A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

arcus. The adjective is apsidal. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. architectonic (Gk. Lancet and Tudor. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "architectural") Relating to structure. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. piers or pillars. architrave (It. Degas. There are several variants of the technique. . and Rouault. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. which is fused to the plate by heating. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. The term applies also to a print made by this method. the moulding around a window or door. arcade (Lat. including Goya. Also known as an exedra. or organization. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. In Greek and Roman literature. at the east end of a church behind the altar. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface.e. arkhitektonikos. Picasso. the darker the tone).A semicircular projection. roofed with a half-dome. design. the lowest part of the entablature). but in essence the process is as follows. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period).

The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. attribute (Lat. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.archivolt (Ital. "begin." from Gk." and Lat. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. voltus. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. aureole (Lat. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. attributum. "golden. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. aureolus. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Dante's Vita nuova . "the art of dying well") a small book on death.and the Comedy . archivolto. In the case of martyrs. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "front arch. usually a saint. dominate. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archeiu. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.

Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby").while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. baldachin. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. The actual move was made in 1309. often anecdotal. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). or baldacchino (It. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. the god of wine and fertility. applied to the physically . was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. 'Captivity'. that of Cardano. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. who had been residing in France since 1305. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Six pontificates later. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. in 1377. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. paintings of everyday life. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Later.

which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or canopy. Alg. AD 300). the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Easter. Customarily. and abject filthy things. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. and Nocera in Italy. Florence. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. AD 273. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. of the church and were often large and richly decorated.. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. such as those at Pisa. and Poitiers. and Epiphany. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. beggars in rags.g. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. or forecourt.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). pope between 432 and 440. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Pentecost. Croatia]. or connected with. Spalato [Split. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style.. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. banderole (It. el Kantara. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. banderuola. built by Sixtus III. Lebanon. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Baalbek. a church. As eight follows the "complete" number. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. France. seven. a visual metaphor for the number eight." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. set beneath a domical ciborium. . Parma. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. the Temple of Venus.

There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1810-1865). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). were often omitted entirely. "king's hall") a church building. or baptismal chapels. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Constant Troyon (French. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. in its usual location near the church door . a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. barocco. Jules Dupré (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. in the 1840s and 1850s. stoa basilike. and (3) everyday realism. . the dramatic use of light and shadow. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. and thus a church. 1814-1875). Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon.In the 10th century. Originally. Also tunnel vault. Rubens). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Jean-François Millet (French. 1807-1876). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. achieved through scale. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1811-1889). and increasingly elaborate decoration. Baroque (Port. 1817-1878). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. baptisteries. Théodore Rousseau (French. however. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. which is reserved for the clergy. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Vermeer). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. basilica (Gk. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. southeast of Paris. 1796-1875). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. In architecture. usually facing east.an allusion to entering the Christian life.

particularly porcelain. It takes its name from its grainy texture. such as those by Diego Velázquez. bodegón Image. or which is to be left as it is. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The term was mainly used up to c. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. and often sentimentality. often with food and drink. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. as is to be expected. Book of Hours . Bodegónes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). There were. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. were referred to by their specific contents. which is either not yet glazed.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. in which still-life predominates. such as Waldmüller. especially Spanish. up until the mid-17th century. Biscuit porcelain. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. 1650 in Spain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. like their Dutch counterparts. Spanish still-lifes. however. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. By association. domesticity. also incorrectly called bisque. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense.

illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. days of the week. and the fact that it is easily workable .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. a rapid sketch in oil. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. made as a study for a larger picture. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.an advantage over marble sculpture. See flying buttress. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. By extension. bozzetto Strictly speaking. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.both hot and cold .by a variety of processes. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. varying from silverish to a rich. coppery red. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. . durability. Chantilly). from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bozzetto(Italian. months. or seasons. but can also be used for painted sketches. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.

a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Duccio. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. which was often allegorical. private room where works of art. and work in precious metals. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. mosaics. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. "a chest. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. glass. C cabinet A small. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. cameo Small relief made from gems. caisson (Fr. over time the term was used for the collections themselves.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Among its most distinctive products were icons. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. casson. and Giotto. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. camera obscura . hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). ceramics. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). manuscript illuminations. It also served to glorify the emperor. notable from Syria and Egypt. box") In architecture. its forms highly stylized.

usually in a church. hemp. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. and jute. capitellum. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. both of which have richly carved marble panels. dating to antiquity. candlestick. usually decorated. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candelabra. candela. only very rough effects will be obtainable. as an aid to drawing. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. The Latin name means "dark chamber. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and." and the earliest versions. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. usually with several branches or arms. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. candelabrum (It. usually built beside or attached to a church. by the 16th century. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. pl. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). which was usually whitened.) A gallery for singers or musicians. capital (Lat. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. other materials used are cotton. cantoria. cantorie (It. "candle") A large. Portable versions were built. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. . which isolates the fabric from the paint. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Niepce created photography. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. campanile Bell tower.-N. sing. Structurally.

Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Carmelites (Lat. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. or a motto. The order combines reclusive and community life. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. tapestry. monasteries containing separate hermitages. or fresco. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartone. New Charterhouses. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the endeavour to attain true humanity. details of the subject. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartellino. cartoon (It. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).both Italians and artists from other countries . near Grenoble. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartellini In a painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the date of the painting. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). At the height of the Middle Ages. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars.a humorous drawing or parody. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. cardinalis.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. pl. In fresco painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartouche . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. and humanism. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted.

palace. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. they were also used in other countries. The main body. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. and swags of fruit and flowers. The altar is placed at the east end. cassone (It. caryatid (Gk. linen. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. a cathedral always faces west . cathedral (cathedra. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. They contained the bride's clothes. decorated with gilt gesso. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. In the 15th century.) "castle". and many other items of her dowry. . For reasons lost to time and tradition. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Paolo Uccello. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest.toward the setting sun. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. castello (It. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Cascina. putti (cupids). where the throne of the bishop is placed. or nave. or arms of the cross.

and perspicere. or birdlike characteristics. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. landscapes. champlevé (Fr. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. a celestial winged being with human. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. a throne bearer of the deity. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. continually praise him. central perspective (Lat. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. centralis. as celestial attendants of God. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Relative to the observer. "in the centre". animal. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Both the statement of St. in accordance with their distance from the observer. rather than intercessory functions. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. and Islamic literature. .Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. buildings and figures that are being depicted. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Christian.

The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept ." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. the Order of the Hospital of St. replacing tempera. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. Since Carolingian times. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. "light dark") In painting. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. North of the Alps.chiaroscuro (It. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Hans Burgkmair (1510). chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Lastly. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. or for choral singing. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). reserved for the clergy to pray together. choir (Gk. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. choros. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling.

Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. reversed volutes. Very few still exist in their original positions. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Sculpted clouds. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). which was shaped like an inverted cone. gilded rays. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. ciborium . and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and garlands. and the Churrigueresque column. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and repetition of pattern. undulating cornices. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). stucco shells. further enriching the style.intersect). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. an architect. a massing of carved angels. The Transparente (completed 1732). is as typically Churrigueresque. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. The Mexico cathedral (1718). seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. undulating lines. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. became the most common motif. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. balustrades.

Then. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. The new government. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. as also were those in the associated. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. High Renaissance). Their economic condition worsened. ciompi. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. etc. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Without being members of a guild. and the new government failed to implement all their demands.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. but self-employed. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. the wool carder Michele di Lando. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. combers. or achieve political representation. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. In reaction to this revolutionary . Members of the lower classes. craft of dyeing. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Quattrocento (1400s. who were raised to the status of a guild. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. They were forbidden to form a trade association. including the ciompi. on July 22. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts.and post-medieval Italy. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. placing one of their members. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. beaters. controlled by the minor guilds. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June.

In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate.as in Italy these were dispensed with. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. literature. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. and politics. In the 15th century Greek literature. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. on which strings were plucked. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).episode. resembling a lyre. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). philosophy. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. cithara (Gk. scholars patiently finding. the black contours usually with a special line plate.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. writers. the ciompi guild was abolished. except in cases where . with Italian scholars. clair-obscur (Fr. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. philosophy and art . changed greatly from one period to the next. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored.) An ancient musical instrument. . Concepts of the classical. however. editing and translating a wide range of texts. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.

pl. The name was derived from the condotta. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. blue and orange. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. those with refined tastes. compline (Lat. Coffered ceilings. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. intensify one another. sing. Green and red. cognoscente (It. cognoscenti. "concept") In Renaissance art theory.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. . literature or music. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. concetti (It. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. or "contract. terrorized the country. as well as from the Bible. condottieri (It. occasionally made of wood. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. a work's underlying theme. the church service at which these prayers are said. arch or ceiling. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. concetto. [hora] completa. condottiere. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. pl. when set side by side. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches.

i. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. who won control of Milan in 1450. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. primarily for syphilitics. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. scuole. flagellant confraternities. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. or with the spiritual assistance of. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. With no goal beyond personal gain. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. often called compagnie or. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. in the service of Perugia. confraternities Confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. By the end of the 14th century. . Umbria. and German--the condottieri.e. Toward the end of the 15th century. and Tuscany. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. in Venice. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Spanish. Francesco Sforza. disappeared. convents of convertite. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. in the service of Naples. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Mark (1432). being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Carmagnola. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza.devastating Romagna. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. clergy. i. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Muzio's son.e. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. which spread in the 15th century. By the 16th century. Martino). which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. and his rival Braccio da Montone. often under the direction of. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St.

the Venetian parliament of noblemen. While the Doge ranked above the Council. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . Confraternities. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. In medieval painting. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. e. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. 1514 in S. which accompanied condemned prisoners. and refuges for maidens. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Later. Dorotea in Trastevere. the Florentine Neri. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. while the Venetian government. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. contour. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. but sometimes had their own premises. contour (Fr. notwithstanding their location. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. reformed prostitutes. in Florence. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. however. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital.e. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. founded c. contrapposto (It.g. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. e. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contours were initially regular.g. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). flat outlines.i. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis.

conventicle (Lat. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. declining moral standards. an engraving produced in this way. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. 1280). Reform programs.weight on one leg. They are often ornamented. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Lat. conventiculurn. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. large cornice or other feature. . The style spread as far as England. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. started the process of inner reform in the Church. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. did not achieve any lasting results. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. whose names are inscribed on several works. cuprum. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). aes cyprium. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. corbel In architecture. a bracket of stone. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. 1100 and 1300.

craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. particularly among the Persians. There were various methods of performing the execution. An ancestor of the oboe. Jews. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. the condemned man." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Carthaginians. Constantine the Great. "small vat") In architecture. D dado . or "scourged. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. cupula. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. cupola (Lat. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Usually. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Death. after being whipped. reedy sound. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. a semi-circular vault. the most famous victim of crucifixion. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. i. the first Christian emperor. a small dome.e. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Seleucids. Next. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft.

