A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
The adjective is apsidal. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the lowest part of the entablature). roofed with a half-dome.
. design. including Goya. arcus. the darker the tone). Degas. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Also known as an exedra. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. but in essence the process is as follows. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Lancet and Tudor. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. "architectural") Relating to structure. piers or pillars. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. architectonic (Gk. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. In Greek and Roman literature. There are several variants of the technique. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. or organization. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arkhitektonikos. at the east end of a church behind the altar. the moulding around a window or door. Picasso.e. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. architrave (It. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.A semicircular projection. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. and Rouault. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arcade (Lat. which is fused to the plate by heating. The term applies also to a print made by this method.
aureolus. Dante's Vita nuova . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85)." and Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. attributum. In the case of martyrs. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action:
. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. archivolto. "begin. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "front arch. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. usually a saint.archivolt (Ital. attribute (Lat.and the Comedy . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat. voltus. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530." from Gk. aureole (Lat. "golden. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. archeiu. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . dominate.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.
the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. who had been residing in France since 1305. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. applied to the physically
. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. baldachin. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. in 1377. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Later. Six pontificates later. the god of wine and fertility. or baldacchino (It. 'Captivity'. often anecdotal. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. that of Cardano. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. paintings of everyday life. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The actual move was made in 1309.
Lebanon. Alg. and Poitiers. AD 273. or canopy. the Temple of Venus. banderole (It. As eight follows the "complete" number. and Nocera in Italy.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. a visual metaphor for the number eight. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style.. seven. or connected with. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. a church. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. banderuola. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion.g. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Customarily. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. France. Pentecost. set beneath a domical ciborium.
. Parma.. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Easter. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. beggars in rags. such as those at Pisa. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. el Kantara. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Croatia]. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Baalbek. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or forecourt. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Florence. and abject filthy things. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. AD 300). Spalato [Split. built by Sixtus III. pope between 432 and 440. and Epiphany.
were often omitted entirely. Baroque (Port. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. baptisteries.
. or baptismal chapels. and thus a church. basilica (Gk. in the 1840s and 1850s. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. and increasingly elaborate decoration. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. 1811-1889). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Rubens). Constant Troyon (French. however. 1810-1865). Also tunnel vault. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. "king's hall") a church building. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. barocco. 1807-1876). achieved through scale. Originally.an allusion to entering the Christian life. something of earlier symbolism survives. Jean-François Millet (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Vermeer). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1796-1875). In architecture. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. 1814-1875).In the 10th century. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1817-1878). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and (3) everyday realism. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. southeast of Paris. Jules Dupré (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Théodore Rousseau (French. in its usual location near the church door . which is reserved for the clergy. stoa basilike. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. usually facing east.
also incorrectly called bisque. By association. such as those by Diego Velázquez. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. and often sentimentality. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. in which still-life predominates. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. It takes its name from its grainy texture. as is to be expected. domesticity. or which is to be left as it is.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. like their Dutch counterparts. often with food and drink. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. bodegón Image. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Biscuit porcelain. which is either not yet glazed. The term was mainly used up to c. Spanish still-lifes. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. There were. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. such as Waldmüller. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. however. Bodegónes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. were referred to by their specific contents. particularly porcelain. Book of Hours
. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. up until the mid-17th century. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. especially Spanish. 1650 in Spain.
sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.both hot and cold . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto(Italian. but can also be used for painted sketches. varying from silverish to a rich.
.an advantage over marble sculpture.by a variety of processes. See flying buttress. days of the week. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. made as a study for a larger picture. a rapid sketch in oil. and the fact that it is easily workable . By extension. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. Chantilly). They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. or seasons. bozzetto Strictly speaking. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. coppery red. months. durability. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.
It also served to glorify the emperor.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. and work in precious metals. its forms highly stylized. ceramics. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. C cabinet A small. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). manuscript illuminations. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. caisson (Fr. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). "a chest. box") In architecture. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. glass. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. notable from Syria and Egypt. camera obscura
. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. cameo Small relief made from gems. private room where works of art. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. casson. Duccio. which was often allegorical. mosaics. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. and Giotto. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue.
For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. capitellum. "candle") A large. other materials used are cotton.Ancestor of the photographic camera. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. hemp. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. followed by smaller and even pocket models. capital (Lat. which isolates the fabric from the paint. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. cantoria. Niepce created photography. usually built beside or attached to a church. by the 16th century. candlestick. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. candelabra. campanile Bell tower. which was usually whitened. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting." and the earliest versions. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. and jute.) A gallery for singers or musicians.-N. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. usually in a church. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. The Latin name means "dark chamber. only very rough effects will be obtainable. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. both of which have richly carved marble panels. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. Portable versions were built. Structurally. candelabrum (It. as an aid to drawing. candela. pl. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. usually decorated. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). cantorie (It.
. dating to antiquity. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. usually with several branches or arms. sing.
cardinalis. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century.both Italians and artists from other countries . The order combines reclusive and community life. or fresco. cartouche
. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. or a motto. the Carmelites were originally hermits. monasteries containing separate hermitages. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. New Charterhouses.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cartellino. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. pl. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). cartellini In a painting. Carmelites (Lat. the date of the painting.a humorous drawing or parody. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). details of the subject. Carthusian Order (Lat. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the endeavour to attain true humanity. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". and humanism. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. near Grenoble. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartoon (It. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. At the height of the Middle Ages. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartone. tapestry. In fresco painting.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Fortitudo (Fortitude).
and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. caryatid (Gk. putti (cupids). seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. and many other items of her dowry. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno.
. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. or arms of the cross. decorated with gilt gesso. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. they were also used in other countries. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. a cathedral always faces west . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. linen. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.toward the setting sun. The main body. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. cathedral (cathedra. They contained the bride's clothes. cassone (It. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). palace. or nave. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. For reasons lost to time and tradition.) "castle". battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Cascina. and swags of fruit and flowers. These lead up to the north and south transepts. The altar is placed at the east end. In the 15th century. castello (It. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Paolo Uccello.
and perspicere. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. rather than intercessory functions. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Both the statement of St. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. or birdlike characteristics. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. champlevé (Fr. a celestial winged being with human. "in the centre". The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. landscapes. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. and Islamic literature. animal. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. central perspective (Lat. centralis. a throne bearer of the deity. buildings and figures that are being depicted.
. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Relative to the observer. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). continually praise him. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Christian. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. as celestial attendants of God.
chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept
." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. Since Carolingian times. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. the Order of the Hospital of St. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. or for choral singing. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. "light dark") In painting. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Hans Burgkmair (1510). notably Lucas Cranach (1506). the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. Lastly. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field.chiaroscuro (It. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. choros. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. replacing tempera. North of the Alps. choir (Gk.
balustrades. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and repetition of pattern. undulating lines. and the Churrigueresque column. further enriching the style. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Very few still exist in their original positions. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. ciborium
. and garlands. Sculpted clouds. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. an architect. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. gilded rays. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies.intersect). In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. which was shaped like an inverted cone. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Transparente (completed 1732). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. is as typically Churrigueresque. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. became the most common motif. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. reversed volutes. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. stucco shells. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The Mexico cathedral (1718). undulating cornices. a massing of carved angels. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross.
of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. They were forbidden to form a trade association. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The new government. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. or achieve political representation. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. etc. including the ciompi. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Quattrocento (1400s. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. placing one of their members. High Renaissance). was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. craft of dyeing. on July 22. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Members of the lower classes. beaters. combers. but self-employed. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. controlled by the minor guilds. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. who were raised to the status of a guild. Their economic condition worsened. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. as also were those in the associated. Without being members of a guild. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Then. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. the wool carder Michele di Lando. ciompi. In reaction to this revolutionary
. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned.and post-medieval Italy. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation.
cithara (Gk. except in cases where . Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. the black contours usually with a special line plate. In the 15th century Greek literature. resembling a lyre. Concepts of the classical. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. the ciompi guild was abolished. philosophy.
. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). editing and translating a wide range of texts.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. on which strings were plucked.as in Italy these were dispensed with. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.) An ancient musical instrument. scholars patiently finding. clair-obscur (Fr. literature. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. however. changed greatly from one period to the next. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and politics. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). writers. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. with Italian scholars. philosophy and art .episode.
cognoscente (It. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. intensify one another. The name was derived from the condotta. literature or music. compline (Lat. as well as from the Bible. terrorized the country. pl. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. when set side by side. Green and red. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. condottieri (It. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. or "contract. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. those with refined tastes. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. cognoscenti." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. concetto. the church service at which these prayers are said. concetti (It. condottiere. a work's underlying theme. occasionally made of wood. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. [hora] completa. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. Coffered ceilings. arch or ceiling.
. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. blue and orange. pl. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. sing.
devastating Romagna. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Toward the end of the 15th century. often under the direction of. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. in the service of Naples. who won control of Milan in 1450. i. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and his rival Braccio da Montone. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Carmagnola. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. which spread in the 15th century.
. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Umbria. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Martino). being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. and German--the condottieri. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Mark (1432). flagellant confraternities. clergy. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. or with the spiritual assistance of. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and Tuscany. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. convents of convertite. Francesco Sforza. confraternities Confraternities. often called compagnie or. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. scuole. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. in the service of Perugia. commonly called either Compagnia di S. primarily for syphilitics.e. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. disappeared. By the 16th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. By the end of the 14th century. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. in Venice.e. i. Muzio's son. Spanish. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. With no goal beyond personal gain.
while the Venetian government. in Florence. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their
. and refuges for maidens.i. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. In medieval painting. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. reformed prostitutes. notwithstanding their location.g. e. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. While the Doge ranked above the Council. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. contrapposto (It. contour (Fr.e. but sometimes had their own premises. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art.g. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contours were initially regular. founded c. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Confraternities. e. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Dorotea in Trastevere. flat outlines. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). 1514 in S. Later. the Florentine Neri. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contour. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. however. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds.
who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. 1100 and 1300. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut.weight on one leg. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. The style spread as far as England. aes cyprium. declining moral standards. 1280). the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. They are often ornamented. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso.
. Reform programs. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. started the process of inner reform in the Church. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. large cornice or other feature. corbel In architecture. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. did not achieve any lasting results. whose names are inscribed on several works. an engraving produced in this way. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Lat. a bracket of stone. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. cuprum. conventicle (Lat. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. conventiculurn. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. executed by imported Italian craftsmen.
where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. D dado
. An ancestor of the oboe. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Next. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Usually. Seleucids. i. a semi-circular vault. cupola (Lat. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Death. There were various methods of performing the execution. cupula. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. "small vat") In architecture. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the first Christian emperor. Constantine the Great. particularly among the Persians. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Jews. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. after being whipped. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. the condemned man. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. a small dome. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the most famous victim of crucifixion. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. or "scourged. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Carthaginians. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground.e. reedy sound.
Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous.g. but the concept behind an art work. diptychum. design") In Renaissance art theory. and Linz possessed common characteristics. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. decorated diffrently from the upper section. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never
. diakonos. a favorite late medieval picture subject. disegno (It.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. e. deacon (Gk. Deësis (Gk. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. which was help to be the basis of all art. diptychos. danse macabre The dance of death. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Germany. usually in matching pairs. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. often an altarpiece. "drawing. The term stresses not the literal drawing. diptych (Lat. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Gk. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Passau. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. an expressive use of nature.
Dominicans (Lat. distemperare. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506).fully realize. distemper (Lat. dome in architecture. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. The studio easel. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. though a few artists. when painters took to working out of doors. "to mix. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. donor (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. donator. a 19th-century invention. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). such as we still use today. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. also used it on canvas. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St.Thomas Aquinas. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. formerly worn under armour. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Ordo Praedictatorum. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly
. is a heavy piece of furniture. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. doublet A male garment. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. which runs on castors or wheels.
whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. full face. in art. a depiction of Jesus. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. fresco. epitaph (Gk. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. sculpture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. and architecture. en face In portraiture. and the cornice. Ecce Homo (Lat. and logos. Hence. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. the frieze. "word")
. John (19. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. eschatology (Gk. bound and flogged. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. sometimes combining panel painting. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschaton. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. entablature In classical architecture. It consists of the architrave.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. ensemble (Fr. "last".
and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which is called "maiolica. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. celebrated with bread and wine. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Saints Ambrose. Augustine. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Spain. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Italy. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. "good. particularly ware made in France. and is named for Faenza. and Scandinavia. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. and of the last things. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. notably Cardinal Pole. which was famous for maiolica. Eucharist (Gk. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Germany. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. protector of shepherds. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Vittoria Colonna. farmers. Giovanni Morone. which is called "delftware. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns." and charis. Marcantonio Flaminio. fields and livestock. Carnesecchi and Ochino.death and resurrection." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Contarini. 4500 BCE. eu.
." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Jerome. which was developed in the Near East ca.
"fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster.festoni (It. famine and death. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Committed to charitable and missionary work. fluted of a column or pillar. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. that of the others red. and flowers suspended in a loop. relaxed. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.8). The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. 2 . The colour of his horse is white. can in time be seen. drying to a slightly different tint. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. such as plague. a swag. black and dun. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. fresco (It. war. frescos in Italy
. a technique known as a secco fresco. and these areas. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. sword and set of balances. Only a small area can be painted in a day. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. leaves. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Their attributes are the bow.
or fresco secco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. for example. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. In art from the classical period onwards. are genres of painting. genre In a broad sense. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . or true fresco. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints.Save in Venice. Final details. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. covings and ceilings.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The technique of buon fresco. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. the intonaco. a person's invisible tutelary god. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. G Garter. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with
. usually childish figure. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. where the atmosphere was too damp. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Genius in classical Rome. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). landscape and portraiture. both in churches and in private and public palaces.
gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Maria Gloriosa). As such. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Bernardo Daddi. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Gobelins
. in portraits and on tombs. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. how it differed from notoriety. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. whether it must be connected with the public good. and as spurring on men of action. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as well as writers and artists.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Maso di Banco. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant.
founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. who appointed Lebrun Director. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Golden Fleece. This ratio is approximately 8:13. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. thereafter it made only tapestries. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. still in existence today. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. golden section (Lat. Paris. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. and although it reopened in 1699. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.French tapestry manufactory. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building.
. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In other Italian cities. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters.
and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. Nevertheless. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. In thinking of Nicola (d. like the cultural and commercial. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. 1200 and c. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. painting. Gothic Gothic. from the 13th until the 17th century. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. There is a transcendental quality. 1270. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. Amiens. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. The artistic. or the influence of one building. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Denis. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and lies much deeper than. the superficial particularities of form. In sculpture and in painting. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. c. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. In particular. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another.
. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and which then spread throughout northern Europe. painting. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. that the effects are to be felt. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.
and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Pannini. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and above all Italy. and Piranesi. and taste among the English. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. the beau idéal of the French. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Canaletto. if required. It is thinned with water for applying. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. These qualities. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Klee. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. without visible brush marks. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Honey. Such tours often took a year or more. to silk. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. occasionally.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour.
. Dubuffet. genius. and the great style. notably in the writings of Bellori. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. with sable. starch. to white or tinted paper and card and. and Morris Graves. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. are but different appellations of the same thing'. the Netherlands.and hog-hair brushes. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. chiefly to France. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings.
finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts.
. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. internal factions in Florence went under other names. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. 1216. From 1266 to 1268. In Florence.e. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. and Waiblingen. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. then as now. however. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. c. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. In another sense. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. including text as well as illustrations. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. became an abiding feature of European politics. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. After the War of the Eight Saints. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Although its palace was rebuilt c. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the parties taking a multitude of local names. gris. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. grisaille (Fr. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. which had recruited most of the merchant class. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. after this. In the context of the fine arts. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. to Provence and Paris. brother of Louis IX. usually gray. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. through central Italy. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Some writers. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. exclude drawing from this definition.
notably Florence in the 14th century. H hatching In a drawing. Guilds were also patrons of art. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In 16th century Venice. In Italy they go back a long way. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. such as Brescia and Vicenza." from Fr. In some cities. trades. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In some towns. and greater hostility between master and man. trade or profession (painters. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. for example. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. [science] héraldique. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. heraldry (Fr. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. héraut. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. or professions. The guild also monitored standards of work. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. "herald")
. The guilds were not equal. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. In Florence. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. "[knowledge of] heraldry. print or painting. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. but in time they acquired other functions. as some did). surgeons. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and provided assistance to members in need. goldsmiths.
normative for churchmen. while others merged with the Waldensians. head of the 'carnal Church'. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. By contrast. from the start. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). with the rules governing their use. they were condemned in 1184. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. d. together with brethren north of the Alps. i. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The main impact of the
. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. one great missionary community. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. the Cathars were an anti-church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. the Waldensian. the followers of Juan de Valdes. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. indeed. However. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. as Antichrist. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible.
Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. In humanism. my spouse'. Jasper Cropsey. history (usually classical history). The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery
. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. B. humanism (Lat. Morse. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. its subjects considered morally elevating. the emancipation of man from God took place. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. At the same time. George Inness. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). in his earlier work. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. American painters were studying in Rome. Church. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. and classical literature. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Germany. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Henry Inman. mainly in the south. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. F. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Frederick E. S. humanus.movement upon the laity was in southern France. and. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. J. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. F. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. working from 1825 to 1875. hortus conclusus (Lat. Thomas Cole. Kensett. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Durand. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
surrounded by the instruments of the Passion.g. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. and the ladder. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. the ability to create. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Derived from classical rhetoric. with many further details added. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. etc. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the rooster of Peter's denial. usually the donors of a work of art. beautiful style. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. the hammer. In the second half of the 14th century. Veronica. the pincers. Donatallo. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. and they are also depicted on their own. the veil of St. are also used in art literature. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. inventio (It. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. The terms court style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. For instance. originality. trecento rococo and lyrical style. invention. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Human figures. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. or of other saints. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. investiture
. the scourge that was used in the scourging. soft style. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.
The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. bathed in a golden haze. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. generally Dutch or Flemish. Both and Berchem. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Italianizers Northern artists. Nicolaes Berchem. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. and Jan Asselijn. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. principally Dutch. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Jerome's writings.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. although they are usually called Romanists. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. who traveled in Italy and. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. of Utrecht.
. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. The Both brothers. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Upon his return to Holland. Andries and Jan Both. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St.
and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . especially one at which the Bible is read. As their military role grew. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. lectern A reading stand or desk. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem . Legenda Aurea (Lat. the rite of communion is based on this. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. liberal arts
.1519). The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Archbishop of Genoa. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). encouraged by the Crusades.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.
g. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. It is related to. through the use of aerial perspective. Kensett (1816-1872). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. and Frederick E. poetic atmosphere. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. John F. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. painting or sculptural decoration.g. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Church (1826-1900). Martin J. that may contain a window. astronomy and music. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. together with identifying attributes (e. "little moon") In architecture. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.
. geometry. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. loggia (It. then the basis of a philosophical training. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. comprising arithmetic.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. the quadrivium. Heade (1819-1904).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. a semicircular space. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. that could be used for public ceremonies. Maria Novella in Florence). Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). its roof supported by columns. Tubal for music).grammar. often sublime. rhetoric and dialectic. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. commemorating a marriage. first the preparatory trivium . a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. often standing in markets and town squares. lunette (Fr.
One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. and accompaniments. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and iron red. copper green. historical subjects. active mainly in Florence c. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. originally sung without accompaniment. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. particularly such ware produced in Italy. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. usually for the lute. and however bright their lighting effects. for example. "great mother") A mother goddess. magna mater (Lat. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). They were influenced by the Barbizon School. the goddess Cybele. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. but they painted genre scenes. antimony yellow. manganese purple. mandorla (It. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. "almond")
. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. madrigal A part song. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. being written.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. 1855–65. When white is used for painting. Specifically. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and portraits as well as landscapes.
marked by flagellation. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. strong. In architecture. Bronzino. worn open. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. maniera. often ornamented with decorative borders. the hand-written medieval book. which was quarried at Mount
. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and literary texts. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. depending on the social class of the wearer. Developing out of the Renaissance. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. bound. and crowned with thorns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. El Greco and Tintoretto. illuminated initials and miniatures. in a specific sense. Flanders. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. In Mannerist painting. ecclesiastical.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. mantle An overcoat. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. It reached to the knee or foot. Parmigianino. Burgundy. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. the Codex manuscriptus. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. "manner. complex and crowded compositions. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Mannerism (It. more strictly. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission.
torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. a different design on the reverse. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. martyrdom (Gk. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. The pure white Carrara marble. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. which were beginning to be reverently collected. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. marmi finti (It. Like the finest Imperial coins. particularly by Michelangelo. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Carrara. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). martyrion. proof") the sufferings.Pentelicon in Attica. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. medallion In architecture. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. quarried at Massa. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn
. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. "witness. an inscription running round the rim. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. having finished his training. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. sleek surface. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Without monetary value. the medal's purpose was commemorative.
1640. In pure mezzotint. The work of these men. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. of the person portrayed on the other side. Her head features on Minerva's shield. for landscapes and portraits. This yields a soft effect in the print. c. The process is essentially extinct today. particularly. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Ludwig von Siegen. even grain. Medusa In Greek mythology. c. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. as it were. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d.round the neck. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. When Perseus cuts off her head. perhaps oddly. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. A Dutch officer. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. often anonymous. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1452-1526/27). The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. It was. and of the many. a Gorgon. 1425-1504). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. supposedly to petrify her enemies. who reflected them. 14601528).
. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. no line drawing is employed. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. in England. 1467-688). the stress on individual character. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome.
.g. a branch of the Franciscan order. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. by Tiepolo and Rubens. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. monochrome (Gk. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. usually portraits.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. "one color") Painted in a single color. e. often quite highly finished. Francis himself. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. miter A high. ink and paint.. "word. motto (Ital. Many such small versions. monokhromatos. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. pointed headdress worn by bishops. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. still exist. a painting executed in a single color. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. executed on a very small scale. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Parmigianino (d. painting in gouache on vellum or card.
naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Rome.from the Middle Ages. Isidore. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. The invention of personal mottos. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. 1816-17. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. named after the patron saint of painting. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. naturalism (Fr. 1817-29). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino.
. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. nave (from Lat. and two other members moved to Rome. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Nazarenes A group of young. often separated from it by pillars. Berlin. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. but often insipid. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In general. and Casino Massimo. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and is intersected by the transept. Pforr. navis. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. In 1810 0verbeck.
nigellus. moreover.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. usually golden. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. nimbus (Lat. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Nymphaeum (Gk. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). "aureole") The disc or halo. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. were usually old when elected. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.)
. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Popes. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. niello (Lat. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. but their ideas continued to be influential. the style of the Ancien Régime. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. is as true as it is notorious. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825).
It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. O obsequies (Lat. inborn sin. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. "services. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. was the simplest. and its greater tonal range. a more elaborate base. the three basic styles of design. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. obsequia. with a sturdy. or poppy. such as linseed. capital. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595).Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. walnut. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. observances") Rites performed for the dead. The earliest. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. the Doric order. They are seen in the form of the columns. fluted column and a plain capital. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. its richness of colour. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. and entablatures. a small private chapel. orders of architecture In classical architecture. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. Greek goddesses of Nature.
At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. and.g. with biforate windows. tradition and social structure. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. the Cancelleria). and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. designed as a
. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. palazzo (It. Palazzo Strozzi). and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. and the main apartments above. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). while shops came to be thought undignified. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). like cities. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. standing at the foot of the Cross. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. P pala (Ital. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court.
the architectural pace was set by the papal court. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. cornices and abutments. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Papal incentives to build. like the colonnaded vestibule. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. especially after the Sack of Rome. Palazzo Massimi). A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings.g. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). In Venice. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. came to be applied all over Europe.g. Other cities. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Movement of patrons and architects. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and Palladio's in Vicenza. and large households. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. like Genoa. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. often built next to their titular churches. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. panel
. evolved influential types. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Following Oriental patterns. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. column-caps. behind a sober Florentine façade. e. palmette.scholarly retreat. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Rich.
so that they might have a voice at court. enforce law and order. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. linden. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Then. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. As successors to St Peter. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. mahogany. and dark walnut are favourites.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. or the incidence of taxation. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. slate has occasionally been used as a support. to influence popes in their favour. as it were. the. including beech. fibre-board. chestnut. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. larch. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and other synthetic materials as supports. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. the management of clerical dues and taxation. olive. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). could lead to conflict with secular authorities. To maintain their authority. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. secular rulers. or other rigid substance. In the 20th century cedar. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. metal. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. A number of matters. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. Having a circular plan. cedar. and walnut. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. however. fir. Many other types were used. and the pressure and temptations
.Term in painting for a support of wood. and modern painters have also used plywood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. The third aspect was administrative. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. teak. as distinct from canvas. and spanned by a single dome. On a larger scale.
So onerous. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. however. considered perfectly suitable for the role played
. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. the most appropriate . prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. of individuals. which met at Constance 1414-18. Colonna and Caetani. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. By then. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. possess an authority which. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). There remained.that could be applied to them. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. To resolve the problem of divided authority. could supersede that of a pope. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. It was argued that such a council. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. however. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. as such. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. in spite of further absences from Rome. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. however. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State.as well. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. in the eyes of God. was long in doubt. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. if it did no serious damage to the faith. from the point of view of its religious associations. at Avignon. would. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. which seems so inevitable. As at Avignon. to be long delayed. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67).
"shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. 400-300 BC). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. the creation of a cultural capital. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. in classical literature. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. pastoral (Lat. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age.. pastor. and satyrs. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. goat. scholars and men of letters. as well as a governmental one. it has also been used for painting. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Parrhasius (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. However. nymphs. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Passion
. less frequently pig. through lavish patronage of artists. and with Zeuxis (c. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and other animals. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). to a world peopled by shepherds. Skin had been used as a writng material before this.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book.
Portrayals of the Passion. 1478.) or pasticcio (It. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. such as a garden summerhouse. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. pavilion (Lat. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pastiche (fr. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. and so on. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. a region in north-central Italy. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. ornamental building. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. "butterfly. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. hence tent") A lightly constructed. the crown of thorns. papilio. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. projecting either centrally or at both ends. patrician (Lat. Francesco Salviati. which focus on the Suffering Christ. 1478).The events leading up to Good Friday. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Meanwhile. and also the archbishop of Pisa. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.
. wealthy citizen. a small. but not necessarily a direct copy. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. patricius.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements.
dependent") One of a pair of related art works. concept or deity. pergola (It. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. physis. pendant (Fr. and facere. personification (Lat. persona. "to see through. perspective (Lat. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. perspicere.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "hanging. physiognomy (Gk. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "person". or related elements within an art work. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and gnomon.
. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. in particular the face. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "nature".) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire.
proper to take a landscape from. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. glue.piano nobile (Ital. Pietà (Lat. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. both real and painted. Rome. A pier is generally larger than a column. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. usually above the ground floor. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. but full of variety. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity.
