A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. roofed with a half-dome. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Also known as an exedra. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. . and Rouault. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. but in essence the process is as follows. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). In Greek and Roman literature. architrave (It. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. "architectural") Relating to structure.A semicircular projection. arcade (Lat. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns.e. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. piers or pillars. There are several variants of the technique. The adjective is apsidal. at the east end of a church behind the altar. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. the moulding around a window or door. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Lancet and Tudor. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. or organization. including Goya. Picasso. architectonic (Gk. The term applies also to a print made by this method. the darker the tone). arkhitektonikos. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. arcus. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. design. the lowest part of the entablature). which is fused to the plate by heating. Degas.

"turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Ars Moriendi (Lat. aureolus. In the case of martyrs. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "golden. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. usually a saint. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person." from Gk. "begin.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. attribute (Lat. aureole (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . dominate. archeiu. archivolto. "front arch. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum.archivolt (Ital. attributum. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. voltus.and the Comedy ." and Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .

the god of wine and fertility. The actual move was made in 1309. often anecdotal. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby").while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. applied to the physically . in 1377. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. or baldacchino (It. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. who had been residing in France since 1305. 'Captivity'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. that of Cardano. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. baldachin. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Later. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. paintings of everyday life. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Six pontificates later.

baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Croatia]. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. pope between 432 and 440." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Easter. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Florence. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. banderuola. set beneath a domical ciborium. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. and Nocera in Italy. Spalato [Split. a church. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Baalbek. such as those at Pisa.. Customarily. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. AD 300). In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Lebanon. or canopy.. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. or forecourt. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. As eight follows the "complete" number. Pentecost. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. France. seven. AD 273. and abject filthy things. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Parma. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. beggars in rags.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. a visual metaphor for the number eight. built by Sixtus III. . the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. el Kantara. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. and Poitiers. Alg. the Temple of Venus. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays.g. and Epiphany. banderole (It. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. or connected with. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example.

Constant Troyon (French. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In architecture. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. however.In the 10th century. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Jules Dupré (French. Vermeer). which is reserved for the clergy. basilica (Gk. 1810-1865). in the 1840s and 1850s. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1796-1875). 1811-1889). and increasingly elaborate decoration. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Also tunnel vault. usually facing east. barocco. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. in its usual location near the church door . southeast of Paris. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. or baptismal chapels. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. "king's hall") a church building. Jean-François Millet (French. Originally. were often omitted entirely. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Théodore Rousseau (French. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. 1814-1875). Rubens). achieved through scale. something of earlier symbolism survives. baptisteries. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and (3) everyday realism. and thus a church. 1817-1878). . and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Baroque (Port. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). stoa basilike. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. 1807-1876). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display.an allusion to entering the Christian life.

which is either not yet glazed. in which still-life predominates. such as those by Diego Velázquez. especially Spanish. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. such as Waldmüller. as is to be expected. like their Dutch counterparts. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. however.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Book of Hours . often with food and drink. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. 1650 in Spain. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. or which is to be left as it is. domesticity. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). up until the mid-17th century. Spanish still-lifes. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Bodegónes. The term was mainly used up to c. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Biscuit porcelain. particularly porcelain. and often sentimentality. There were.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. were referred to by their specific contents. also incorrectly called bisque. bodegón Image. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. It takes its name from its grainy texture. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. By association.

both hot and cold . days of the week. or seasons.an advantage over marble sculpture. . a rapid sketch in oil. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. Chantilly). bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture.by a variety of processes. months. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and the fact that it is easily workable . coppery red. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. made as a study for a larger picture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. See flying buttress. By extension. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. varying from silverish to a rich. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. though these are more often called 'modelli'. but can also be used for painted sketches. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bozzetto Strictly speaking. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. durability. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. bozzetto(Italian. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.

Based largely on Roman and Greek art. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. private room where works of art. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). over time the term was used for the collections themselves. and work in precious metals. mosaics. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. camera obscura . caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. glass. caisson (Fr. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Duccio. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. box") In architecture. casson. which was often allegorical. cameo Small relief made from gems. notable from Syria and Egypt. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. "a chest. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. It also served to glorify the emperor. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. and Giotto. manuscript illuminations. ceramics. its forms highly stylized. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. C cabinet A small.

campanile Bell tower. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. candelabra.) A gallery for singers or musicians. Portable versions were built. The Latin name means "dark chamber. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. candela. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. followed by smaller and even pocket models. candelabrum (It. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting.Ancestor of the photographic camera. and jute. pl." and the earliest versions.-N. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. both of which have richly carved marble panels. "candle") A large. capital (Lat. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Niepce created photography. candlestick. as an aid to drawing. Structurally. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. by the 16th century. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. other materials used are cotton. which was usually whitened. capitellum. cantoria. usually with several branches or arms. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. usually decorated. only very rough effects will be obtainable. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually in a church. dating to antiquity. cantorie (It. . sing. usually built beside or attached to a church. hemp. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.

a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. At the height of the Middle Ages.both Italians and artists from other countries . this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. New Charterhouses. cartone. near Grenoble. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartellini In a painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics.a humorous drawing or parody. cartellino. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". the date of the painting. tapestry. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cartoon (It. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. pl. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Fortitudo (Fortitude). the Carmelites were originally hermits. Carmelites (Lat. the endeavour to attain true humanity. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Carthusian Order (Lat. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . In fresco painting. details of the subject. or a motto. cardinalis. and humanism. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cartouche . a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. The order combines reclusive and community life. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). or fresco.