the relationship of the human figure and events to nature.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. "drawing. Gk. Passau. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. usually in matching pairs. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. danse macabre The dance of death. but the concept behind an art work. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. a favorite late medieval picture subject. The term stresses not the literal drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. design") In Renaissance art theory. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. diakonos. often an altarpiece. Anglican and Orthodox churches. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Deësis (Gk. decorated diffrently from the upper section. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diptych (Lat.g. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. diptychos. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Germany. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. e. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. disegno (It. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. and Linz possessed common characteristics. an expressive use of nature. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. diptychum. deacon (Gk.

donator. distemper (Lat. donor (Lat. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. is a heavy piece of furniture. formerly worn under armour. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. when painters took to working out of doors. such as we still use today. The studio easel. also used it on canvas. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. though a few artists. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages.Thomas Aquinas. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . dome in architecture. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). As disegno appeals to the intellect. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. a 19th-century invention. "to mix. which runs on castors or wheels. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. doublet A male garment. distemperare. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Ordo Praedictatorum. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Dominicans (Lat.fully realize. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c.

"together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. in art. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. and architecture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. fresco. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. the frieze. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. and the cornice. "word") . wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Hence. "last". engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschatology (Gk. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. a depiction of Jesus. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. John (19. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. sometimes combining panel painting. en face In portraiture. and logos. eschaton. bound and flogged. Ecce Homo (Lat. epitaph (Gk. sculpture. entablature In classical architecture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. ensemble (Fr. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. full face. It consists of the architrave.

and also to Giulia Gonzaga. which was famous for maiolica. It developed in France in the early 16th century. particularly ware made in France. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. which is called "maiolica.death and resurrection." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. 4500 BCE. eu. Vittoria Colonna. Carnesecchi and Ochino. fields and livestock. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. . Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Contarini. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. and Scandinavia. and of the last things. which is called "delftware. Augustine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther." and charis. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Equated with the Greek god Pan. which was developed in the Near East ca. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and is named for Faenza. Marcantonio Flaminio. notably Cardinal Pole.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Saints Ambrose. "good. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Jerome. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Germany. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. celebrated with bread and wine. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. protector of shepherds. Eucharist (Gk. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. farmers. Giovanni Morone. Spain. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Italy.

fluted of a column or pillar. such as plague. and these areas. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. famine and death. Only a small area can be painted in a day. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Their attributes are the bow. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. black and dun. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223).festoni (It. relaxed. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically.8). fresco (It. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. The colour of his horse is white. that of the others red. leaves. a technique known as a secco fresco. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and flowers suspended in a loop. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. sword and set of balances. a swag. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. drying to a slightly different tint. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. war. can in time be seen. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. frescos in Italy . 2 . Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Committed to charitable and missionary work.

Genius in classical Rome. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the intonaco. The technique of buon fresco. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.Save in Venice. genre In a broad sense. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. covings and ceilings. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or fresco secco. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Final details. usually childish figure. In art from the classical period onwards. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. landscape and portraiture.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. a person's invisible tutelary god. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . for example. are genres of painting. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or true fresco. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. where the atmosphere was too damp. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed.

(2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Maso di Banco. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. As such. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. how it differed from notoriety. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. whether it must be connected with the public good. Bernardo Daddi. Gobelins . Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. in portraits and on tombs. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Maria Gloriosa). as well as writers and artists. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. and as spurring on men of action. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.

. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Golden Fleece. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. thereafter it made only tapestries. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. golden section (Lat. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. and although it reopened in 1699.French tapestry manufactory. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. still in existence today. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. This ratio is approximately 8:13. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. who appointed Lebrun Director. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. Paris. In other Italian cities. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture.

and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. like the cultural and commercial. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Denis. c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Amiens. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Nevertheless. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Gothic Gothic. and lies much deeper than. 1200 and c. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. . In particular. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. In sculpture and in painting. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. that the effects are to be felt. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. or the influence of one building. In thinking of Nicola (d. 1270. painting. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. painting. from the 13th until the 17th century. There is a transcendental quality. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. The artistic. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. the superficial particularities of form.

There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. notably in the writings of Bellori. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. to white or tinted paper and card and. Honey. are but different appellations of the same thing'. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. with sable. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and above all Italy. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and taste among the English. genius. if required. Klee. and Morris Graves. Canaletto. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). occasionally. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy.and hog-hair brushes. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. . or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and the great style. It is thinned with water for applying. Dubuffet. the beau idéal of the French. Such tours often took a year or more. without visible brush marks. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. These qualities. to silk. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Pannini. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. starch. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and Piranesi. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. chiefly to France. the Netherlands.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour.

the parties taking a multitude of local names. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. however. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. and Waiblingen. From 1266 to 1268. 1216. In another sense. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. then as now. became an abiding feature of European politics. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. drawing and the various forms of engraving. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. . like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. c. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. including text as well as illustrations.e. After the War of the Eight Saints. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In the context of the fine arts. to Provence and Paris. usually gray. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. grisaille (Fr. In Florence. gris. Some writers. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. after this. which had recruited most of the merchant class. however. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. through central Italy.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. brother of Louis IX. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. exclude drawing from this definition. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50.

there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. goldsmiths. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. [science] héraldique. In some cities. In 16th century Venice. "herald") . commissioning paintings for guildhalls. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. The guilds were not equal. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. trades. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. or professions. and provided assistance to members in need. notably Florence in the 14th century." from Fr. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. surgeons. trade or profession (painters. H hatching In a drawing. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In some towns. heraldry (Fr. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and greater hostility between master and man. In Italy they go back a long way. In Florence. but in time they acquired other functions. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. Guilds were also patrons of art. such as Brescia and Vicenza. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. print or painting. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. "[knowledge of] heraldry. as some did). and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. for example. The guild also monitored standards of work.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. héraut.

as Antichrist. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. However. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. and regarded themselves as forming. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. while others merged with the Waldensians.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. together with brethren north of the Alps. the Waldensian.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. one great missionary community. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. d. the followers of Juan de Valdes. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. the Cathars were an anti-church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. head of the 'carnal Church'. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The main impact of the . his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. i. from the start. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. indeed. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. normative for churchmen. with the rules governing their use. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. By contrast. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. they were condemned in 1184.

Church. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. George Inness. humanus. F. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century.movement upon the laity was in southern France. hortus conclusus (Lat. Durand. At the same time. Morse. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). American painters were studying in Rome. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Jasper Cropsey. Kensett. Frederick E. history (usually classical history). First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Germany. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Henry Inman. In humanism. in his earlier work. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. my spouse'. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. its subjects considered morally elevating. working from 1825 to 1875. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. and. humanism (Lat. J. S. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Thomas Cole. B. the emancipation of man from God took place. mainly in the south. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. F. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. and classical literature.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

the veil of St. In the second half of the 14th century. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. and they are also depicted on their own. investiture . Donatallo. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. and the ladder. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. invention. with many further details added. the hammer. etc. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the scourge that was used in the scourging. Human figures. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. the rooster of Peter's denial. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. usually the donors of a work of art. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. soft style. For instance. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). or of other saints. Derived from classical rhetoric. are also used in art literature. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the pincers. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which.g. Veronica. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. originality. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the ability to create. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. The terms court style. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. inventio (It. beautiful style.

a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Upon his return to Holland. Jerome's writings. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. generally Dutch or Flemish. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. . Ignatius Loyola in 1534. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Andries and Jan Both. The Both brothers.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. bathed in a golden haze. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. principally Dutch. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Both and Berchem. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Nicolaes Berchem. who traveled in Italy and. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. of Utrecht. although they are usually called Romanists. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and Jan Asselijn. Italianizers Northern artists.

to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. John of Jerusalem . They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. liberal arts . Legenda Aurea (Lat.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. the rite of communion is based on this. encouraged by the Crusades. Archbishop of Genoa. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.1519). lectern A reading stand or desk. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. As their military role grew. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. especially one at which the Bible is read. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.

together with identifying attributes (e. "little moon") In architecture. geometry.grammar. a semicircular space.g.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. first the preparatory trivium . Tubal for music). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. comprising arithmetic. through the use of aerial perspective.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Pythagoras for arithmetic. often standing in markets and town squares. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. and Frederick E. loggia (It. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Heade (1819-1904). John F. astronomy and music. that may contain a window. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Martin J. . Church (1826-1900). its roof supported by columns. poetic atmosphere. and sometimes refers to Impressionism.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns.g. that could be used for public ceremonies. Kensett (1816-1872). lunette (Fr. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Maria Novella in Florence). often sublime. It is related to. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. the quadrivium. then the basis of a philosophical training. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. commemorating a marriage. rhetoric and dialectic. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). painting or sculptural decoration. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.

mandorla (It. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). 1855–65. for example. and iron red. originating in Italy in the 14th century. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. and portraits as well as landscapes. and however bright their lighting effects. copper green. the goddess Cybele. "great mother") A mother goddess. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. madrigal A part song. usually for the lute. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. magna mater (Lat. active mainly in Florence c. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. originally sung without accompaniment. manganese purple. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. and accompaniments. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. historical subjects. but they painted genre scenes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. antimony yellow. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. Specifically. When white is used for painting. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. particularly such ware produced in Italy.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. "almond") . it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. being written. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze.

In Mannerist painting. strong. illuminated initials and miniatures. more strictly. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. complex and crowded compositions. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. bound. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. ecclesiastical. depending on the social class of the wearer. in a specific sense. In architecture. It reached to the knee or foot. which was quarried at Mount . marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Flanders. Mannerism (It. Parmigianino. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. maniera. mantle An overcoat.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. the hand-written medieval book. Developing out of the Renaissance. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. often ornamented with decorative borders. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. the Codex manuscriptus. marked by flagellation. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and crowned with thorns. and literary texts. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Burgundy. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. worn open. El Greco and Tintoretto. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Bronzino. "manner.

but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. martyrion. sleek surface. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. "witness. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Without monetary value. the medal's purpose was commemorative. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). marmi finti (It. having finished his training. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. proof") the sufferings. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work.Pentelicon in Attica. an inscription running round the rim. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. medallion In architecture. The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Like the finest Imperial coins. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. a different design on the reverse. particularly by Michelangelo. martyrdom (Gk. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. quarried at Massa. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). a large ornamental plaquc or disc.

sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. It was. often anonymous. the stress on individual character. in England. particularly. c. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. a Gorgon. 1467-688). perhaps oddly. no line drawing is employed. as it were. Her head features on Minerva's shield. and of the many. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. 1452-1526/27). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'.round the neck. In pure mezzotint. Ludwig von Siegen. 14601528). Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Medusa In Greek mythology. The process is essentially extinct today. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. for landscapes and portraits. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. This yields a soft effect in the print. When Perseus cuts off her head. The work of these men. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. A Dutch officer. c. . the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. supposedly to petrify her enemies. even grain. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. who reflected them. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1425-1504). of the person portrayed on the other side. 1640. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching.

