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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
including Goya. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. The adjective is apsidal. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Degas. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. which is fused to the plate by heating. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. architectonic (Gk. architrave (It. In Greek and Roman literature. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns.A semicircular projection. roofed with a half-dome. design.e. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the lowest part of the entablature). arcade (Lat. piers or pillars. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. the darker the tone). or organization. Lancet and Tudor. There are several variants of the technique. arkhitektonikos. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. . The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. the moulding around a window or door. arcus. Also known as an exedra. "architectural") Relating to structure. but in essence the process is as follows. and Rouault. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Picasso. at the east end of a church behind the altar.
drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself." and Lat. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). voltus. In the case of martyrs. usually a saint. archeiu. attribute (Lat. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. aureolus. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. archivolto. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: ." from Gk. Ars Moriendi (Lat. "golden. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century.archivolt (Ital. "front arch. aureole (Lat. dominate. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "begin.and the Comedy . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attributum. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. Dante's Vita nuova . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.
Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). that of Cardano. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Bambocciati Group of relatively small.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Later. The actual move was made in 1309. who had been residing in France since 1305. or baldacchino (It. paintings of everyday life. often anecdotal. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Six pontificates later. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. the god of wine and fertility. in 1377. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. 'Captivity'. applied to the physically . The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. baldachin.
and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. beggars in rags. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. set beneath a domical ciborium. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. seven. Croatia]. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. or connected with. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. such as those at Pisa. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and Epiphany. The baptismal font was usually octagonal." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. or canopy. built by Sixtus III. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. AD 273. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. a church. Pentecost. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. and abject filthy things. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Easter. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. pope between 432 and 440... Alg. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style.g. or forecourt. As eight follows the "complete" number. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and Nocera in Italy. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Baalbek. a visual metaphor for the number eight. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Lebanon. banderole (It. banderuola. AD 300). After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. France. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. . the Temple of Venus. Florence. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Parma. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Spalato [Split. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Customarily.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). el Kantara. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. and Poitiers.
and (3) everyday realism. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. 1817-1878). and thus a church.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Originally. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Vermeer). which is reserved for the clergy. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. however. 1811-1889). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. . Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1814-1875). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Baroque (Port. southeast of Paris. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. 1796-1875). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. basilica (Gk. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. "king's hall") a church building.In the 10th century. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. the dramatic use of light and shadow. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). or baptismal chapels. Rubens). usually facing east. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Jules Dupré (French. Also tunnel vault. achieved through scale. 1810-1865). barocco. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. stoa basilike. in the 1840s and 1850s. In architecture. baptisteries. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Constant Troyon (French. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. in its usual location near the church door . it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Jean-François Millet (French. Théodore Rousseau (French. were often omitted entirely. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1807-1876). and increasingly elaborate decoration. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display.
over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. however. which is either not yet glazed. It takes its name from its grainy texture. The term was mainly used up to c. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. or which is to be left as it is. Book of Hours . 1650 in Spain. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). and often sentimentality.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Spanish still-lifes. as is to be expected. also incorrectly called bisque. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. domesticity. Bodegónes. There were. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. in which still-life predominates. By association. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. like their Dutch counterparts. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. such as Waldmüller. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. bodegón Image. such as those by Diego Velázquez. especially Spanish. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. particularly porcelain. often with food and drink. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. Biscuit porcelain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. up until the mid-17th century. were referred to by their specific contents. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves).
or seasons. coppery red. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. durability. a rapid sketch in oil. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. bozzetto(Italian. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. See flying buttress. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. made as a study for a larger picture. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. months. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bozzetto Strictly speaking. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. varying from silverish to a rich. Chantilly).an advantage over marble sculpture. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. . By extension. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.both hot and cold . though these are more often called 'modelli'. but can also be used for painted sketches. days of the week.by a variety of processes. and the fact that it is easily workable .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.
Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. and Giotto. Duccio. ceramics. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. box") In architecture. Among its most distinctive products were icons. private room where works of art. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). cameo Small relief made from gems. "a chest. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). caisson (Fr. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. glass. and work in precious metals. notable from Syria and Egypt. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. mosaics. camera obscura . Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. its forms highly stylized. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. manuscript illuminations. C cabinet A small. casson. which was often allegorical. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. It also served to glorify the emperor.
the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.Ancestor of the photographic camera. which was usually whitened. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). The best-quality canvas is made of linen.-N. which isolates the fabric from the paint. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Structurally. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. sing. Niepce created photography. only very rough effects will be obtainable. pl. usually built beside or attached to a church." and the earliest versions. candela. by the 16th century. both of which have richly carved marble panels. other materials used are cotton. candelabra. "candle") A large. Portable versions were built. as an aid to drawing. dating to antiquity. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. capitellum. followed by smaller and even pocket models. usually decorated. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. and jute. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. candlestick. usually in a church.) A gallery for singers or musicians. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. hemp. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. capital (Lat. . "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. cantoria. candelabrum (It. cantorie (It. campanile Bell tower. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. usually with several branches or arms.
in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. and humanism.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . At the height of the Middle Ages. tapestry. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Carmelites (Lat. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". pl. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). cardinalis. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartellini In a painting. details of the subject.both Italians and artists from other countries . the endeavour to attain true humanity. or fresco. cartone.a humorous drawing or parody. New Charterhouses. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . In fresco painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. near Grenoble. cartellino. The order combines reclusive and community life. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). the Carmelites were originally hermits.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cartoon (It. or a motto. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Cardinal Virtues (Lat. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. the date of the painting. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cartouche .
) "castle". taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. they were also used in other countries. or nave. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. or arms of the cross. decorated with gilt gesso. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The altar is placed at the east end. and many other items of her dowry. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved.toward the setting sun. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. cassone (It. where the throne of the bishop is placed. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. They contained the bride's clothes.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. These lead up to the north and south transepts. and swags of fruit and flowers. palace. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Cascina. The main body. castello (It. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. cathedral (cathedra. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. In the 15th century. Paolo Uccello. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). caryatid (Gk. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. putti (cupids). linen. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. . For reasons lost to time and tradition. a cathedral always faces west .
in accordance with their distance from the observer. Relative to the observer. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. champlevé (Fr. landscapes. central perspective (Lat. . The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. as celestial attendants of God. centralis. Both the statement of St. or birdlike characteristics. "in the centre". Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. rather than intercessory functions. a celestial winged being with human. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. and Islamic literature. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Christian. animal. and perspicere. continually praise him. a throne bearer of the deity. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. buildings and figures that are being depicted. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.
Hans Burgkmair (1510). each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept ." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. choros. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. choir (Gk. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. "light dark") In painting. the Order of the Hospital of St. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. or for choral singing. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. replacing tempera. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Lastly. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro.chiaroscuro (It. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Since Carolingian times." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. North of the Alps.
surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. is as typically Churrigueresque. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. further enriching the style. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. became the most common motif. The Transparente (completed 1732). stucco shells. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. undulating cornices. reversed volutes. The Mexico cathedral (1718). ciborium . historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and repetition of pattern. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and the Churrigueresque column. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and garlands. an architect. Very few still exist in their original positions. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. balustrades. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico.intersect). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Sculpted clouds. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). undulating lines. gilded rays. a massing of carved angels. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Spanish Rococo style in architecture.
and post-medieval Italy. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. who were raised to the status of a guild. Without being members of a guild.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. the wool carder Michele di Lando. or achieve political representation. In reaction to this revolutionary . in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. High Renaissance). A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. controlled by the minor guilds. The new government. including the ciompi. on July 22. Quattrocento (1400s. Their economic condition worsened. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Members of the lower classes. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. They were forbidden to form a trade association. but self-employed. as also were those in the associated. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Then. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. craft of dyeing. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. combers. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. placing one of their members. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. ciompi. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. etc. beaters. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination.
literature. however.episode. scholars patiently finding. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. and politics. resembling a lyre. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. except in cases where . philosophy. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). clair-obscur (Fr. In the 15th century Greek literature. Concepts of the classical. editing and translating a wide range of texts. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. writers. cithara (Gk. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. philosophy and art . The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. changed greatly from one period to the next. the black contours usually with a special line plate. with Italian scholars. the ciompi guild was abolished. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.) An ancient musical instrument. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. .as in Italy these were dispensed with. on which strings were plucked. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).
[hora] completa. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. when set side by side. those with refined tastes.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. the church service at which these prayers are said. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. . terrorized the country. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Coffered ceilings. cognoscenti. cognoscente (It. pl. condottieri (It. intensify one another. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. as well as from the Bible. Green and red. compline (Lat. literature or music. concetti (It. arch or ceiling. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. The name was derived from the condotta. pl. sing. condottiere. a work's underlying theme. or "contract. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. occasionally made of wood. blue and orange. concetto. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord.
Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Muzio's son. Toward the end of the 15th century.e. Mark (1432). and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. i. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. in the service of Perugia. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. scuole. primarily for syphilitics. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. or with the spiritual assistance of. disappeared. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Carmagnola. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. By the end of the 14th century. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. often called compagnie or.devastating Romagna. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. who won control of Milan in 1450. Spanish. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. and German--the condottieri. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Martino). . which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. often under the direction of. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. convents of convertite. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. commonly called either Compagnia di S. which spread in the 15th century. in Venice. clergy. With no goal beyond personal gain. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Francesco Sforza. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. flagellant confraternities. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises.e. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. i. and Tuscany. and his rival Braccio da Montone. confraternities Confraternities. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Umbria. in the service of Naples. By the 16th century.
In medieval painting. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contours were initially regular. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. founded c. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. and refuges for maidens. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. while the Venetian government. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. e. Dorotea in Trastevere. 1514 in S. the Florentine Neri. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in Florence.e. but sometimes had their own premises. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. flat outlines. which accompanied condemned prisoners. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. contour (Fr. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contour. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .g. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. contrapposto (It. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. notwithstanding their location. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. however.i. Later. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Confraternities. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. reformed prostitutes. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention.g. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. e.
the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. did not achieve any lasting results. corbel In architecture. conventiculurn. . an engraving produced in this way. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. They are often ornamented. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Reform programs. 1280). the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. 1100 and 1300. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. conventicle (Lat. whose names are inscribed on several works. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull.weight on one leg. Lat. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. The style spread as far as England. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. a bracket of stone. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. large cornice or other feature. aes cyprium. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. started the process of inner reform in the Church. cuprum. declining moral standards. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages.
"small vat") In architecture. the most famous victim of crucifixion. Next. after being whipped. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Jews." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Usually. a small dome. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the condemned man. reedy sound. An ancestor of the oboe. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Constantine the Great. the first Christian emperor. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground.e. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Carthaginians.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. i. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Seleucids. cupola (Lat. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. particularly among the Persians. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. There were various methods of performing the execution. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. or "scourged. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. D dado . Death. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. a semi-circular vault. cupula. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment.
Anglican and Orthodox churches. The term stresses not the literal drawing. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. a favorite late medieval picture subject. deacon (Gk. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diptychos. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. diptychum. Passau. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Germany. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre.g. diakonos. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. decorated diffrently from the upper section. which was help to be the basis of all art. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. usually in matching pairs. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. design") In Renaissance art theory. e. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Deësis (Gk. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. diptych (Lat. but the concept behind an art work. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Gk. disegno (It. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. "drawing.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. an expressive use of nature. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. often an altarpiece. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. danse macabre The dance of death. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.
which runs on castors or wheels. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Ordo Praedictatorum. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). is a heavy piece of furniture. The studio easel. distemperare. donator. when painters took to working out of doors. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. As disegno appeals to the intellect. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). doublet A male garment. distemper (Lat. a 19th-century invention. such as we still use today. also used it on canvas. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Dominicans (Lat. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. "to mix.fully realize. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages.Thomas Aquinas. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. formerly worn under armour. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. dome in architecture. though a few artists. donor (Lat.
enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. John (19. in art. Ecce Homo (Lat. sometimes combining panel painting. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. a depiction of Jesus. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. en face In portraiture. epitaph (Gk. entablature In classical architecture.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. ensemble (Fr. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. eschatology (Gk. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. and logos. "word") . the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. full face. fresco. the frieze. bound and flogged. and architecture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. sculpture. Hence. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschaton. and the cornice. It consists of the architrave. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "last".
which was famous for maiolica. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. faun Ancient Roman god of nature.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world." and charis.death and resurrection. Contarini. Giovanni Morone. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. It developed in France in the early 16th century. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Germany. Marcantonio Flaminio. and is named for Faenza." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. "good. notably Cardinal Pole. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. farmers. Spain. which is called "delftware. Eucharist (Gk. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Vittoria Colonna. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. eu. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Augustine. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. protector of shepherds. which is called "maiolica. Jerome. and Scandinavia." and that made in the Netherlands and England. . which was developed in the Near East ca. Saints Ambrose. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. particularly ware made in France. fields and livestock. celebrated with bread and wine. Equated with the Greek god Pan. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and of the last things. Italy. 4500 BCE.
The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. black and dun. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. war. drying to a slightly different tint. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.festoni (It. relaxed. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. a swag.8). In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. a technique known as a secco fresco. The colour of his horse is white. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. sword and set of balances. can in time be seen. frescos in Italy . fresco (It. Their attributes are the bow. fluted of a column or pillar. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. leaves. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. that of the others red. 2 . and these areas. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Only a small area can be painted in a day. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Committed to charitable and missionary work. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. famine and death. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. and flowers suspended in a loop. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). such as plague. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance.
(Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. the intonaco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or fresco secco. where the atmosphere was too damp. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. or true fresco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. In art from the classical period onwards. The technique of buon fresco. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments.Save in Venice.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. covings and ceilings. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Final details. usually childish figure. are genres of painting. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. G Garter. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. genre In a broad sense. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. both in churches and in private and public palaces. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. landscape and portraiture. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. Genius in classical Rome. for example. a person's invisible tutelary god. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand.
Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. whether it must be connected with the public good. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and as spurring on men of action. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. as well as writers and artists. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. how it differed from notoriety. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. As such. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. in portraits and on tombs. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maria Gloriosa). The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Maso di Banco. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Gobelins . who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Bernardo Daddi.
The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. Golden Fleece. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. and although it reopened in 1699. still in existence today. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. who appointed Lebrun Director. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In other Italian cities. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. . In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew.French tapestry manufactory. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Paris. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. golden section (Lat. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. This ratio is approximately 8:13. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. thereafter it made only tapestries.
painting. or the influence of one building. painting. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and lies much deeper than. from the 13th until the 17th century. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and which then spread throughout northern Europe. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. 1270. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The artistic. Gothic Gothic. c. Nevertheless. In thinking of Nicola (d. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. the superficial particularities of form. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. 1200 and c. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. like the cultural and commercial. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. that the effects are to be felt. In particular. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Denis. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. . conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. Amiens. There is a transcendental quality. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In sculpture and in painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres.
There was also a flourishing market in guide books. with sable. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and Piranesi. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. . where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. sometimes in the company of a tutor.and hog-hair brushes. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. These qualities. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. the Netherlands.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Honey. Such tours often took a year or more. if required. and above all Italy. It is thinned with water for applying. to silk. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. occasionally. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Pannini. chiefly to France. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. starch. without visible brush marks. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and taste among the English. Canaletto. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. to white or tinted paper and card and. and Morris Graves. are but different appellations of the same thing'. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Dubuffet. Klee. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. genius. and the great style. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. notably in the writings of Bellori. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. the beau idéal of the French.
usually gray. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. through central Italy. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. then as now. to Provence and Paris. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. From 1266 to 1268. however. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. and Waiblingen. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. brother of Louis IX. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. grisaille (Fr. In the context of the fine arts. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. including text as well as illustrations. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. gris.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. which had recruited most of the merchant class. c. drawing and the various forms of engraving. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. exclude drawing from this definition. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. . after this. Although its palace was rebuilt c. In Florence. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. internal factions in Florence went under other names. became an abiding feature of European politics. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. the parties taking a multitude of local names. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. 1216. however.e. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. In another sense. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Some writers.
guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. for example. surgeons. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. but in time they acquired other functions. such as Brescia and Vicenza. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In Florence. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and greater hostility between master and man. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. trades. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. trade or profession (painters. heraldry (Fr. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. as some did). In some cities. or professions. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In some towns. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guild also monitored standards of work." from Fr. In 16th century Venice. and provided assistance to members in need. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. [science] héraldique. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. H hatching In a drawing. In Italy they go back a long way. goldsmiths. print or painting. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. héraut. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. notably Florence in the 14th century. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. The guilds were not equal. Guilds were also patrons of art. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. "herald") .
Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. However. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. By contrast. from the start. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. they were condemned in 1184. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. the Cathars were an anti-church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. i. head of the 'carnal Church'. the Waldensian. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. d.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. and regarded themselves as forming. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. normative for churchmen. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. together with brethren north of the Alps. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. indeed. as Antichrist. with the rules governing their use. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. the followers of Juan de Valdes. one great missionary community. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. while others merged with the Waldensians. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The main impact of the .
hortus conclusus (Lat. and classical literature. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. in his earlier work. my spouse'. Thomas Cole. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Church. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. working from 1825 to 1875. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Frederick E. Germany. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Durand. B. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Kensett. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. humanus.movement upon the laity was in southern France. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. American painters were studying in Rome. F. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. F. In humanism. J. S. George Inness. Henry Inman. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. At the same time. Jasper Cropsey. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. and. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. mainly in the south. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . the emancipation of man from God took place. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Morse. history (usually classical history). its subjects considered morally elevating. humanism (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. beautiful style. inventio (It. soft style. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. investiture . with many further details added. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Veronica. the ability to create. are also used in art literature. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. The terms court style. the pincers. the hammer. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. and they are also depicted on their own. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Donatallo. Human figures. or of other saints. etc. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). For instance. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. usually the donors of a work of art. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. In the second half of the 14th century. the rooster of Peter's denial. the veil of St. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. and the ladder. Derived from classical rhetoric. the scourge that was used in the scourging. there are representations of the bundle of rods. invention. trecento rococo and lyrical style. originality.g.
Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Nicolaes Berchem. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Jerome's writings. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. generally Dutch or Flemish. principally Dutch. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. The Both brothers. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. and Jan Asselijn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. although they are usually called Romanists. of Utrecht. Italianizers Northern artists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. who traveled in Italy and. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Andries and Jan Both. . Upon his return to Holland. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Both and Berchem.
Emperor Maximilian I (1459. the rite of communion is based on this. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). John of Jerusalem .1519).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Archbishop of Genoa.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. lectern A reading stand or desk. encouraged by the Crusades. especially one at which the Bible is read. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. liberal arts . They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Legenda Aurea (Lat.
grammar. poetic atmosphere. painting or sculptural decoration. Church (1826-1900). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. the quadrivium. first the preparatory trivium . a semicircular space. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. through the use of aerial perspective. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. comprising arithmetic. that may contain a window. often sublime. geometry. Heade (1819-1904). It is related to. . Martin J. Pythagoras for arithmetic. that could be used for public ceremonies. Tubal for music). loggia (It. then the basis of a philosophical training.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. and Frederick E. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. often standing in markets and town squares. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. together with identifying attributes (e. John F. rhetoric and dialectic. "little moon") In architecture. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. lunette (Fr.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.g.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. its roof supported by columns. Maria Novella in Florence). Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. commemorating a marriage. Kensett (1816-1872). astronomy and music. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.g.
historical subjects. particularly such ware produced in Italy. 1855–65. manganese purple. originating in Italy in the 14th century. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. madrigal A part song. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. "almond") . mandorla (It. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and accompaniments. usually for the lute. active mainly in Florence c. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Specifically. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). with secular texts replacing sacred ones. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. "great mother") A mother goddess. originally sung without accompaniment. antimony yellow. magna mater (Lat. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. being written. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and portraits as well as landscapes. the goddess Cybele. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). copper green. When white is used for painting. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. for example. and however bright their lighting effects. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. and iron red. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). but they painted genre scenes. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.
complex and crowded compositions. In Mannerist painting. Burgundy. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Developing out of the Renaissance. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. which was quarried at Mount . ecclesiastical. "manner. in a specific sense. Bronzino. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism (It. illuminated initials and miniatures. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. and literary texts. more strictly. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. and crowned with thorns. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. the hand-written medieval book. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. the Codex manuscriptus. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. strong. It reached to the knee or foot. mantle An overcoat. bound. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. often ornamented with decorative borders. El Greco and Tintoretto. maniera. marked by flagellation. Flanders. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. depending on the social class of the wearer. Parmigianino. worn open. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. In architecture. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours.
but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. proof") the sufferings. The pure white Carrara marble. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . "witness. medallion In architecture. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. an inscription running round the rim. martyrion. having finished his training. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Carrara. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. the medal's purpose was commemorative. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). quarried at Massa. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. particularly by Michelangelo. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Without monetary value. sleek surface. martyrdom (Gk. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a different design on the reverse. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Like the finest Imperial coins. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. marmi finti (It. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). a large ornamental plaquc or disc.Pentelicon in Attica. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. which were beginning to be reverently collected.
1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. who reflected them. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Her head features on Minerva's shield. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. c. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. 14601528). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. perhaps oddly. as it were. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. of the person portrayed on the other side. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. This yields a soft effect in the print. . Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. for landscapes and portraits. Medusa In Greek mythology. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). supposedly to petrify her enemies. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the stress on individual character. 1467-688). 1640. particularly. a Gorgon. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Ludwig von Siegen. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. In pure mezzotint. in England. The process is essentially extinct today. The work of these men. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. even grain. c. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1425-1504). When Perseus cuts off her head. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images.round the neck. no line drawing is employed. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. A Dutch officer. often anonymous. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. and of the many. 1452-1526/27). It was. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings.
e. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. usually portraits. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. a branch of the Franciscan order.. ink and paint. saying") . 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. painting in gouache on vellum or card. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. still exist. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. a painting executed in a single color. "one color") Painted in a single color. monochrome (Gk.g. Parmigianino (d. monokhromatos. Francis himself. executed on a very small scale. "word. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. often quite highly finished. motto (Ital. miter A high. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Many such small versions. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.
and two other members moved to Rome. and is intersected by the transept. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Pforr. Rome. 1816-17. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. named after the patron saint of painting. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. but often insipid. In general. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Nazarenes A group of young. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. often separated from it by pillars. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. nave (from Lat. . The invention of personal mottos. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. naturalism (Fr. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Berlin. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and Casino Massimo. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. 1817-29). naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Isidore. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). In 1810 0verbeck. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. navis. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen.from the Middle Ages.
confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. the style of the Ancien Régime. usually golden. "aureole") The disc or halo. Nymphaeum (Gk. were usually old when elected. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. but their ideas continued to be influential. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Popes. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. nimbus (Lat. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). nigellus. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. niello (Lat. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. moreover. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers.) . where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. is as true as it is notorious. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).
walnut. The earliest. and its greater tonal range. was the simplest. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. O obsequies (Lat. or poppy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. the three basic styles of design. . orders of architecture In classical architecture. "services. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). inborn sin. observances") Rites performed for the dead. the Doric order. fluted column and a plain capital. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. a more elaborate base. They are seen in the form of the columns. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. its richness of colour. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. obsequia. Greek goddesses of Nature. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. capital. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. such as linseed. with a sturdy. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. and entablatures. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. a small private chapel. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge.
and the main apartments above. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. P pala (Ital. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. like cities. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.g.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. palazzo (It. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. designed as a . standing at the foot of the Cross. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. tradition and social structure. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. and. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Palazzo Strozzi). a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. the Cancelleria). The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. while shops came to be thought undignified. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. with biforate windows. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes.
Movement of patrons and architects. cornices and abutments. came to be applied all over Europe. panel . and large households. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. and Palladio's in Vicenza. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. behind a sober Florentine façade. column-caps. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. like Genoa. Rich. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Other cities. palmette. like the colonnaded vestibule. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. especially after the Sack of Rome. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Palazzo Massimi). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks.scholarly retreat. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. evolved influential types. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Following Oriental patterns. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard.g. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). e. often built next to their titular churches. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Papal incentives to build. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). In Venice. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe.g.
teak. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. As successors to St Peter. chestnut. metal. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Having a circular plan. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. olive. enforce law and order. Then. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and walnut. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and spanned by a single dome. fibre-board. and dark walnut are favourites. A number of matters. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. In the 20th century cedar. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. the management of clerical dues and taxation. fir. so that they might have a voice at court. mahogany. or the incidence of taxation. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. secular rulers. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). however. to influence popes in their favour. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. as distinct from canvas. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. slate has occasionally been used as a support. as it were. including beech. larch. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. The third aspect was administrative.Term in painting for a support of wood. linden. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. or other rigid substance.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and the pressure and temptations . Many other types were used. cedar. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. On a larger scale. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. To maintain their authority. and other synthetic materials as supports. and modern painters have also used plywood. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish.
The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. of individuals. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. By then. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. To resolve the problem of divided authority. as such. if it did no serious damage to the faith. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. possess an authority which. at Avignon. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily.as well. It was argued that such a council. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. in spite of further absences from Rome. to be long delayed. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. There remained. from the point of view of its religious associations. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). As at Avignon. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. in the eyes of God. however. could supersede that of a pope. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. the most appropriate . The identification of the Papacy with Rome. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Colonna and Caetani. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. was long in doubt. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. which seems so inevitable. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . however. So onerous. which met at Constance 1414-18. would. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377.that could be applied to them. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. however. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months.
it has also been used for painting. goat. pastor. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. scholars and men of letters.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Passion . paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. However. Parrhasius (c. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. and satyrs. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and other animals. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 400-300 BC). The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. through lavish patronage of artists. less frequently pig. nymphs. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. in classical literature. the creation of a cultural capital. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum.. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. pastoral (Lat. to a world peopled by shepherds. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. as well as a governmental one. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and with Zeuxis (c. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life.
An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26.) or pasticcio (It. pastiche (fr. which focus on the Suffering Christ. papilio. 1478. projecting either centrally or at both ends. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. and also the archbishop of Pisa. patricius. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. . ornamental building. the crown of thorns. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. such as a garden summerhouse. 1478). the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. and so on. Meanwhile.The events leading up to Good Friday. a region in north-central Italy. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a small. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. patrician (Lat. pavilion (Lat. Francesco Salviati. a prominent section of a monumental façade. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. hence tent") A lightly constructed. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Portrayals of the Passion. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. but not necessarily a direct copy. wealthy citizen. "butterfly.
physis. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). in particular the face. perspective (Lat. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and gnomon. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "to see through. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. perspicere. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. physiognomy (Gk. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "person".The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. or related elements within an art work. pendant (Fr. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. personification (Lat. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. concept or deity. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "hanging. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. persona. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. pergola (It. . The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. and facere. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. "nature". that settled the religious conflict in the German states. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century).
One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigment (Lat. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. A pier is generally larger than a column. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. usually above the ground floor. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Rome. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. or resin to make paint. remarkable for singularity. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. containing the public rooms.) The main floor of a building. to be expressed in painting. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. both real and painted. curious details. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. glue.piano nobile (Ital. proper to take a landscape from. . It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. exemplified. Peter's. pigmentum. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. but full of variety. Pietà (Lat. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. affording a good subject for a landscape. for example.
in October 1347. since. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Rocco and Sebastian. it has a base. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Thenceforward. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. moreover. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). though in less widespread. It is often fluted. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). despite regional variations.pilaster (Lat. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. perhaps. plague Plague. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. for instance. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. During 1348 the Black Death. pilastrum. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. In the 15th century. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. and capital. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. however. "pillar") A flat. a shaft. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. and thereafter all Europe. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. outside Tuscany. such as Florence and Genoa. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. also used in Spain's American colonies. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. it is difficult to find. For this reason. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. more sporadic outbreaks. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. It seems probable. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s.
he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. heraldic escutcheons. placement. The first phase. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. correct classical orders became frequent. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The second phase. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The first phase. or simply the Plateresque. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. like its successor. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. and unified style using massive geometric forms. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I.e..surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). harmonious. more severe. are the masterworks of the second style. the Renaissance-Plateresque. or appropriateness. the Symposium. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. A student of Socrates. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Diego evolved a purer. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. and sinuous scrolls. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. which lasted only a few decades. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. i. In contrast with Aristotle. composition. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Philebus. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Phaedrus. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Timaeus. Phaedo. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings.
when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. and the Chaldaic Oracles. A new Latin translation. 1472-c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and he utilized many other writings. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. near Florence. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. the greatest of his ancient disciples. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . systematized and added to what Plato had done. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Iamblichus. and Agostino Steuco (c.in Plato's thought. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Rather unsystematic. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Unlike the case of Aristotle. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion.1577) becoming particularly popular. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Plotinus. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. replaced Ficino's. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. partially. but not completely. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. including those of Plotinus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. all of which he also translated into Latin. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. It was especially in a number of academies in France and .
plinth (Gk. Frequently supports a pediment. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. such as processions and consecrations. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Lat. portico (Lat. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. Plato was read in the universities. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. pluviale. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. poluptukhos. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. column. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . plinthos. porticus. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. polyptych (Gk. where a pectoral is used to close it. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. or statue. pointed arch In architecture. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pluvial (Med. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. as in classical architecture). an arch rising to a point (instead of being round.
Palazzo Farnese). Maria Novella.sculptors such as Donatello. Group portraits. was revived in the 14th century. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. inessential. Colleoni. Siena. Gattarnelata. and only a decorative accessory to form. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. psychologically more complex. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. flattened image. Cathedral) by Uccello. Mantua. and the . Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Desiderio da Settignano. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Venice). which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The 16th century portrait became generalized. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Florence (1486-90). Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. The realism of the clear.e. Florence. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground.. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. National Gallery). decorating whole rooms. Campidoglio). Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. the Carracci. The equestrian portrait. 1328. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London.
The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. of the sermon as an art form. Borromeo. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Fiamma's sermons. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. abrasive even. not least those of statesmen and prelates. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. several of whom became bishops. Savonarola and Musso." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. however. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. was versed in classical and patristic . Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. primarily the mendicants. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. As Poussin was a Frenchman. who had as their ideal masters Titian. and. minatory exhortations. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Correggio." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. and Peter Paul Rubens. are not florid in style. bishop of Chioggia. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). to discharge their preaching duties. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. from the secular clergy. Charles Le Brun. The styles of S. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. bishop of Asti. bishops especially. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. The sermons of Visdomini. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. 1494).
they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Naples). the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The New Testament references in these would. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.g. the temptations of Adam and Christ. however. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. tapestries. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. among them Holman Hunt. Millais and Rossetti. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. and so forth. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Louis of Toulouse (1317. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . presbytery (or choir) (Gk.rhetoric. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Because of the small size of predelle . These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. predella (It. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. prefiguration Typology . though often relatively very wide .had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.
seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. The following are important: 1. Girardon. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. and Houdon among sculptors. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Prix de Rome A scholarship. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the golden section.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. 2. the Canon of Proportion. again indicative of the purpose they served. profil perdu (Fr. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). projecting shelf on which to kneel. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. the quadrature. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. notably David. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. 3. proportion (Lat. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. Fragonard. proportio. these highly finished drawings. "evenness") in painting. which uses the square . sculpture and architecture. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. intended as complete works of art in themselves.
. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. a fourth = 3:4. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. a fifth = 2:3. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. Rome. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. putto (It. and 5. for example). provenance The origins of an art work. It was common in Roman art. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. triangulation. Unlike Pozzo. the steward or treasurer of a church. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. one half the length of the other). Ignazio. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. putti sing. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.as a unit of measurement. 4. "boys") Plump naked little boys. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. harmonic proportions.
religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. or the Jesuits. canons regular. friars and nuns. Brunelleschi. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in which figures are seen half round. Botticelli. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Fra Angelico and others.Quattrocento (It. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relicquiae. the great orders of monks. relevare. relief (Lat. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. relic (Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. In 16th century Europe. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Donatello. Lat. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. in particular works by Masaccio. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface.g. basso rilievo). with the Anglican Church developing in England. hermits. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. the object of particular veneration. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). or some item connected with a saint. and high relief (alto rilievo). refectory (Med. e. Among the . in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. also known as the Realist school. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order.
which was to become the main Italian one. however. Bologna (1419). 1012. Padua. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. i. The Silvestrines. The Conventuals. although technically of secular canons. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery.contemplative orders. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Benedetto. Lorenzo Giustiniani. and their more institutionalized brethren. In 1517. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Benedictines. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Giorgio in Alga. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. and the generally moderate Observants. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. was the congregation of S. That of S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Founded by St Romuald c.e. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the great patriarch of Venice. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. various groups were fused in the latter body. it became the Cassinese congregation. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Lucca. S. After the repression of the Spirituals. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Maria di Fregonaia. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Salvatore. Venice (1404). their resources being in the hands of trustees. the most notable being S. presided over by chapters general. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. the Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. The same bull . Bernardino of Siena. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. who had no overall organization originally. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Mantua. Giustina. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. At the same time. In 1504.
however. Venice. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. founded by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Filippo Neri. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. The first. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. also. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. a historical period. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. the Theatines. Angela Merici. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Michele in Isola. S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Gaetano da Thiene. founded in 1535 by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Gerolamo Aemiliani.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. however. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner.
whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. For long. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. of an energetic revival of interest in. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. as well as political. the historical reality of antiquity. and competition with. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. even Amoralism. Thereafter. of scholarship. 1875-86). life. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of 'darkness'. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative.century. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. because its core of energy. of letters. and his own as potentially one of light. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. however. however. too long forgotten glories. of arts. increasingly. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. . the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. was so vast and potent. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. which had begun early in the 14th century. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. All-Roundness. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done.
subjective reason a term to be used with caution. letters. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. It is for this additional. and is decorated with paintings. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. and mass media. mobilized nationalism. congruence between.erased. retables can be detached and. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. and other liturgical objects. later still to Genoa. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Though thus challenged. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. let alone a uniform. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. sometimes. of industrialization. though sometimes of metal. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. There was an early. however. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. consist merely of a painting. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. etc. the previous record . mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points.) was the term chosen. etc. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside.with all its shabbiness . gratefully.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. especially in the High Gothic period. (3) There is not a true. statues. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. in the more limited sense. candlesticks. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. The challenges are to be accepted.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Ghent).
which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. in several countries . As the name suggests. rocaille (French. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. however. painting. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. retables have become extinct. the first style to achieve such international currency. its mood lighthearted and witry. the St. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. rilievo (It. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Italy. Germany. and 'Romanesque'. Louis XV furniture. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. is a typical product. Originally commissioned in 976. richly decorated with organic forms. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Spain . reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo A style of design. With the development of freestanding altars. .of St Mark in Venice. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated.in the 11th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation.France. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Romanesque art. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. More usually. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). "relief") In painting. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. like 'Gothic'. almost simultaneously. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. literally.
The aim of painting. they maintained. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. van Heemskerk. Massys and M. Q. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Claude. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Orley. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Mabuse. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rome. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Pannini and Mengs. stylized design representing an open rose.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the development of nationalistic pride. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Piranesi. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. such as red ochre. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. In addition. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. M. B. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. .
Subjects were nominally sacred. and Protestant churches. Orthodox. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). supported by lay confraternities. Eastern independent. confirmation. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. from the Old and New Testaments. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . holy orders. the Eucharist. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. multiple sets used in succession.expressed through gesture.greatly increased. but others were the work of well-known figures. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. pious legend and hagiography. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. local saints. and impoverished. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. gutted. and Lorenzo de' Medici. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). There is seldom a literal conversation depicted.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. when it finally left the city it had devastated. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Written primarily in ottava rima. There were no limits on time. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Sacra Conversazione (It. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. glance and movement . "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Many compositions were anonymous. Clement escaped into Castel S. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. matrimony. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. penance. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. In the . and anointing of the sick.
as in the Church of the Brethren.early church the number of sacraments varied. Thus. as an excuse to revolt. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Hence. strictly speaking. that the price of salt should be increased. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.e. which in the Gospel According to John. Saracens ." which are called sacramentals. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. The theology of the Orthodox Church. foot washing. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Immediately following baptism.. notably from Florence and in Germany. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Orthodox Church does not. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. large room. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. and sacraments. and then face east. used for drawing. The chief focus of discontent. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . sacraments. They were still seeking aid. the symbolic direction of Christ. make such strict distinctions. replaces the Lord's Supper.) Hall. Anglican. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Candidates first face west. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.e." sala (Ital. in principle. the sun of righteousness. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. the Rocca Paolina. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. The classical Protestant churches (i. was not maintained as a sacrament. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.i. It is still practiced on special occasions. Lutheran. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. chapter 13. baptism and the Eucharist. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Bentivoglio. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Salt War. was buried under a new fortress.
along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 270 BC).During the Middle Ages. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . made of stone. sarcophagus. pl. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 210 AD). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. the god of wine. 45 BC). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. satyr In Greek mythology. The publication of Latin (1562. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. sarcophagi (Gk. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. legs and horns of a goat. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 360 . 160 . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. and many others. Little known in the Middle Ages. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ).c. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. human-like woodland deities with the ears. wood or terracotta. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. are lost.c. whose writings. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. the Arabs or Muslims.
However. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. from time to time both he and his opponents. was called Bamboccio. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. and. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. but with little effect. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on one side. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. the Florentines. while devout Christians agonized. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). 1386) and his son Ladislas. Louis I (d.they had individual Bentnames . causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob.for example Pieter van Laer. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. As a result. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. one of the early leaders. In northern Italy. most of whom. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Schism. in June 1409. scholasticism . thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). and therefore far more purely Italian princes. who had the support of the Avignon pope. who recognized the Roman pope. being Frenchmen. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. than their medieval predecessors. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. for. Charles III of Durazzo (d. with France and her allies Aragon. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. on the other. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. while England. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Alexander V. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement.
especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water.moral philosophy.were different from those of medieval. Padua. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. if lime-water was used. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. and Islamic literature. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. as it is easier to add details in this way. because the secco technique is much less permanent. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. notably Aquinas. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Often called the burning ones. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). moreover. It was because the central concerns of humanism . history and rhetoric . with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. on one side.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). and theology. that scholasticism was left. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. None the less. as it were. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. the plaster had to be damped before painting. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. Serenissima (Ital. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. As such. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Christian. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. Medieval scholars.) .The term is ambivalent. university-based study. (See also: fresco. textual scholarship. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco.
) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. sibyls (Gk. in the period of classical antiquity. Originally. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibylla. sfumato A technique. there was only one Sibyl. "prophetess") In antiquity. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "the most serene republic of Venice"). women who could prophesy. brass. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Sibyls foretold the Birth. Servite (Lat. Signoria (It. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. which were all identical in thickness. They first appear in alpine monasteries. term. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century.. sinopia . silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. in use since the Middle Ages. and the delicate. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Med. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. at the same time. the number gradually rose to ten. In Christian legend. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. usually presided over by individual families. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Lat.
stigmata. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. especially in the flow of drapery. soffit (Lat. Francis of Assisi. brand. "mark. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil).'Beautiful Madonnas'. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. staffage This word. Ital. as the name implies. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. Stanze (Ital. . hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. pronounced as French. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. and. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . stigma (Gk. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. sotto in sù (It.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear.) Wooden ceiling decoration. in other words. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. sing. It is very closely related to International Gothic.
The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. whose verses actually fabrications . Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). both external and internal. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The vogue for the Sublime. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. studioli (It. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. In a looser sense. supremacy . pl. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. with that for the Picturesque. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. stucco A type of light. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. studiolo. Indeed. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. John Milton. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.
London. then being replaced by oil paint. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. The subject is underexplored. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. . "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. both for panel painting and fresco. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tempera (Lat. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. and in literature. was being decorated with frescoes. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. i. chiefly from Flanders. Salviati and Allori. temperare. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. These were imported.and. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. or cartoons. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. 1407). into Italy.e.Historically. his own headquarters. But the Italians did not make them. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. doubtless. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio).
the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. walls.terracotta (It. and other surfaces. i. pl. topoi (Gk. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and later to subdivide gable ends. "fields.e. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "a commonplace") In literature. tondo. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. widely used form. in the architecture of ancient Rome. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. model. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. topos. triumphal arch. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. in art. topiary (Gk. and sculptures. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and profile. tondi (It. quarter face. theme or motif. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. pl. topia. Trajan's Column . The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. terraferma (Ital. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. figure of speech. vessels.
Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. of both sexes'. as it were. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. tryptychos. trinitas. the military triumph became sublimated.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. "threefold") A painting in three sections. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. into a number of less controversial forms. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Disseminated soon after his death. Early triptychs were often portable. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. chastity. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. of virtues and of the arts. behind it. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. .poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Meanwhile. or wings. Battista Sforza. death. the wars by which they were won . Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. after 'a countless number of virgins. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. beside it the army of martyrs. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Trinity (Lat. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. fame. patriarchs and prophets. added to the glamour of the triumph.' Before it go the apostles. a car so brave'.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. triptych (Gk. "threefold") in Christianity. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. usually an altarpiece. time and eternity. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests.
tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. it is usually decorated with carvings. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. through various naturalistic devices. "drum") In classical architecture. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tusche A thick. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. often decorated with sculptures. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. first recorded in 1232. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Dating from classical times. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. typology . It incorporates Renaissance features. In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil (Fr. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tympanum (Lat. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. enclosed by an arch. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. viscous black ink. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.
where they were most accessible.Dirck van Baburen (c. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. In Christian thought. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. The numerous candles. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . knew his former patrons. such as five works devoted to the senses. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. 1610). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . were popular with them also. Judith. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. slayer of Goliath.) The Renaissance "universal man". each had access to his paintings. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and David. especially his half-length figural groups.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. e. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. 1590-1624). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. . killer of Holofernes. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). lanterns. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.g.A system of classification. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. U uomo universale (It.
guttering candles. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. it was used to decorate furniture. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Vespers (Lat. snuff boxes and other objects. carriages. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. varietà (It. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. mixed in.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. overturned vessels. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. "evening") . V vanishing point In perspective. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. Also varietas (Lat. often gold. and the rib vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the groin vault.). veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. vanitas (Lat. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. a work's richness of subject matter. vesper. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Parisian craftsmen. There are a wide range of forms. hour-glasses and clocks.
vite (Lat. for example. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'.Prayers said in the evening. Hope. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. In ancient Roman dwellings. Anger. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Lust. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. pl. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. in which the word signifies efficacy. vimperga Of German origin. Vestibule (Lat. vita. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. 'Assume a virtue. Fortitude. and Justice. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. "life") . Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. if you have it not'. "not exposed to winds". Prudence. virtù could be used. Covetousness. Gluttony. Envy. actual or latent. Temperance. and Sloth. the church service at which these prayers are said. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Charity. vestibulum. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The seven Virtues were: Faith.
The wars from 1494 do. Sculptors and Architects"). usually when a prayer for good fortune. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and appalled recognition of. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and of Ferrara. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1482-84). Vitruvius Pollio. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari.g. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables.An account of someone's life and work. they were from the 18th century . those of Volterera. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. published in 1550 and 1568. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. Marcus (1st cent. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. protection from harm. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1472. a biography. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. in fact. or recovery from illness has been made. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1478-80.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament.Weltanschauung (Gr. "world view") A comprehensive world view. treasury or a place where justice was administered. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. usually linear. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. during its subsequent history. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. pompous on the floor above. a philosophy of life. based on stylization of various animal forms. It was intended to have a variety of functions. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. . but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. woodcut A print made from a wood block. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. usually restorers. Westwerk German word. "Western work of art". gallery.
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