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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. or organization. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.A semicircular projection. roofed with a half-dome. and Rouault. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. . the darker the tone). arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Lancet and Tudor. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Degas. arkhitektonikos. arcus. which is fused to the plate by heating. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Picasso. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. at the east end of a church behind the altar. including Goya. arcade (Lat. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Also known as an exedra. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. design. architectonic (Gk. The adjective is apsidal. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. the moulding around a window or door. architrave (It.e. In Greek and Roman literature. piers or pillars. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. the lowest part of the entablature). There are several variants of the technique. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. but in essence the process is as follows. "architectural") Relating to structure.
" and Lat. "begin. aureolus. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.archivolt (Ital. attributum. In the case of martyrs. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. usually a saint. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.and the Comedy . archeiu. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "front arch.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. voltus. archivolto. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine." from Gk. attribute (Lat. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. dominate. Ars Moriendi (Lat. aureole (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "golden. Dante's Vita nuova .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .
Bambocciati Group of relatively small. that of Cardano. The actual move was made in 1309. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). or baldacchino (It. in 1377. who had been residing in France since 1305. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Six pontificates later. the god of wine and fertility. paintings of everyday life. applied to the physically . Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. baldachin. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. 'Captivity'. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby").while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. often anecdotal. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Later. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology.
Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. banderuola. Alg. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. a visual metaphor for the number eight. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and Nocera in Italy. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. pope between 432 and 440. set beneath a domical ciborium." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Customarily. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. As eight follows the "complete" number. Spalato [Split.g. Pentecost. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Parma. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. the Temple of Venus. AD 300). which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or forecourt. and Poitiers. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. seven. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. built by Sixtus III. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. beggars in rags. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. . Florence. el Kantara. such as those at Pisa. France. Lebanon.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Baalbek. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium.. and Epiphany. AD 273. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. or connected with. a church. Croatia]. or canopy. and abject filthy things. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Easter. banderole (It. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism.. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.
1810-1865). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. which is reserved for the clergy. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1817-1878). however. southeast of Paris. 1811-1889). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Originally. 1814-1875). something of earlier symbolism survives. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. barocco. and thus a church. Constant Troyon (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. In architecture. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Vermeer). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio).In the 10th century. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. and (3) everyday realism. Baroque (Port. basilica (Gk. or baptismal chapels. Jules Dupré (French. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. usually facing east. and increasingly elaborate decoration. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Rubens). in the 1840s and 1850s. . 1796-1875). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. were often omitted entirely. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. achieved through scale. "king's hall") a church building. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. baptisteries. in its usual location near the church door . Jean-François Millet (French. 1807-1876). stoa basilike. Also tunnel vault. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Théodore Rousseau (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.
particularly porcelain. in which still-life predominates. especially Spanish. which is either not yet glazed. however. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. It takes its name from its grainy texture. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. The term was mainly used up to c. Biscuit porcelain. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Book of Hours . as is to be expected. like their Dutch counterparts.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Bodegónes. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. also incorrectly called bisque. and often sentimentality. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. 1650 in Spain. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Spanish still-lifes. up until the mid-17th century. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). or which is to be left as it is. such as Waldmüller. were referred to by their specific contents. There were. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. such as those by Diego Velázquez. By association. often with food and drink. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. domesticity. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. bodegón Image. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists.
The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. and the fact that it is easily workable . days of the week. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. See flying buttress. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. varying from silverish to a rich. . made as a study for a larger picture. a rapid sketch in oil. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. bozzetto Strictly speaking. but can also be used for painted sketches. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. Chantilly).both hot and cold .by a variety of processes. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bozzetto(Italian. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. or seasons. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . By extension. months. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture.an advantage over marble sculpture. coppery red. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. durability.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.
which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. private room where works of art. It also served to glorify the emperor. Among its most distinctive products were icons. and Giotto. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. caisson (Fr. and work in precious metals. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. notable from Syria and Egypt. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. "a chest. its forms highly stylized. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. which was often allegorical. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. mosaics. casson. glass. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. box") In architecture. ceramics. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. manuscript illuminations. Duccio. C cabinet A small. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cameo Small relief made from gems. camera obscura . valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits).