.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. striking the imagination with the force of painting. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. exemplified. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. to be expressed in painting. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. containing the public rooms. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. but may consist of a cluster of columns.) The main floor of a building. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. pigmentum. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. remarkable for singularity. curious details. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. for example. affording a good subject for a landscape. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. or resin to make paint. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). pigment (Lat. Peter's.
returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. it has a base. in October 1347. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the
. also used in Spain's American colonies. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). such as Florence and Genoa. and capital. It seems probable. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. perhaps. despite regional variations. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Thenceforward. more sporadic outbreaks. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. It is often fluted. Rocco and Sebastian. the burning of 'infected' clothing. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. In the 15th century. though in less widespread. however. For this reason. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. a shaft. moreover. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. plague Plague. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith.pilaster (Lat. for instance. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. since. "pillar") A flat. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. outside Tuscany. it is difficult to find. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. During 1348 the Black Death. and thereafter all Europe. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. pilastrum. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families.
The first phase. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). heraldic escutcheons. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.. Philebus. or simply the Plateresque. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). and unified style using massive geometric forms. The first phase. utilized Mudejar ornament -. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. or appropriateness. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). and sinuous scrolls. Thus empirical science does not have a central role
.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Timaeus. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. the Renaissance-Plateresque. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. the Symposium. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Diego evolved a purer. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. In contrast with Aristotle. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. composition. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. like its successor. A student of Socrates. Phaedo. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. placement. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Phaedrus. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Theatetus and the Laws.e. are the masterworks of the second style. i. correct classical orders became frequent. The second phase. more severe. which lasted only a few decades. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. harmonious.
though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Unlike the case of Aristotle. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. near Florence. but not completely. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. It was especially in a number of academies in France and
. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). for example with Symphorian Champier (c. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy.in Plato's thought. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. including those of Plotinus. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. partially. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. replaced Ficino's. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and the Chaldaic Oracles. 1472-c. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Rather unsystematic. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Iamblichus. A new Latin translation. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400.1577) becoming particularly popular. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. and Agostino Steuco (c. all of which he also translated into Latin. and he utilized many other writings. Plotinus. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance.
or statue. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. column. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. such as processions and consecrations. pointed arch In architecture. poluptukhos. plinth (Gk. Lat. where a pectoral is used to close it. polyptych (Gk. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. as in classical architecture). portico (Lat. plinthos. pluvial (Med. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by
. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Frequently supports a pediment. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. porticus. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Plato was read in the universities. pluviale. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar.
The realism of the clear. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. was revived in the 14th century. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. and the
. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo Farnese). The equestrian portrait. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. National Gallery). Florence (1486-90). The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. the Carracci. Desiderio da Settignano. and only a decorative accessory to form. 1328. Colleoni. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. flattened image. Venice). Maria Novella. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Cathedral) by Uccello. Siena. Florence. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The 16th century portrait became generalized.. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Campidoglio). psychologically more complex. Gattarnelata. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Mantua. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. decorating whole rooms. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. inessential. Group portraits. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface.sculptors such as Donatello. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474.e. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671.
and Peter Paul Rubens. Charles Le Brun. who had as their ideal masters Titian. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Borromeo. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and. Fiamma's sermons. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. The sermons of Visdomini. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. bishop of Chioggia. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). are not florid in style. abrasive even. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. from the secular clergy. to discharge their preaching duties. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. primarily the mendicants. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. As Poussin was a Frenchman. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). of the sermon as an art form. however. minatory exhortations. together with the Dominican Savonarola. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. bishop of Asti. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). several of whom became bishops. The styles of S. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. not least those of statesmen and prelates. was versed in classical and patristic
. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishops especially. 1494). who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Savonarola and Musso. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Correggio. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society.
In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Millais and Rossetti.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. tapestries. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). though often relatively very wide . and so forth. The New Testament references in these would.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Louis of Toulouse (1317. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. presbyterion "Council of Elders")
.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Because of the small size of predelle . however. prefiguration Typology . predella (It.rhetoric. Naples). the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.g.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. among them Holman Hunt.
and Houdon among sculptors. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. again indicative of the purpose they served. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. proportion (Lat. the Canon of Proportion. proportio. which uses the square
. the golden section. 2. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the quadrature. Fragonard. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. sculpture and architecture. Girardon. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. these highly finished drawings.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Prix de Rome A scholarship. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. 3. profil perdu (Fr. The following are important: 1. notably David. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "evenness") in painting. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century.
"boys") Plump naked little boys. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. a fifth = 2:3. the steward or treasurer of a church. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity.
. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. one half the length of the other). in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. for example). many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. triangulation. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. and 5. provenance The origins of an art work. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Rome. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. 4. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. putto (It. a fourth = 3:4. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Unlike Pozzo. harmonic proportions.as a unit of measurement. putti sing. It was common in Roman art. Ignazio. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. the history of a work's ownership since its creation.
e. friars and nuns. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Botticelli.g. relevare. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. relicquiae. the great orders of monks. in particular works by Masaccio. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. canons regular. basso rilievo). Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in which figures are seen half round. Among the
. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Fra Angelico and others. Brunelleschi. Donatello. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. also known as the Realist school. hermits. Lat. refectory (Med. In 16th century Europe. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relief (Lat. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or the Jesuits. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. relic (Lat. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in which figures are almost detached from their background. the object of particular veneration. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission.Quattrocento (It. and high relief (alto rilievo). or some item connected with a saint. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface.