Paolo Uccello. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). palace. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. putti (cupids). linen. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. they were also used in other countries. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. . cassone (It. cathedral (cathedra. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. a cathedral always faces west . Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. or nave. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved.) "castle". the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. They contained the bride's clothes.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. where the throne of the bishop is placed. In the 15th century. and swags of fruit and flowers. castello (It. caryatid (Gk. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. For reasons lost to time and tradition. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The altar is placed at the east end. decorated with gilt gesso. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures.toward the setting sun. and many other items of her dowry. Cascina. The main body. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. or arms of the cross. These lead up to the north and south transepts. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy.

cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. rather than intercessory functions. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. as celestial attendants of God. continually praise him. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. a celestial winged being with human. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. animal. buildings and figures that are being depicted. "in the centre". and perspicere. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. a throne bearer of the deity. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. landscapes. central perspective (Lat. Christian. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. and Islamic literature. champlevé (Fr. Both the statement of St. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. or birdlike characteristics. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). . In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. centralis.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. in accordance with their distance from the observer. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Relative to the observer. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.

chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. Since Carolingian times. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. the Order of the Hospital of St." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. Lastly. or for choral singing. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept ." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. "light dark") In painting. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. replacing tempera. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choros. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church.chiaroscuro (It. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. North of the Alps. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. choir (Gk. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Burgkmair (1510).

The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. ciborium . Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. reversed volutes. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and repetition of pattern. balustrades. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. further enriching the style. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. became the most common motif. an architect. a massing of carved angels. Very few still exist in their original positions. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. gilded rays. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. The Transparente (completed 1732). and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and the Churrigueresque column. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. undulating lines. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. is as typically Churrigueresque. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. undulating cornices.intersect). Sculpted clouds. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and garlands. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). stucco shells. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. which was shaped like an inverted cone.

Without being members of a guild. The new government.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. etc. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Members of the lower classes. They were forbidden to form a trade association. as also were those in the associated. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. including the ciompi.and post-medieval Italy. Quattrocento (1400s. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Then. controlled by the minor guilds. High Renaissance). But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. combers. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. the wool carder Michele di Lando. Their economic condition worsened. ciompi. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. on July 22. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. In reaction to this revolutionary . They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. placing one of their members. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. craft of dyeing. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. beaters. who were raised to the status of a guild. or achieve political representation. but self-employed. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society.

on which strings were plucked. the black contours usually with a special line plate. philosophy. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. writers. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). except in cases where . literature. however. resembling a lyre. changed greatly from one period to the next. the ciompi guild was abolished. philosophy and art .as in Italy these were dispensed with. and politics. cithara (Gk. editing and translating a wide range of texts. scholars patiently finding. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate.episode. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. with Italian scholars. clair-obscur (Fr. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. Concepts of the classical. .) An ancient musical instrument.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In the 15th century Greek literature.

concetti (It. cognoscenti. The name was derived from the condotta. those with refined tastes. Green and red. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. compline (Lat. as well as from the Bible. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. concetto. cognoscente (It. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. a work's underlying theme. pl. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. condottiere. or "contract. blue and orange. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. [hora] completa. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "concept") In Renaissance art theory." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. the church service at which these prayers are said. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. occasionally made of wood.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Coffered ceilings. intensify one another. arch or ceiling. terrorized the country. when set side by side. pl. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). sing. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. condottieri (It. . literature or music.

convents of convertite. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. often called compagnie or. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly.e. confraternities Confraternities. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. scuole. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. in Venice. With no goal beyond personal gain. which spread in the 15th century. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Mark (1432). By the 16th century. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. i. Spanish. primarily for syphilitics. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Carmagnola. Francesco Sforza. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. flagellant confraternities. in the service of Perugia. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. By the end of the 14th century. and German--the condottieri. disappeared. or with the spiritual assistance of. i.devastating Romagna. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. who won control of Milan in 1450. and Tuscany. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. often under the direction of. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. clergy. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Muzio's son. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. in the service of Naples.e. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Umbria. Martino). one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. . Toward the end of the 15th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno.

Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. notwithstanding their location. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. 1514 in S. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. which accompanied condemned prisoners. contour. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. founded c. In medieval painting. however. e. flat outlines. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.i. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. and refuges for maidens. Later. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. contours were initially regular. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy.g. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contrapposto (It. but sometimes had their own premises. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). the Florentine Neri. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. in Florence. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. contour (Fr.e. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Confraternities. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement.g. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. while the Venetian government. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. While the Doge ranked above the Council. e. reformed prostitutes. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Dorotea in Trastevere. "Council of Ten") established in 1310.

"ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. started the process of inner reform in the Church. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. The style spread as far as England. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. large cornice or other feature. 1100 and 1300. a bracket of stone. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. . for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. cuprum. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Lat. 1280). Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. did not achieve any lasting results. They are often ornamented. Copperplate engraving (late Lat.weight on one leg. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. declining moral standards. conventicle (Lat. aes cyprium. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Reform programs. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. corbel In architecture. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). an engraving produced in this way. whose names are inscribed on several works. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. conventiculurn.

a small dome. Constantine the Great. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. "small vat") In architecture. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. particularly among the Persians. D dado . the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Usually.e. a semi-circular vault. after being whipped. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. There were various methods of performing the execution. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Jews. Seleucids. the first Christian emperor. the most famous victim of crucifixion. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Carthaginians. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. reedy sound. the condemned man. cupola (Lat. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. An ancestor of the oboe. Next. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. or "scourged. cupula. Death. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. i. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337.