. hemp. candelabrum (It. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. usually decorated. other materials used are cotton. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. which was usually whitened. usually with several branches or arms. capital (Lat. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. which isolates the fabric from the paint. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. sing.-N. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. Portable versions were built. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. followed by smaller and even pocket models. by the 16th century. candlestick. dating to antiquity. usually in a church. capitellum. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. only very rough effects will be obtainable. "candle") A large. campanile Bell tower.) A gallery for singers or musicians. pl. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall." and the earliest versions. and jute. usually built beside or attached to a church. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. as an aid to drawing. The Latin name means "dark chamber. cantorie (It. cantoria. candela. Structurally. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Niepce created photography.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candelabra. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.
The order combines reclusive and community life. cartone. cartoon (It. or a motto. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Carmelites (Lat.a humorous drawing or parody. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. the date of the painting. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the endeavour to attain true humanity. monasteries containing separate hermitages. pl. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Carthusian Order (Lat. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. details of the subject. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. near Grenoble.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. In fresco painting. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartellini In a painting. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cardinalis. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. At the height of the Middle Ages. cartouche . Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartellino. New Charterhouses. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. or fresco. tapestry. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.both Italians and artists from other countries . this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. and humanism.
and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. For reasons lost to time and tradition.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. palace. and many other items of her dowry. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. where the throne of the bishop is placed. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. These lead up to the north and south transepts. and swags of fruit and flowers. decorated with gilt gesso. The altar is placed at the east end. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. they were also used in other countries. castello (It. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. caryatid (Gk. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). cassone (It. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. cathedral (cathedra. . linen. a cathedral always faces west . Worked on at intervals 1504-06. In the 15th century. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Paolo Uccello. They contained the bride's clothes. putti (cupids). or nave. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles.) "castle". when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Cascina.toward the setting sun. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. or arms of the cross. The main body.
"see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. a celestial winged being with human. and perspicere. Both the statement of St. buildings and figures that are being depicted. continually praise him. . or birdlike characteristics. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. champlevé (Fr. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. animal. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. and Islamic literature. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. in accordance with their distance from the observer. a throne bearer of the deity. central perspective (Lat. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. "in the centre". centralis. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. landscapes. Christian. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. rather than intercessory functions. as celestial attendants of God. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Relative to the observer.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses.
"choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . Since Carolingian times. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. replacing tempera. "light dark") In painting. Hans Burgkmair (1510). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. reserved for the clergy to pray together." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. choir (Gk. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. choros. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases.chiaroscuro (It. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). or for choral singing. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). North of the Alps. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the Order of the Hospital of St. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Lastly. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy.
Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. gilded rays. The Transparente (completed 1732). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. reversed volutes.intersect). Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and garlands. Sculpted clouds. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. which was shaped like an inverted cone. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. undulating lines. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. undulating cornices. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. is as typically Churrigueresque. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and the Churrigueresque column. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. an architect. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Very few still exist in their original positions. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. stucco shells. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). a massing of carved angels. and repetition of pattern. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. ciborium . Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. became the most common motif. further enriching the style. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. balustrades. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments.
who were raised to the status of a guild. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Without being members of a guild. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. but self-employed. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. the wool carder Michele di Lando. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. controlled by the minor guilds. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Then. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. In reaction to this revolutionary . It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. or achieve political representation. The new government. placing one of their members. Quattrocento (1400s. as also were those in the associated. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. etc.and post-medieval Italy. ciompi. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. High Renaissance). They were forbidden to form a trade association. Their economic condition worsened. including the ciompi. on July 22. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. combers. Members of the lower classes. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. beaters. craft of dyeing. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts.
and politics. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. philosophy and art .episode. clair-obscur (Fr. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. changed greatly from one period to the next. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In the 15th century Greek literature. the black contours usually with a special line plate.as in Italy these were dispensed with. scholars patiently finding. . philosophy. cithara (Gk. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. writers. the ciompi guild was abolished. except in cases where . on which strings were plucked.) An ancient musical instrument. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. however. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. literature. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. resembling a lyre. Concepts of the classical. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. with Italian scholars. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. editing and translating a wide range of texts. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).
cognoscenti. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. sing. pl. arch or ceiling. compline (Lat. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). the church service at which these prayers are said. condottiere. occasionally made of wood. literature or music. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. concetto. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. pl. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. as well as from the Bible. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. or "contract. when set side by side. a work's underlying theme. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. blue and orange." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. concetti (It. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The name was derived from the condotta. terrorized the country. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. . intensify one another. [hora] completa.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. cognoscente (It. Coffered ceilings. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. condottieri (It. those with refined tastes. Green and red. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St.