The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Padua. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. the Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Bernardino of Siena. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Bologna (1419). who had no overall organization originally. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Salvatore. Benedetto. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The same bull
. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. and their more institutionalized brethren. After the repression of the Spirituals. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Mantua. Giorgio in Alga.contemplative orders. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. At the same time. was the congregation of S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. although technically of secular canons. Maria di Fregonaia. Venice (1404). In 1504. presided over by chapters general. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. i. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. the great patriarch of Venice. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. and the generally moderate Observants. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. That of S. the most notable being S. The Conventuals. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. various groups were fused in the latter body. however. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Lorenzo Giustiniani. which was to become the main Italian one. The Silvestrines. Lucca. it became the Cassinese congregation. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. 1012. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. In 1517. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.e. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Giustina. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Founded by St Romuald c. The Benedictines.
a historical period. Gaetano da Thiene. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th
. Angela Merici.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Venice. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Michele in Isola. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. The first. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. the Theatines. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. however. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. S. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. founded by S. Filippo Neri. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded in 1535 by S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. also. however. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet.
culture was linked to personality and behaviour. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. of arts. which had begun early in the 14th century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. and competition with. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. because its core of energy. however. as well as political. was so vast and potent. even Amoralism. of an energetic revival of interest in. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of letters. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. 1875-86). this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries.
. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of scholarship. and his own as potentially one of light.century. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Thereafter. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. the historical reality of antiquity. For long. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of 'darkness'. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. increasingly. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. life. however. too long forgotten glories. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. All-Roundness. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and.
as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Ghent). The panel is usually made of wood or stone. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. (3) There is not a true. etc. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. the previous record . spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. retables can be detached and. mobilized nationalism. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. gratefully. let alone a uniform. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. congruence between. statues.with all its shabbiness . There was an early.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. candlesticks. and is decorated with paintings. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Cathedral of SaintBavon. etc. however. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. and other liturgical objects. though sometimes of metal. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. of industrialization. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica
.) was the term chosen. sometimes. The challenges are to be accepted. and mass media. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Though thus challenged.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. consist merely of a painting. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). 'culture' and 'history' during the period.erased. letters. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. in the more limited sense. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. later still to Genoa. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. especially in the High Gothic period. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. It is for this additional. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.
of St Mark in Venice. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. richly decorated with organic forms. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. painting. and 'Romanesque'. Italy. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. like 'Gothic'. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806).
. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. almost simultaneously. it indicates a derivation from Roman art.in the 11th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. the St. Germany. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. rocaille (French. in several countries . literally. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. More usually. its mood lighthearted and witry. rilievo (It. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Louis XV furniture. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Spain . "relief") In painting. and architecture dominating the 18th century.France. however. retables have become extinct. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Originally commissioned in 976. Rococo A style of design. the first style to achieve such international currency. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. With the development of freestanding altars. As the name suggests. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. is a typical product. Romanesque art.
The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Pannini and Mengs. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. they maintained. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). the development of nationalistic pride. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. M. Claude. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. van Orley.
. such as red ochre. Q. Piranesi. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Rome. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. stylized design representing an open rose. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The aim of painting.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Massys and M. In addition. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. van Heemskerk. B. Mabuse. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism.
"holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. multiple sets used in succession. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Clement escaped into Castel S. There were no limits on time. when it finally left the city it had devastated. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. In the
. but others were the work of well-known figures. local saints. Orthodox. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. pious legend and hagiography. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. and anointing of the sick. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. from the Old and New Testaments. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).expressed through gesture. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. the Eucharist. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and Protestant churches. confirmation. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. gutted. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. holy orders. supported by lay confraternities. and impoverished. glance and movement . penance. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .greatly increased. Written primarily in ottava rima. Sacra Conversazione (It. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Subjects were nominally sacred.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Many compositions were anonymous. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Eastern independent. matrimony. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).
They were still seeking aid. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. replaces the Lord's Supper." sala (Ital. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. The classical Protestant churches (i.. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. as an excuse to revolt. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Saracens
. make such strict distinctions. The chief focus of discontent. in principle. as in the Church of the Brethren.. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan.i. the Rocca Paolina.) Hall. The theology of the Orthodox Church. It is still practiced on special occasions. notably from Florence and in Germany. the Bentivoglio. Immediately following baptism. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. chapter 13. large room. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .e. was buried under a new fortress. and sacraments. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. the sun of righteousness.early church the number of sacraments varied. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. was not maintained as a sacrament. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Hence. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. strictly speaking. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. Lutheran. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. which in the Gospel According to John. used for drawing. the Orthodox Church does not. Salt War. the symbolic direction of Christ. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. and then face east. Anglican." which are called sacramentals. foot washing.e. sacraments. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. baptism and the Eucharist. Thus. that the price of salt should be increased. Candidates first face west. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.
45 BC). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Little known in the Middle Ages. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 360 . 270 BC). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. made of stone. 210 AD). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).During the Middle Ages. The publication of Latin (1562. sarcophagi (Gk. human-like woodland deities with the ears. whose writings.c. the Arabs or Muslims. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. legs and horns of a goat. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). satyr In Greek mythology. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. the god of wine. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. wood or terracotta. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.c. and many others. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and
. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 160 . the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. sarcophagus. pl. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. are lost.
were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. in June 1409. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Schism. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou.for example Pieter van Laer. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. most of whom. Charles III of Durazzo (d.they had individual Bentnames . from time to time both he and his opponents. one of the early leaders. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. for. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. being Frenchmen. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Alexander V. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. on one side. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. while devout Christians agonized. 1386) and his son Ladislas. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). scholasticism
. who had the support of the Avignon pope. As a result. In northern Italy. and. with France and her allies Aragon. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. on the other. was called Bamboccio. who recognized the Roman pope. than their medieval predecessors. However. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. Louis I (d. the Florentines. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. while England. but with little effect.
In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. It was because the central concerns of humanism .)