(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Deësis (Gk. often an altarpiece. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptych (Lat. but the concept behind an art work. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. The term stresses not the literal drawing. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. e. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. diakonos. an expressive use of nature. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. diptychos. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. decorated diffrently from the upper section. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. deacon (Gk. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. diptychum. a favorite late medieval picture subject. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Germany. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. design") In Renaissance art theory. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. danse macabre The dance of death. Anglican and Orthodox churches. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Passau. "drawing. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. which was help to be the basis of all art. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder.g. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. usually in matching pairs. Gk. disegno (It. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928).

the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. formerly worn under armour. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . is a heavy piece of furniture. distemper (Lat. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Ordo Praedictatorum. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. also used it on canvas. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. though a few artists. Dominicans (Lat. "to mix. As disegno appeals to the intellect.fully realize. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. usually forming a ceiling or roof. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. The studio easel. donator. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. such as we still use today. distemperare. dome in architecture. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. when painters took to working out of doors.Thomas Aquinas. which runs on castors or wheels. donor (Lat. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. a 19th-century invention. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. doublet A male garment.

epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. epitaph (Gk. the frieze. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. fresco. Ecce Homo (Lat. en face In portraiture. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. Hence. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. full face. "last". in art. a depiction of Jesus. "word") . enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. sculpture. and logos. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. ensemble (Fr. bound and flogged. John (19. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. eschatology (Gk. entablature In classical architecture. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. sometimes combining panel painting. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. eschaton. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. It consists of the architrave. and architecture. and the cornice.

Saints Ambrose. and of the last things. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. fields and livestock. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. which was famous for maiolica. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Spain. and is named for Faenza. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and Scandinavia. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Jerome. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. farmers. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. "good. notably Cardinal Pole. Augustine. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Giovanni Morone.death and resurrection. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. protector of shepherds." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which was developed in the Near East ca. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Vittoria Colonna. Eucharist (Gk. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. which is called "delftware." and charis. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Italy. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. . celebrated with bread and wine. eu. Contarini. Marcantonio Flaminio. particularly ware made in France. which is called "maiolica. 4500 BCE. Germany. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. convinced of the inefficacy of human works." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion.

fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. fresco (It. a technique known as a secco fresco. Their attributes are the bow. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. and flowers suspended in a loop. and these areas. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The colour of his horse is white. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically.8). black and dun. famine and death. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Committed to charitable and missionary work. 2 . sword and set of balances. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Only a small area can be painted in a day.festoni (It. can in time be seen. fluted of a column or pillar. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. leaves. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). such as plague. a swag. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. war. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). that of the others red. drying to a slightly different tint. frescos in Italy . relaxed. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.

G Garter. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. covings and ceilings. landscape and portraiture. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Final details. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. are genres of painting. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Genius in classical Rome. In art from the classical period onwards. or true fresco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. for example. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. the intonaco. genre In a broad sense. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. where the atmosphere was too damp. usually childish figure. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. a person's invisible tutelary god. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.Save in Venice.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The technique of buon fresco. or fresco secco. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. both in churches and in private and public palaces.

and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. As such. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. in portraits and on tombs. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. and as spurring on men of action. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Maria Gloriosa). how it differed from notoriety. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Maso di Banco. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Bernardo Daddi. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. as well as writers and artists. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Gobelins . Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. whether it must be connected with the public good.

the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. . The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Golden Fleece. This ratio is approximately 8:13. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. thereafter it made only tapestries.French tapestry manufactory. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. In other Italian cities. who appointed Lebrun Director. Paris. golden section (Lat. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. still in existence today. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). and although it reopened in 1699. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum.

that the effects are to be felt. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. In thinking of Nicola (d. the superficial particularities of form. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. from the 13th until the 17th century. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. In particular. Denis. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. like the cultural and commercial. painting. 1200 and c. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. . 1270. There is a transcendental quality. or the influence of one building. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. painting. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Amiens. and lies much deeper than. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. c. Nevertheless. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Gothic Gothic. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). In sculpture and in painting. The artistic. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres.

The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. starch. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Dubuffet.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Such tours often took a year or more. and above all Italy. without visible brush marks. the Netherlands. chiefly to France. to silk. Canaletto. the beau idéal of the French. occasionally. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Klee. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and Piranesi. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. to white or tinted paper and card and. Pannini. notably in the writings of Bellori. These qualities. genius. with sable. and Morris Graves. . known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and taste among the English.and hog-hair brushes. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It is thinned with water for applying. if required. and the great style. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Honey.

finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In another sense. however. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. c. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. In the context of the fine arts. After the War of the Eight Saints. and Waiblingen. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. exclude drawing from this definition. grisaille (Fr. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In Florence. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. 1216. after this. gris. internal factions in Florence went under other names. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy.e. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. brother of Louis IX.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. however. which had recruited most of the merchant class. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Some writers. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. . became an abiding feature of European politics. through central Italy. usually gray. including text as well as illustrations. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Although its palace was rebuilt c. then as now. to Provence and Paris. the parties taking a multitude of local names. drawing and the various forms of engraving. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. From 1266 to 1268.