The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. who won control of Milan in 1450. or with the spiritual assistance of. Muzio's son. and his rival Braccio da Montone. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and German--the condottieri. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. often under the direction of. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Carmagnola. in the service of Perugia. in the service of Naples. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. disappeared. Toward the end of the 15th century.devastating Romagna. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples.e. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. which spread in the 15th century. and Tuscany. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. often called compagnie or. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. commonly called either Compagnia di S. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves.e. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. By the 16th century. . clergy. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. convents of convertite. Martino). although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. flagellant confraternities. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Spanish. Mark (1432). (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Francesco Sforza. i. i. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. confraternities Confraternities. primarily for syphilitics. By the end of the 14th century. scuole. With no goal beyond personal gain. in Venice. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Umbria. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French.
Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . contours were initially regular. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. while the Venetian government. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. notwithstanding their location. reformed prostitutes. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contrapposto (It. Later. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds.g. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Dorotea in Trastevere. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was.g. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.i. Confraternities. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. flat outlines. While the Doge ranked above the Council. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. founded c. but sometimes had their own premises. e. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. contour. 1514 in S. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. in Florence. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. e. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. the Florentine Neri. and refuges for maidens. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. which accompanied condemned prisoners.e. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. contour (Fr. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. In medieval painting. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). however.
large cornice or other feature. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). started the process of inner reform in the Church. corbel In architecture. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. The style spread as far as England. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. cuprum. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. aes cyprium. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. did not achieve any lasting results. a bracket of stone. whose names are inscribed on several works. 1280). They are often ornamented. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Lat. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. conventiculurn. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s.weight on one leg. conventicle (Lat. Reform programs. 1100 and 1300. an engraving produced in this way. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. . declining moral standards. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas.
the condemned man. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. cupola (Lat.e. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Constantine the Great.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. the first Christian emperor. a semi-circular vault. after being whipped. D dado . or "scourged. Jews. Next. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. There were various methods of performing the execution. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. a small dome. the most famous victim of crucifixion. reedy sound. "small vat") In architecture. Death. An ancestor of the oboe. i. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. cupula. particularly among the Persians. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Seleucids. Usually. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Carthaginians. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment.
consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. an expressive use of nature. and Linz possessed common characteristics. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Deësis (Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. which was help to be the basis of all art. diptychos. The term stresses not the literal drawing. danse macabre The dance of death. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Germany. usually in matching pairs. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Passau. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. design") In Renaissance art theory. often an altarpiece. a favorite late medieval picture subject. decorated diffrently from the upper section. deacon (Gk. diptychum. diakonos. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. e. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous.g. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. "drawing. Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. disegno (It. diptych (Lat. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. but the concept behind an art work. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them.
and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c.fully realize. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. "to mix. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. a 19th-century invention. donor (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. distemperare.Thomas Aquinas. Ordo Praedictatorum. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). doublet A male garment. which runs on castors or wheels. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. dome in architecture. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. such as we still use today. The studio easel. usually forming a ceiling or roof. when painters took to working out of doors. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. formerly worn under armour. distemper (Lat. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. donator. though a few artists. also used it on canvas. is a heavy piece of furniture. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Dominicans (Lat. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch.
"last". which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. John (19. the frieze. It consists of the architrave. bound and flogged. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. and logos. in art. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. Hence. sometimes combining panel painting. eschatology (Gk. epitaph (Gk. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. ensemble (Fr. Ecce Homo (Lat. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. full face. and architecture.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. en face In portraiture. a depiction of Jesus. fresco. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "word") . Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. sculpture. and the cornice. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschaton. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. entablature In classical architecture.
and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. and is named for Faenza. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. . eu. which is called "maiolica. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. which is called "delftware. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and of the last things. Giovanni Morone. Carnesecchi and Ochino. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Spain. Italy. Marcantonio Flaminio. Jerome. which was famous for maiolica. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. and Scandinavia. which was developed in the Near East ca. It developed in France in the early 16th century. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Saints Ambrose. Augustine. Contarini. celebrated with bread and wine." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. notably Cardinal Pole. "good. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Equated with the Greek god Pan. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. particularly ware made in France." and that made in the Netherlands and England. farmers. protector of shepherds. Germany. 4500 BCE. Eucharist (Gk. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism.death and resurrection. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli." and charis. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. fields and livestock. Vittoria Colonna.
black and dun. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and flowers suspended in a loop. Their attributes are the bow. drying to a slightly different tint. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Committed to charitable and missionary work. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Only a small area can be painted in a day. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. war. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. frescos in Italy . carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). fresco (It. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. a technique known as a secco fresco.8). such as plague. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. can in time be seen. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. a swag. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. relaxed. The colour of his horse is white. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. 2 . Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. that of the others red.festoni (It. famine and death. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. leaves. and these areas. fluted of a column or pillar. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. sword and set of balances.
Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. are genres of painting. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Genius in classical Rome. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). or true fresco. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. genre In a broad sense. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . where the atmosphere was too damp. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . the intonaco. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. a person's invisible tutelary god. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. or fresco secco. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. The technique of buon fresco. covings and ceilings. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. In art from the classical period onwards. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Final details. landscape and portraiture.Save in Venice.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. for example. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. usually childish figure. G Garter. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. both in churches and in private and public palaces. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy.
in portraits and on tombs. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. as well as writers and artists. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. As such. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Maso di Banco. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. how it differed from notoriety. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and as spurring on men of action. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Maria Gloriosa). and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. whether it must be connected with the public good. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Gobelins . to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Bernardo Daddi. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi').
1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Paris. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. thereafter it made only tapestries. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century.French tapestry manufactory. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. This ratio is approximately 8:13. Golden Fleece. In other Italian cities. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. still in existence today. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. who appointed Lebrun Director. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. and although it reopened in 1699. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. . golden section (Lat. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer").
Nevertheless. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Amiens. c. In particular. from the 13th until the 17th century. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In sculpture and in painting. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. and lies much deeper than. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. or the influence of one building. The artistic. painting. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. There is a transcendental quality. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. Denis. like the cultural and commercial. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. that the effects are to be felt. the superficial particularities of form. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Gothic Gothic. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. . In thinking of Nicola (d. 1270. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. painting. 1200 and c.
the Netherlands. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. occasionally. chiefly to France. are but different appellations of the same thing'. to silk. Such tours often took a year or more. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Dubuffet. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. notably in the writings of Bellori. genius. to white or tinted paper and card and. Pannini. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. and the great style. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Canaletto. starch. and Morris Graves. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). if required. . Honey. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. with sable.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour.and hog-hair brushes. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Klee. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. and above all Italy. the beau idéal of the French. and Piranesi. These qualities. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and taste among the English. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. without visible brush marks. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. It is thinned with water for applying.
Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. In the context of the fine arts. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. exclude drawing from this definition. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. After the War of the Eight Saints. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. In another sense. however. including text as well as illustrations. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. From 1266 to 1268. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. gris. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. brother of Louis IX. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. became an abiding feature of European politics. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. internal factions in Florence went under other names. c. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. and Waiblingen. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. to Provence and Paris. which had recruited most of the merchant class. 1216. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In Florence. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. the parties taking a multitude of local names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Some writers. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. usually gray. after this. through central Italy.e. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. grisaille (Fr. . the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. drawing and the various forms of engraving. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. then as now. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218.
outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. as some did). trade or profession (painters. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. notably Florence in the 14th century. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and provided assistance to members in need. In Florence. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In some cities. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. héraut. for example. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. print or painting. trades. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. H hatching In a drawing. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. goldsmiths. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. surgeons. or professions. but in time they acquired other functions. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In 16th century Venice. heraldry (Fr. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The guild also monitored standards of work. In some towns. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries." from Fr. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. Guilds were also patrons of art. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. "herald") . In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. such as Brescia and Vicenza. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. [science] héraldique. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. and greater hostility between master and man. The guilds were not equal. In Italy they go back a long way. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute.
only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. However. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. the Cathars were an anti-church. they were condemned in 1184. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. normative for churchmen. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. as Antichrist. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. while others merged with the Waldensians. with the rules governing their use. the followers of Juan de Valdes. d. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. together with brethren north of the Alps.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. i. from the start. one great missionary community. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. head of the 'carnal Church'. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. By contrast. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. the Waldensian. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The main impact of the . Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. and regarded themselves as forming. indeed. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure.
