century. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. rilievo (It. Louis XV furniture. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Germany. With the development of freestanding altars. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Rococo A style of design. painting. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. it indicates a derivation from Roman art.of St Mark in Venice. Italy. As the name suggests. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. the St. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). in several countries . and 'Romanesque'. Originally commissioned in 976. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Romanesque art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. its mood lighthearted and witry. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century.

ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Massys and M. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Claude. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. stylized design representing an open rose. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The aim of painting. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. In addition. van Orley. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. they maintained. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. such as red ochre. Rome. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. van Heemskerk. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. M. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). the development of nationalistic pride. Piranesi. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Mabuse. Pannini and Mengs. Q. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. . usually as a result of a visit to Italy.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. B. making it the centre of the High Renaissance.

multiple sets used in succession. pious legend and hagiography. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). but others were the work of well-known figures. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Subjects were nominally sacred. There were no limits on time. supported by lay confraternities. from the Old and New Testaments. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Sacra Conversazione (It. Written primarily in ottava rima. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. glance and movement . and impoverished. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Lorenzo de' Medici. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. confirmation.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Orthodox. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. matrimony. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Eastern independent. penance. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. holy orders. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Clement escaped into Castel S. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. and anointing of the sick. when it finally left the city it had devastated. gutted. Many compositions were anonymous. local saints.expressed through gesture. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. the Eucharist.greatly increased. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. In the . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and Protestant churches.

the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. as an excuse to revolt. Salt War. Saracens . The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. as in the Church of the Brethren.early church the number of sacraments varied.e.) Hall. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. in principle. that the price of salt should be increased.i. the sun of righteousness. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.e. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. Hence. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. replaces the Lord's Supper. The chief focus of discontent." sala (Ital. the Rocca Paolina. notably from Florence and in Germany. foot washing. Lutheran.. Thus. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. strictly speaking. baptism and the Eucharist. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. chapter 13. sacraments. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.. which in the Gospel According to John. Candidates first face west. The theology of the Orthodox Church. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and sacraments. make such strict distinctions. used for drawing. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. They were still seeking aid. large room. and then face east. Immediately following baptism. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger." which are called sacramentals. the Orthodox Church does not. was buried under a new fortress. the symbolic direction of Christ. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Bentivoglio. was not maintained as a sacrament. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Anglican. The classical Protestant churches (i. It is still practiced on special occasions.

Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.During the Middle Ages. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the god of wine. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Little known in the Middle Ages. made of stone. 160 . particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. satyr In Greek mythology. wood or terracotta. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. 45 BC). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 360 . and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. legs and horns of a goat. whose writings. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . human-like woodland deities with the ears.c.c. are lost. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. the Arabs or Muslims. sarcophagi (Gk. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 270 BC). pl. and many others. 210 AD). sarcophagus. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. The publication of Latin (1562. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy.

Charles III of Durazzo (d.they had individual Bentnames . Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. from time to time both he and his opponents. than their medieval predecessors. However. but with little effect. on the other. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). and. being Frenchmen. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. while devout Christians agonized. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. In northern Italy. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. most of whom. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Alexander V. Schism. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. on one side. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Florentines. in June 1409. 1386) and his son Ladislas. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. was called Bamboccio. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. for. while England. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness.for example Pieter van Laer. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. one of the early leaders. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. with France and her allies Aragon. Louis I (d. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. who had the support of the Avignon pope. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. scholasticism . having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. who recognized the Roman pope. As a result. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense.

that scholasticism was left. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. rather than wet plaster as in fresco.moral philosophy. Padua. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. as it were. and Islamic literature. It was because the central concerns of humanism . especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. if lime-water was used. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Christian. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. and theology. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. moreover. As such. notably Aquinas. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). history and rhetoric . it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Serenissima (Ital. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. (See also: fresco. as it is easier to add details in this way. None the less. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S.The term is ambivalent. on one side. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Often called the burning ones.) . the plaster had to be damped before painting.were different from those of medieval. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. university-based study. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). textual scholarship. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. Medieval scholars. because the secco technique is much less permanent.

) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Sibyls foretold the Birth. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Servite (Lat. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface.. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. "prophetess") In antiquity. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Med. sibylla. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. Lat. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. women who could prophesy. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. brass.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. In Christian legend. which were all identical in thickness. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Originally. Signoria (It. the number gradually rose to ten. in use since the Middle Ages. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. They first appear in alpine monasteries. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibyls (Gk. at the same time. sfumato A technique. sinopia . there was only one Sibyl. in the period of classical antiquity. term. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. and the delicate. usually presided over by individual families.

stigmata. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. Ital. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. It is very closely related to International Gothic. pronounced as French. Stanze (Ital. staffage This word. . soffit (Lat. sing. "mark. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .'Beautiful Madonnas'. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.) Wooden ceiling decoration. stigma (Gk. brand. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. especially in the flow of drapery. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sotto in sù (It. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Francis of Assisi. as the name implies. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.. and. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). in other words. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault.

with that for the Picturesque. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. pl.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. studioli (It. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. supremacy . The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. studiolo. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. John Milton. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. In a looser sense.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). whose verses actually fabrications . and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. stucco A type of light. The vogue for the Sublime. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. Indeed. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. both external and internal.

though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. both for panel painting and fresco. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. The subject is underexplored. London. tempera (Lat. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. These were imported. temperare. Salviati and Allori. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. 1407). those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. i. . the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. into Italy.e.Historically. was being decorated with frescoes. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). doubtless. or cartoons. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. and in literature. then being replaced by oil paint. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. But the Italians did not make them. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. his own headquarters. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. chiefly from Flanders.and. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534.

and profile. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. and other surfaces. tondo. walls.terracotta (It. in the architecture of ancient Rome. quarter face. and later to subdivide gable ends. in art. i. triumphal arch. topoi (Gk. widely used form. topiary (Gk. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. topia. pl. terraferma (Ital. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. model. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. vessels. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "fields. tondi (It. theme or motif. "a commonplace") In literature. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. figure of speech. Trajan's Column . The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. pl. topos. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. and sculptures. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon.e. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted.

chastity. triptych (Gk. behind it. of virtues and of the arts. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. fame.' Before it go the apostles. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Disseminated soon after his death. Meanwhile. tryptychos.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. of both sexes'. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. time and eternity. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). the military triumph became sublimated. after 'a countless number of virgins. . But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. usually an altarpiece. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. into a number of less controversial forms. "threefold") in Christianity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. patriarchs and prophets.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. as it were. a car so brave'. "threefold") A painting in three sections. death. Early triptychs were often portable. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. the wars by which they were won . beside it the army of martyrs. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. added to the glamour of the triumph. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Trinity (Lat. or wings. the Son and the Holy Spirit. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. trinitas. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Battista Sforza.

typology . In medieval architecture. viscous black ink. through various naturalistic devices. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. It incorporates Renaissance features. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tusche A thick. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tromp l'oeil (Fr. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. often decorated with sculptures. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Dating from classical times. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. enclosed by an arch. first recorded in 1232. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. it is usually decorated with carvings. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. tympanum (Lat. "drum") In classical architecture. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative.

who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. were popular with them also. . knew his former patrons. such as five works devoted to the senses. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Judith. and David. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). In Christian thought. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.) The Renaissance "universal man". Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . especially his half-length figural groups. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. each had access to his paintings. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. slayer of Goliath. where they were most accessible. U uomo universale (It. killer of Holofernes. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). e. 1610).g. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).A system of classification. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .Dirck van Baburen (c. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. 1590-1624). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. lanterns. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. The numerous candles.

vanitas (Lat. overturned vessels. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Vespers (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. the groin vault. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. it was used to decorate furniture. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. V vanishing point In perspective. Parisian craftsmen. often gold. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. varietà (It. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Also varietas (Lat. There are a wide range of forms. "evening") . including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade).Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. guttering candles. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vesper. snuff boxes and other objects. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. and the rib vault.). hour-glasses and clocks. mixed in. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. a work's richness of subject matter. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. carriages.

Lust. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. In ancient Roman dwellings. Gluttony. "not exposed to winds". Temperance. vita. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. for example. actual or latent. if you have it not'. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Prudence. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha.Prayers said in the evening. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Anger. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. virtù could be used. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. and Justice. Envy. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. "life") . Covetousness. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Fortitude. 'Assume a virtue. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. vite (Lat. and Sloth. vimperga Of German origin. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Hope. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Vestibule (Lat. Charity. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vestibulum. pl. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. the church service at which these prayers are said. in which the word signifies efficacy.

Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness.An account of someone's life and work. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. 1482-84). The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. The wars from 1494 do.g. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. usually when a prayer for good fortune. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. a biography. protection from harm. Marcus (1st cent. 1478-80. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. Sculptors and Architects"). 1472. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. those of Volterera. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Vitruvius Pollio. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. they were from the 18th century . or recovery from illness has been made. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. published in 1550 and 1568. and of Ferrara. and appalled recognition of. in fact. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

pompous on the floor above. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. during its subsequent history. "world view") A comprehensive world view. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. usually linear. "Western work of art". It was intended to have a variety of functions. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. usually restorers. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. . based on stylization of various animal forms. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. woodcut A print made from a wood block. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. Westwerk German word. a philosophy of life.Weltanschauung (Gr. gallery.

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