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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. but in essence the process is as follows. The term applies also to a print made by this method. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists.e. design. the darker the tone). which is fused to the plate by heating. Lancet and Tudor. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arcus. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. or organization. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. roofed with a half-dome. architrave (It. Also known as an exedra. "architectural") Relating to structure. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. . In Greek and Roman literature. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.A semicircular projection. Degas. including Goya. There are several variants of the technique. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. piers or pillars. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the moulding around a window or door. arcade (Lat. arkhitektonikos. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and Rouault. The adjective is apsidal. Picasso. at the east end of a church behind the altar. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. the lowest part of the entablature). architectonic (Gk. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.
"begin. "golden. voltus. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. In the case of martyrs. aureole (Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Dante's Vita nuova . The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself." from Gk. aureolus. usually a saint. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. archivolto. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. dominate. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archeiu. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death." and Lat. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.and the Comedy . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "front arch. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. attribute (Lat. attributum. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.archivolt (Ital.
often anecdotal. that of Cardano. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. 'Captivity'. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. baldachin. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. in 1377. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. who had been residing in France since 1305. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). the god of wine and fertility. applied to the physically . was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. or baldacchino (It. Six pontificates later. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The actual move was made in 1309. Later.
In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms.. a visual metaphor for the number eight. or canopy. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. and abject filthy things. AD 273. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Alg. Pentecost. a church. built by Sixtus III. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. pope between 432 and 440. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. set beneath a domical ciborium. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. the Temple of Venus. Croatia]. such as those at Pisa. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Florence. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. and Poitiers. el Kantara. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and Nocera in Italy. or forecourt. or connected with. and Epiphany. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Parma. Baalbek. France. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade.g.. Lebanon. Spalato [Split. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. seven. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. banderuola. Easter. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. AD 300). in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. banderole (It. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. . circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. As eight follows the "complete" number. Customarily. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. beggars in rags.
Vermeer). the dramatic use of light and shadow. and thus a church. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. or baptismal chapels. baptisteries. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Jean-François Millet (French. basilica (Gk. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Jules Dupré (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Baroque (Port. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and (3) everyday realism. "king's hall") a church building. southeast of Paris. 1817-1878). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. in the 1840s and 1850s. Théodore Rousseau (French. achieved through scale. Rubens). and increasingly elaborate decoration. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. which is reserved for the clergy. 1796-1875). 1814-1875). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. stoa basilike. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1810-1865). usually facing east. Also tunnel vault. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. . Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.In the 10th century. 1811-1889). Originally. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. something of earlier symbolism survives. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). in its usual location near the church door . barocco. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. In architecture. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. 1807-1876). however. were often omitted entirely. Constant Troyon (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters.
The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). such as those by Diego Velázquez. which is either not yet glazed. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. particularly porcelain. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. like their Dutch counterparts.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. up until the mid-17th century. as is to be expected. especially Spanish. bodegón Image. in which still-life predominates. were referred to by their specific contents. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. such as Waldmüller. however. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. or which is to be left as it is. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. also incorrectly called bisque. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). It takes its name from its grainy texture. Biscuit porcelain. and often sentimentality. Spanish still-lifes. Bodegónes. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. The term was mainly used up to c. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. 1650 in Spain.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Book of Hours . domesticity. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. By association. There were. often with food and drink. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries.
containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bozzetto Strictly speaking. months. See flying buttress. . Chantilly). buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. bozzetto(Italian.an advantage over marble sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. and the fact that it is easily workable . durability. By extension. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. coppery red. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. though these are more often called 'modelli'.both hot and cold . a rapid sketch in oil.by a variety of processes. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. but can also be used for painted sketches. made as a study for a larger picture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. days of the week. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. varying from silverish to a rich. or seasons. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.
Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. C cabinet A small. camera obscura . over time the term was used for the collections themselves. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). manuscript illuminations. notable from Syria and Egypt. casson. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. "a chest.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. It also served to glorify the emperor. caisson (Fr. which was often allegorical. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. mosaics. private room where works of art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. Duccio. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. ceramics. its forms highly stylized. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. and work in precious metals. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. and Giotto. cameo Small relief made from gems. glass. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. box") In architecture. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.
consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.Ancestor of the photographic camera. and jute. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. capital (Lat. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. usually decorated. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.) A gallery for singers or musicians. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. both of which have richly carved marble panels. which isolates the fabric from the paint. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. ." and the earliest versions. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. pl. usually with several branches or arms. The Latin name means "dark chamber. "candle") A large. Niepce created photography. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candela. only very rough effects will be obtainable. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports.-N. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. usually built beside or attached to a church. sing. candelabra. hemp. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. candelabrum (It. Portable versions were built. cantorie (It. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. campanile Bell tower. as an aid to drawing. Structurally. which was usually whitened. usually in a church. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. followed by smaller and even pocket models. candlestick. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. capitellum. other materials used are cotton. dating to antiquity. cantoria. by the 16th century.
a humorous drawing or parody. cartoon (It. Carthusian Order (Lat. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. details of the subject. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . New Charterhouses. tapestry. In fresco painting. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).both Italians and artists from other countries . the endeavour to attain true humanity.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Fortitudo (Fortitude). a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. near Grenoble. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartellini In a painting. or fresco. cardinalis. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartouche . cartellino. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. the date of the painting. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. The order combines reclusive and community life. cartone. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. and humanism. or a motto. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. pl. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. At the height of the Middle Ages. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Carmelites (Lat. Cardinal Virtues (Lat.
and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. a cathedral always faces west .An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. caryatid (Gk. they were also used in other countries. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. or nave. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon.) "castle". Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. castello (It. Cascina. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. cassone (It. They contained the bride's clothes. The main body. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. For reasons lost to time and tradition. palace. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.toward the setting sun. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and many other items of her dowry. The altar is placed at the east end. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. where the throne of the bishop is placed. cathedral (cathedra. . chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. In the 15th century. decorated with gilt gesso. or arms of the cross. linen. Paolo Uccello. putti (cupids). and swags of fruit and flowers.
and Islamic literature. Relative to the observer. a throne bearer of the deity. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). centralis. rather than intercessory functions. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. and perspicere. landscapes. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. champlevé (Fr. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. central perspective (Lat. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. or birdlike characteristics. . 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. buildings and figures that are being depicted. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. animal. a celestial winged being with human. Christian. "in the centre". as celestial attendants of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. in accordance with their distance from the observer.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. continually praise him. Both the statement of St. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice.
the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. North of the Alps. or for choral singing. Hans Burgkmair (1510). Lastly. When the contrast of light and dark is strong.chiaroscuro (It. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. the Order of the Hospital of St. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. choros. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. choir (Gk. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. "light dark") In painting." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. reserved for the clergy to pray together. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Since Carolingian times. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. replacing tempera. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used.
gilded rays. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and repetition of pattern. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect.intersect). The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. a massing of carved angels. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. balustrades. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. undulating lines. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. is as typically Churrigueresque. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and the Churrigueresque column. Very few still exist in their original positions. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). reversed volutes. undulating cornices. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. The Transparente (completed 1732). an architect. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Sculpted clouds. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. further enriching the style. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. became the most common motif. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Mexico cathedral (1718). and garlands. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. stucco shells. ciborium .
A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Their economic condition worsened. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Without being members of a guild. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. In reaction to this revolutionary . On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Quattrocento (1400s. placing one of their members. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. or achieve political representation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the wool carder Michele di Lando. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. The new government. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. controlled by the minor guilds. Then. but self-employed. craft of dyeing.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. etc. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. including the ciompi. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. combers. Members of the lower classes. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. High Renaissance). But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. on July 22. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. who were raised to the status of a guild. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. as also were those in the associated. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. ciompi. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late.and post-medieval Italy. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. beaters. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. They were forbidden to form a trade association.
cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. the black contours usually with a special line plate. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. literature.) An ancient musical instrument. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. clair-obscur (Fr. In the 15th century Greek literature. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. editing and translating a wide range of texts.episode. on which strings were plucked. and politics. philosophy and art . philosophy.as in Italy these were dispensed with. scholars patiently finding. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. with Italian scholars. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. . Concepts of the classical. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. cithara (Gk. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. resembling a lyre. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. writers. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). except in cases where . the ciompi guild was abolished. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). changed greatly from one period to the next. however.
Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. as well as from the Bible. Coffered ceilings. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. occasionally made of wood. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. terrorized the country. blue and orange. [hora] completa. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. pl. cognoscente (It. Green and red. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. sing. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. pl. cognoscenti. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). The name was derived from the condotta. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. concetti (It. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. arch or ceiling. . compline (Lat. literature or music. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. when set side by side. a work's underlying theme. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. those with refined tastes. concetto. or "contract. condottieri (It. intensify one another. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottiere. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so.
was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. confraternities Confraternities. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. By the end of the 14th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. in Venice. which spread in the 15th century. Martino). although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. With no goal beyond personal gain. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds.e. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Umbria. By the 16th century. often called compagnie or. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Francesco Sforza. Muzio's son. in the service of Naples. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. and German--the condottieri. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides.e. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. commonly called either Compagnia di S. primarily for syphilitics. Spanish. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises.devastating Romagna. in the service of Perugia. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. convents of convertite. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. who won control of Milan in 1450. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Carmagnola. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Toward the end of the 15th century. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. i. disappeared. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and Tuscany. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. i. often under the direction of. Mark (1432). being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. . flagellant confraternities. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. scuole. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. or with the spiritual assistance of. clergy.
in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. e. While the Doge ranked above the Council. contour (Fr. contours were initially regular. while the Venetian government. in Florence. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order.g. Dorotea in Trastevere. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Later. contour. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . reformed prostitutes.g. contrapposto (It.i. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. however. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Confraternities. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. and refuges for maidens. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary.e. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. the Florentine Neri. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. which accompanied condemned prisoners. e. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. notwithstanding their location. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. founded c. but sometimes had their own premises. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. In medieval painting. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. flat outlines. 1514 in S.
the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. The style spread as far as England. large cornice or other feature. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. did not achieve any lasting results. whose names are inscribed on several works. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. They are often ornamented. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. conventicle (Lat. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. a bracket of stone. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. corbel In architecture. 1100 and 1300. 1280). Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. conventiculurn. Reform programs. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Lat. aes cyprium. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration.weight on one leg. declining moral standards. cuprum. . It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. started the process of inner reform in the Church. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. an engraving produced in this way. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses.
i. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. the most famous victim of crucifixion. or "scourged. Carthaginians. There were various methods of performing the execution. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. after being whipped. Usually. Constantine the Great. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. the first Christian emperor.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Jews. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. a small dome. Next. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. reedy sound. cupola (Lat. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the condemned man. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. particularly among the Persians. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Seleucids. "small vat") In architecture. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. D dado .e. cupula. An ancestor of the oboe. a semi-circular vault. Death. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime.
danse macabre The dance of death. but the concept behind an art work. Germany. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. diptychos. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. which was help to be the basis of all art. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. design") In Renaissance art theory. an expressive use of nature. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "drawing. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. diakonos. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. The term stresses not the literal drawing. disegno (It. Passau. usually in matching pairs. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptychum. and Linz possessed common characteristics. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. decorated diffrently from the upper section.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Deësis (Gk. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors.g. often an altarpiece. diptych (Lat. Gk. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. deacon (Gk. e. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928).
The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition.Thomas Aquinas. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. The studio easel. is a heavy piece of furniture. dome in architecture. donor (Lat. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. As disegno appeals to the intellect.fully realize. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Dominicans (Lat. Ordo Praedictatorum. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. though a few artists. doublet A male garment. such as we still use today. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . distemperare. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. also used it on canvas. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. formerly worn under armour. "to mix. a 19th-century invention. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. donator. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. usually forming a ceiling or roof. when painters took to working out of doors. distemper (Lat. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. which runs on castors or wheels.
the frieze. full face. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. It consists of the architrave. sculpture. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. bound and flogged. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. fresco. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. and the cornice. a depiction of Jesus. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. ensemble (Fr. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. John (19. Ecce Homo (Lat. "word") . eschatology (Gk. Hence. eschaton. "last". in art. epitaph (Gk. sometimes combining panel painting. and logos. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. en face In portraiture. and architecture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. entablature In classical architecture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint.
It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Giovanni Morone. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Saints Ambrose. particularly ware made in France. Carnesecchi and Ochino. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Contarini. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine." and charis. notably Cardinal Pole." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. which was famous for maiolica. Spain. celebrated with bread and wine. Augustine. "good. which was developed in the Near East ca. Italy. which is called "delftware. eu. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. and of the last things. and is named for Faenza. which is called "maiolica. farmers. Jerome. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Eucharist (Gk. 4500 BCE. Vittoria Colonna. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Germany. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Marcantonio Flaminio. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. fields and livestock. .death and resurrection.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world." and that made in the Netherlands and England. protector of shepherds. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and Scandinavia. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification.
Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. black and dun. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). leaves.8). that of the others red. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. and these areas. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. and flowers suspended in a loop. war. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. a technique known as a secco fresco. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. relaxed. Their attributes are the bow. sword and set of balances. Only a small area can be painted in a day. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. The colour of his horse is white. such as plague. 2 . well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting.festoni (It. famine and death. frescos in Italy . and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. fluted of a column or pillar. fresco (It. can in time be seen. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. a swag. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. drying to a slightly different tint. Committed to charitable and missionary work.
the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. genre In a broad sense. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. landscape and portraiture. Genius in classical Rome. The technique of buon fresco. the intonaco. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. covings and ceilings. a person's invisible tutelary god. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .Save in Venice.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. are genres of painting. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. usually childish figure. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. for example. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). In art from the classical period onwards. or true fresco. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. G Garter. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. both in churches and in private and public palaces. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. or fresco secco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. Final details. where the atmosphere was too damp. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.
As such. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Bernardo Daddi. how it differed from notoriety. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Gobelins . who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Maria Gloriosa). The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Maso di Banco. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. whether it must be connected with the public good. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. in portraits and on tombs. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. as well as writers and artists. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. and as spurring on men of action. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register.
which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. . Golden Fleece. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In other Italian cities. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. who appointed Lebrun Director. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Paris.French tapestry manufactory. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. This ratio is approximately 8:13. golden section (Lat. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. and although it reopened in 1699. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. thereafter it made only tapestries. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. still in existence today. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts.
1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. Nevertheless. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. or the influence of one building. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. and lies much deeper than. In particular. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. 1200 and c. The artistic. like the cultural and commercial. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. In sculpture and in painting. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. 1270. painting. Denis. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In thinking of Nicola (d. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. painting. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. c. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. that the effects are to be felt. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Gothic Gothic. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. There is a transcendental quality. the superficial particularities of form.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. Amiens. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. from the 13th until the 17th century. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. .
and hog-hair brushes. and Piranesi. without visible brush marks. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. chiefly to France. Pannini. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. to silk. Honey. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. to white or tinted paper and card and. the Netherlands. It is thinned with water for applying. if required. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. These qualities. are but different appellations of the same thing'. and taste among the English. starch. Canaletto. and Morris Graves. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Dubuffet. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Such tours often took a year or more. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Klee. with sable. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. notably in the writings of Bellori.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and the great style. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. occasionally. the beau idéal of the French. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. genius. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and above all Italy. sometimes in the company of a tutor. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. . known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects.
like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. In the context of the fine arts. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. usually gray. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. c. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. became an abiding feature of European politics. Although its palace was rebuilt c. 1216. however. gris. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. From 1266 to 1268. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. however. including text as well as illustrations. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. and Waiblingen. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. through central Italy. In Florence. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. drawing and the various forms of engraving. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Some writers. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. internal factions in Florence went under other names. after this. . then as now.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. grisaille (Fr. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In another sense. After the War of the Eight Saints.e. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. to Provence and Paris. which had recruited most of the merchant class. brother of Louis IX. exclude drawing from this definition. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines.
Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In 16th century Venice. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In some cities. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. and provided assistance to members in need. for example. and greater hostility between master and man. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. [science] héraldique. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. trades. or professions. héraut. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. H hatching In a drawing. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. "herald") . trade or profession (painters.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. The guild also monitored standards of work. heraldry (Fr. In some towns. surgeons. Guilds were also patrons of art. notably Florence in the 14th century. but in time they acquired other functions. In Florence. goldsmiths. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In Italy they go back a long way. The guilds were not equal. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. print or painting. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control." from Fr. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. as some did). commissioning paintings for guildhalls.
The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The main impact of the . normative for churchmen.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. indeed. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. the Waldensian. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. from the start. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. and regarded themselves as forming. d. the Cathars were an anti-church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. However. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. one great missionary community. as Antichrist. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. with the rules governing their use. i. while others merged with the Waldensians. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. head of the 'carnal Church'. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. By contrast. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. they were condemned in 1184. together with brethren north of the Alps. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. the followers of Juan de Valdes. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible.
the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Morse. F. the emancipation of man from God took place. B. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Thomas Cole. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. in his earlier work. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. humanus. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and classical literature. F. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Jasper Cropsey. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. humanism (Lat. and. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. In humanism. working from 1825 to 1875. Germany. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Henry Inman. Frederick E. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. S. hortus conclusus (Lat. George Inness. At the same time. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. history (usually classical history). history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. mainly in the south. Church. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Durand. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school.movement upon the laity was in southern France. my spouse'. J. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. American painters were studying in Rome. Kensett. its subjects considered morally elevating.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. investiture .g. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. invention. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. are also used in art literature. Derived from classical rhetoric. the pincers. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. For instance. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Donatallo. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the ability to create. and the ladder. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Veronica. or of other saints. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the scourge that was used in the scourging. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the veil of St. usually the donors of a work of art. and they are also depicted on their own. The terms court style. it denominates a kind of behaviour. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the rooster of Peter's denial. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. inventio (It. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. with many further details added. originality. soft style. In the second half of the 14th century. beautiful style. the hammer. Human figures. etc. "invention") In Renaissance art theory.
and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. . a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Jerome's writings. bathed in a golden haze. The Both brothers. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. although they are usually called Romanists. Nicolaes Berchem. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Andries and Jan Both. Upon his return to Holland. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. who traveled in Italy and. of Utrecht. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. generally Dutch or Flemish. Italianizers Northern artists. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. and Jan Asselijn. principally Dutch. Both and Berchem.
they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. lectern A reading stand or desk. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. especially one at which the Bible is read. liberal arts . As their military role grew. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Archbishop of Genoa.as the Friars of the Hospital of St.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . John of Jerusalem . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards.1519).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. the rite of communion is based on this. encouraged by the Crusades. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Legenda Aurea (Lat. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.
rhetoric and dialectic. loggia (It. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. that may contain a window. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). often sublime. its roof supported by columns. poetic atmosphere.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Kensett (1816-1872).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Heade (1819-1904). the quadrivium. Martin J. then the basis of a philosophical training.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Church (1826-1900). a semicircular space. Tubal for music). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. John F. commemorating a marriage. geometry. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.g.g. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. together with identifying attributes (e. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). It is related to. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). "little moon") In architecture. and Frederick E. that could be used for public ceremonies.grammar. through the use of aerial perspective. lunette (Fr. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. . comprising arithmetic. often standing in markets and town squares. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. painting or sculptural decoration. Maria Novella in Florence). astronomy and music. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. first the preparatory trivium .
Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. originally sung without accompaniment. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. but they painted genre scenes. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). "great mother") A mother goddess. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. manganese purple. for example. and iron red. "almond") . particularly such ware produced in Italy. historical subjects. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. 1855–65. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and however bright their lighting effects. usually for the lute. mandorla (It. antimony yellow. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. the goddess Cybele. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. magna mater (Lat. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. madrigal A part song. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and accompaniments. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). Silvestro Lega (1826–95). they never lost a sense of solidity of form. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. When white is used for painting. Specifically. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. active mainly in Florence c. and portraits as well as landscapes. copper green. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). being written. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state.
Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. the hand-written medieval book. maniera. Flanders. Bronzino. Developing out of the Renaissance. ecclesiastical. more strictly.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. It reached to the knee or foot. "manner. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. the Codex manuscriptus. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. worn open. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. El Greco and Tintoretto. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. in a specific sense. marked by flagellation. In Mannerist painting. complex and crowded compositions. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Burgundy. Mannerism (It. mantle An overcoat. strong. Parmigianino. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. bound. illuminated initials and miniatures. which was quarried at Mount . and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. often ornamented with decorative borders. In architecture. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. and literary texts. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. depending on the social class of the wearer. and crowned with thorns.
The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. medallion In architecture. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. proof") the sufferings. having finished his training. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. sleek surface.Pentelicon in Attica. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). which were beginning to be reverently collected. an inscription running round the rim. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. particularly by Michelangelo. The pure white Carrara marble. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. the medal's purpose was commemorative. quarried at Massa. Carrara. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. a different design on the reverse. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. marmi finti (It. martyrdom (Gk. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Like the finest Imperial coins. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. martyrion. "witness. Without monetary value. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere.
The work of these men. The process is essentially extinct today. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. In pure mezzotint. 14601528). is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. c. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). It was. often anonymous. the stress on individual character. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. who reflected them. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Ludwig von Siegen. even grain. perhaps oddly. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. as it were. no line drawing is employed. Medusa In Greek mythology. When Perseus cuts off her head. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. for landscapes and portraits. A Dutch officer. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. supposedly to petrify her enemies. particularly. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. in England. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. and of the many. 1425-1504). c. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. a Gorgon. . 1640. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body.round the neck. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1467-688). of the person portrayed on the other side. This yields a soft effect in the print. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. 1452-1526/27). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori.
The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. a painting executed in a single color. a branch of the Franciscan order. Parmigianino (d. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. often quite highly finished. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.g. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Francis himself. motto (Ital. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. monochrome (Gk. still exist. e. "one color") Painted in a single color. ink and paint. "word. saying") . though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Many such small versions. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. miter A high. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. monokhromatos. painting in gouache on vellum or card. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. usually portraits. pointed headdress worn by bishops. executed on a very small scale..
N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. Isidore. 1817-29). "ship") the main interior space of a church building. The invention of personal mottos. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Rome. naturalism (Fr. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. Berlin. navis. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Nazarenes A group of young. In general. nave (from Lat. and two other members moved to Rome. but often insipid. named after the patron saint of painting. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and is intersected by the transept. and Casino Massimo. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. It may have parallel aisles on each side. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Pforr. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. 1816-17.from the Middle Ages. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. . In 1810 0verbeck. often separated from it by pillars.
) . Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). were usually old when elected. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. the style of the Ancien Régime. niello (Lat. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). "aureole") The disc or halo. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. nimbus (Lat. is as true as it is notorious. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. moreover. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. but their ideas continued to be influential. Nymphaeum (Gk. Popes. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. nigellus. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. usually golden. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites.
with a sturdy. the Doric order. the three basic styles of design. observances") Rites performed for the dead. walnut. a more elaborate base. orders of architecture In classical architecture. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. obsequia. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. "services. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. fluted column and a plain capital. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. O obsequies (Lat. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. was the simplest. or poppy. a small private chapel. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. . having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. such as linseed. inborn sin. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). The earliest. its richness of colour. and entablatures. They are seen in the form of the columns. Greek goddesses of Nature.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. and its greater tonal range. capital.
Alberti described the palace as a city in little. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. designed as a . while shops came to be thought undignified. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. like cities. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and the main apartments above. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. P pala (Ital. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Palazzo Strozzi). Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. standing at the foot of the Cross. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. with biforate windows. and large windows appeared on the ground floor.g. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. tradition and social structure. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. the Cancelleria). palazzo (It.
adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. came to be applied all over Europe. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Rich. Palazzo Massimi). behind a sober Florentine façade. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. like Genoa. and large households. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. palmette. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Movement of patrons and architects. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and Palladio's in Vicenza.g. Following Oriental patterns.g. like the colonnaded vestibule. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. panel . evolved influential types. Papal incentives to build. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. In Venice. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy.scholarly retreat. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). column-caps. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. cornices and abutments. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. e. especially after the Sack of Rome. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. often built next to their titular churches. Other cities.
and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. linden. fibre-board. Many other types were used. and walnut. teak. The third aspect was administrative. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. A number of matters. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). To maintain their authority. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. On a larger scale. In the 20th century cedar. or other rigid substance. Having a circular plan. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. metal. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and other synthetic materials as supports. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. olive. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. chestnut. and modern painters have also used plywood. fir. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. as it were. including beech. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. the. secular rulers. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. As successors to St Peter. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. slate has occasionally been used as a support. to influence popes in their favour. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and the pressure and temptations . and spanned by a single dome. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. so that they might have a voice at court. and dark walnut are favourites. enforce law and order. or the incidence of taxation. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome.Term in painting for a support of wood. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. however. mahogany. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. cedar. larch. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. as distinct from canvas. Then.
that could be applied to them. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. however.as well. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. from the point of view of its religious associations. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. As at Avignon. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. of individuals. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). to be long delayed. could supersede that of a pope.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. in the eyes of God. however. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. There remained. which seems so inevitable. It was argued that such a council. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. To resolve the problem of divided authority. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. By then. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. in spite of further absences from Rome. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. possess an authority which. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. as such. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Colonna and Caetani. was long in doubt. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. would. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. which met at Constance 1414-18. at Avignon. the most appropriate . For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. if it did no serious damage to the faith. however. So onerous. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67).
nymphs. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. However.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and other animals. goat. it has also been used for painting. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. and satyrs. less frequently pig. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. to a world peopled by shepherds. 400-300 BC). in classical literature. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. pastoral (Lat. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. the creation of a cultural capital. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. pastor. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Passion . Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. scholars and men of letters. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. Parrhasius (c. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). as well as a governmental one.. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and with Zeuxis (c. through lavish patronage of artists.
Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. patricius. Meanwhile. a prominent section of a monumental façade. a region in north-central Italy. ornamental building. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Portrayals of the Passion. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Francesco Salviati. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.The events leading up to Good Friday. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. wealthy citizen. which focus on the Suffering Christ. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. a small. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. such as a garden summerhouse. hence tent") A lightly constructed. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pastiche (fr. 1478. projecting either centrally or at both ends.) or pasticcio (It. but not necessarily a direct copy. 1478). the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. . the crown of thorns. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. and so on. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. and also the archbishop of Pisa. papilio. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. pavilion (Lat. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. patrician (Lat. "butterfly. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.
concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). Peace of Augsburg A treaty. in particular the face. and gnomon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. physis. persona. "hanging. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physiognomy (Gk. "nature". pendant (Fr. personification (Lat. perspective (Lat. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. concept or deity. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. pergola (It. or related elements within an art work. and facere.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "to see through. "person". perspicere. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. .
but may consist of a cluster of columns. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. pigmentum. but full of variety. to be expressed in painting. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery.piano nobile (Ital. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.) The main floor of a building. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. glue. proper to take a landscape from. usually above the ground floor. affording a good subject for a landscape. or resin to make paint. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Pietà (Lat. A pier is generally larger than a column. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). curious details. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. . containing the public rooms. remarkable for singularity. Peter's. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. striking the imagination with the force of painting. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. for example. Rome. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. exemplified. both real and painted. pigment (Lat.