First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Church. its subjects considered morally elevating. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Durand. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. J. In humanism. Jasper Cropsey. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. the emancipation of man from God took place. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. humanus. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. F. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Kensett. Germany. George Inness. and. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. F. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . humanism (Lat. Morse. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. working from 1825 to 1875. hortus conclusus (Lat. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. and classical literature. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. American painters were studying in Rome. in his earlier work. Frederick E. B. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. At the same time. mainly in the south. history (usually classical history). Henry Inman. Thomas Cole. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. S. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. my spouse'. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Derived from classical rhetoric. the veil of St. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. usually the donors of a work of art. investiture . landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Veronica. soft style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. invention. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. and they are also depicted on their own. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Donatallo. with many further details added. the ability to create. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the rooster of Peter's denial. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. the scourge that was used in the scourging. etc. In the second half of the 14th century. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary.g. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. there are representations of the bundle of rods. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. are also used in art literature. the pincers. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. it denominates a kind of behaviour. inventio (It. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Human figures. beautiful style. and the ladder. For instance. the hammer. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. or of other saints. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. originality. The terms court style.
The Both brothers. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Upon his return to Holland. Jerome's writings. although they are usually called Romanists. who traveled in Italy and. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. generally Dutch or Flemish. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. and Jan Asselijn. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Both and Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. . bathed in a golden haze.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. of Utrecht. principally Dutch. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Nicolaes Berchem. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Andries and Jan Both.
as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). John of Jerusalem . As their military role grew. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. especially one at which the Bible is read. liberal arts . encouraged by the Crusades. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Archbishop of Genoa. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.1519). lectern A reading stand or desk. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. the rite of communion is based on this.
geometry. through the use of aerial perspective. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Heade (1819-1904).g. together with identifying attributes (e.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Kensett (1816-1872).grammar. John F. "little moon") In architecture. poetic atmosphere. its roof supported by columns. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Maria Novella in Florence). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. astronomy and music. and Frederick E. Church (1826-1900). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Pythagoras for arithmetic. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. first the preparatory trivium .g. that could be used for public ceremonies. a semicircular space. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. . commemorating a marriage. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. loggia (It. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Tubal for music). often standing in markets and town squares. often sublime. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). lunette (Fr. rhetoric and dialectic. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. that may contain a window. then the basis of a philosophical training. the quadrivium. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. comprising arithmetic.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Martin J. It is related to. painting or sculptural decoration. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.
and however bright their lighting effects. and iron red. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. historical subjects. and accompaniments. usually for the lute. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. copper green. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. "almond") . Silvestro Lega (1826–95). but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. When white is used for painting. and portraits as well as landscapes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. manganese purple. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. antimony yellow. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. mandorla (It. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. the goddess Cybele. madrigal A part song. 1855–65. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. "great mother") A mother goddess. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). particularly such ware produced in Italy. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). being written. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Specifically. but they painted genre scenes. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. originally sung without accompaniment. for example. active mainly in Florence c. magna mater (Lat. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. originating in Italy in the 14th century.
ecclesiastical. Flanders. maniera. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. illuminated initials and miniatures. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. the Codex manuscriptus. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. In architecture. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. depending on the social class of the wearer. In Mannerist painting. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and literary texts. Burgundy. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Developing out of the Renaissance. in a specific sense. more strictly. and crowned with thorns. mantle An overcoat. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. complex and crowded compositions. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. which was quarried at Mount . It reached to the knee or foot. "manner. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. often ornamented with decorative borders. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Mannerism (It. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. worn open. Bronzino. Parmigianino. the hand-written medieval book. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. marked by flagellation. strong. El Greco and Tintoretto. bound.
a different design on the reverse. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Like the finest Imperial coins. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. an inscription running round the rim. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). sleek surface. medallion In architecture. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. The pure white Carrara marble. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . marmi finti (It. having finished his training. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. quarried at Massa. proof") the sufferings. martyrion. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. the medal's purpose was commemorative. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Carrara. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. "witness. particularly by Michelangelo. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Without monetary value.Pentelicon in Attica. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. martyrdom (Gk. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field.
often anonymous. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. A Dutch officer. even grain. c. the stress on individual character. for landscapes and portraits. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. a Gorgon. 1425-1504). . 1452-1526/27). mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. 1640. c. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Medusa In Greek mythology. It was.round the neck. The process is essentially extinct today. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. particularly. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. and of the many. no line drawing is employed. 1467-688). Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. supposedly to petrify her enemies. in England. In pure mezzotint. Her head features on Minerva's shield. perhaps oddly. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 14601528). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The work of these men. When Perseus cuts off her head. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. who reflected them. This yields a soft effect in the print. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. as it were. of the person portrayed on the other side. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Ludwig von Siegen.