"one color") Painted in a single color. often quite highly finished. by Tiepolo and Rubens. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. a branch of the Franciscan order. pointed headdress worn by bishops. usually portraits. a painting executed in a single color. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. executed on a very small scale. still exist. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. monokhromatos. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. monochrome (Gk. Parmigianino (d. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Many such small versions.. painting in gouache on vellum or card. saying") . but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Francis himself. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. motto (Ital. e. "word. miter A high. ink and paint. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.g. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.

The invention of personal mottos. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. but often insipid. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. 1816-17. and is intersected by the transept. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. named after the patron saint of painting. Rome. Berlin. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino.from the Middle Ages. . One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. often separated from it by pillars. 1817-29). They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and Casino Massimo. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Pforr. Isidore. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. navis. naturalism (Fr. In general. nave (from Lat. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). where they occupied the disused monastery of S. It may have parallel aisles on each side. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. In 1810 0verbeck. and two other members moved to Rome. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Nazarenes A group of young.

Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. nimbus (Lat.) . the style of the Ancien Régime. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Popes. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. were usually old when elected. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. niello (Lat. but their ideas continued to be influential. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). usually golden. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Nymphaeum (Gk. moreover. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. nigellus. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. "aureole") The disc or halo. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. is as true as it is notorious. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum.

. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. obsequia. O obsequies (Lat. Greek goddesses of Nature. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. inborn sin. the Doric order. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The earliest. its richness of colour. and entablatures. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. observances") Rites performed for the dead. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. a small private chapel. and its greater tonal range. capital. orders of architecture In classical architecture. "services. They are seen in the form of the columns. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. or poppy. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). fluted column and a plain capital. such as linseed. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). was the simplest. walnut. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. with a sturdy. a more elaborate base. the three basic styles of design.

who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. and the main apartments above.g. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. while shops came to be thought undignified. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. like cities. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. designed as a . The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. the Cancelleria). "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. with biforate windows. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and. standing at the foot of the Cross. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. tradition and social structure. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. P pala (Ital. palazzo (It. Palazzo Strozzi). or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà).

but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. column-caps. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). like the colonnaded vestibule. evolved influential types. and large households. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall.scholarly retreat. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Following Oriental patterns. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. came to be applied all over Europe. Papal incentives to build. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. e.g. cornices and abutments. like Genoa. In Venice. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. behind a sober Florentine façade.g. often built next to their titular churches. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Palazzo Massimi). especially after the Sack of Rome. Rich. Movement of patrons and architects. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). panel . where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Other cities. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. palmette. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm".

Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. fibre-board. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. A number of matters. On a larger scale. and dark walnut are favourites. Many other types were used. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and spanned by a single dome. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. slate has occasionally been used as a support. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. metal. Having a circular plan. teak. or other rigid substance. fir. cedar. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. however. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. In the 20th century cedar. Then. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. so that they might have a voice at court. to influence popes in their favour. as distinct from canvas. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). chestnut. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. including beech. enforce law and order. olive. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and the pressure and temptations . To maintain their authority. larch. mahogany. and modern painters have also used plywood. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and walnut. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. and other synthetic materials as supports. As successors to St Peter. or the incidence of taxation. secular rulers. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy.Term in painting for a support of wood. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. as it were. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. The third aspect was administrative. the management of clerical dues and taxation. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. linden. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. the.

Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. To resolve the problem of divided authority. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. which seems so inevitable. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Colonna and Caetani. of individuals. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. It was argued that such a council. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. in the eyes of God. at Avignon. So onerous.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. There remained. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. possess an authority which. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. however. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. to be long delayed. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. from the point of view of its religious associations. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. the most appropriate . protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). was long in doubt. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. As at Avignon. as such. in spite of further absences from Rome. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. which met at Constance 1414-18. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual.that could be applied to them. if it did no serious damage to the faith. could supersede that of a pope. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'.as well. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). however. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. however. By then. would.

not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. it has also been used for painting. less frequently pig. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. pastor. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. goat. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. as well as a governmental one. Passion . and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. However. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and satyrs. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. Parrhasius (c. the creation of a cultural capital. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 400-300 BC). 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. through lavish patronage of artists.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. pastoral (Lat. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and other animals. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. in classical literature. to a world peopled by shepherds. and with Zeuxis (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). scholars and men of letters. nymphs.

patrician (Lat. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.) or pasticcio (It. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. but not necessarily a direct copy. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici.The events leading up to Good Friday. the crown of thorns.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. papilio. 1478). a small. projecting either centrally or at both ends. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. pastiche (fr. such as a garden summerhouse. a region in north-central Italy. Meanwhile. which focus on the Suffering Christ. pavilion (Lat. Portrayals of the Passion. . Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. 1478. wealthy citizen. Francesco Salviati. and so on. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. a prominent section of a monumental façade. and also the archbishop of Pisa. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. ornamental building. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. "butterfly. patricius. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. hence tent") A lightly constructed. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial.

concept or deity. "hanging. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. . The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. or related elements within an art work. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. physis. personification (Lat. pendant (Fr. in particular the face. perspicere. and facere. "to see through.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. perspective (Lat. and gnomon. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. pergola (It. persona. "nature". physiognomy (Gk. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "person".) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown.

both real and painted.) The main floor of a building. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. to be expressed in painting. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. but may consist of a cluster of columns. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. A pier is generally larger than a column. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. or resin to make paint. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Peter's. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. usually above the ground floor. proper to take a landscape from. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Pietà (Lat. remarkable for singularity. pigmentum. but full of variety. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. for example. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. . curious details. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.piano nobile (Ital.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Rome. glue. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. exemplified. pigment (Lat. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. affording a good subject for a landscape. containing the public rooms.

which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. however. though in less widespread. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. perhaps. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. outside Tuscany. for instance. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. In the 15th century. the burning of 'infected' clothing. despite regional variations. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. more sporadic outbreaks. For this reason. plague Plague. Thenceforward. and capital. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. During 1348 the Black Death. in October 1347. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. "pillar") A flat. moreover. a shaft. It seems probable. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It is often fluted. since. and thereafter all Europe. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. such as Florence and Genoa. it is difficult to find.pilaster (Lat. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. pilastrum. it has a base. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. also used in Spain's American colonies. Rocco and Sebastian. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy.

The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. The second phase.. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Phaedo. A student of Socrates. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. placement. heraldic escutcheons. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. utilized Mudejar ornament -. harmonious. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. like its successor. or simply the Plateresque. The first phase. composition. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. the Symposium. and unified style using massive geometric forms. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Diego evolved a purer. In contrast with Aristotle. are the masterworks of the second style. Phaedrus. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Timaeus. Theatetus and the Laws.e. the Renaissance-Plateresque. correct classical orders became frequent. and sinuous scrolls. or appropriateness. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. which lasted only a few decades. Philebus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The first phase.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. i. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. more severe. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones.

but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. but not completely. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Plotinus. all of which he also translated into Latin. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. the greatest of his ancient disciples. partially. replaced Ficino's. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities.1577) becoming particularly popular. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Rather unsystematic. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400.in Plato's thought. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1472-c. and he utilized many other writings. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. including those of Plotinus. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Iamblichus. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. systematized and added to what Plato had done. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. A new Latin translation. and Agostino Steuco (c. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. near Florence.

Lat. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. porticus. column. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. such as processions and consecrations. poluptukhos. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. pluviale. or statue. pluvial (Med. plinth (Gk. portico (Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. polyptych (Gk. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Frequently supports a pediment. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. as in classical architecture). pointed arch In architecture. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. plinthos. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. where a pectoral is used to close it. Plato was read in the universities. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar.

Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Campidoglio). The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Colleoni. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. inessential. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Venice).. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The realism of the clear. Mantua. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. National Gallery). A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Palazzo Farnese). The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. the Carracci. Florence. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Gattarnelata. The 16th century portrait became generalized.sculptors such as Donatello. and only a decorative accessory to form.e. flattened image. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The equestrian portrait. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Siena. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Desiderio da Settignano. decorating whole rooms. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. psychologically more complex. Maria Novella. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. and the . as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. was revived in the 14th century. Group portraits. Florence (1486-90). Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Cathedral) by Uccello. 1328.

the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. not least those of statesmen and prelates. The styles of S. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The sermons of Visdomini. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. to discharge their preaching duties. Fiamma's sermons. of the sermon as an art form. together with the Dominican Savonarola. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. bishop of Asti. from the secular clergy. bishop of Chioggia. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. who had as their ideal masters Titian. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Correggio. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. however. and. Borromeo. are not florid in style. minatory exhortations. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. abrasive even. several of whom became bishops. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. primarily the mendicants. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. 1494). Charles Le Brun." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. As Poussin was a Frenchman. bishops especially. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Savonarola and Musso. and Peter Paul Rubens. was versed in classical and patristic .

though often relatively very wide . have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. however. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. predella (It. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.rhetoric. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. among them Holman Hunt.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Millais and Rossetti. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. tapestries. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . the temptations of Adam and Christ.g.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Louis of Toulouse (1317. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. and so forth. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. prefiguration Typology . Such a polyptych consists of a principal. The New Testament references in these would. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Naples). Because of the small size of predelle . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.

intended as complete works of art in themselves. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. again indicative of the purpose they served.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. proportio. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. profil perdu (Fr. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. the quadrature. these highly finished drawings. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. the Canon of Proportion. sculpture and architecture. 3. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. proportion (Lat. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Fragonard. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The following are important: 1. "evenness") in painting. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. the golden section. which uses the square . Girardon. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. 2. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. notably David. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. and Houdon among sculptors.

The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.as a unit of measurement. provenance The origins of an art work. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). "boys") Plump naked little boys. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. and 5. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putto (It. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Rome. one half the length of the other). triangulation. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. harmonic proportions. It was common in Roman art. Unlike Pozzo. a fifth = 2:3. a fourth = 3:4. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. 4. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Ignazio. for example). the steward or treasurer of a church. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. . putti sing.

A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). or some item connected with a saint. the object of particular veneration. In 16th century Europe. Donatello. with the Anglican Church developing in England. hermits. friars and nuns. relevare. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. also known as the Realist school. the great orders of monks. Brunelleschi. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Among the . refectory (Med. e. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. and high relief (alto rilievo).Quattrocento (It. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Botticelli. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. relic (Lat. basso rilievo). denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in which figures are seen half round. Fra Angelico and others. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R").g. canons regular. in particular works by Masaccio. or the Jesuits. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relicquiae. relief (Lat.

the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Salvatore. The Conventuals. In 1504. S. Padua. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. i. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Mantua. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. At the same time. Bologna (1419). although technically of secular canons. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. various groups were fused in the latter body. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. it became the Cassinese congregation. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. and their more institutionalized brethren. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. was the congregation of S. The Silvestrines. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Founded by St Romuald c. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. After the repression of the Spirituals. Benedetto. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Venice (1404). the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the most notable being S. which was to become the main Italian one. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. That of S. the great patriarch of Venice. Giorgio in Alga. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The same bull . the Conventuals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. and the generally moderate Observants. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. however. In 1517. who had no overall organization originally. Bernardino of Siena. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. 1012. Giustina.e. presided over by chapters general. Lucca. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Benedictines.contemplative orders. Maria di Fregonaia. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism.

Other orders of Friars were the Minims. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Angela Merici. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. The first. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. a historical period. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . however. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Michele in Isola. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. founded in 1535 by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Gerolamo Aemiliani. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Filippo Neri. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. the Theatines. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. however. also. Gaetano da Thiene. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Venice. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular.

increasingly. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). was so vast and potent. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of letters. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. All-Roundness. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. and competition with. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of an energetic revival of interest in. . even Amoralism. of arts. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of 'darkness'. because its core of energy. of scholarship. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. life. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it.century. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. For long. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. 1875-86). which had begun early in the 14th century. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. the historical reality of antiquity. Thereafter. as well as political. however. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. and his own as potentially one of light. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. too long forgotten glories. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. however. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564.

Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. though sometimes of metal. let alone a uniform. and is decorated with paintings. Though thus challenged. statues. (3) There is not a true. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.) was the term chosen. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. The challenges are to be accepted. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. the previous record . (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. sometimes. etc. especially in the High Gothic period. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. candlesticks. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. in the more limited sense. mobilized nationalism. consist merely of a painting. letters. Cathedral of SaintBavon. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. gratefully. however. later still to Genoa. and other liturgical objects. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. There was an early. congruence between. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity.erased. etc.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. It is for this additional. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Ghent).with all its shabbiness . of industrialization. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. and mass media. retables can be detached and. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.

the first style to achieve such international currency.in the 11th century. and 'Romanesque'. As the name suggests. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past.France. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. its mood lighthearted and witry. Louis XV furniture. With the development of freestanding altars. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. painting. in several countries . the St. "relief") In painting. is a typical product. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. almost simultaneously. Originally commissioned in 976. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. . Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Italy. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. like 'Gothic'. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Germany. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. More usually.of St Mark in Venice. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. however. and architecture dominating the 18th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. rilievo (It. richly decorated with organic forms. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. literally. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Spain . the impression that an object is three-dimensional. retables have become extinct. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. rocaille (French. Romanesque art. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Rococo A style of design.

From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Claude. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. the development of nationalistic pride. stylized design representing an open rose. Pannini and Mengs.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. B. such as red ochre. Q. Piranesi. van Orley. . and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Rome. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Mabuse. M. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. they maintained. The aim of painting. van Heemskerk. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Massys and M. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. In addition.

among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). pious legend and hagiography. penance. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. matrimony. Subjects were nominally sacred. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. supported by lay confraternities. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. multiple sets used in succession. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. from the Old and New Testaments. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. when it finally left the city it had devastated. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. gutted. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. confirmation. the Eucharist.expressed through gesture. and anointing of the sick. and Protestant churches.greatly increased. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. local saints.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. holy orders. Orthodox. and impoverished. but others were the work of well-known figures. Written primarily in ottava rima. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. There were no limits on time. In the . Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Clement escaped into Castel S. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and Lorenzo de' Medici. glance and movement . "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Eastern independent. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Sacra Conversazione (It. Many compositions were anonymous. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable.

notably from Florence and in Germany. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. foot washing.. the symbolic direction of Christ. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . the Orthodox Church does not. Immediately following baptism. Hence. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. and then face east. large room.e. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. chapter 13. was not maintained as a sacrament. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Thus. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger." sala (Ital. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Anglican.i. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Salt War. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. strictly speaking. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Saracens . under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the Bentivoglio. baptism and the Eucharist. make such strict distinctions. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.early church the number of sacraments varied.. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. in principle.e. sacraments. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. used for drawing. as an excuse to revolt.) Hall. replaces the Lord's Supper. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the Rocca Paolina. Lutheran. which in the Gospel According to John. The classical Protestant churches (i. The theology of the Orthodox Church. and sacraments. was buried under a new fortress. They were still seeking aid. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. as in the Church of the Brethren." which are called sacramentals. that the price of salt should be increased. It is still practiced on special occasions. the sun of righteousness. The chief focus of discontent. Candidates first face west. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it.

160 . and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . are lost. human-like woodland deities with the ears. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. 210 AD). Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.c. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. sarcophagi (Gk. Little known in the Middle Ages. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. wood or terracotta. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. whose writings. 45 BC). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. pl. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. sarcophagus. 270 BC). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism.c.During the Middle Ages. made of stone. the god of wine. legs and horns of a goat. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). and many others. The publication of Latin (1562. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 360 . owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. the Arabs or Muslims. satyr In Greek mythology. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).

thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. in June 1409. Alexander V. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. on the other. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. being Frenchmen. Schism. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. for. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. was called Bamboccio. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. while devout Christians agonized. However. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. As a result. with France and her allies Aragon. In northern Italy. scholasticism . Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. on one side. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. one of the early leaders. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement.for example Pieter van Laer. and. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. than their medieval predecessors. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Louis I (d. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. from time to time both he and his opponents. 1386) and his son Ladislas. and therefore far more purely Italian princes.they had individual Bentnames . most of whom. while England. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. the Florentines. who recognized the Roman pope. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. but with little effect.

theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. None the less. because the secco technique is much less permanent. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. It was because the central concerns of humanism . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. and Islamic literature. Padua. and theology. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. textual scholarship. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. moreover. as it is easier to add details in this way. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Christian. the plaster had to be damped before painting. As such. university-based study. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. history and rhetoric . scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest.moral philosophy. if lime-water was used. (See also: fresco. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. on one side. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Medieval scholars. Serenissima (Ital.were different from those of medieval. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. notably Aquinas. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). that scholasticism was left.) . Often called the burning ones.The term is ambivalent. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. as it were. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio).

light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "prophetess") In antiquity. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface.. sibylla. Med. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Sibyls foretold the Birth. brass.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. and the delicate. the number gradually rose to ten. there was only one Sibyl. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. They first appear in alpine monasteries. in the period of classical antiquity. sibyls (Gk. which were all identical in thickness. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. "the most serene republic of Venice"). or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Signoria (It. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Lat. Originally. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. usually presided over by individual families. at the same time. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. sinopia . women who could prophesy. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Servite (Lat. sfumato A technique. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. In Christian legend. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. in use since the Middle Ages. term.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.