perhaps. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. a shaft. despite regional variations. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. outside Tuscany. and thereafter all Europe. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. It is often fluted. in October 1347. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. it is difficult to find. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . since. Rocco and Sebastian. for instance. also used in Spain's American colonies. such as Florence and Genoa. more sporadic outbreaks. Thenceforward. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. and capital. plague Plague. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. During 1348 the Black Death. moreover. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. pilastrum. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. For this reason. though in less widespread.pilaster (Lat. It seems probable. "pillar") A flat. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. however. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. In the 15th century. it has a base.
heraldic escutcheons. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. which lasted only a few decades. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. like its successor. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Philebus. or simply the Plateresque. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. are the masterworks of the second style. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Phaedo. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Diego evolved a purer. A student of Socrates. placement. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. correct classical orders became frequent. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The first phase. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The second phase. The first phase. or appropriateness. i. more severe.. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Theatetus and the Laws.e. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. utilized Mudejar ornament -. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. composition. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. In contrast with Aristotle. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Timaeus. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. the Symposium. and sinuous scrolls. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). and unified style using massive geometric forms. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. harmonious. Phaedrus.
though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Rather unsystematic. and Agostino Steuco (c. and he utilized many other writings. including those of Plotinus. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. partially. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . and the Chaldaic Oracles. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. all of which he also translated into Latin. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Unlike the case of Aristotle. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. 1472-c. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. replaced Ficino's. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus.in Plato's thought.1577) becoming particularly popular. but not completely. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. systematized and added to what Plato had done. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Plotinus. near Florence. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. A new Latin translation. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Iamblichus. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries.
plinthos. pointed arch In architecture. where a pectoral is used to close it. Frequently supports a pediment. porticus. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. poluptukhos. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. polyptych (Gk. plinth (Gk. portico (Lat. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Lat. pluviale. pluvial (Med. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Plato was read in the universities. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. such as processions and consecrations. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. column. as in classical architecture). or statue. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints.
Cathedral) by Uccello. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The realism of the clear. Venice). 1328. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo Farnese). Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. and the . Maria Novella.sculptors such as Donatello. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Siena. psychologically more complex. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Gattarnelata. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Desiderio da Settignano. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The 16th century portrait became generalized. flattened image. Colleoni. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. was revived in the 14th century. Florence (1486-90). A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Group portraits. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. and only a decorative accessory to form. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The equestrian portrait. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. National Gallery). as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello.e. decorating whole rooms. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Florence. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. inessential. Mantua. Campidoglio). the Carracci..
Savonarola and Musso. Fiamma's sermons. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. are not florid in style. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Correggio. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). several of whom became bishops. from the secular clergy. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. to discharge their preaching duties. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. abrasive even. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. however. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Borromeo. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. and. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. of the sermon as an art form. The sermons of Visdomini. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. 1494). bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. bishop of Asti. was versed in classical and patristic ." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. The styles of S. primarily the mendicants. who had as their ideal masters Titian. minatory exhortations. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. not least those of statesmen and prelates." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. bishop of Chioggia. Charles Le Brun. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. and Peter Paul Rubens. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. As Poussin was a Frenchman. bishops especially. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy.
tapestries. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. The New Testament references in these would. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.g. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. predella (It. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. prefiguration Typology . disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Because of the small size of predelle . the temptations of Adam and Christ.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. however. though often relatively very wide . and so forth. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. among them Holman Hunt. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.rhetoric. Naples). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Millais and Rossetti.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Louis of Toulouse (1317.
so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The following are important: 1. Fragonard. proportion (Lat. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 3. the quadrature.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. which uses the square . the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the Canon of Proportion. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. again indicative of the purpose they served. the golden section. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. notably David. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. 2. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. proportio. sculpture and architecture. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. profil perdu (Fr. intended as complete works of art in themselves. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). "evenness") in painting. Girardon. and Houdon among sculptors. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. these highly finished drawings. Prix de Rome A scholarship.
quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Ignazio. triangulation. provenance The origins of an art work. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. putto (It. a fourth = 3:4. 4. Unlike Pozzo. Rome. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. a fifth = 2:3. one half the length of the other). was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. and 5. for example). harmonic proportions. putti sing. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. It was common in Roman art. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. . The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. "boys") Plump naked little boys. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works.
Brunelleschi. the great orders of monks. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo).g. relevare. or some item connected with a saint. and high relief (alto rilievo). relic (Lat. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. relief (Lat. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. canons regular. in which figures are almost detached from their background. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. in particular works by Masaccio. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Lat. Donatello. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. also known as the Realist school. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. refectory (Med. relicquiae. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Botticelli. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Fra Angelico and others. with the Anglican Church developing in England. friars and nuns. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order.Quattrocento (It. in which figures are seen half round. hermits. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. In 16th century Europe. Among the . the object of particular veneration. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. or the Jesuits. e. basso rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life.
various groups were fused in the latter body. the most notable being S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. After the repression of the Spirituals. i. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. was the congregation of S. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. That of S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Founded by St Romuald c. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. who had no overall organization originally. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. 1012. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. and the generally moderate Observants. Lucca. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. which was to become the main Italian one. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. the Conventuals. Giorgio in Alga. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. presided over by chapters general. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. In 1517. Maria di Fregonaia. At the same time. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. however. The same bull . Benedetto. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Bernardino of Siena. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Giustina. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Salvatore. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Padua. although technically of secular canons. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. it became the Cassinese congregation. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Venice (1404). they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. The Silvestrines.e. Bologna (1419). The Conventuals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. and their more institutionalized brethren. the great patriarch of Venice. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. whose friaries were technically non-property owning.contemplative orders. In 1504. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Mantua. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. The Benedictines.
For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. a historical period. Michele in Isola. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. the Theatines. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Gaetano da Thiene. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. however. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. founded by S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. however. S. Filippo Neri. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. also. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Angela Merici. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. founded in 1535 by S. The first. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Venice. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist.
Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. and competition with. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. of arts. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. of 'darkness'. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. as well as political. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. even Amoralism. however. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Thereafter. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. because its core of energy. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. . too long forgotten glories. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. however. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. of letters. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. was so vast and potent. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. All-Roundness. the historical reality of antiquity. increasingly. and his own as potentially one of light. which had begun early in the 14th century. 1875-86).century. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of scholarship. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. For long. life. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. of an energetic revival of interest in. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth.
as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. however. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. gratefully. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.) was the term chosen. (3) There is not a true. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. especially in the High Gothic period. in the more limited sense.with all its shabbiness . During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. sometimes. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Ghent).A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. mobilized nationalism. The challenges are to be accepted. and other liturgical objects. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. candlesticks. retables can be detached and. of industrialization.erased. later still to Genoa. and mass media. and is decorated with paintings. etc. the previous record . It is for this additional. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. consist merely of a painting. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. letters. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Though thus challenged. though sometimes of metal. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. There was an early.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). etc. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. congruence between. let alone a uniform. Cathedral of SaintBavon. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). statues. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.
The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. rilievo (It. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. in several countries . With the development of freestanding altars. Romanesque art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. its mood lighthearted and witry. Italy. however. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. retables have become extinct. and 'Romanesque'.in the 11th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. almost simultaneously. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Originally commissioned in 976. More usually.of St Mark in Venice. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Rococo A style of design. "relief") In painting. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale.France. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. like 'Gothic'. . it indicates a derivation from Roman art. painting. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. the first style to achieve such international currency. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Louis XV furniture. and architecture dominating the 18th century. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. rocaille (French. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. richly decorated with organic forms. As the name suggests. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Spain . Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. is a typical product. the St. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Germany. literally.
the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Mabuse. Massys and M. Pannini and Mengs. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). B. stylized design representing an open rose. M. Q. The aim of painting. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. In addition. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. . they maintained. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. van Orley. such as red ochre. usually as a result of a visit to Italy.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Claude. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Piranesi. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Rome. van Heemskerk. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. the development of nationalistic pride.
The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and Protestant churches. Clement escaped into Castel S. and Lorenzo de' Medici. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. when it finally left the city it had devastated. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. the Eucharist. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. gutted. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. glance and movement . a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Written primarily in ottava rima. holy orders. Many compositions were anonymous. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Sacra Conversazione (It. penance.greatly increased. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy.expressed through gesture. and anointing of the sick. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Eastern independent. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. confirmation. There were no limits on time. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. from the Old and New Testaments. but others were the work of well-known figures. In the . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. matrimony. and impoverished. Orthodox. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. multiple sets used in succession. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. local saints. supported by lay confraternities. Subjects were nominally sacred. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. pious legend and hagiography. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work.
the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. as in the Church of the Brethren. and sacraments.) Hall. make such strict distinctions. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. chapter 13. replaces the Lord's Supper. They were still seeking aid. The theology of the Orthodox Church. and then face east. as an excuse to revolt. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Lutheran. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. that the price of salt should be increased. Thus. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Candidates first face west. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.i.e. notably from Florence and in Germany. the symbolic direction of Christ. Saracens . was buried under a new fortress.e. It is still practiced on special occasions. in principle. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. The classical Protestant churches (i.. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. used for drawing. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. foot washing. sacraments. Anglican. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. large room. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. was not maintained as a sacrament. the Orthodox Church does not. The chief focus of discontent. strictly speaking. the sun of righteousness. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests." which are called sacramentals.early church the number of sacraments varied. baptism and the Eucharist. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the Rocca Paolina. the Bentivoglio. Hence. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. which in the Gospel According to John. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.." sala (Ital. Salt War. Immediately following baptism.
human-like woodland deities with the ears. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 45 BC). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. pl.During the Middle Ages. 210 AD). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. are lost. legs and horns of a goat. wood or terracotta.c. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. sarcophagi (Gk. Little known in the Middle Ages. and many others. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. satyr In Greek mythology. the god of wine. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. 360 . sarcophagus. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. whose writings. made of stone. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).c. the Arabs or Muslims. The publication of Latin (1562. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 270 BC). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 160 .
thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. the Florentines. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Alexander V. scholasticism . while devout Christians agonized. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See.they had individual Bentnames . and. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. As a result. who recognized the Roman pope. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. in June 1409. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. on the other. on one side. In northern Italy. was called Bamboccio. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. most of whom. than their medieval predecessors. Charles III of Durazzo (d. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. for. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Louis I (d. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. with France and her allies Aragon. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. while England. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. one of the early leaders.for example Pieter van Laer. However. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. but with little effect. who had the support of the Avignon pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. being Frenchmen. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Schism. from time to time both he and his opponents. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between.
were different from those of medieval. as it were. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Medieval scholars. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. textual scholarship. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.) . especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. if lime-water was used.moral philosophy. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Often called the burning ones. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Christian. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. Padua. moreover. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. and Islamic literature. because the secco technique is much less permanent. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. the plaster had to be damped before painting. as it is easier to add details in this way. (See also: fresco. It was because the central concerns of humanism . In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. university-based study. and theology. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. notably Aquinas. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). that scholasticism was left. history and rhetoric . with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. None the less. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster.The term is ambivalent. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). As such. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. on one side. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. Serenissima (Ital.