saying") . not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. still exist.. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. Parmigianino (d. executed on a very small scale. monochrome (Gk. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. a branch of the Franciscan order. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. "word. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. by Tiepolo and Rubens. monokhromatos. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. a painting executed in a single color. "one color") Painted in a single color.g. usually portraits. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Francis himself. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. motto (Ital. miter A high. often quite highly finished. ink and paint. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. pointed headdress worn by bishops. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Many such small versions. e. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.
was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In 1810 0verbeck. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Rome. nave (from Lat. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. often separated from it by pillars. The invention of personal mottos. and Casino Massimo. and is intersected by the transept. and two other members moved to Rome. Berlin. navis. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. . 1817-29). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. named after the patron saint of painting. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Isidore. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Pforr. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Nazarenes A group of young. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings.from the Middle Ages. naturalism (Fr. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. In general. It may have parallel aisles on each side. but often insipid. 1816-17.
usually golden. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). the style of the Ancien Régime. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. nigellus. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). nimbus (Lat. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Popes. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Nymphaeum (Gk. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. moreover. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). but their ideas continued to be influential. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). niello (Lat.) . To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. were usually old when elected. "aureole") The disc or halo.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. is as true as it is notorious.
O obsequies (Lat. walnut. and entablatures. with a sturdy. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. inborn sin. a small private chapel. and its greater tonal range. was the simplest. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. observances") Rites performed for the dead. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. the Doric order. orders of architecture In classical architecture. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. "services. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. fluted column and a plain capital. the three basic styles of design. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. its richness of colour. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. . It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. such as linseed. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The earliest. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. The Corinthian order was the most ornate.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. obsequia. capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. a more elaborate base. or poppy. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. Greek goddesses of Nature. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595).
In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). with biforate windows. Palazzo Strozzi). a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. the Cancelleria). and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. tradition and social structure. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. designed as a . The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. standing at the foot of the Cross. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. P pala (Ital. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.g.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. like cities. while shops came to be thought undignified. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. and the main apartments above. palazzo (It.
meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. like the colonnaded vestibule. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. palmette. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Papal incentives to build. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Palazzo Massimi). Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and Palladio's in Vicenza. e. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". panel . meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. especially after the Sack of Rome. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. often built next to their titular churches. Rich. like Genoa. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy.scholarly retreat. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). behind a sober Florentine façade. Movement of patrons and architects.g. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. column-caps. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. came to be applied all over Europe. evolved influential types. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). cornices and abutments. Following Oriental patterns. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and large households. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Other cities.g. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. In Venice. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome.
Then. teak. or the incidence of taxation. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. mahogany. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. olive. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. however. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. enforce law and order. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and other synthetic materials as supports.Term in painting for a support of wood. secular rulers. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. A number of matters. metal. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. or other rigid substance. Many other types were used. slate has occasionally been used as a support. As successors to St Peter. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. On a larger scale. fir. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and dark walnut are favourites. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. so that they might have a voice at court. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. fibre-board. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. linden. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and modern painters have also used plywood. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. as distinct from canvas. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. to influence popes in their favour. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). the. chestnut. To maintain their authority. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. cedar. In the 20th century cedar. including beech. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Having a circular plan. as it were. the management of clerical dues and taxation. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. The third aspect was administrative. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and spanned by a single dome. larch. and walnut. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. and the pressure and temptations .
Colonna and Caetani. in the eyes of God.as well. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. the most appropriate . criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. To resolve the problem of divided authority. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. if it did no serious damage to the faith. of individuals. which seems so inevitable. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. to be long delayed. however. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. As at Avignon. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. could supersede that of a pope. would. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. however. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. was long in doubt. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. in spite of further absences from Rome. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. from the point of view of its religious associations. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. as such. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. however. So onerous. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. which met at Constance 1414-18. It was argued that such a council. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. at Avignon. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40).base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. possess an authority which. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . By then. There remained. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.that could be applied to them.
not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. pastor. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. scholars and men of letters. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. Parrhasius (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. However. through lavish patronage of artists. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. less frequently pig. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and satyrs. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and other animals.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. pastoral (Lat. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 400-300 BC). and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and with Zeuxis (c. in classical literature. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. it has also been used for painting. as well as a governmental one. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. the creation of a cultural capital. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). to a world peopled by shepherds. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Passion .. goat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). nymphs.
unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. a region in north-central Italy. 1478). patrician (Lat. hence tent") A lightly constructed. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. projecting either centrally or at both ends. a small.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. patricius. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Francesco Salviati. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear.The events leading up to Good Friday. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. wealthy citizen. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. and also the archbishop of Pisa. the crown of thorns. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. pastiche (fr. and so on. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. "butterfly. Meanwhile. . Portrayals of the Passion. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model.) or pasticcio (It. which focus on the Suffering Christ. such as a garden summerhouse. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pavilion (Lat. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. ornamental building. 1478. but not necessarily a direct copy. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. papilio. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.
The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "to see through. pendant (Fr. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. concept or deity. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. and gnomon. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "nature". "hanging. personification (Lat. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. and facere. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "person". pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). dependent") One of a pair of related art works.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. . and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. pergola (It. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. or related elements within an art work. in particular the face. physiognomy (Gk. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. perspicere. persona. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. physis. perspective (Lat. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo.
but may consist of a cluster of columns. containing the public rooms. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. to be expressed in painting. affording a good subject for a landscape. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. but full of variety. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. glue. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St.piano nobile (Ital. pigmentum.) The main floor of a building. for example. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Peter's. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. usually above the ground floor. A pier is generally larger than a column. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. proper to take a landscape from. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. exemplified. Rome. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. curious details. or resin to make paint.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. pigment (Lat. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. both real and painted. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. striking the imagination with the force of painting. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. . much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Pietà (Lat. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. remarkable for singularity.
It is often fluted. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Thenceforward. such as Florence and Genoa. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. and thereafter all Europe. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. moreover. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. plague Plague. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. however. it is difficult to find. For this reason. the burning of 'infected' clothing. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. also used in Spain's American colonies. for instance. more sporadic outbreaks.pilaster (Lat. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. in October 1347. pilastrum. It seems probable. despite regional variations. During 1348 the Black Death. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. it has a base. outside Tuscany. a shaft. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. perhaps. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. "pillar") A flat. and capital. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Rocco and Sebastian. In the 15th century. though in less widespread. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. since. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like).
Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . and sinuous scrolls. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. the Symposium. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Diego evolved a purer.e. are the masterworks of the second style. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. In contrast with Aristotle. more severe. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. A student of Socrates. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Philebus. or simply the Plateresque. i. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and unified style using massive geometric forms. correct classical orders became frequent. Phaedrus. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. harmonious. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. placement. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. which lasted only a few decades. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. The second phase. Timaeus. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. composition. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). heraldic escutcheons. Phaedo. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. The first phase. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. utilized Mudejar ornament -. or appropriateness. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. like its successor. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate.
The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. near Florence. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but not completely. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Plotinus. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. and he utilized many other writings. Rather unsystematic. the greatest of his ancient disciples. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. systematized and added to what Plato had done. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . all of which he also translated into Latin. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. including those of Plotinus. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. replaced Ficino's. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. and the Chaldaic Oracles.in Plato's thought. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. 1472-c. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and Agostino Steuco (c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Iamblichus. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . partially. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness.1577) becoming particularly popular. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Unlike the case of Aristotle.
as in classical architecture). pointed arch In architecture. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Lat. porticus. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. polyptych (Gk. portico (Lat. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. poluptukhos. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. column. plinthos. plinth (Gk. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. pluviale. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Plato was read in the universities. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. or statue. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Frequently supports a pediment. pluvial (Med. where a pectoral is used to close it. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. such as processions and consecrations.
Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. and the . Florence. The equestrian portrait. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Group portraits. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Desiderio da Settignano. Mantua. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the Carracci. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s.sculptors such as Donatello. flattened image. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. decorating whole rooms.e. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual.. Colleoni. and only a decorative accessory to form. 1328. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The realism of the clear. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Venice). National Gallery). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Palazzo Farnese). was revived in the 14th century. Campidoglio). psychologically more complex. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Florence (1486-90). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. inessential. Cathedral) by Uccello. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Maria Novella. Siena. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Gattarnelata. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c.
This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. 1494). however. Correggio. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. abrasive even. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. of the sermon as an art form. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. to discharge their preaching duties. was versed in classical and patristic ." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. are not florid in style. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Borromeo. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. minatory exhortations. bishops especially. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The sermons of Visdomini. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. who had as their ideal masters Titian. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. and Peter Paul Rubens. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Charles Le Brun. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. and. several of whom became bishops. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. from the secular clergy. As Poussin was a Frenchman. The styles of S. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. bishop of Chioggia. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Fiamma's sermons. bishop of Asti. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Savonarola and Musso. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). primarily the mendicants. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks.
