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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Picasso. "architectural") Relating to structure. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. which is fused to the plate by heating. including Goya. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Lancet and Tudor. Also known as an exedra. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. the moulding around a window or door. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Degas. design. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the lowest part of the entablature). architectonic (Gk. arkhitektonikos. or organization. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arcade (Lat. piers or pillars. The adjective is apsidal. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. architrave (It. In Greek and Roman literature. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). the darker the tone).A semicircular projection. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. arcus. roofed with a half-dome. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. There are several variants of the technique. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. . but in essence the process is as follows. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. and Rouault. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks).e. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists.
archivolt (Ital. attribute (Lat. In the case of martyrs. dominate. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. archivolto. "begin. attributum." and Lat. aureole (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "front arch.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. archeiu. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "golden. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. voltus." from Gk. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).and the Comedy . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. aureolus. Ars Moriendi (Lat. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. usually a saint. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .
The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. who had been residing in France since 1305. applied to the physically . was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the god of wine and fertility. paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. The actual move was made in 1309.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. 'Captivity'. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. or baldacchino (It. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Six pontificates later. in 1377. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). that of Cardano. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Later. baldachin. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. often anecdotal. Bambocciati Group of relatively small.
and Epiphany. pope between 432 and 440. or canopy. such as those at Pisa. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. el Kantara. beggars in rags. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Parma. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Florence. . In Renaissance art they are often held by angels." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. set beneath a domical ciborium.. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and Poitiers. Lebanon.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Alg. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. France. the Temple of Venus. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Pentecost. Easter. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. AD 300). AD 273. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Croatia]. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and abject filthy things. seven. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. a visual metaphor for the number eight. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Customarily. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Baalbek. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. or forecourt. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. As eight follows the "complete" number. banderuola. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. and Nocera in Italy. built by Sixtus III. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Spalato [Split. banderole (It. or connected with..g. a church. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.
1810-1865). however. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. and increasingly elaborate decoration. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Also tunnel vault. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. . "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists.an allusion to entering the Christian life. "king's hall") a church building. 1811-1889). the dramatic use of light and shadow. in its usual location near the church door . barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. or baptismal chapels. achieved through scale. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. stoa basilike. In architecture. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Jean-François Millet (French. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. something of earlier symbolism survives. Originally. which is reserved for the clergy. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. barocco. 1817-1878). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. in the 1840s and 1850s. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Rubens). basilica (Gk. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Théodore Rousseau (French. usually facing east. southeast of Paris. were often omitted entirely. and thus a church. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Vermeer). baptisteries. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Baroque (Port. and (3) everyday realism. Constant Troyon (French. Jules Dupré (French. 1796-1875).In the 10th century. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1807-1876). 1814-1875). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches.
It takes its name from its grainy texture. like their Dutch counterparts. Biscuit porcelain. and often sentimentality. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. such as those by Diego Velázquez. such as Waldmüller. especially Spanish. were referred to by their specific contents. as is to be expected. also incorrectly called bisque. Bodegónes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes. particularly porcelain. There were. which is either not yet glazed.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). The term was mainly used up to c. or which is to be left as it is. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. up until the mid-17th century. domesticity. however. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). By association. in which still-life predominates. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. bodegón Image. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. often with food and drink. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Book of Hours . 1650 in Spain.
A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. bozzetto(Italian. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. months. and the fact that it is easily workable . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. but can also be used for painted sketches. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. made as a study for a larger picture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. By extension. durability. Chantilly).by a variety of processes. though these are more often called 'modelli'. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. varying from silverish to a rich.both hot and cold . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bozzetto Strictly speaking. . The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. or seasons. a rapid sketch in oil. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.an advantage over marble sculpture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . See flying buttress. coppery red. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. days of the week.
C cabinet A small. camera obscura . private room where works of art.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. casson. and Giotto. and work in precious metals. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Duccio. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which was often allegorical. mosaics. cameo Small relief made from gems. It also served to glorify the emperor. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. notable from Syria and Egypt. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. "a chest. box") In architecture. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). caisson (Fr. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. ceramics. its forms highly stylized. Among its most distinctive products were icons. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. glass. manuscript illuminations. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453.
usually with several branches or arms. Niepce created photography. capitellum. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantoria. pl. Structurally. candelabrum (It. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The Latin name means "dark chamber. candela. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. and jute. sing. campanile Bell tower.-N. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. usually decorated. hemp. only very rough effects will be obtainable. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Portable versions were built. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candelabra. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. as an aid to drawing. usually in a church. which was usually whitened. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually built beside or attached to a church. "candle") A large. cantorie (It. capital (Lat.Ancestor of the photographic camera. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. dating to antiquity. followed by smaller and even pocket models. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. candlestick. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.) A gallery for singers or musicians. . other materials used are cotton." and the earliest versions. by the 16th century. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar.
An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the Carmelites were originally hermits. near Grenoble.a humorous drawing or parody. cartouche . cartoon (It. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartellino. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). and humanism. or fresco. monasteries containing separate hermitages. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. At the height of the Middle Ages. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. In fresco painting. cardinalis. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. pl. New Charterhouses. tapestry. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the endeavour to attain true humanity.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. the date of the painting. The order combines reclusive and community life.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Carmelites (Lat. or a motto. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. details of the subject. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".both Italians and artists from other countries . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartone. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartellini In a painting.
Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. For reasons lost to time and tradition. a cathedral always faces west . Worked on at intervals 1504-06. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. They contained the bride's clothes. castello (It. or nave. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. linen. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest.) "castle". The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. caryatid (Gk. These lead up to the north and south transepts. putti (cupids). decorated with gilt gesso. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. palace. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. or arms of the cross. In the 15th century. Cascina. cathedral (cathedra. and many other items of her dowry.toward the setting sun. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. where the throne of the bishop is placed. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. . they were also used in other countries. cassone (It. The main body. and swags of fruit and flowers. The altar is placed at the east end. Paolo Uccello. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364.
landscapes. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. "in the centre". animal. central perspective (Lat. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. rather than intercessory functions. continually praise him. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. champlevé (Fr. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. as celestial attendants of God. centralis. Relative to the observer. a celestial winged being with human. and perspicere. buildings and figures that are being depicted. Christian. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Both the statement of St. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. . but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. and Islamic literature. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. or birdlike characteristics. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. in accordance with their distance from the observer.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. a throne bearer of the deity.
" Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. North of the Alps. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "light dark") In painting. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. the Order of the Hospital of St. Since Carolingian times. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. or for choral singing. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. choros. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Lastly. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. replacing tempera.chiaroscuro (It. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. reserved for the clergy to pray together. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. choir (Gk. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. notably Lucas Cranach (1506).
Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. undulating cornices. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and garlands. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. which was shaped like an inverted cone. an architect. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. undulating lines. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. is as typically Churrigueresque. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. balustrades. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. gilded rays. reversed volutes. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. stucco shells. and the Churrigueresque column. Sculpted clouds. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. and repetition of pattern. became the most common motif. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. a massing of carved angels. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Transparente (completed 1732). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style.intersect). and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Very few still exist in their original positions. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. ciborium . further enriching the style.
in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. ciompi. as also were those in the associated. placing one of their members. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. but self-employed. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. High Renaissance). who were raised to the status of a guild. Members of the lower classes. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Their economic condition worsened. The new government. combers. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. on July 22. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the wool carder Michele di Lando. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. craft of dyeing. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. controlled by the minor guilds. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. or achieve political representation. They were forbidden to form a trade association.and post-medieval Italy. Without being members of a guild. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. In reaction to this revolutionary .A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. beaters. Quattrocento (1400s. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. including the ciompi. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Then. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. etc. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the lower classes forcibly took over the government.
Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. with Italian scholars. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. except in cases where . They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. changed greatly from one period to the next. clair-obscur (Fr. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). cithara (Gk. literature.) An ancient musical instrument. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. however. . Concepts of the classical. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. and politics. on which strings were plucked. writers. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the ciompi guild was abolished. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. resembling a lyre. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. the black contours usually with a special line plate. scholars patiently finding. editing and translating a wide range of texts. philosophy and art . and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. philosophy. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.episode. In the 15th century Greek literature. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity).as in Italy these were dispensed with.
"leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. blue and orange. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. or "contract. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. concetti (It. intensify one another. [hora] completa. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). arch or ceiling. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. when set side by side. condottieri (It. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. concetto. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. terrorized the country. condottiere. as well as from the Bible. . cognoscente (It. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. literature or music. compline (Lat. cognoscenti. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. The name was derived from the condotta. those with refined tastes. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. a work's underlying theme. Coffered ceilings.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. the church service at which these prayers are said. Green and red. pl. occasionally made of wood. pl. sing. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches.
the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Francesco Sforza. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. disappeared. By the 16th century. By the end of the 14th century. Muzio's son. which spread in the 15th century. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. .e. Umbria. often called compagnie or. flagellant confraternities. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. in Venice. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. clergy. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Mark (1432). Spanish. primarily for syphilitics. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. often under the direction of. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. i. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Carmagnola. With no goal beyond personal gain. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. who won control of Milan in 1450. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. scuole. and German--the condottieri. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. and his rival Braccio da Montone. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. or with the spiritual assistance of. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi.devastating Romagna. in the service of Naples. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. in the service of Perugia.e. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Toward the end of the 15th century. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. and Tuscany. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. convents of convertite. Martino). The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. confraternities Confraternities. i. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century.
"outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. In medieval painting. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Dorotea in Trastevere. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . the Florentine Neri. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor.i. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. e. contours were initially regular. in Florence. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. contour. the highest political decision-making body in Venice.e.g. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. and refuges for maidens. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. notwithstanding their location. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. reformed prostitutes. which accompanied condemned prisoners. however. Later. Confraternities. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). While the Doge ranked above the Council. while the Venetian government. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. contour (Fr. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. but sometimes had their own premises. contrapposto (It. e. founded c. 1514 in S.g. flat outlines.
Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. They are often ornamented. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. a bracket of stone. 1100 and 1300. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. corbel In architecture. 1280). an engraving produced in this way. did not achieve any lasting results. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. The style spread as far as England. cuprum. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. conventicle (Lat. declining moral standards. Lat. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist.weight on one leg. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. . Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. aes cyprium. started the process of inner reform in the Church. conventiculurn. Reform programs. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. whose names are inscribed on several works. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. large cornice or other feature. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer.