" from Fr. for example. The guild also monitored standards of work. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. and provided assistance to members in need. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. such as Brescia and Vicenza. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. "[knowledge of] heraldry. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Guilds were also patrons of art. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. but in time they acquired other functions. "herald") . In Italy they go back a long way. goldsmiths. In some towns. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. The guilds were not equal.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In some cities. as some did). surgeons. H hatching In a drawing. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and greater hostility between master and man. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. héraut. In Florence. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. notably Florence in the 14th century. [science] héraldique. heraldry (Fr. trades. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. print or painting. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. trade or profession (painters. or professions. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In 16th century Venice.

which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. and regarded themselves as forming. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The main impact of the . his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. However. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. while others merged with the Waldensians. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. from the start. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. d. together with brethren north of the Alps. with the rules governing their use. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. the followers of Juan de Valdes. the Cathars were an anti-church. i.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. the Waldensian. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. one great missionary community. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. indeed. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. By contrast. as Antichrist. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. head of the 'carnal Church'. they were condemned in 1184. normative for churchmen.

whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. J. In humanism. Church. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. its subjects considered morally elevating. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. history (usually classical history). and classical literature. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Thomas Cole. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Jasper Cropsey. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Frederick E. humanism (Lat. American painters were studying in Rome. hortus conclusus (Lat. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Henry Inman. F. humanus. Morse. in his earlier work. At the same time. and. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Durand. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. working from 1825 to 1875. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. S. F. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. my spouse'. Kensett. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. B. the emancipation of man from God took place. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. mainly in the south. Germany.movement upon the laity was in southern France. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. George Inness. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. and the ladder. the hammer. with many further details added. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. there are representations of the bundle of rods. trecento rococo and lyrical style. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. In the second half of the 14th century. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. soft style. are also used in art literature. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. originality. or of other saints. the pincers.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Veronica. invention. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. the veil of St. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. inventio (It. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. etc. usually the donors of a work of art. Human figures. Derived from classical rhetoric.g. investiture . inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the ability to create. the scourge that was used in the scourging. The terms court style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. and they are also depicted on their own. beautiful style. Donatallo. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. it denominates a kind of behaviour. For instance. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the rooster of Peter's denial. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason.

of Utrecht. . Andries and Jan Both. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. although they are usually called Romanists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Nicolaes Berchem. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. and Jan Asselijn. who traveled in Italy and. Both and Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Upon his return to Holland. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Jerome's writings. Italianizers Northern artists. bathed in a golden haze. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. The Both brothers. principally Dutch. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. generally Dutch or Flemish. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes.

encouraged by the Crusades.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. the rite of communion is based on this. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. liberal arts . In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). John of Jerusalem . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Legenda Aurea (Lat. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. As their military role grew. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.1519). especially one at which the Bible is read. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . lectern A reading stand or desk. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Archbishop of Genoa.

g. Kensett (1816-1872). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). lunette (Fr. Heade (1819-1904). Maria Novella in Florence). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. rhetoric and dialectic. first the preparatory trivium . painting or sculptural decoration. that may contain a window. "little moon") In architecture. astronomy and music. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. that could be used for public ceremonies. together with identifying attributes (e. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. comprising arithmetic. .g. Tubal for music). poetic atmosphere. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). loggia (It. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. a semicircular space. through the use of aerial perspective. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.grammar. then the basis of a philosophical training. commemorating a marriage. Pythagoras for arithmetic. often sublime.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. geometry. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. John F. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Church (1826-1900). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Martin J. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. and Frederick E. the quadrivium. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. often standing in markets and town squares. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. It is related to. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. its roof supported by columns.

active mainly in Florence c. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and portraits as well as landscapes. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. manganese purple. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. Specifically. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. and accompaniments. and however bright their lighting effects. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. antimony yellow. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. "great mother") A mother goddess. copper green. mandorla (It. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. usually for the lute. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. the goddess Cybele. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. 1855–65. historical subjects. particularly such ware produced in Italy. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. being written. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. madrigal A part song. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). When white is used for painting. "almond") . there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and iron red. originally sung without accompaniment. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. but they painted genre scenes. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). with secular texts replacing sacred ones. for example. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. magna mater (Lat. with white provided by the tin-glaze material.

Developing out of the Renaissance. depending on the social class of the wearer. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. mantle An overcoat. In Mannerist painting. often ornamented with decorative borders. complex and crowded compositions. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. which was quarried at Mount . maniera. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. El Greco and Tintoretto. Mannerism (It. Flanders. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. illuminated initials and miniatures. "manner. Parmigianino. marked by flagellation. ecclesiastical. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. in a specific sense. the Codex manuscriptus. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Burgundy. strong. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. worn open. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. the hand-written medieval book. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. In architecture. and literary texts. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. It reached to the knee or foot. Bronzino. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. bound. more strictly. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and crowned with thorns. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale.

torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. The pure white Carrara marble. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . gained the rank of'master' in his guild. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. "witness. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. having finished his training. quarried at Massa. medallion In architecture. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. the medal's purpose was commemorative. martyrdom (Gk. Like the finest Imperial coins. which were beginning to be reverently collected. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506).Pentelicon in Attica. proof") the sufferings. Without monetary value. Carrara. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). sleek surface. an inscription running round the rim. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. marmi finti (It. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. a different design on the reverse. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. martyrion. particularly by Michelangelo. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings.

c. supposedly to petrify her enemies. the stress on individual character. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. of the person portrayed on the other side. 1640. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. and of the many. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. The work of these men. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. for landscapes and portraits. who reflected them. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. particularly. c. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. 1452-1526/27). Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. . The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Ludwig von Siegen. Her head features on Minerva's shield. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. in England. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. perhaps oddly. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1425-1504). The process is essentially extinct today. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. This yields a soft effect in the print. even grain. A Dutch officer. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. as it were. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. a Gorgon. no line drawing is employed. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. 14601528). not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1467-688). In pure mezzotint. Medusa In Greek mythology. When Perseus cuts off her head. It was.round the neck. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. often anonymous.

"word. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. saying") . not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. e. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.g. pointed headdress worn by bishops. a painting executed in a single color.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. often quite highly finished. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. still exist. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. painting in gouache on vellum or card. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. usually portraits. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. miter A high. executed on a very small scale. monokhromatos. monochrome (Gk. Francis himself. Many such small versions. "one color") Painted in a single color. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.. by Tiepolo and Rubens. motto (Ital. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. ink and paint. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Parmigianino (d. a branch of the Franciscan order.

. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and Casino Massimo. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Isidore. often separated from it by pillars. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and their work is clear and prettily coloured. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. 1816-17. nave (from Lat. In 1810 0verbeck. The invention of personal mottos. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. In general. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Pforr. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. but often insipid. 1817-29). and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Nazarenes A group of young. Rome. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Berlin. and is intersected by the transept. naturalism (Fr. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms.from the Middle Ages. named after the patron saint of painting. navis. and two other members moved to Rome. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins.

where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. niello (Lat. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nigellus. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. usually golden. Popes. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). the style of the Ancien Régime. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. is as true as it is notorious. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty.) . placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). moreover. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. were usually old when elected. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. but their ideas continued to be influential. "aureole") The disc or halo. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Nymphaeum (Gk. nimbus (Lat. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case).

Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. was the simplest. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). The Ionic order had a slenderer column. . prayer and preaching being central to their mission. capital. or poppy. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. such as linseed. walnut. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. "services. its richness of colour. a small private chapel. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. and its greater tonal range. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. inborn sin. obsequia. Greek goddesses of Nature. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. the Doric order. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. the three basic styles of design. and entablatures. orders of architecture In classical architecture. observances") Rites performed for the dead. The earliest. a more elaborate base. fluted column and a plain capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. with a sturdy. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. O obsequies (Lat.

with biforate windows. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. the Cancelleria). Palazzo Strozzi). Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. P pala (Ital. standing at the foot of the Cross.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.g. and. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. while shops came to be thought undignified. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. palazzo (It. tradition and social structure. and the main apartments above. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. designed as a . or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). like cities.

and Palladio's in Vicenza. came to be applied all over Europe. palmette. In Venice. column-caps. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Rich. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. often built next to their titular churches. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. evolved influential types. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. like Genoa. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. panel . while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard.scholarly retreat. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy.g. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Other cities. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Palazzo Massimi). behind a sober Florentine façade. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Following Oriental patterns. Papal incentives to build. cornices and abutments. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. e. and large households.g. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Movement of patrons and architects. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. like the colonnaded vestibule. especially after the Sack of Rome.

Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and dark walnut are favourites. so that they might have a voice at court. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. Then.Term in painting for a support of wood.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. On a larger scale. and other synthetic materials as supports. and modern painters have also used plywood. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. A number of matters. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. The third aspect was administrative. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and walnut. as it were. chestnut. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. or other rigid substance. Having a circular plan. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. olive. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. enforce law and order. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. As successors to St Peter. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. To maintain their authority. and the pressure and temptations . it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. metal. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and spanned by a single dome. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. as distinct from canvas. mahogany. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. larch. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. fir. the management of clerical dues and taxation. secular rulers. fibre-board. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. to influence popes in their favour. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. cedar. linden. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. however. teak. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. or the incidence of taxation. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. In the 20th century cedar. including beech. Many other types were used.

possess an authority which. was long in doubt. in spite of further absences from Rome. at Avignon. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Colonna and Caetani. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. As at Avignon. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. from the point of view of its religious associations. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. To resolve the problem of divided authority. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the most appropriate . The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. in the eyes of God. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). of individuals. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). considered perfectly suitable for the role played . By then. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. which met at Constance 1414-18. It was argued that such a council. to be long delayed. There remained. however. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). would.as well. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. could supersede that of a pope. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. So onerous. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate.that could be applied to them. however. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. which seems so inevitable. as such. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. if it did no serious damage to the faith. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. The identification of the Papacy with Rome.

The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. pastor.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. it has also been used for painting. through lavish patronage of artists. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. as well as a governmental one. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and with Zeuxis (c. to a world peopled by shepherds. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding.. and other animals. goat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. However. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). in classical literature. Passion . and satyrs. the creation of a cultural capital. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. less frequently pig. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 400-300 BC). pastoral (Lat. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. scholars and men of letters. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. nymphs. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Parrhasius (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century.

pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. the crown of thorns. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. pavilion (Lat. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26.The events leading up to Good Friday. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Francesco Salviati. Meanwhile. such as a garden summerhouse. projecting either centrally or at both ends. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Portrayals of the Passion. and so on. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. .) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. patricius. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. but not necessarily a direct copy. which focus on the Suffering Christ. and also the archbishop of Pisa. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. a region in north-central Italy. 1478. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. wealthy citizen. pastiche (fr. 1478). "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. hence tent") A lightly constructed. "butterfly. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. ornamental building.) or pasticcio (It. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. patrician (Lat. a small. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. papilio. a prominent section of a monumental façade. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.

or related elements within an art work. personification (Lat. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. concept or deity. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. physis. "nature". The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. perspicere. . pendant (Fr. and facere. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "person". persona.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. in particular the face. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. and gnomon. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "to see through.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "hanging. perspective (Lat. physiognomy (Gk. pergola (It. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors.

curious details. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. but full of variety. for example. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output.) The main floor of a building. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. usually above the ground floor. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. both real and painted. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. remarkable for singularity. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Rome. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Peter's. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. . Developing in Germany in the 14th century. proper to take a landscape from. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. containing the public rooms. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. affording a good subject for a landscape. striking the imagination with the force of painting. A pier is generally larger than a column. Pietà (Lat.piano nobile (Ital. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. to be expressed in painting. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. or resin to make paint. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. glue. exemplified. pigment (Lat. pigmentum.

Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. For this reason. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. in October 1347. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. During 1348 the Black Death. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. the burning of 'infected' clothing. and thereafter all Europe. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. a shaft. and capital. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. such as Florence and Genoa. In the 15th century. moreover. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Rocco and Sebastian. It is often fluted. it is difficult to find. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. also used in Spain's American colonies. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Thenceforward. for instance. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. it has a base.pilaster (Lat. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. "pillar") A flat. however. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. pilastrum. despite regional variations. perhaps. more sporadic outbreaks. though in less widespread. since. plague Plague. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. outside Tuscany. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. It seems probable.

Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. or appropriateness. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. or simply the Plateresque. The first phase. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. like its successor. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). the Symposium. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Philebus. correct classical orders became frequent. Theatetus and the Laws. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). composition. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The second phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. heraldic escutcheons. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Phaedrus. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . which lasted only a few decades. Phaedo. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. and unified style using massive geometric forms. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones.e. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. i. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. placement. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. and sinuous scrolls. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Timaeus. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). harmonious. are the masterworks of the second style. more severe. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Diego evolved a purer. The first phase.. utilized Mudejar ornament -. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In contrast with Aristotle. A student of Socrates.

prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. including those of Plotinus. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. partially. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. near Florence. the greatest of his ancient disciples.1577) becoming particularly popular. Plotinus. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1472-c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . for example with Symphorian Champier (c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. but not completely. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Iamblichus. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe.in Plato's thought. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Rather unsystematic. and the Chaldaic Oracles. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. all of which he also translated into Latin. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. systematized and added to what Plato had done. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. and Agostino Steuco (c. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Unlike the case of Aristotle. replaced Ficino's. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. A new Latin translation. and he utilized many other writings. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. It was especially in a number of academies in France and .

Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Plato was read in the universities. or statue. plinth (Gk. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. plinthos. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. porticus. portico (Lat. column. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. as in classical architecture). "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Frequently supports a pediment. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. such as processions and consecrations. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluvial (Med. poluptukhos.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. where a pectoral is used to close it. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pluviale. polyptych (Gk. pointed arch In architecture. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara.

Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527.sculptors such as Donatello. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Colleoni. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Desiderio da Settignano. inessential. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The 16th century portrait became generalized. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Group portraits. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. was revived in the 14th century. decorating whole rooms. Siena. psychologically more complex. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Maria Novella. 1328. Cathedral) by Uccello. Venice). the Carracci. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Palazzo Farnese). Florence (1486-90). The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Florence. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. and the . A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The realism of the clear. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Gattarnelata. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. and only a decorative accessory to form. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait.. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello.e. Campidoglio). The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. National Gallery). flattened image. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Mantua. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The equestrian portrait. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers.

to discharge their preaching duties. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Charles Le Brun." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). primarily the mendicants. are not florid in style. minatory exhortations. bishop of Chioggia. The styles of S. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The sermons of Visdomini. bishop of Asti. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. however. of the sermon as an art form. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. from the secular clergy. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. several of whom became bishops. As Poussin was a Frenchman. was versed in classical and patristic . bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. and. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. who had as their ideal masters Titian. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Correggio. bishops especially. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. and Peter Paul Rubens. abrasive even. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Fiamma's sermons. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Savonarola and Musso. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Borromeo. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. 1494).

the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. and so forth.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.g. though often relatively very wide . the temptations of Adam and Christ. predella (It. Louis of Toulouse (1317. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. among them Holman Hunt.rhetoric. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Naples). disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. The New Testament references in these would. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. tapestries. prefiguration Typology . aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Because of the small size of predelle . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Millais and Rossetti. however.

intended as complete works of art in themselves.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. 2. these highly finished drawings. sculpture and architecture. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). again indicative of the purpose they served. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. proportio. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. proportion (Lat. which uses the square . Prix de Rome A scholarship. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. the quadrature. The following are important: 1. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and Houdon among sculptors. "evenness") in painting. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the golden section. profil perdu (Fr. Fragonard. projecting shelf on which to kneel. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. notably David. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). the Canon of Proportion. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. 3. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. Girardon. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible.

as a unit of measurement. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. and 5. Unlike Pozzo. for example). Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. one half the length of the other). in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. . Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. triangulation. the steward or treasurer of a church. It was common in Roman art. provenance The origins of an art work. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. a fifth = 2:3. Ignazio. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. 4. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. "boys") Plump naked little boys. Rome. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. putto (It. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. putti sing. harmonic proportions. a fourth = 3:4.

religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. basso rilievo). "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in which figures are seen half round. relevare. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Fra Angelico and others. e. refectory (Med. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. relicquiae. the object of particular veneration. Brunelleschi. hermits. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. canons regular. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief.Quattrocento (It. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. In 16th century Europe. Donatello. in particular works by Masaccio. friars and nuns. with the Anglican Church developing in England.g. also known as the Realist school. Botticelli. and high relief (alto rilievo). relic (Lat. the great orders of monks. Lat. relief (Lat. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. or the Jesuits. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Among the . or some item connected with a saint. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. in which figures are almost detached from their background.

The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. In 1517. and the generally moderate Observants. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. The Silvestrines. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. In 1504. various groups were fused in the latter body. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Giorgio in Alga. i. although technically of secular canons. the most notable being S. S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Mantua. Founded by St Romuald c. Benedetto. Salvatore.e. 1012. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Lucca. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. which was to become the main Italian one. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. presided over by chapters general. the Conventuals. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. it became the Cassinese congregation. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. That of S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. the great patriarch of Venice. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order.contemplative orders. The Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. who had no overall organization originally. The Benedictines. The same bull . and their more institutionalized brethren. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. At the same time. Bernardino of Siena. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. After the repression of the Spirituals. Bologna (1419). Lorenzo Giustiniani. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. however. Maria di Fregonaia. Padua. Giustina. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. was the congregation of S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Venice (1404). the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life.

Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the Theatines. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. founded by S. The first. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. founded in 1535 by S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Venice. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Gaetano da Thiene. a historical period. S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Filippo Neri. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. however. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. however. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Angela Merici. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. also. Gerolamo Aemiliani. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Michele in Isola. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner.

It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. For long. 1875-86). Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. . it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of arts. however. too long forgotten glories. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of scholarship.century. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. increasingly. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. of letters. however. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. life. because its core of energy. as well as political. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. the historical reality of antiquity. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. All-Roundness. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. which had begun early in the 14th century. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. of 'darkness'. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Thereafter. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. and competition with. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. and his own as potentially one of light. even Amoralism. of an energetic revival of interest in. was so vast and potent. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after.

or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Ghent). 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. There was an early. however. and other liturgical objects. (3) There is not a true. mobilized nationalism. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. sometimes. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. and is decorated with paintings. consist merely of a painting. retables can be detached and. letters. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Though thus challenged. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. The challenges are to be accepted. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. and mass media. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. of industrialization. congruence between. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. the previous record . retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. gratefully. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). later still to Genoa. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. candlesticks. in the more limited sense. let alone a uniform.erased. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. It is for this additional. etc. etc. though sometimes of metal. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. statues. especially in the High Gothic period.) was the term chosen. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432.with all its shabbiness . Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .

it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. like 'Gothic'. almost simultaneously. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. richly decorated with organic forms.of St Mark in Venice. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Spain . Romanesque art. rocaille (French. painting. . the St. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. its mood lighthearted and witry. "relief") In painting. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Rococo A style of design. and architecture dominating the 18th century. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. is a typical product. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. and 'Romanesque'. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. More usually. in several countries . and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. rilievo (It. retables have become extinct. Italy. however. the impression that an object is three-dimensional.France. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction.in the 11th century. Louis XV furniture. With the development of freestanding altars. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. literally. As the name suggests. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Germany. the first style to achieve such international currency. Originally commissioned in 976. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.

and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Claude. Pannini and Mengs. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rome. . Piranesi. M. ruddle Any red-earth pigment.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Mabuse. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Q. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. van Heemskerk. such as red ochre. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. the development of nationalistic pride. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. they maintained. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. van Orley. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. The aim of painting. stylized design representing an open rose. B. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Massys and M. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. In addition. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists.

The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. but others were the work of well-known figures. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and anointing of the sick. Eastern independent. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.expressed through gesture. Orthodox. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. local saints. Written primarily in ottava rima.greatly increased. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526).S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). holy orders. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. gutted. Clement escaped into Castel S. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). In the . and Protestant churches. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Many compositions were anonymous. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. confirmation. and impoverished. multiple sets used in succession. the Eucharist. penance. supported by lay confraternities. matrimony. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. There were no limits on time. and Lorenzo de' Medici. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. pious legend and hagiography. glance and movement . Subjects were nominally sacred. Sacra Conversazione (It. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. from the Old and New Testaments. when it finally left the city it had devastated. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .

the Orthodox Church does not. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. foot washing. used for drawing. as in the Church of the Brethren. sacraments. the Bentivoglio. Salt War. was not maintained as a sacrament. notably from Florence and in Germany. Thus. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.) Hall. which in the Gospel According to John. in principle. was buried under a new fortress. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.e. the symbolic direction of Christ. The theology of the Orthodox Church. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Rocca Paolina. Saracens ." sala (Ital." which are called sacramentals. and then face east. It is still practiced on special occasions.. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The classical Protestant churches (i. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. that the price of salt should be increased. as an excuse to revolt. replaces the Lord's Supper. the sun of righteousness. Anglican. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Hence. large room. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. The chief focus of discontent. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. baptism and the Eucharist. and sacraments. They were still seeking aid.early church the number of sacraments varied. Immediately following baptism.e. Lutheran. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. chapter 13. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. make such strict distinctions.i. strictly speaking. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Candidates first face west.

legs and horns of a goat. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). wood or terracotta. 270 BC). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . the Arabs or Muslims. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. satyr In Greek mythology. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.c. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. sarcophagi (Gk.During the Middle Ages. 360 . Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). sarcophagus. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. made of stone. are lost. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 160 . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. The publication of Latin (1562. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and many others. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). human-like woodland deities with the ears. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 45 BC). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. whose writings.c. pl. the god of wine. Little known in the Middle Ages. 210 AD).

but with little effect. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. than their medieval predecessors. most of whom. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. one of the early leaders. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. was called Bamboccio. who recognized the Roman pope. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place.they had individual Bentnames . and. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. while England. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. scholasticism . Schism. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.for example Pieter van Laer. who had the support of the Avignon pope. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. in June 1409. Charles III of Durazzo (d. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. being Frenchmen. with France and her allies Aragon. for. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. from time to time both he and his opponents. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. Louis I (d. on the other. Alexander V. As a result. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. while devout Christians agonized. 1386) and his son Ladislas. the Florentines. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. However. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. In northern Italy. on one side. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31).

scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.) . Medieval scholars. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Padua. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. because the secco technique is much less permanent. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. and theology. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). the plaster had to be damped before painting. Often called the burning ones.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). on one side. as it were. university-based study. Serenissima (Ital. notably Aquinas. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. and Islamic literature. None the less. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.The term is ambivalent. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster.were different from those of medieval. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. that scholasticism was left. moreover. as it is easier to add details in this way. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. history and rhetoric . were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. (See also: fresco. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.moral philosophy. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Christian. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. It was because the central concerns of humanism . It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). textual scholarship. As such. if lime-water was used. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.