. None the less.were different from those of medieval. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. and theology. moreover. Padua. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. notably Aquinas. if lime-water was used. that scholasticism was left. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. and Islamic literature. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Serenissima (Ital. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. as it were. As such. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. history and rhetoric . seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. as it is easier to add details in this way. university-based study. textual scholarship. the plaster had to be damped before painting.The term is ambivalent.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Medieval scholars. Christian. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. on one side. (See also: fresco. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.moral philosophy. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Often called the burning ones. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S.
in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Originally. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Lat. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. and the delicate. at the same time. there was only one Sibyl. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. women who could prophesy. sibylla. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Sibyls foretold the Birth. Med. the number gradually rose to ten. sibyls (Gk. in use since the Middle Ages. which were all identical in thickness. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "prophetess") In antiquity. Servite (Lat.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. usually presided over by individual families. sinopia
.. Signoria (It. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. in the period of classical antiquity. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sfumato A technique. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. term. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. In Christian legend. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. brass. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics.
) Wooden ceiling decoration.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sing. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries.
. Stanze (Ital. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. pronounced as French. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . stigma (Gk. brand.'Beautiful Madonnas'. staffage This word. and. Francis of Assisi. Ital. soffit (Lat. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. stigmata. in other words. sotto in sù (It. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. as the name implies. especially in the flow of drapery. "mark. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. It is very closely related to International Gothic. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.
. with that for the Picturesque. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. John Milton. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. studioli (It.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Indeed. The vogue for the Sublime. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. studiolo. both external and internal. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. In a looser sense. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). stucco A type of light. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). pl. whose verses actually fabrications . In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.
The subject is underexplored. tempera (Lat. doubtless.
. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .Historically. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England.e. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). his own headquarters. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. i. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. or cartoons. into Italy. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. temperare. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. 1407). and in literature.and. London. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. both for panel painting and fresco. But the Italians did not make them. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. was being decorated with frescoes. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. then being replaced by oil paint. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Salviati and Allori. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. These were imported. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. chiefly from Flanders. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.
tondi (It. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. Trajan's Column
.terracotta (It. walls. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. and profile. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). terraferma (Ital. and other surfaces. pl. figure of speech. triumphal arch. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. quarter face. "a commonplace") In literature. "fields. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. pl. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. model. and later to subdivide gable ends. i. theme or motif. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. topoi (Gk. topiary (Gk. widely used form. in the architecture of ancient Rome.e. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tondo. in art. vessels. topos. topia. and sculptures. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.
they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. of virtues and of the arts. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. patriarchs and prophets.' Before it go the apostles. beside it the army of martyrs.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Meanwhile. "threefold") in Christianity. as it were. usually an altarpiece. trinitas. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. behind it. chastity. a car so brave'. Early triptychs were often portable. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Trinity (Lat. after 'a countless number of virgins. triptych (Gk. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. the military triumph became sublimated. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. added to the glamour of the triumph. the wars by which they were won . Disseminated soon after his death. into a number of less controversial forms. "threefold") A painting in three sections. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. death. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. tryptychos.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. time and eternity.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. fame.
. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the Son and the Holy Spirit. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Battista Sforza. or wings. of both sexes'.
tusche A thick. Dating from classical times. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tympanum (Lat. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. it is usually decorated with carvings. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. enclosed by an arch. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. viscous black ink. often decorated with sculptures. typology
. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. "drum") In classical architecture. through various naturalistic devices. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It incorporates Renaissance features. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. first recorded in 1232.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil (Fr. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. In medieval architecture. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.
U uomo universale (It.
. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. lanterns. where they were most accessible. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. e. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.A system of classification. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.g. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.Dirck van Baburen (c. such as five works devoted to the senses. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). were popular with them also. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. killer of Holofernes. each had access to his paintings. slayer of Goliath. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. In Christian thought. especially his half-length figural groups. 1590-1624). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.) The Renaissance "universal man". Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. knew his former patrons. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. The numerous candles. and David. Judith. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . 1610).
varietà (It.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time.). The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. V vanishing point In perspective. the groin vault. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. and even flowers (which will soon fade). consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. a work's richness of subject matter. Parisian craftsmen. Vespers (Lat. carriages. vanitas (Lat. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the rib vault. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. There are a wide range of forms. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. overturned vessels. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. often gold. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. hour-glasses and clocks. snuff boxes and other objects. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vesper. mixed in. it was used to decorate furniture. guttering candles. "evening")
. Also varietas (Lat. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal.
Prayers said in the evening. vite (Lat. and Sloth. virtù could be used. in which the word signifies efficacy. vita. and Justice. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Gluttony. vimperga Of German origin. Temperance. pl. Lust. actual or latent. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Prudence. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vestibulum. Charity. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. the church service at which these prayers are said. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Vestibule (Lat. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Covetousness. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Anger. 'Assume a virtue. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. for example. Hope. Envy. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Fortitude. "not exposed to winds". 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. if you have it not'. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. In ancient Roman dwellings. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. "life")
. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top.
No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. 1482-84). W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. a biography. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. 1478-80. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. published in 1550 and 1568. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness.g. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Marcus (1st cent. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. or recovery from illness has been made. and appalled recognition of.An account of someone's life and work. The wars from 1494 do. they were from the 18th century
. 1472. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. protection from harm. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Vitruvius Pollio. and of Ferrara. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Sculptors and Architects"). in fact. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. those of Volterera. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
usually linear. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist.Weltanschauung (Gr. a philosophy of life. treasury or a place where justice was administered. It was intended to have a variety of functions. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. during its subsequent history. usually restorers. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. "Western work of art". based on stylization of various animal forms.
. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. gallery. Westwerk German word. pompous on the floor above. woodcut A print made from a wood block. "world view") A comprehensive world view. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel.