A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

architectonic (Gk. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arcus. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. The adjective is apsidal. and Rouault. In Greek and Roman literature. which is fused to the plate by heating. Lancet and Tudor. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. or organization. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. but in essence the process is as follows. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The term applies also to a print made by this method. including Goya. the darker the tone). arkhitektonikos. the moulding around a window or door. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. "architectural") Relating to structure. Picasso. at the east end of a church behind the altar. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. . In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. piers or pillars. design.A semicircular projection. arcade (Lat. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. architrave (It.e. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. the lowest part of the entablature). and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Also known as an exedra. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Degas. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). roofed with a half-dome.

" and Lat.archivolt (Ital. aureolus. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. In the case of martyrs. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. attributum. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. aureole (Lat. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli." from Gk. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "front arch. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. dominate. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. voltus. "golden.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. archivolto.and the Comedy . Ars Moriendi (Lat. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Dante's Vita nuova . archeiu. "begin. usually a saint. attribute (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.

Bambocciati Group of relatively small. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. that of Cardano. or baldacchino (It. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. who had been residing in France since 1305. The actual move was made in 1309. paintings of everyday life. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. applied to the physically . the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Later. in 1377. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. often anecdotal. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. 'Captivity'. the god of wine and fertility. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). baldachin. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Six pontificates later.

and abject filthy things. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. a church. banderole (It. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. As eight follows the "complete" number. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. pope between 432 and 440. seven. and Poitiers. Alg. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Lebanon. Parma. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. or connected with. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. a visual metaphor for the number eight. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Customarily." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Spalato [Split. set beneath a domical ciborium. such as those at Pisa. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion.. Croatia]. AD 273. el Kantara. . in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. AD 300). or canopy. and Nocera in Italy.. France. built by Sixtus III.g. banderuola. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. beggars in rags. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Baalbek. Easter. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and Epiphany. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Pentecost. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Florence. the Temple of Venus. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. or forecourt.

Rubens). and increasingly elaborate decoration. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Also tunnel vault. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. however. 1810-1865). Jules Dupré (French. were often omitted entirely. and thus a church. southeast of Paris. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. which is reserved for the clergy. in the 1840s and 1850s. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. achieved through scale. Théodore Rousseau (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. 1807-1876). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. "king's hall") a church building. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In architecture. stoa basilike. Baroque (Port. Constant Troyon (French. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1796-1875). or baptismal chapels. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1811-1889). . usually facing east.In the 10th century. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Jean-François Millet (French. basilica (Gk. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Vermeer). barocco. in its usual location near the church door . Originally. baptisteries. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. and (3) everyday realism. 1814-1875). something of earlier symbolism survives. 1817-1878). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church.

Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). and often sentimentality. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. domesticity. as is to be expected. however. It takes its name from its grainy texture. 1650 in Spain. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). were referred to by their specific contents. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. or which is to be left as it is. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. also incorrectly called bisque. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. particularly porcelain. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. The term was mainly used up to c. which is either not yet glazed. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Spanish still-lifes. often with food and drink. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. bodegón Image. There were. Book of Hours . such as Waldmüller. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. especially Spanish. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. like their Dutch counterparts. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Bodegónes. Biscuit porcelain. up until the mid-17th century. in which still-life predominates. By association. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society.

bozzetto Strictly speaking. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. . a rapid sketch in oil. Chantilly). See flying buttress. durability. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work.both hot and cold .an advantage over marble sculpture. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. coppery red. days of the week. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. bozzetto(Italian. By extension. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. but can also be used for painted sketches. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. or seasons. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. and the fact that it is easily workable .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.by a variety of processes. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. made as a study for a larger picture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. varying from silverish to a rich. months.

and Giotto. private room where works of art. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. caisson (Fr. glass. notable from Syria and Egypt. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. mosaics. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. ceramics. manuscript illuminations. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. its forms highly stylized. Duccio. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. box") In architecture. casson. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. "a chest. C cabinet A small. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. cameo Small relief made from gems. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. It also served to glorify the emperor. Among its most distinctive products were icons. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which was often allegorical. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. camera obscura . and work in precious metals.

"candle") A large. other materials used are cotton. capitellum. candelabrum (It. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. cantorie (It. candlestick. dating to antiquity. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. candelabra. Portable versions were built. and jute. pl. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). campanile Bell tower.-N. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. both of which have richly carved marble panels. usually built beside or attached to a church. usually with several branches or arms. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall.) A gallery for singers or musicians. hemp. usually decorated. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. which was usually whitened. The Latin name means "dark chamber. . sing. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. as an aid to drawing. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. by the 16th century." and the earliest versions. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. candela. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. usually in a church. only very rough effects will be obtainable. capital (Lat. Niepce created photography. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up.Ancestor of the photographic camera. cantoria. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Structurally.

In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Carthusian Order (Lat. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartellino. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. or fresco. near Grenoble. the date of the painting. or a motto. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. and humanism. cardinalis. cartouche . Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartone. At the height of the Middle Ages. monasteries containing separate hermitages.a humorous drawing or parody. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. New Charterhouses. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. details of the subject. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .both Italians and artists from other countries . tapestry.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cartellini In a painting. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Carmelites (Lat. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. pl. In fresco painting. The order combines reclusive and community life. cartoon (It.

For reasons lost to time and tradition. and swags of fruit and flowers. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed.toward the setting sun. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.) "castle". The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. These lead up to the north and south transepts. cassone (It. palace. a cathedral always faces west . this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. cathedral (cathedra. linen. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. . Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Cascina. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Paolo Uccello. where the throne of the bishop is placed. They contained the bride's clothes. putti (cupids). or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. they were also used in other countries. castello (It. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. caryatid (Gk. decorated with gilt gesso. or nave. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. In the 15th century. The altar is placed at the east end. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. or arms of the cross. The main body. and many other items of her dowry. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest.

Both the statement of St. Christian. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. champlevé (Fr. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). central perspective (Lat. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. . centralis. "in the centre". Relative to the observer. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. landscapes. continually praise him. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. a throne bearer of the deity. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. as celestial attendants of God. and perspicere. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. rather than intercessory functions. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. buildings and figures that are being depicted. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. animal.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. or birdlike characteristics. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. in accordance with their distance from the observer. a celestial winged being with human. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. and Islamic literature. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.

with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). Since Carolingian times. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. North of the Alps. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition.chiaroscuro (It. "light dark") In painting." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. reserved for the clergy to pray together. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. replacing tempera. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. choros." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. the Order of the Hospital of St. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. choir (Gk. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. Lastly. Hans Burgkmair (1510). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. or for choral singing. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used.

undulating lines. a massing of carved angels. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. ciborium . most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Sculpted clouds. became the most common motif. stucco shells. gilded rays. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. an architect. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and garlands. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. balustrades. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Very few still exist in their original positions. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. undulating cornices. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco.intersect). reversed volutes. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. The Mexico cathedral (1718). is as typically Churrigueresque. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and repetition of pattern. further enriching the style. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. and the Churrigueresque column. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. The Transparente (completed 1732).

ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. on July 22. Without being members of a guild.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. who were raised to the status of a guild. or achieve political representation. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. The new government. etc. They were forbidden to form a trade association. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. including the ciompi. craft of dyeing. Members of the lower classes. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.and post-medieval Italy. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. High Renaissance). Their economic condition worsened. controlled by the minor guilds. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. ciompi. Quattrocento (1400s. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. combers. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. as also were those in the associated. placing one of their members. the wool carder Michele di Lando. In reaction to this revolutionary . Then. beaters. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. but self-employed. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June.

resembling a lyre. philosophy and art . "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. philosophy. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. scholars patiently finding.) An ancient musical instrument. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). on which strings were plucked. the ciompi guild was abolished. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. clair-obscur (Fr. changed greatly from one period to the next.episode. except in cases where . editing and translating a wide range of texts. cithara (Gk. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. however.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. . The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and politics. literature. In the 15th century Greek literature. with Italian scholars. the black contours usually with a special line plate. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). writers. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. Concepts of the classical.as in Italy these were dispensed with.

"those who know") Connoisseurs of art. a work's underlying theme. condottiere. Green and red. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. compline (Lat. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. pl. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. blue and orange. those with refined tastes. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Coffered ceilings. cognoscente (It. when set side by side. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. . arch or ceiling. the church service at which these prayers are said. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. sing. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. condottieri (It. terrorized the country. cognoscenti. pl. literature or music. The name was derived from the condotta. intensify one another. as well as from the Bible. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. concetto. occasionally made of wood. [hora] completa. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. concetti (It. or "contract." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord.

Toward the end of the 15th century. convents of convertite. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Muzio's son.e. often under the direction of. Carmagnola. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. often called compagnie or. or with the spiritual assistance of. who won control of Milan in 1450. With no goal beyond personal gain. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. in the service of Perugia. By the end of the 14th century. By the 16th century. in Venice. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. in the service of Naples.e. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Mark (1432). Francesco Sforza. i. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. flagellant confraternities. commonly called either Compagnia di S. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. i. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S.devastating Romagna. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. and Tuscany. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. clergy. . confraternities Confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Spanish. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Martino). and his rival Braccio da Montone. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Umbria. primarily for syphilitics. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. scuole. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. and German--the condottieri. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. disappeared. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. which spread in the 15th century. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. (2) Confraternite del Rosario.

contour (Fr. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. e. however. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. contours were initially regular. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Dorotea in Trastevere. While the Doge ranked above the Council. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. contrapposto (It. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Confraternities. e.i. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. Later. reformed prostitutes. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. flat outlines. but sometimes had their own premises. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. in Florence.g. while the Venetian government. notwithstanding their location. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. In medieval painting. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. founded c. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. which accompanied condemned prisoners. 1514 in S. and refuges for maidens.e. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contour. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the Florentine Neri.g.

Reform programs. corbel In architecture. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. large cornice or other feature. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer.weight on one leg. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. a bracket of stone. 1280). Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. aes cyprium. declining moral standards. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. The style spread as far as England. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. an engraving produced in this way. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. started the process of inner reform in the Church. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. conventiculurn. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. did not achieve any lasting results. conventicle (Lat. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. . Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Lat. 1100 and 1300. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. cuprum. whose names are inscribed on several works. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. They are often ornamented. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which.

reedy sound. a small dome. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. cupola (Lat. Next. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. i. or "scourged. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. D dado . out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Death. Carthaginians. Usually. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Seleucids." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Constantine the Great. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Jews. the first Christian emperor. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. An ancestor of the oboe. cupula. "small vat") In architecture. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft.e. after being whipped. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. There were various methods of performing the execution. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the most famous victim of crucifixion. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. particularly among the Persians. a semi-circular vault. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the condemned man.

danse macabre The dance of death. diptych (Lat. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. "drawing. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. a favorite late medieval picture subject. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art.g. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. diptychos. Germany. e. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. design") In Renaissance art theory. disegno (It. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Deësis (Gk. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. but the concept behind an art work. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diptychum. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. an expressive use of nature. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. usually in matching pairs. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. deacon (Gk. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). decorated diffrently from the upper section. diakonos. The term stresses not the literal drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. often an altarpiece. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Passau. Gk.

2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). The studio easel.fully realize. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. donor (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. a 19th-century invention. though a few artists.Thomas Aquinas. "to mix. distemperare. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). doublet A male garment. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. donator. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. which runs on castors or wheels. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. such as we still use today. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. is a heavy piece of furniture. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. also used it on canvas. Ordo Praedictatorum. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. when painters took to working out of doors. dome in architecture. distemper (Lat. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. formerly worn under armour. Dominicans (Lat.

and architecture. sometimes combining panel painting. and the cornice. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. ensemble (Fr. full face. Ecce Homo (Lat. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. It consists of the architrave. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. sculpture. and logos. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. a depiction of Jesus. John (19. en face In portraiture. "word") . which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. Hence. the frieze. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. in art. eschatology (Gk. eschaton. entablature In classical architecture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. fresco. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. epitaph (Gk. bound and flogged. "last". the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels.

which is called "delftware. Saints Ambrose. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Contarini. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. . Giovanni Morone. which was developed in the Near East ca. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Augustine. particularly ware made in France. notably Cardinal Pole. "good. and is named for Faenza. celebrated with bread and wine.death and resurrection. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. fields and livestock. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. which is called "maiolica. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. farmers. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Vittoria Colonna. Eucharist (Gk. convinced of the inefficacy of human works.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. which was famous for maiolica. 4500 BCE. Equated with the Greek god Pan. protector of shepherds. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification." and that made in the Netherlands and England. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Germany. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Italy. eu. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and of the last things." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Jerome." and charis. and Scandinavia. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Marcantonio Flaminio. Spain.

well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. such as plague. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. fluted of a column or pillar. fresco (It. a swag. frescos in Italy . a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. drying to a slightly different tint. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Only a small area can be painted in a day. can in time be seen. famine and death. and flowers suspended in a loop. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ.festoni (It. Their attributes are the bow. black and dun. war. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. The colour of his horse is white. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. relaxed.8). Committed to charitable and missionary work. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. leaves. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). 2 . that of the others red. sword and set of balances. a technique known as a secco fresco. and these areas. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment.

both in churches and in private and public palaces. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. In art from the classical period onwards.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Final details. the intonaco. for example. usually childish figure. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. are genres of painting. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. or true fresco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. or fresco secco. The technique of buon fresco. where the atmosphere was too damp. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Genius in classical Rome.Save in Venice. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. covings and ceilings. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. genre In a broad sense. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. a person's invisible tutelary god. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. landscape and portraiture. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. G Garter. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster.

who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Maso di Banco. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and as spurring on men of action. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. how it differed from notoriety. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Maria Gloriosa). The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Bernardo Daddi. whether it must be connected with the public good. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. As such. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. as well as writers and artists. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Gobelins . glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. in portraits and on tombs. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics.

played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Golden Fleece. still in existence today. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. golden section (Lat. In other Italian cities. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). This ratio is approximately 8:13. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Paris. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia.French tapestry manufactory. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. . The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. who appointed Lebrun Director. thereafter it made only tapestries. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. and although it reopened in 1699.

the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. 1200 and c. that the effects are to be felt. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The artistic. . In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. 1270. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. c. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. There is a transcendental quality. painting. from the 13th until the 17th century. Amiens. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). In particular. and lies much deeper than. the superficial particularities of form. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. Gothic Gothic. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. painting. or the influence of one building. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. Nevertheless. In sculpture and in painting. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. like the cultural and commercial. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. Denis. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In thinking of Nicola (d.

Such tours often took a year or more. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Pannini. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. to silk. and above all Italy. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. are but different appellations of the same thing'. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. with sable. to white or tinted paper and card and. if required. and taste among the English. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Honey. starch. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and Piranesi. Dubuffet. without visible brush marks. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. and Morris Graves. Klee. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. chiefly to France. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It is thinned with water for applying. and the great style. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. the beau idéal of the French. the Netherlands. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. genius. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Canaletto. notably in the writings of Bellori. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.and hog-hair brushes. occasionally. . There was also a flourishing market in guide books. sometimes in the company of a tutor. These qualities.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour.

when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. In another sense. the parties taking a multitude of local names. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. brother of Louis IX. exclude drawing from this definition. after this. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. Some writers. which had recruited most of the merchant class. however. including text as well as illustrations. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Although its palace was rebuilt c. gris. then as now. internal factions in Florence went under other names. through central Italy. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In Florence. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. In the context of the fine arts. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. 1216. After the War of the Eight Saints. c. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. grisaille (Fr. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. . it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime.e.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. drawing and the various forms of engraving. From 1266 to 1268. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. and Waiblingen. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. usually gray. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. became an abiding feature of European politics. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. to Provence and Paris. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics.

The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. Guilds were also patrons of art. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In some cities. In Italy they go back a long way. In some towns. In 16th century Venice. or professions. and greater hostility between master and man. "[knowledge of] heraldry." from Fr. héraut. In Florence. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. notably Florence in the 14th century. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. as some did). acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. trades. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. but in time they acquired other functions. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. The guilds were not equal.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. H hatching In a drawing. for example. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. trade or profession (painters. such as Brescia and Vicenza. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. goldsmiths. print or painting. surgeons. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. [science] héraldique. and provided assistance to members in need. The guild also monitored standards of work. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. "herald") . heraldry (Fr.

together with brethren north of the Alps. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. one great missionary community. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. However. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. the Cathars were an anti-church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. with the rules governing their use. and regarded themselves as forming. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. d.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). normative for churchmen. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. indeed. The main impact of the . They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. head of the 'carnal Church'. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. i. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. By contrast. they were condemned in 1184. while others merged with the Waldensians. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. from the start. the Waldensian. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. as Antichrist. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible.

Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. and classical literature. Morse. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. the emancipation of man from God took place.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Frederick E. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. mainly in the south. Kensett. Church. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. and. At the same time. Thomas Cole. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. humanus. hortus conclusus (Lat. Durand. in his earlier work. my spouse'. J. Jasper Cropsey. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Henry Inman. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. In humanism. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. S. George Inness. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Germany. F. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. its subjects considered morally elevating. B. F. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. American painters were studying in Rome. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). The 19th-century romantic movements of England. history (usually classical history). The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. humanism (Lat. working from 1825 to 1875.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

the pincers. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. inventio (It. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. are also used in art literature. In the second half of the 14th century. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). beautiful style. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the hammer. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. the veil of St. For instance. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. the rooster of Peter's denial. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. with many further details added. soft style. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. etc. Derived from classical rhetoric. trecento rococo and lyrical style. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. invention. The terms court style. and the ladder. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Human figures. usually the donors of a work of art. Veronica. or of other saints. it denominates a kind of behaviour. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary.g. investiture . because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Donatallo. the ability to create. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. there are representations of the bundle of rods. and they are also depicted on their own. originality. the scourge that was used in the scourging.

Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The Both brothers. who traveled in Italy and. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Upon his return to Holland. bathed in a golden haze. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. of Utrecht. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. although they are usually called Romanists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Andries and Jan Both. Both and Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianizers Northern artists. Jerome's writings. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. generally Dutch or Flemish. and Jan Asselijn. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. principally Dutch. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. .Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Nicolaes Berchem. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.

liberal arts . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Legenda Aurea (Lat.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. encouraged by the Crusades. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. the rite of communion is based on this. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). especially one at which the Bible is read. Archbishop of Genoa. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. John of Jerusalem . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.1519). Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . lectern A reading stand or desk. As their military role grew.

lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. and Frederick E. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. together with identifying attributes (e. Church (1826-1900). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. John F. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. It is related to. often sublime.grammar. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e.g. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. comprising arithmetic. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Heade (1819-1904).g. . first the preparatory trivium . that could be used for public ceremonies.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. that may contain a window. geometry. poetic atmosphere. its roof supported by columns.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Kensett (1816-1872). astronomy and music. the quadrivium.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. "little moon") In architecture. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). loggia (It. often standing in markets and town squares. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). painting or sculptural decoration. then the basis of a philosophical training. commemorating a marriage. Tubal for music). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Martin J. rhetoric and dialectic. a semicircular space. through the use of aerial perspective. Pythagoras for arithmetic. lunette (Fr. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Maria Novella in Florence).

The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. usually for the lute. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originally sung without accompaniment. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. 1855–65. for example. active mainly in Florence c. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). antimony yellow. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. particularly such ware produced in Italy. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. being written. magna mater (Lat. "almond") . and iron red. When white is used for painting. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. but they painted genre scenes. Specifically. and portraits as well as landscapes. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). manganese purple. historical subjects. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. copper green. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. mandorla (It. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. "great mother") A mother goddess. the goddess Cybele. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. madrigal A part song. originating in Italy in the 14th century. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and however bright their lighting effects. Silvestro Lega (1826–95).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. and accompaniments.

marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Flanders. "manner. the Codex manuscriptus. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. and literary texts. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. worn open. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. often ornamented with decorative borders. bound. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. El Greco and Tintoretto. depending on the social class of the wearer. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. complex and crowded compositions. In Mannerist painting. strong. ecclesiastical. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. marked by flagellation. illuminated initials and miniatures. Bronzino. the hand-written medieval book. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. In architecture. maniera. Developing out of the Renaissance. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and crowned with thorns. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. more strictly. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. mantle An overcoat. in a specific sense. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism (It. Burgundy. which was quarried at Mount . Parmigianino. It reached to the knee or foot. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses.

Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. sleek surface. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. particularly by Michelangelo. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Carrara. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). quarried at Massa. marmi finti (It. a different design on the reverse. martyrdom (Gk. medallion In architecture. "witness. martyrion. Like the finest Imperial coins. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. having finished his training. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. an inscription running round the rim. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. proof") the sufferings. Without monetary value. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. the medal's purpose was commemorative. The pure white Carrara marble. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth.Pentelicon in Attica. which were beginning to be reverently collected. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions.

Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Her head features on Minerva's shield. for landscapes and portraits. A Dutch officer. no line drawing is employed. even grain. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. the stress on individual character. This yields a soft effect in the print. perhaps oddly. who reflected them.round the neck. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. It was. supposedly to petrify her enemies. a Gorgon. 1640. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. The process is essentially extinct today. as it were. of the person portrayed on the other side. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1467-688). The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. often anonymous. and of the many. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. c. in England. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Ludwig von Siegen. . Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 14601528). is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1452-1526/27). A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The work of these men. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. When Perseus cuts off her head. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Medusa In Greek mythology. particularly. 1425-1504). 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. In pure mezzotint. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). c.

ink and paint. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. still exist. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. executed on a very small scale.. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. saying") . Many such small versions. monochrome (Gk. e. a branch of the Franciscan order. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Francis himself. often quite highly finished. pointed headdress worn by bishops.g.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. miter A high. "word. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. painting in gouache on vellum or card. usually portraits. monokhromatos. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. motto (Ital. a painting executed in a single color. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Parmigianino (d. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. "one color") Painted in a single color.

Rome. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and Casino Massimo. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. The invention of personal mottos. In 1810 0verbeck. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). . N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. naturalism (Fr. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Berlin. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Nazarenes A group of young. named after the patron saint of painting. nave (from Lat. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and two other members moved to Rome. Pforr. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol.from the Middle Ages. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. In general. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. 1817-29). often separated from it by pillars. and is intersected by the transept. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. navis. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. 1816-17. but often insipid. Isidore. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages.

surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. moreover.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. the style of the Ancien Régime. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). "aureole") The disc or halo. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people.) . were usually old when elected. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Nymphaeum (Gk. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Popes. usually golden. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. nigellus. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nimbus (Lat. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. but their ideas continued to be influential. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). is as true as it is notorious. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. niello (Lat. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.

orders of architecture In classical architecture. fluted column and a plain capital. inborn sin. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. The earliest. capital. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. the Doric order. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. its richness of colour. walnut. such as linseed. O obsequies (Lat. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. . was the simplest.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. the three basic styles of design. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). They are seen in the form of the columns. or poppy. and its greater tonal range. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). with a sturdy. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. obsequia. a more elaborate base. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Greek goddesses of Nature. and entablatures. a small private chapel. observances") Rites performed for the dead. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. "services. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. prayer and preaching being central to their mission.

a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang.g. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. with biforate windows. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. standing at the foot of the Cross. and large windows appeared on the ground floor.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. palazzo (It. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. tradition and social structure. designed as a . of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. like cities. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. while shops came to be thought undignified.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. P pala (Ital. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Palazzo Strozzi). Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. and. the Cancelleria). Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and the main apartments above. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.

like the colonnaded vestibule. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Following Oriental patterns. Papal incentives to build. behind a sober Florentine façade. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and large households. evolved influential types. e. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. column-caps. like Genoa. panel . and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia.g.scholarly retreat. palmette. often built next to their titular churches. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Palazzo Massimi).g. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. especially after the Sack of Rome. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Rich. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Movement of patrons and architects. cornices and abutments. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. came to be applied all over Europe. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Other cities. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. In Venice.

notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. including beech. chestnut. fir. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and spanned by a single dome. fibre-board. and other synthetic materials as supports. larch. Having a circular plan. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. linden. teak. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. As successors to St Peter. so that they might have a voice at court. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. the management of clerical dues and taxation.Term in painting for a support of wood. In the 20th century cedar. Then. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. to influence popes in their favour. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. The third aspect was administrative. as it were. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. as distinct from canvas. secular rulers. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. To maintain their authority. however. or the incidence of taxation. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. and walnut. Many other types were used. On a larger scale. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and dark walnut are favourites. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. metal. and the pressure and temptations . The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. olive. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and modern painters have also used plywood. or other rigid substance. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. slate has occasionally been used as a support.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. mahogany. enforce law and order. the. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. A number of matters. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. cedar. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa.

had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. as such. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. was long in doubt. which seems so inevitable. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40).that could be applied to them. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. in spite of further absences from Rome. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. however. could supersede that of a pope. which met at Constance 1414-18. To resolve the problem of divided authority. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. however. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). in the eyes of God. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. at Avignon. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. possess an authority which. however. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. So onerous. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . the acceptance of the city as the most practical . of individuals. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. to be long delayed. if it did no serious damage to the faith. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city.as well. By then. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Colonna and Caetani. would. It was argued that such a council. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. from the point of view of its religious associations. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. As at Avignon. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. There remained. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the most appropriate .

pastor. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Parrhasius (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Passion . goat. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. less frequently pig. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Skin had been used as a writng material before this.. through lavish patronage of artists. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). 425 BC) and Apelles (c. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. as well as a governmental one.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. scholars and men of letters. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. the creation of a cultural capital. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. it has also been used for painting. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. 400-300 BC). 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. pastoral (Lat. to a world peopled by shepherds. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and with Zeuxis (c. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. in classical literature. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. However. nymphs. and other animals. and satyrs.

a small. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. "butterfly. patrician (Lat. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. pastiche (fr. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi.) or pasticcio (It. patricius. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. which focus on the Suffering Christ. ornamental building. 1478). but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. a region in north-central Italy. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility.The events leading up to Good Friday. papilio. pavilion (Lat. projecting either centrally or at both ends. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. and also the archbishop of Pisa. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. . from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. such as a garden summerhouse. Meanwhile. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. 1478. the crown of thorns. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. but not necessarily a direct copy. wealthy citizen. and so on. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. Portrayals of the Passion.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Francesco Salviati.

see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. physiognomy (Gk. perspective (Lat. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. concept or deity. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. or related elements within an art work. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). perspicere. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "hanging. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. persona. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. personification (Lat. "person". pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. .) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "nature". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. and facere. in particular the face.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. pergola (It. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. pendant (Fr. "to see through. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. physis. and gnomon. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire.

Peter's. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. to be expressed in painting. pigment (Lat. proper to take a landscape from. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.piano nobile (Ital. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. curious details. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. both real and painted. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. . Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. usually above the ground floor. remarkable for singularity. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. A pier is generally larger than a column. glue.) The main floor of a building. Rome. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. but full of variety. but may consist of a cluster of columns. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. exemplified. affording a good subject for a landscape. pigmentum. containing the public rooms. or resin to make paint. Pietà (Lat. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. for example.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.

since. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. In the 15th century. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. plague Plague. moreover. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). and capital. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. perhaps. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. It seems probable. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. pilastrum. It is often fluted. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. "pillar") A flat. the burning of 'infected' clothing. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. however. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). it is difficult to find. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. in October 1347. despite regional variations. For this reason.pilaster (Lat. and thereafter all Europe. though in less widespread. it has a base. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Thenceforward. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. for instance. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. During 1348 the Black Death. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. more sporadic outbreaks. Rocco and Sebastian. outside Tuscany. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . also used in Spain's American colonies. such as Florence and Genoa. a shaft.

more severe. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. In contrast with Aristotle. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The first phase. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The first phase. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. or simply the Plateresque. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). composition. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. the Symposium. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. utilized Mudejar ornament -. which lasted only a few decades. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. heraldic escutcheons. and unified style using massive geometric forms. are the masterworks of the second style. Diego evolved a purer. and sinuous scrolls. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Theatetus and the Laws. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. i. A student of Socrates. harmonious. or appropriateness. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Philebus. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Phaedrus. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. The second phase. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. the Renaissance-Plateresque. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. placement. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. like its successor. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Phaedo. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. correct classical orders became frequent. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Timaeus. lasted from about 1525 to 1560.e..

and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy.1577) becoming particularly popular. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. replaced Ficino's. and Agostino Steuco (c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. all of which he also translated into Latin. including those of Plotinus. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. but not completely. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and he utilized many other writings.in Plato's thought. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. near Florence. and the Chaldaic Oracles. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Iamblichus. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. partially. 1472-c. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Rather unsystematic. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Plotinus.

pluviale. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. plinth (Gk. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. polyptych (Gk. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Frequently supports a pediment. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. portico (Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. pointed arch In architecture. such as processions and consecrations. poluptukhos. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluvial (Med. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Lat. plinthos. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. where a pectoral is used to close it. Plato was read in the universities. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. column. as in classical architecture). or statue. porticus. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by .

the Carracci. Gattarnelata. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Campidoglio). include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. and the . which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Venice). Colleoni. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. and only a decorative accessory to form. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Cathedral) by Uccello. Maria Novella. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. decorating whole rooms. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. The equestrian portrait. Florence (1486-90). The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. 1328. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. inessential. Siena.sculptors such as Donatello. flattened image. Group portraits. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. was revived in the 14th century. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. psychologically more complex. The realism of the clear.. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. National Gallery). Palazzo Farnese). Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Mantua.e. Desiderio da Settignano. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Florence. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives.

bishop of Chioggia. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Savonarola and Musso. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. several of whom became bishops. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. bishop of Asti. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. however. bishops especially. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Fiamma's sermons. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. minatory exhortations. Charles Le Brun. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. and. was versed in classical and patristic . The sermons of Visdomini. not least those of statesmen and prelates. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. of the sermon as an art form. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Borromeo. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Correggio. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. together with the Dominican Savonarola. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. from the secular clergy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. are not florid in style. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. to discharge their preaching duties. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). abrasive even. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. 1494). The styles of S. primarily the mendicants. and Peter Paul Rubens." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands.

presbytery (or choir) (Gk. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. prefiguration Typology . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.rhetoric.g. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. the temptations of Adam and Christ. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. among them Holman Hunt. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). though often relatively very wide . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Louis of Toulouse (1317. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Because of the small size of predelle . predella (It. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . tapestries. and so forth. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. however. Millais and Rossetti. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Naples). central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The New Testament references in these would. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.

intended as complete works of art in themselves. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. again indicative of the purpose they served. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. the Canon of Proportion. notably David. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. Girardon.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Fragonard. which uses the square . The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the quadrature. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. proportion (Lat. 3. proportio. The following are important: 1. the golden section. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. profil perdu (Fr. 2. sculpture and architecture. and Houdon among sculptors. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. "evenness") in painting. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. these highly finished drawings.

was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. putto (It. a fifth = 2:3. It was common in Roman art. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. for example). Rome. harmonic proportions. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. a fourth = 3:4. . putti sing. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. triangulation. one half the length of the other). Unlike Pozzo. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. "boys") Plump naked little boys. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. 4. the steward or treasurer of a church. Ignazio. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). in whose celebrated ceiling in S.as a unit of measurement. provenance The origins of an art work. and 5. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest.

"four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in particular works by Masaccio. or some item connected with a saint.g. Fra Angelico and others. Donatello. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. also known as the Realist school. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. relief (Lat. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Lat. relevare. hermits. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. refectory (Med. Brunelleschi. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. in which figures are seen half round.Quattrocento (It. In 16th century Europe. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). basso rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. and high relief (alto rilievo). in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. relic (Lat. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. friars and nuns. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the great orders of monks. Botticelli. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. canons regular. the object of particular veneration. Among the . e. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. relicquiae. or the Jesuits. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance.

Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. The Benedictines. That of S. which was to become the main Italian one. although technically of secular canons. the great patriarch of Venice.contemplative orders. S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. In 1517. Bologna (1419). the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. After the repression of the Spirituals. Venice (1404). whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Benedetto. Mantua. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. and the generally moderate Observants. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Giorgio in Alga. Founded by St Romuald c. The Silvestrines. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. various groups were fused in the latter body. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. and their more institutionalized brethren. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. At the same time. In 1504. presided over by chapters general. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the most notable being S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Giustina. i. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries.e. Salvatore. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Conventuals. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Lorenzo Giustiniani. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Bernardino of Siena. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. who had no overall organization originally. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Padua. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Lucca. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. the Conventuals. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. was the congregation of S. 1012. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. it became the Cassinese congregation. The same bull . the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Maria di Fregonaia. however. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal.

Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. however. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Venice. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. The first. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. also. founded in 1535 by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Angela Merici. the Theatines. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Michele in Isola. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Filippo Neri. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Gaetano da Thiene. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. a historical period. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. founded by S.

and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. however. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. the historical reality of antiquity. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. increasingly. of 'darkness'. as well as political. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. For long. too long forgotten glories. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. of an energetic revival of interest in. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. . of scholarship. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. and competition with.century. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. All-Roundness. 1875-86). Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. because its core of energy. even Amoralism. of letters. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Thereafter. of arts. however. was so vast and potent. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. life. which had begun early in the 14th century. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and his own as potentially one of light. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it.

consist merely of a painting. the previous record . etc. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. retables can be detached and. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. and other liturgical objects. It is for this additional. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Ghent).A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. later still to Genoa. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt').) was the term chosen. congruence between. let alone a uniform. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. (3) There is not a true. mobilized nationalism. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. and is decorated with paintings. however. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. especially in the High Gothic period. candlesticks. in the more limited sense. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Though thus challenged. etc. There was an early. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. letters. of industrialization.with all its shabbiness . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. sometimes. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. Cathedral of SaintBavon. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. though sometimes of metal. The challenges are to be accepted. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). statues. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity.erased. and mass media. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. gratefully. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.

which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Originally commissioned in 976. is a typical product. . The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized.France. the St. "relief") In painting.of St Mark in Venice. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Italy. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Romanesque art. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. As the name suggests. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. almost simultaneously. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. its mood lighthearted and witry. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. rocaille (French. Germany. like 'Gothic'. Louis XV furniture. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century.in the 11th century. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Spain . With the development of freestanding altars. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. however. in several countries . the first style to achieve such international currency. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. literally. Rococo A style of design. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. richly decorated with organic forms. More usually. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). painting. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. retables have become extinct. rilievo (It. and 'Romanesque'.

such as red ochre. In addition. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. van Orley. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. the development of nationalistic pride. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. M. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Claude. Piranesi. Massys and M. Pannini and Mengs. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. they maintained. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. The aim of painting. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Q. B. . van Heemskerk. stylized design representing an open rose. Rome. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Mabuse. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona.

Sacra Conversazione (It. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. but others were the work of well-known figures. when it finally left the city it had devastated. matrimony. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. pious legend and hagiography. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). supported by lay confraternities. Subjects were nominally sacred. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. and anointing of the sick. gutted. Eastern independent. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526).greatly increased. local saints. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. multiple sets used in succession. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Lorenzo de' Medici. penance. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Many compositions were anonymous. and impoverished. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Orthodox. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and Protestant churches. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. confirmation. glance and movement . holy orders. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. the Eucharist. In the . and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. from the Old and New Testaments.expressed through gesture.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. There were no limits on time. Clement escaped into Castel S. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Written primarily in ottava rima.

designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. notably from Florence and in Germany. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. large room.early church the number of sacraments varied. was not maintained as a sacrament. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. make such strict distinctions. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. as in the Church of the Brethren. in principle. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Anglican. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. strictly speaking. sacraments. Hence. the Bentivoglio. Candidates first face west. which in the Gospel According to John.e. The theology of the Orthodox Church. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Orthodox Church does not. as an excuse to revolt. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and sacraments. Immediately following baptism. Thus. used for drawing. foot washing. Saracens . the area containing the houses of the old ruling family." which are called sacramentals.. Salt War. the sun of righteousness. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. They were still seeking aid. The chief focus of discontent.e.. The classical Protestant churches (i." sala (Ital.i. baptism and the Eucharist. chapter 13. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. replaces the Lord's Supper. the symbolic direction of Christ. the Rocca Paolina. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. It is still practiced on special occasions. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540.) Hall. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. and then face east. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. was buried under a new fortress. Lutheran. that the price of salt should be increased.

the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism.c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. sarcophagi (Gk. the Arabs or Muslims. satyr In Greek mythology. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. whose writings. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. pl. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Little known in the Middle Ages. the god of wine. wood or terracotta. 45 BC). made of stone. 160 . 210 AD). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. and many others. The publication of Latin (1562. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. sarcophagus. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. legs and horns of a goat. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).During the Middle Ages. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. human-like woodland deities with the ears. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 360 . "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . are lost. 270 BC). Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.

and. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. one of the early leaders. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. scholasticism . 1386) and his son Ladislas. from time to time both he and his opponents. for. most of whom. As a result. In northern Italy. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. while devout Christians agonized. on the other. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. but with little effect. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Charles III of Durazzo (d. while England. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Schism.for example Pieter van Laer. the Florentines.they had individual Bentnames . was called Bamboccio. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. with France and her allies Aragon. in June 1409. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Alexander V. being Frenchmen. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. However. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who recognized the Roman pope. Louis I (d. on one side. than their medieval predecessors. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement.

moral philosophy. As such. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. textual scholarship.) . None the less. the plaster had to be damped before painting. and Islamic literature. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. such passages have frequently flaked off with time.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Christian. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. as it were. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. university-based study. on one side. moreover. as it is easier to add details in this way. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. Padua. that scholasticism was left. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. if lime-water was used. and theology. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. It was because the central concerns of humanism . history and rhetoric . The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. because the secco technique is much less permanent. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Often called the burning ones. notably Aquinas.were different from those of medieval. (See also: fresco. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.The term is ambivalent. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Serenissima (Ital. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. Medieval scholars.

largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "prophetess") In antiquity. brass. Lat. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sibyls (Gk. They first appear in alpine monasteries. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Servite (Lat. there was only one Sibyl. the number gradually rose to ten. in use since the Middle Ages. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. "the most serene republic of Venice"). or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sibylla. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. at the same time. Signoria (It. Originally. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. term. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sfumato A technique. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. usually presided over by individual families. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. and the delicate. In Christian legend. which were all identical in thickness. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. sinopia . just as the male prophets of the Bible did. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.. Med. women who could prophesy. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. in the period of classical antiquity. Sibyls foretold the Birth.

Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.'Beautiful Madonnas'. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. sing. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigmata. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). especially in the flow of drapery. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. in other words. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. . and by a sweet and playful sentiment. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Stanze (Ital. "mark. as the name implies. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. It is very closely related to International Gothic. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. sotto in sù (It. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. soffit (Lat. pronounced as French. Ital. Francis of Assisi. stigma (Gk.) Wooden ceiling decoration. staffage This word. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. and. brand. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.

stucco A type of light.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). In a looser sense. The vogue for the Sublime. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). whose verses actually fabrications . The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. with that for the Picturesque. pl. both external and internal. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. supremacy .) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. studiolo. studioli (It. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. John Milton. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Indeed. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots.

tempera (Lat. London. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. 1407). and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. . the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545.and. was being decorated with frescoes. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. then being replaced by oil paint. into Italy. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). These were imported. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. both for panel painting and fresco. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). doubtless. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534.e. his own headquarters. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. Salviati and Allori. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. i. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. temperare. chiefly from Flanders. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. and in literature.Historically. or cartoons. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . The subject is underexplored. But the Italians did not make them.

pl.terracotta (It. triumphal arch. "fields. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. and profile. walls. Trajan's Column . It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "a commonplace") In literature. figure of speech. in the architecture of ancient Rome. tondo. topos.e. theme or motif. terraferma (Ital. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tondi (It. pl. vessels. and later to subdivide gable ends. topoi (Gk. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. i. topia. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. quarter face. and other surfaces. in art. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. and sculptures. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. topiary (Gk. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. widely used form. model. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon.

the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Trinity (Lat. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. time and eternity. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Disseminated soon after his death. triptych (Gk.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. after 'a countless number of virgins. Early triptychs were often portable. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. . trinitas. Battista Sforza. of virtues and of the arts.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. patriarchs and prophets. added to the glamour of the triumph. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. beside it the army of martyrs. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Meanwhile. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the Son and the Holy Spirit. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. the wars by which they were won .' Before it go the apostles. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. fame. or wings. of both sexes'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . tryptychos. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. usually an altarpiece. death. the military triumph became sublimated. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. "threefold") A painting in three sections. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. a car so brave'. as it were. "threefold") in Christianity. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. behind it. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. chastity. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. into a number of less controversial forms. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court).

first recorded in 1232. Dating from classical times. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. "drum") In classical architecture. enclosed by an arch. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. through various naturalistic devices. tusche A thick. often decorated with sculptures. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. it is usually decorated with carvings. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tromp l'oeil (Fr. viscous black ink. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tympanum (Lat. typology . The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. In medieval architecture. It incorporates Renaissance features. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome.

Dirck van Baburen (c. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).A system of classification. . U uomo universale (It. knew his former patrons. Judith. 1590-1624). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. 1610). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Their subjects are frequently religious ones. killer of Holofernes. and David. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. lanterns. where they were most accessible. such as five works devoted to the senses. In Christian thought. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).g. slayer of Goliath. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. each had access to his paintings. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. especially his half-length figural groups. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. The numerous candles. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).) The Renaissance "universal man". e. were popular with them also. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters .

Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. overturned vessels. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. it was used to decorate furniture. carriages. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and even flowers (which will soon fade). Also varietas (Lat.). It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. guttering candles. varietà (It. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. a work's richness of subject matter. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. the groin vault. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. often gold. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. and the rib vault. mixed in. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. There are a wide range of forms. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vanitas (Lat. snuff boxes and other objects. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. Parisian craftsmen. "evening") . V vanishing point In perspective. hour-glasses and clocks. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. vesper. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. Vespers (Lat.

Charity. "not exposed to winds". Covetousness. 'Assume a virtue. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Anger. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. if you have it not'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Envy. vimperga Of German origin. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. for example. The seven Virtues were: Faith. In ancient Roman dwellings. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. "life") . to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. and Sloth. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. in which the word signifies efficacy. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. pl. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. vita. vestibulum. Gluttony. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. virtù could be used. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Fortitude. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Temperance. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Lust.Prayers said in the evening. the church service at which these prayers are said. Hope. vite (Lat. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Prudence. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. and Justice. actual or latent. Vestibule (Lat.

And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Sculptors and Architects"). in fact. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. Vitruvius Pollio. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance.An account of someone's life and work.g. The wars from 1494 do. and of Ferrara. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. and appalled recognition of. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. usually when a prayer for good fortune. those of Volterera. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. a biography. published in 1550 and 1568. 1472. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. they were from the 18th century . the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. or recovery from illness has been made. 1482-84). Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Marcus (1st cent. protection from harm. 1478-80.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. . "world view") A comprehensive world view. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. usually linear. usually restorers. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print.Weltanschauung (Gr. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. during its subsequent history. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. woodcut A print made from a wood block. pompous on the floor above. treasury or a place where justice was administered. a philosophy of life. Westwerk German word. It was intended to have a variety of functions. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. gallery. based on stylization of various animal forms. "Western work of art".