Francis of Assisi. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. pronounced as French.. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. sotto in sù (It. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. sing. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. staffage This word. stigmata. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.'Beautiful Madonnas'. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Ital. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. . "mark. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). and. in other words. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. soffit (Lat. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. brand. It is very closely related to International Gothic. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. Stanze (Ital.) Wooden ceiling decoration. as the name implies. stigma (Gk. especially in the flow of drapery.

The vogue for the Sublime. stucco A type of light. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. studioli (It. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. supremacy . whose verses actually fabrications . studiolo. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Indeed. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). In a looser sense.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. John Milton. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). pl. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. both external and internal. with that for the Picturesque. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.

and in literature. both for panel painting and fresco. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. or cartoons. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . i. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church.Historically. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass.e. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. But the Italians did not make them. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Salviati and Allori. his own headquarters. The subject is underexplored. doubtless. 1407). though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. then being replaced by oil paint. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. temperare. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.and. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. . into Italy. These were imported. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tempera (Lat. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. chiefly from Flanders. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. was being decorated with frescoes.

and sculptures. "a commonplace") In literature. and profile. tondo. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Trajan's Column . in art. walls. and later to subdivide gable ends. quarter face. tondi (It. and other surfaces. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. topoi (Gk. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay.terracotta (It. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. pl. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.e. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. model. topiary (Gk. terraferma (Ital. "fields. widely used form. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topos. theme or motif. in the architecture of ancient Rome. triumphal arch. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. i. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. vessels. topia. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. figure of speech. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. pl.

This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . "threefold") in Christianity. the Son and the Holy Spirit. into a number of less controversial forms. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. beside it the army of martyrs. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. trinitas. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. usually an altarpiece. of both sexes'. Trinity (Lat. . in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. the wars by which they were won . In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. the military triumph became sublimated. Battista Sforza. of virtues and of the arts. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. after 'a countless number of virgins. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. added to the glamour of the triumph. Meanwhile. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Disseminated soon after his death. tryptychos. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. fame. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Early triptychs were often portable. loot and prisoners was given sparingly.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. as it were. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. time and eternity. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. or wings. triptych (Gk.' Before it go the apostles. "threefold") A painting in three sections. chastity. behind it. patriarchs and prophets. death. a car so brave'.

In medieval architecture. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. enclosed by an arch. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. viscous black ink. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. typology .triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. "drum") In classical architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. through various naturalistic devices. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. first recorded in 1232. tromp l'oeil (Fr. it is usually decorated with carvings. often decorated with sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. Dating from classical times. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tympanum (Lat. tusche A thick. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre.

and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.A system of classification. where they were most accessible.) The Renaissance "universal man". were popular with them also.g. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . e. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. knew his former patrons. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. especially his half-length figural groups. killer of Holofernes. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. The numerous candles. lanterns. each had access to his paintings. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters .who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. slayer of Goliath. . Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and David. 1610). such as five works devoted to the senses. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Judith. In Christian thought.Dirck van Baburen (c. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. U uomo universale (It. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). 1590-1624). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.

a work's richness of subject matter. guttering candles. Also varietas (Lat. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. hour-glasses and clocks. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. Parisian craftsmen. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. "evening") . it was used to decorate furniture.). and the rib vault. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. Vespers (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. vanitas (Lat. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. the groin vault. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. snuff boxes and other objects. V vanishing point In perspective. mixed in. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. and even flowers (which will soon fade). It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. often gold. There are a wide range of forms. vesper. varietà (It. overturned vessels. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches.

rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Gluttony. Prudence. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. if you have it not'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. actual or latent. vestibulum. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). "life") . vite (Lat. for example. 'Assume a virtue. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Fortitude. vita. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Charity. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. and Justice. virtù could be used. The seven Virtues were: Faith. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Vestibule (Lat. in which the word signifies efficacy. and Sloth. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. the church service at which these prayers are said. Envy. Lust. Covetousness. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. vimperga Of German origin. "not exposed to winds". Hope. Anger.Prayers said in the evening. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Temperance. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. In ancient Roman dwellings. pl.

and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. published in 1550 and 1568. Vitruvius Pollio. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. usually when a prayer for good fortune. those of Volterera. 1478-80. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. a biography. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1472. they were from the 18th century . or recovery from illness has been made. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. The wars from 1494 do. Marcus (1st cent.An account of someone's life and work. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. protection from harm. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables.g. and appalled recognition of. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1482-84). votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. and of Ferrara. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. in fact. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Sculptors and Architects").

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

a philosophy of life. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. woodcut A print made from a wood block. . wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. usually restorers.Weltanschauung (Gr. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. "world view") A comprehensive world view. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. It was intended to have a variety of functions. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. during its subsequent history. Westwerk German word. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. based on stylization of various animal forms. pompous on the floor above. usually linear. gallery. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. treasury or a place where justice was administered. "Western work of art".

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