Death. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. reedy sound. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. or "scourged. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. a small dome. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Next. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. particularly among the Persians. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. i.e. Seleucids. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. cupola (Lat. the most famous victim of crucifixion. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Usually. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Jews. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Carthaginians. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Constantine the Great. D dado . crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. "small vat") In architecture. cupula. the condemned man. the first Christian emperor. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. There were various methods of performing the execution. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. after being whipped. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. a semi-circular vault. An ancestor of the oboe.
which was help to be the basis of all art. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. The term stresses not the literal drawing. an expressive use of nature. deacon (Gk. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Germany. diptychos.g. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Passau. diptychum. e. diakonos. danse macabre The dance of death. decorated diffrently from the upper section. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. design") In Renaissance art theory. but the concept behind an art work. usually in matching pairs. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). a favorite late medieval picture subject. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. often an altarpiece. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. disegno (It. Anglican and Orthodox churches. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Deësis (Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. "drawing. diptych (Lat. and Linz possessed common characteristics.
donator. distemper (Lat. Ordo Praedictatorum. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . donor (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. distemperare. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition.fully realize. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. formerly worn under armour. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. also used it on canvas. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. "to mix. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. doublet A male garment. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. though a few artists. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. dome in architecture. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. such as we still use today. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.Thomas Aquinas. Dominicans (Lat. when painters took to working out of doors. The studio easel. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). a 19th-century invention. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). is a heavy piece of furniture. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. which runs on castors or wheels. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions.
engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. in art. and architecture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. bound and flogged. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Hence. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. full face. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. and the cornice. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. sculpture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. eschatology (Gk. the frieze. ensemble (Fr. Ecce Homo (Lat. "last". entablature In classical architecture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. sometimes combining panel painting. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. eschaton. fresco. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. John (19. en face In portraiture. a depiction of Jesus. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. and logos. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. "word") . epitaph (Gk. It consists of the architrave.
Italy. 4500 BCE. Germany. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which is called "maiolica. which was developed in the Near East ca. celebrated with bread and wine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Equated with the Greek god Pan. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. and Scandinavia. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. fields and livestock. Eucharist (Gk. . It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle." and charis. notably Cardinal Pole. which was famous for maiolica. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. farmers. and is named for Faenza. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Saints Ambrose. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Giovanni Morone. protector of shepherds. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. eu. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Jerome. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. which is called "delftware. and of the last things. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy.death and resurrection. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Vittoria Colonna. "good. particularly ware made in France. Spain. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Marcantonio Flaminio. Augustine. Contarini.
they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. war. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance.festoni (It. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting.8). drying to a slightly different tint. and these areas. 2 . a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. famine and death. and flowers suspended in a loop. a swag. sword and set of balances. leaves. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. can in time be seen. The colour of his horse is white. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Committed to charitable and missionary work. black and dun. Only a small area can be painted in a day. that of the others red. frescos in Italy . Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Their attributes are the bow. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. fresco (It. fluted of a column or pillar. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. such as plague. a technique known as a secco fresco. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. relaxed. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth.
or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. are genres of painting. G Garter. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Genius in classical Rome. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Final details. In art from the classical period onwards. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster.Save in Venice. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. usually childish figure. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. where the atmosphere was too damp. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. The technique of buon fresco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. for example. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. landscape and portraiture. a person's invisible tutelary god.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. covings and ceilings. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. genre In a broad sense. or true fresco. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . the intonaco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or fresco secco.
The nature of true gloria was much discussed. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. how it differed from notoriety. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. whether it must be connected with the public good. Gobelins . as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). in portraits and on tombs. Bernardo Daddi.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. As such. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and as spurring on men of action. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Maso di Banco. as well as writers and artists. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Maria Gloriosa). glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics.
In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. . played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. golden section (Lat. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. Paris. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). who appointed Lebrun Director. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. In other Italian cities. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. and although it reopened in 1699. still in existence today. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. thereafter it made only tapestries. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Golden Fleece. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe.French tapestry manufactory. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. This ratio is approximately 8:13. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties.
which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). In particular. from the 13th until the 17th century. that the effects are to be felt. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Denis. Amiens. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. or the influence of one building. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. In sculpture and in painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Nevertheless. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. painting. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. 1270. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. the superficial particularities of form. c. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. There is a transcendental quality. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. and lies much deeper than. In thinking of Nicola (d. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. Gothic Gothic. The artistic.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. 1200 and c. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. . painting. like the cultural and commercial. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of.
known also as poster paint and designer's colour. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). without visible brush marks. the beau idéal of the French. occasionally. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Dubuffet. It is thinned with water for applying. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. to silk. are but different appellations of the same thing'. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. with sable.and hog-hair brushes. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Canaletto. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. the Netherlands. Honey. notably in the writings of Bellori. if required. Such tours often took a year or more. Klee. and the great style. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Pannini. sometimes in the company of a tutor. These qualities. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and Piranesi. and above all Italy. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. starch. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. . and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. genius. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. chiefly to France. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. to white or tinted paper and card and. and taste among the English. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and Morris Graves. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property.
usually gray. In Florence. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. brother of Louis IX. then as now. became an abiding feature of European politics. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. c. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. After the War of the Eight Saints. gris. exclude drawing from this definition. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. . underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. however. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. after this. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. drawing and the various forms of engraving. and Waiblingen. Some writers. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. In another sense. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. 1216. grisaille (Fr. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. the parties taking a multitude of local names. From 1266 to 1268. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. to Provence and Paris. which had recruited most of the merchant class.e. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. In the context of the fine arts. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. through central Italy. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. including text as well as illustrations.
and greater hostility between master and man. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. heraldry (Fr. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In Italy they go back a long way. In Florence. print or painting. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. trades. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. such as Brescia and Vicenza. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. "herald") . a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow." from Fr. héraut. In some cities.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. surgeons. and provided assistance to members in need. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. [science] héraldique. trade or profession (painters. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. as some did). they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. goldsmiths. notably Florence in the 14th century. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. The guilds were not equal. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. for example. or professions. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In 16th century Venice. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. but in time they acquired other functions. The guild also monitored standards of work. In some towns. Guilds were also patrons of art. H hatching In a drawing. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. "[knowledge of] heraldry.
which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. from the start. and regarded themselves as forming. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy).the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. as Antichrist. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. normative for churchmen. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. head of the 'carnal Church'. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. indeed. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. However. the Waldensian. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. By contrast. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. together with brethren north of the Alps. The main impact of the .e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. one great missionary community. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. the Cathars were an anti-church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. i. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. they were condemned in 1184. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. d. while others merged with the Waldensians. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. with the rules governing their use. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement.
The 19th-century romantic movements of England. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. B. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. and classical literature. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. In humanism. S. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . humanus. working from 1825 to 1875. Jasper Cropsey. in his earlier work. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Morse. history (usually classical history). Church. Durand. Frederick E. J. Henry Inman. George Inness. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. and. my spouse'. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Thomas Cole. F. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. At the same time.movement upon the laity was in southern France. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Germany. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. hortus conclusus (Lat. humanism (Lat. F. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. the emancipation of man from God took place. mainly in the south. American painters were studying in Rome. Kensett. its subjects considered morally elevating. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
it denominates a kind of behaviour. and they are also depicted on their own. the rooster of Peter's denial. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. etc. the scourge that was used in the scourging. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. invention. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. trecento rococo and lyrical style. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. are also used in art literature.g. Donatallo. usually the donors of a work of art.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. investiture . the hammer. or of other saints. the pincers. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. and the ladder. Human figures. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the veil of St. there are representations of the bundle of rods. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. The terms court style. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). with many further details added. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. the ability to create. In the second half of the 14th century. Derived from classical rhetoric. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. inventio (It. beautiful style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. soft style. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Veronica. originality. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. For instance.
Nicolaes Berchem. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. although they are usually called Romanists. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. bathed in a golden haze. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). principally Dutch.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. who traveled in Italy and. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Both and Berchem. . and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. The Both brothers. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. generally Dutch or Flemish. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Andries and Jan Both. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. of Utrecht. Jerome's writings. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. and Jan Asselijn. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Upon his return to Holland. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works.
These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). John of Jerusalem . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. As their military role grew.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Archbishop of Genoa. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). encouraged by the Crusades. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. especially one at which the Bible is read. the rite of communion is based on this. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. lectern A reading stand or desk. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).1519). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. liberal arts . and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.
loggia (It. John F.grammar. together with identifying attributes (e. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. poetic atmosphere. "little moon") In architecture. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. often sublime. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. the quadrivium. Martin J. first the preparatory trivium . . then the basis of a philosophical training. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Church (1826-1900). lunette (Fr. commemorating a marriage. It is related to. painting or sculptural decoration. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. often standing in markets and town squares. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. astronomy and music.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. comprising arithmetic. that may contain a window. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). rhetoric and dialectic. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Pythagoras for arithmetic. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. through the use of aerial perspective.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. that could be used for public ceremonies. and Frederick E.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Tubal for music). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). a semicircular space.g. Kensett (1816-1872).g. Heade (1819-1904). geometry. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. its roof supported by columns. Maria Novella in Florence).
When white is used for painting. originally sung without accompaniment. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. antimony yellow. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. mandorla (It. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and iron red. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). copper green. magna mater (Lat. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. usually for the lute. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. the goddess Cybele. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. but they painted genre scenes. active mainly in Florence c. for example. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. "great mother") A mother goddess. manganese purple. being written. 1855–65. and however bright their lighting effects. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. and accompaniments. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. and portraits as well as landscapes. particularly such ware produced in Italy. Specifically. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. madrigal A part song. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. "almond") . there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. historical subjects. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).
it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. depending on the social class of the wearer. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Parmigianino. in a specific sense. which was quarried at Mount . Developing out of the Renaissance. the hand-written medieval book. In architecture. Flanders. worn open. and literary texts. Burgundy.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. and crowned with thorns. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. In Mannerist painting. illuminated initials and miniatures. maniera. Mannerism (It. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. marked by flagellation. mantle An overcoat. often ornamented with decorative borders. Bronzino. El Greco and Tintoretto. the Codex manuscriptus. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. more strictly. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. bound. ecclesiastical. complex and crowded compositions. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. strong. It reached to the knee or foot. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. "manner. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration.
medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. martyrdom (Gk. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. an inscription running round the rim. martyrion.Pentelicon in Attica. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. "witness. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. particularly by Michelangelo. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . a large ornamental plaquc or disc. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. proof") the sufferings. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. marmi finti (It. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Without monetary value. which were beginning to be reverently collected. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. The pure white Carrara marble. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. medallion In architecture. having finished his training. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. the medal's purpose was commemorative. quarried at Massa. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Carrara. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Like the finest Imperial coins. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. sleek surface. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. a different design on the reverse.
as it were. Medusa In Greek mythology. 1452-1526/27). Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. even grain. Ludwig von Siegen. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. . often anonymous. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. particularly. who reflected them.round the neck. The process is essentially extinct today. supposedly to petrify her enemies. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. and of the many. A Dutch officer. Her head features on Minerva's shield. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. perhaps oddly. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. This yields a soft effect in the print. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. The work of these men. 1467-688). is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 1425-1504). sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the stress on individual character. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. of the person portrayed on the other side. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. a Gorgon. c. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 14601528). in England. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. for landscapes and portraits. When Perseus cuts off her head. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. It was. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1640. In pure mezzotint. no line drawing is employed. c.
Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. ink and paint. "one color") Painted in a single color.g. miter A high. a painting executed in a single color. often quite highly finished. saying") .miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. pointed headdress worn by bishops. motto (Ital. Francis himself. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. monokhromatos. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. executed on a very small scale. monochrome (Gk. usually portraits. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. a branch of the Franciscan order. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. e. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. still exist. Many such small versions. "word. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.. painting in gouache on vellum or card. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Parmigianino (d.
and Casino Massimo. Nazarenes A group of young. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Pforr. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and is intersected by the transept. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. In general. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The invention of personal mottos. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. In 1810 0verbeck. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Berlin. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. often separated from it by pillars. and two other members moved to Rome. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. . It may have parallel aisles on each side. Isidore.from the Middle Ages. 1817-29). naturalism (Fr. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. nave (from Lat. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. but often insipid. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Rome. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. navis. 1816-17. named after the patron saint of painting. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy.
and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). is as true as it is notorious. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). but their ideas continued to be influential. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. moreover. usually golden. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Nymphaeum (Gk. niello (Lat. were usually old when elected. the style of the Ancien Régime. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). nimbus (Lat. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Popes. "aureole") The disc or halo.) . To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. nigellus. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.
fluted column and a plain capital. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. and entablatures. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. a small private chapel. its richness of colour. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. and its greater tonal range. inborn sin. "services. orders of architecture In classical architecture. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The earliest. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). the Doric order. walnut. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. O obsequies (Lat. observances") Rites performed for the dead. or poppy. the three basic styles of design. a more elaborate base. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. obsequia. . Greek goddesses of Nature. such as linseed. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. was the simplest. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. with a sturdy. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach.
and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. P pala (Ital. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. and. standing at the foot of the Cross. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. with biforate windows.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. tradition and social structure. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. designed as a . On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and the main apartments above. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Palazzo Strozzi). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.g. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Usually pointed or rounded at the top.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. palazzo (It. like cities. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. the Cancelleria). 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. while shops came to be thought undignified. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition).
g. palmette. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and large households. e. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements.scholarly retreat. came to be applied all over Europe. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Other cities. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Palazzo Massimi). It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. like Genoa. cornices and abutments. often built next to their titular churches. Papal incentives to build. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Following Oriental patterns. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Movement of patrons and architects. evolved influential types. like the colonnaded vestibule. especially after the Sack of Rome. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. panel . behind a sober Florentine façade. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Rich. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s).g. column-caps. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and Palladio's in Vicenza. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. In Venice. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485).
and walnut. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and modern painters have also used plywood. mahogany. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. as it were. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. as distinct from canvas. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. As successors to St Peter. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. slate has occasionally been used as a support.Term in painting for a support of wood. secular rulers. and dark walnut are favourites. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. cedar. however. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. linden. the. Then. to influence popes in their favour. chestnut. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. enforce law and order. larch. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. or the incidence of taxation. To maintain their authority. In the 20th century cedar. so that they might have a voice at court. On a larger scale. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. The third aspect was administrative. teak. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Many other types were used. Having a circular plan. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the management of clerical dues and taxation.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. olive. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. fibre-board. and spanned by a single dome. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. or other rigid substance. metal. and other synthetic materials as supports. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and the pressure and temptations . including beech. fir. A number of matters. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other.
above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. could supersede that of a pope. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. To resolve the problem of divided authority. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. in spite of further absences from Rome. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. By then. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. as such.that could be applied to them. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. if it did no serious damage to the faith. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power.as well. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. was long in doubt. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. It was argued that such a council. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. at Avignon. the most appropriate . to be long delayed. So onerous. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. however. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. possess an authority which. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). from the point of view of its religious associations. There remained. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. which seems so inevitable. Colonna and Caetani.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). of individuals. would. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). however. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. however. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. As at Avignon. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. in the eyes of God. which met at Constance 1414-18. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. considered perfectly suitable for the role played .
not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Passion . pastor. pastoral (Lat. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. scholars and men of letters. 400-300 BC).. it has also been used for painting. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. through lavish patronage of artists. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. nymphs. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. However. and with Zeuxis (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. less frequently pig. and satyrs. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. in classical literature. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. and other animals. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. the creation of a cultural capital. as well as a governmental one. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. goat. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Parrhasius (c. to a world peopled by shepherds.
papilio. patricius. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. patrician (Lat. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. pastiche (fr. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. such as a garden summerhouse. ornamental building. "butterfly. hence tent") A lightly constructed.) or pasticcio (It. and also the archbishop of Pisa. the crown of thorns. a small. but not necessarily a direct copy. Francesco Salviati. pavilion (Lat. which focus on the Suffering Christ. wealthy citizen. Portrayals of the Passion. a prominent section of a monumental façade. 1478). and so on. Meanwhile. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. . Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.The events leading up to Good Friday. projecting either centrally or at both ends. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. a region in north-central Italy. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. 1478.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.
see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and gnomon. perspective (Lat. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. or related elements within an art work. "person". "nature". "to see through. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. in particular the face. personification (Lat. pergola (It. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. . concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. perspicere. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "hanging. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. physiognomy (Gk. physis. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). persona. pendant (Fr. concept or deity.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and facere. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people.
Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. pigmentum. . Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). containing the public rooms. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. both real and painted. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.piano nobile (Ital. to be expressed in painting. exemplified. Rome. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. affording a good subject for a landscape. A pier is generally larger than a column. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. proper to take a landscape from. pigment (Lat. Pietà (Lat. but full of variety. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Peter's. remarkable for singularity. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. glue. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. or resin to make paint. usually above the ground floor. for example. curious details.) The main floor of a building. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye.
swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. For this reason. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . a shaft. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Rocco and Sebastian. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. the burning of 'infected' clothing.pilaster (Lat. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. for instance. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. since. such as Florence and Genoa. it is difficult to find. it has a base. and capital. despite regional variations. In the 15th century. more sporadic outbreaks. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. moreover. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. plague Plague. however. It seems probable. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. in October 1347. pilastrum. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). "pillar") A flat. Thenceforward. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. During 1348 the Black Death. perhaps. though in less widespread. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). also used in Spain's American colonies. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. outside Tuscany. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. and thereafter all Europe. It is often fluted. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith.
harmonious. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The second phase. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Philebus. The first phase. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and unified style using massive geometric forms. In contrast with Aristotle. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Theatetus and the Laws. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The first phase. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. or simply the Plateresque. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488).. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. utilized Mudejar ornament -. i. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. more severe. heraldic escutcheons. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings.e. like its successor. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. correct classical orders became frequent. composition. Phaedo. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. are the masterworks of the second style. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Diego evolved a purer. Timaeus. placement. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. which lasted only a few decades. and sinuous scrolls. Phaedrus. or appropriateness. A student of Socrates. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. the Symposium. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.
his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. including those of Plotinus. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Iamblichus. Plotinus. near Florence. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance.in Plato's thought. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. all of which he also translated into Latin. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. replaced Ficino's. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. partially. systematized and added to what Plato had done. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. A new Latin translation. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Rather unsystematic. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1472-c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and Agostino Steuco (c. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century.1577) becoming particularly popular. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. but not completely. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. and he utilized many other writings.
It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. plinth (Gk. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pluvial (Med. where a pectoral is used to close it. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pointed arch In architecture. as in classical architecture). poluptukhos. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. or statue. pluviale. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Frequently supports a pediment. porticus. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. such as processions and consecrations. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Plato was read in the universities. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Lat. column. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. portico (Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. plinthos. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. polyptych (Gk.
pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.. decorating whole rooms. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.sculptors such as Donatello. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Desiderio da Settignano. Cathedral) by Uccello. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Maria Novella. Colleoni. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546.e. Gattarnelata. Siena. flattened image. was revived in the 14th century. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Florence. Mantua. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. 1328. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. the Carracci. psychologically more complex. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. and the . the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. and only a decorative accessory to form. The equestrian portrait. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The realism of the clear. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Farnese). Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Florence (1486-90). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Venice). inessential. Campidoglio). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Group portraits. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. National Gallery).
Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Charles Le Brun. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. minatory exhortations. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. bishops especially. abrasive even. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The sermons of Visdomini. primarily the mendicants. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. and Peter Paul Rubens. from the secular clergy. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. 1494). The styles of S. Fiamma's sermons. several of whom became bishops. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. bishop of Chioggia. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. however. of the sermon as an art form. and. to discharge their preaching duties. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Correggio. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Savonarola and Musso. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). not least those of statesmen and prelates. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishop of Asti. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. together with the Dominican Savonarola." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Borromeo." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. was versed in classical and patristic . by contrast with the mendicant preachers.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. are not florid in style.
Naples). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. prefiguration Typology . The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. and so forth.g. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. among them Holman Hunt. Millais and Rossetti.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.rhetoric.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. tapestries. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. though often relatively very wide . the temptations of Adam and Christ. Because of the small size of predelle . stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. however. predella (It. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Louis of Toulouse (1317. The New Testament references in these would. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.
which uses the square . again indicative of the purpose they served. Fragonard. Girardon. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. projecting shelf on which to kneel. and Houdon among sculptors. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. profil perdu (Fr. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. sculpture and architecture. the quadrature. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. Prix de Rome A scholarship. these highly finished drawings. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. proportion (Lat. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. 3. intended as complete works of art in themselves. "evenness") in painting. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. notably David. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the golden section. The following are important: 1. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. 2. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666).The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the Canon of Proportion. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. proportio.
putto (It. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. Rome. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. harmonic proportions. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Unlike Pozzo. a fifth = 2:3. provenance The origins of an art work. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. Ignazio. triangulation. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo.as a unit of measurement. 4. and 5. one half the length of the other). for example). It was common in Roman art. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. a fourth = 3:4. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putti sing. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). "boys") Plump naked little boys. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. the steward or treasurer of a church. . quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size.
in which figures are seen half round. Lat. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. basso rilievo). or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or some item connected with a saint. in particular works by Masaccio. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Fra Angelico and others. or the Jesuits. relief (Lat. Brunelleschi. hermits. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in which figures are almost detached from their background. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Botticelli. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. relevare. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. In 16th century Europe. friars and nuns. Among the . refectory (Med. with the Anglican Church developing in England.Quattrocento (It. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relicquiae. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). also known as the Realist school. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. canons regular. Donatello.g. relic (Lat. e. and high relief (alto rilievo). the great orders of monks. the object of particular veneration.
although technically of secular canons. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Lorenzo Giustiniani. various groups were fused in the latter body. 1012. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Bernardino of Siena. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. and the generally moderate Observants. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations.contemplative orders. Salvatore. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Giorgio in Alga. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. it became the Cassinese congregation. who had no overall organization originally. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Maria di Fregonaia. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. which was to become the main Italian one. was the congregation of S. the great patriarch of Venice. their resources being in the hands of trustees. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Benedetto. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S.e. Padua. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. After the repression of the Spirituals. In 1517. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. In 1504. Mantua. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. S. and their more institutionalized brethren. Venice (1404). At the same time. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. That of S. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. i. Lucca. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the Conventuals. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The Benedictines. however. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Giustina. Bologna (1419). the most notable being S. Founded by St Romuald c. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. The Conventuals. The same bull . presided over by chapters general. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. The Silvestrines.
the Theatines. founded in 1535 by S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. founded by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. however. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. also. Gaetano da Thiene.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Angela Merici. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The first. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Filippo Neri. however. a historical period. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Gerolamo Aemiliani. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Venice. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Michele in Isola. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century.
was so vast and potent. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. and his own as potentially one of light. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. however. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. too long forgotten glories. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. For long. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done.century. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. . as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. 1875-86). of scholarship. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. increasingly. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. as well as political. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. even Amoralism. of an energetic revival of interest in. All-Roundness. however. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Thereafter. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. life. of letters. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. of arts. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of 'darkness'. the historical reality of antiquity. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. and competition with. because its core of energy. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. which had begun early in the 14th century.
of industrialization. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. retables can be detached and. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Though thus challenged. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. let alone a uniform. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. etc.with all its shabbiness . mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). later still to Genoa. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. gratefully. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. in the more limited sense. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Cathedral of SaintBavon. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. sometimes. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. statues. and other liturgical objects. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. though sometimes of metal. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. and mass media. (3) There is not a true. The challenges are to be accepted. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. etc. and is decorated with paintings. Ghent).) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). It is for this additional. consist merely of a painting. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. There was an early. letters. especially in the High Gothic period. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. mobilized nationalism. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. congruence between.erased. however. the previous record .A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. candlesticks. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.) was the term chosen.
often considered the last stage of the Baroque. is a typical product. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. literally. . Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. painting. and architecture dominating the 18th century.of St Mark in Venice. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Germany. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). its mood lighthearted and witry. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. With the development of freestanding altars. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. More usually. As the name suggests. the first style to achieve such international currency. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. like 'Gothic'. "relief") In painting. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806).in the 11th century. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. and 'Romanesque'. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. however. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Spain . the St. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. retables have become extinct. Louis XV furniture. Originally commissioned in 976.France. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. in several countries . richly decorated with organic forms. rocaille (French. Italy. Rococo A style of design. rilievo (It. almost simultaneously. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Romanesque art.
usually as a result of a visit to Italy. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Piranesi. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. . romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. The aim of painting. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Mabuse. Claude. Pannini and Mengs. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Q. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. M. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Massys and M. van Heemskerk. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. van Orley. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. B. stylized design representing an open rose. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the development of nationalistic pride. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. they maintained. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. In addition. such as red ochre. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Rome. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin.
Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. penance. the Eucharist.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy.expressed through gesture. holy orders. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. and Lorenzo de' Medici. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Clement escaped into Castel S. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). confirmation. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526).greatly increased. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Subjects were nominally sacred. local saints. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. gutted. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and impoverished. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Written primarily in ottava rima. In the . a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Sacra Conversazione (It. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Many compositions were anonymous. supported by lay confraternities. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. There were no limits on time. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). matrimony. Eastern independent. Orthodox. multiple sets used in succession. and Protestant churches. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. from the Old and New Testaments. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. but others were the work of well-known figures. and anointing of the sick. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). pious legend and hagiography. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. glance and movement . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528.
. foot washing." sala (Ital. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. the symbolic direction of Christ. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Anglican." which are called sacramentals. as an excuse to revolt. Thus.e.. They were still seeking aid. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. sacraments. large room. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Bentivoglio. was buried under a new fortress. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.e. was not maintained as a sacrament. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. and sacraments. Saracens . Salt War.early church the number of sacraments varied. baptism and the Eucharist. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. It is still practiced on special occasions. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and then face east. Immediately following baptism. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. notably from Florence and in Germany. in principle. Lutheran. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.i. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. replaces the Lord's Supper. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. The theology of the Orthodox Church. The classical Protestant churches (i. the Orthodox Church does not. the sun of righteousness. as in the Church of the Brethren. that the price of salt should be increased. strictly speaking. the Rocca Paolina. Candidates first face west. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. used for drawing. The chief focus of discontent. chapter 13.) Hall. Hence. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. which in the Gospel According to John. make such strict distinctions. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.
Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Little known in the Middle Ages. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. pl. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. sarcophagi (Gk. legs and horns of a goat. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 45 BC). made of stone. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 270 BC). are lost. and many others. sarcophagus. human-like woodland deities with the ears. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). whose writings.c. wood or terracotta. the god of wine. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. satyr In Greek mythology. 360 . The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 210 AD).During the Middle Ages. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. The publication of Latin (1562. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 160 . the Arabs or Muslims. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available.
while devout Christians agonized. In northern Italy. was called Bamboccio. However. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Alexander V. from time to time both he and his opponents.they had individual Bentnames . on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. on the other. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. on one side. who recognized the Roman pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Schism. but with little effect. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. who had the support of the Avignon pope. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. while England. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Louis I (d. being Frenchmen. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). with France and her allies Aragon. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402.for example Pieter van Laer. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. than their medieval predecessors. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). one of the early leaders. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). As a result. for. in June 1409. 1386) and his son Ladislas. the Florentines. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. scholasticism . 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. most of whom.
rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. history and rhetoric . and theology. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. (See also: fresco. Christian. on one side. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. As such.The term is ambivalent. Serenissima (Ital. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water.) . notably Aquinas. Padua. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. moreover. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. and Islamic literature. if lime-water was used. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.moral philosophy. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Often called the burning ones. None the less. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. It was because the central concerns of humanism . textual scholarship. as it is easier to add details in this way. as it were. university-based study. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.were different from those of medieval. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). that scholasticism was left. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Medieval scholars. the plaster had to be damped before painting. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.