Originally.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "the most serene republic of Venice"). the governing body of some of the Italian city states. and the delicate.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. usually presided over by individual families. sinopia . light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. brass. Servite (Lat. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. sfumato A technique. in use since the Middle Ages. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. They first appear in alpine monasteries. the number gradually rose to ten. there was only one Sibyl. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibylla. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. at the same time. In Christian legend. women who could prophesy. term. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Med.. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Signoria (It. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. sibyls (Gk. which were all identical in thickness. in the period of classical antiquity. Sibyls foretold the Birth. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. "prophetess") In antiquity. Lat. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.

sing. staffage This word. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. in other words. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. . and by a sweet and playful sentiment. and. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. "mark. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. especially in the flow of drapery. sotto in sù (It. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . as the name implies.'Beautiful Madonnas'. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. Ital. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. brand. soffit (Lat. pronounced as French. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.. Francis of Assisi. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries.) Wooden ceiling decoration. It is very closely related to International Gothic. stigmata. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. stigma (Gk. Stanze (Ital.

notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. John Milton. whose verses actually fabrications . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. In a looser sense. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. supremacy . studiolo. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Indeed. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. The vogue for the Sublime. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). pl. stucco A type of light. studioli (It. with that for the Picturesque. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. both external and internal.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).

tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source.Historically. . Tempera colors are bright and translucent. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. then being replaced by oil paint. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). was being decorated with frescoes. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. his own headquarters. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. 1407). into Italy. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. doubtless. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tempera (Lat. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. or cartoons. temperare.and. chiefly from Flanders. Salviati and Allori. both for panel painting and fresco. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. But the Italians did not make them. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). The subject is underexplored. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. These were imported. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. i. London. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. and in literature. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534.e. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .

the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. tondo. pl. walls. theme or motif. and later to subdivide gable ends. "fields. figure of speech. widely used form. i. quarter face. topos. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. topia. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. model. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. topiary (Gk. "a commonplace") In literature. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture.terracotta (It. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. and other surfaces. in art. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. terraferma (Ital. and sculptures. triumphal arch. vessels. pl. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. Trajan's Column .e. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. in the architecture of ancient Rome. and profile. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topoi (Gk. tondi (It.

or wings. Early triptychs were often portable. "threefold") in Christianity. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Meanwhile. behind it. usually an altarpiece. "threefold") A painting in three sections. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.' Before it go the apostles. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. a car so brave'. fame. time and eternity. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . the military triumph became sublimated. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. death. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Trinity (Lat. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. as it were. of both sexes'.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. beside it the army of martyrs. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. . in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. chastity. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Disseminated soon after his death. the wars by which they were won . Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. patriarchs and prophets. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. trinitas.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. tryptychos. added to the glamour of the triumph. the Son and the Holy Spirit. of virtues and of the arts. triptych (Gk. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Battista Sforza. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. into a number of less controversial forms. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. after 'a countless number of virgins.

"drum") In classical architecture. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. viscous black ink. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. often decorated with sculptures. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. first recorded in 1232. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil (Fr. It incorporates Renaissance features.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tusche A thick. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). it is usually decorated with carvings. tympanum (Lat. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. enclosed by an arch. through various naturalistic devices. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. typology . tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Dating from classical times.

of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). such as five works devoted to the senses. killer of Holofernes. lanterns. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. e. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. 1590-1624). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. U uomo universale (It. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Judith. 1610). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.) The Renaissance "universal man".g.Dirck van Baburen (c. knew his former patrons. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.A system of classification. especially his half-length figural groups. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . were popular with them also. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. each had access to his paintings. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. slayer of Goliath. . So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. The numerous candles. In Christian thought. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and David. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. where they were most accessible. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New.

vanitas (Lat. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. and the rib vault. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. it was used to decorate furniture. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. Parisian craftsmen. the groin vault. "evening") . The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. hour-glasses and clocks. vesper. snuff boxes and other objects. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. and even flowers (which will soon fade). overturned vessels. varietà (It. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. V vanishing point In perspective. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Also varietas (Lat. carriages. a work's richness of subject matter. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. mixed in.). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. guttering candles. often gold. Vespers (Lat. There are a wide range of forms. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.

to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. in which the word signifies efficacy. "life") . Temperance. vite (Lat. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. In ancient Roman dwellings. if you have it not'. Prudence. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Fortitude. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. the church service at which these prayers are said. Charity. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. pl. Gluttony. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. "not exposed to winds". Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vita. and Justice. and Sloth. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Anger. Covetousness. Vestibule (Lat. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vimperga Of German origin. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Hope.Prayers said in the evening. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Lust. Envy. 'Assume a virtue. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. virtù could be used. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. vestibulum. for example. The seven Virtues were: Faith. actual or latent.

fall into a different category from those that preceded them. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1478-80. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Vitruvius Pollio. 1472. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Sculptors and Architects"). 1482-84). No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. The wars from 1494 do. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. and appalled recognition of. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. protection from harm. a biography.An account of someone's life and work. or recovery from illness has been made. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. published in 1550 and 1568. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. they were from the 18th century . W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. in fact. Marcus (1st cent.g. those of Volterera. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. and of Ferrara.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. pompous on the floor above. "world view") A comprehensive world view. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. a philosophy of life. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Westwerk German word. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. woodcut A print made from a wood block. gallery. .Weltanschauung (Gr. usually restorers. It was intended to have a variety of functions. usually linear. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. during its subsequent history. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms. "Western work of art".

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