which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. They first appear in alpine monasteries. which were all identical in thickness. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sibyls (Gk.. sibylla. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Lat. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Signoria (It. "prophetess") In antiquity. in the period of classical antiquity. and the delicate. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Med. the number gradually rose to ten. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. in use since the Middle Ages.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. women who could prophesy. Originally. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "the most serene republic of Venice"). In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. sfumato A technique. usually presided over by individual families. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. there was only one Sibyl. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. brass. Sibyls foretold the Birth. at the same time. term. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sinopia .) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Servite (Lat. In Christian legend.
is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. sing. Stanze (Ital. . rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear.'Beautiful Madonnas'. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . and by a sweet and playful sentiment. as the name implies. sotto in sù (It. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). brand. and. stigmata. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. It is very closely related to International Gothic. pronounced as French.) Wooden ceiling decoration. stigma (Gk.. Ital. Francis of Assisi. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. soffit (Lat. staffage This word. in other words. "mark. especially in the flow of drapery. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. the red chalk used to make such a drawing.
but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). both external and internal. with that for the Picturesque. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. whose verses actually fabrications . stucco A type of light. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. studioli (It.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. supremacy . pl.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. The vogue for the Sublime. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. studiolo. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. Indeed. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. John Milton. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. In a looser sense.
The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. chiefly from Flanders. then being replaced by oil paint. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. temperare. or cartoons.e. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being.and. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. These were imported. both for panel painting and fresco. was being decorated with frescoes. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. . These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. 1407). the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). i.Historically. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. Salviati and Allori. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. London. tempera (Lat. The subject is underexplored. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). into Italy. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. his own headquarters. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. doubtless. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. and in literature. But the Italians did not make them. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.
they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. topos. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. and profile. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "a commonplace") In literature. figure of speech. pl. theme or motif. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topoi (Gk. model.terracotta (It. in the architecture of ancient Rome. vessels. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. widely used form. terraferma (Ital. topiary (Gk. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. tondo. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "fields. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. tondi (It. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. Trajan's Column .e. and later to subdivide gable ends. triumphal arch. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). walls. topia. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. quarter face. i. and other surfaces. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. in art. and sculptures. pl.
A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Battista Sforza. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self.' Before it go the apostles. after 'a countless number of virgins. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. patriarchs and prophets. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. time and eternity. death. the military triumph became sublimated. chastity. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. "threefold") in Christianity. . decorated marriage chests and other paintings. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. the wars by which they were won . as it were. usually an altarpiece. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. or wings. a car so brave'. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. of virtues and of the arts.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. of both sexes'. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . behind it. added to the glamour of the triumph. trinitas.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. fame. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Early triptychs were often portable. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). triptych (Gk. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Trinity (Lat.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. beside it the army of martyrs. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Disseminated soon after his death. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. tryptychos. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Meanwhile. into a number of less controversial forms.
viscous black ink. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. enclosed by an arch. typology . trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Dating from classical times. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. it is usually decorated with carvings. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In medieval architecture. tympanum (Lat. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tusche A thick. "drum") In classical architecture. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. first recorded in 1232. often decorated with sculptures. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). through various naturalistic devices.
A system of classification. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. killer of Holofernes. . knew his former patrons. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. The numerous candles. lanterns. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and David.g. such as five works devoted to the senses. U uomo universale (It. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. where they were most accessible. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . 1610). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. each had access to his paintings. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. slayer of Goliath. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.) The Renaissance "universal man". e. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). In Christian thought. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). 1590-1624). Judith. were popular with them also. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. especially his half-length figural groups.Dirck van Baburen (c.
and the rib vault. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. V vanishing point In perspective. mixed in. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. a work's richness of subject matter. varietà (It. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. guttering candles. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death.). overturned vessels. and even flowers (which will soon fade). hour-glasses and clocks. often gold. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Also varietas (Lat. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. carriages. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. "evening") . Vespers (Lat. There are a wide range of forms. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. snuff boxes and other objects. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. vanitas (Lat. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. vesper. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Parisian craftsmen. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. it was used to decorate furniture. the groin vault.
The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Hope. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. In ancient Roman dwellings. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vite (Lat. virtù could be used. Anger. pl. Lust. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. in which the word signifies efficacy. "not exposed to winds". Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Covetousness.Prayers said in the evening. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. "life") . Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. actual or latent. vita. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Fortitude. and Justice. the church service at which these prayers are said. Gluttony. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. if you have it not'. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). and Sloth. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Charity. Vestibule (Lat. for example. vimperga Of German origin. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Prudence. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Temperance. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. 'Assume a virtue. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. vestibulum. Envy.
fall into a different category from those that preceded them. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula.g. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. The wars from 1494 do. usually when a prayer for good fortune. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. and appalled recognition of. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. 1478-80. they were from the 18th century . in fact. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements.An account of someone's life and work. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. those of Volterera. 1482-84). the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. published in 1550 and 1568. Vitruvius Pollio. Sculptors and Architects"). a biography. Marcus (1st cent. or recovery from illness has been made. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. protection from harm. 1472. and of Ferrara.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. based on stylization of various animal forms. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. gallery. "world view") A comprehensive world view. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. pompous on the floor above. woodcut A print made from a wood block. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. during its subsequent history. a philosophy of life. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "Western work of art". It was intended to have a variety of functions. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. usually linear. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Westwerk German word. . The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. usually restorers. treasury or a place where justice was administered.Weltanschauung (Gr.
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