Signoria (It. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. the number gradually rose to ten. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. there was only one Sibyl. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. in the period of classical antiquity. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. and the delicate. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Originally. They first appear in alpine monasteries.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. sibyls (Gk. at the same time. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. brass. In Christian legend. women who could prophesy. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. an expression of Venetian self-confidence.. sibylla. "prophetess") In antiquity. in use since the Middle Ages. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sinopia . term. sfumato A technique. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Lat. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Servite (Lat. usually presided over by individual families. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. which were all identical in thickness. Med. Sibyls foretold the Birth.
Francis of Assisi. sing. as the name implies. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. Ital. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. especially in the flow of drapery. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. .. in other words. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.'Beautiful Madonnas'. "mark. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. It is very closely related to International Gothic. Stanze (Ital. stigma (Gk.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . pronounced as French. stigmata. and. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. soffit (Lat. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. brand. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault.) Wooden ceiling decoration. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. sotto in sù (It. staffage This word.
Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. with that for the Picturesque. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. In a looser sense. studiolo. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. pl. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Indeed. supremacy . The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. studioli (It. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. both external and internal. stucco A type of light. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The vogue for the Sublime. whose verses actually fabrications . John Milton.
doubtless. . tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. London. i. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling.e. 1407). his own headquarters. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). temperare. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. was being decorated with frescoes. tempera (Lat. into Italy. both for panel painting and fresco. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . Salviati and Allori. The subject is underexplored. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now.Historically. But the Italians did not make them. chiefly from Flanders. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. These were imported. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. or cartoons. then being replaced by oil paint. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. and in literature.and. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c.
in art. widely used form. theme or motif. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. and profile. "a commonplace") In literature. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "fields. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. terraferma (Ital. Trajan's Column . It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. triumphal arch. topiary (Gk.e. topia. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). tondo. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. vessels. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. and sculptures. topos. pl. quarter face. pl. tondi (It. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. and later to subdivide gable ends. and other surfaces. figure of speech. walls. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.terracotta (It. i. model. topoi (Gk. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. in the architecture of ancient Rome.
the wars by which they were won . The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Trinity (Lat. "threefold") A painting in three sections. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. . as it were. triptych (Gk. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Battista Sforza. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. usually an altarpiece. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. the military triumph became sublimated. tryptychos. of virtues and of the arts. Disseminated soon after his death. into a number of less controversial forms. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. after 'a countless number of virgins. time and eternity. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. beside it the army of martyrs. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. the Son and the Holy Spirit. patriarchs and prophets. chastity. Early triptychs were often portable. of both sexes'. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. a car so brave'. added to the glamour of the triumph.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Meanwhile. death. fame. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. or wings. "threefold") in Christianity. trinitas.' Before it go the apostles. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . behind it.
the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. viscous black ink. tromp l'oeil (Fr. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. through various naturalistic devices. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "drum") In classical architecture. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. In medieval architecture.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tympanum (Lat. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. enclosed by an arch. first recorded in 1232. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. tusche A thick. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Dating from classical times. It incorporates Renaissance features. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. often decorated with sculptures. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. typology . Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. it is usually decorated with carvings. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics.
but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. knew his former patrons. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Judith. were popular with them also. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New.Dirck van Baburen (c. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. each had access to his paintings. e. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.) The Renaissance "universal man". a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. In Christian thought. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. 1590-1624). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).A system of classification. where they were most accessible. The numerous candles.g. . especially his half-length figural groups. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. 1610). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. lanterns. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. slayer of Goliath. killer of Holofernes. such as five works devoted to the senses. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and David.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. U uomo universale (It. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.
vanitas (Lat. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. carriages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. and even flowers (which will soon fade). and the rib vault. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. the groin vault. "evening") . vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. V vanishing point In perspective. hour-glasses and clocks. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. snuff boxes and other objects. vesper. overturned vessels. There are a wide range of forms. it was used to decorate furniture. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. mixed in. guttering candles. Vespers (Lat.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. varietà (It. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death.). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Also varietas (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Parisian craftsmen. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. often gold. a work's richness of subject matter.
Envy. Prudence. and Justice.Prayers said in the evening. vita. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. the church service at which these prayers are said. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Charity. "life") . Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Anger. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. in which the word signifies efficacy. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. vimperga Of German origin. Covetousness. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. and Sloth. virtù could be used. 'Assume a virtue. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. vite (Lat. Gluttony. vestibulum. Lust. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Vestibule (Lat. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Fortitude. actual or latent. pl. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). if you have it not'. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. "not exposed to winds". as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. In ancient Roman dwellings. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Hope. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. for example. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Temperance.
by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. or recovery from illness has been made. they were from the 18th century . of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. 1482-84). volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. 1472. a biography. Marcus (1st cent. 1478-80. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and appalled recognition of. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Vitruvius Pollio. usually when a prayer for good fortune. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. The wars from 1494 do. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. published in 1550 and 1568. those of Volterera. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and of Ferrara. in fact. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters.g.An account of someone's life and work. protection from harm. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Sculptors and Architects").
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. treasury or a place where justice was administered. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. usually restorers. woodcut A print made from a wood block. a philosophy of life. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Westwerk German word. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms.Weltanschauung (Gr. usually linear. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. pompous on the floor above. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. "Western work of art". gallery. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. . It was intended to have a variety of functions. "world view") A comprehensive world view. during its subsequent history.
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