In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. and so forth. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. predella (It. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Because of the small size of predelle . "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. prefiguration Typology . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.rhetoric. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. among them Holman Hunt. Millais and Rossetti. the temptations of Adam and Christ. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Louis of Toulouse (1317. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . however. though often relatively very wide . Such a polyptych consists of a principal.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. tapestries. Naples). The New Testament references in these would.g.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.
which uses the square . these highly finished drawings. intended as complete works of art in themselves. again indicative of the purpose they served. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the quadrature. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Girardon. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. 3.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. and Houdon among sculptors. The following are important: 1. proportio. proportion (Lat. Fragonard. "evenness") in painting. the Canon of Proportion. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. profil perdu (Fr. projecting shelf on which to kneel. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. notably David. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. sculpture and architecture. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the golden section. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. 2. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666).
putti sing. and 5. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Unlike Pozzo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putto (It. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo.as a unit of measurement. harmonic proportions. a fifth = 2:3. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Rome. 4. "boys") Plump naked little boys. for example). Ignazio. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. triangulation. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. one half the length of the other). quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. . most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. the steward or treasurer of a church. It was common in Roman art. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. provenance The origins of an art work. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. a fourth = 3:4.
Donatello. In 16th century Europe. or the Jesuits. friars and nuns. the object of particular veneration. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. also known as the Realist school. in which figures are seen half round. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relic (Lat. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). and high relief (alto rilievo). in particular works by Masaccio. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectory (Med. relief (Lat. Brunelleschi. basso rilievo). the great orders of monks. Among the . refectorium) Monastic dining hall. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in which figures are almost detached from their background. hermits. or some item connected with a saint. with the Anglican Church developing in England. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relicquiae. canons regular.Quattrocento (It. e. relevare. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order.g. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Fra Angelico and others. Botticelli. Lat. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.
In 1517. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. various groups were fused in the latter body. presided over by chapters general. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. who had no overall organization originally. their resources being in the hands of trustees. which was to become the main Italian one. although technically of secular canons. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. the Conventuals. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. After the repression of the Spirituals. Bologna (1419). the great issue of contention being the strict observance. it became the Cassinese congregation. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Padua. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. The Silvestrines. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. i. and their more institutionalized brethren. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Lorenzo Giustiniani. That of S. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. the most notable being S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. however. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Giorgio in Alga. The Conventuals. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Maria di Fregonaia.contemplative orders. Bernardino of Siena. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Founded by St Romuald c. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the great patriarch of Venice. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. and the generally moderate Observants. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Venice (1404). was the congregation of S. Mantua. 1012. Giustina. The Benedictines. In 1504. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. At the same time. Lucca. Benedetto. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism.e. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. The same bull . Salvatore. S.
S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. founded by S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Filippo Neri. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Michele in Isola. The first. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Venice. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Gaetano da Thiene.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Gerolamo Aemiliani. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Angela Merici. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. however. also. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. however. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. a historical period. founded in 1535 by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the Theatines. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century.
life. the historical reality of antiquity. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of 'darkness'. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Thereafter. increasingly. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. 1875-86). and his own as potentially one of light. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. was so vast and potent. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. and competition with. because its core of energy. which had begun early in the 14th century. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. of scholarship. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). All-Roundness. as well as political. however. of arts. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. even Amoralism. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. For long. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. however. too long forgotten glories. . and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of letters.century. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. of an energetic revival of interest in.
candlesticks. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. statues. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Ghent). The challenges are to be accepted. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. let alone a uniform. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. and is decorated with paintings. of industrialization. congruence between. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. retables can be detached and. the previous record . a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.with all its shabbiness . Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. in the more limited sense. consist merely of a painting. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. etc. mobilized nationalism. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. There was an early. Cathedral of SaintBavon. sometimes. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. gratefully. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. however. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. It is for this additional. later still to Genoa. etc. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). especially in the High Gothic period.) was the term chosen. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. letters. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. (3) There is not a true.erased. though sometimes of metal. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. and mass media. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. Though thus challenged. and other liturgical objects. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance').
the St. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century.of St Mark in Venice. its mood lighthearted and witry. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. in several countries . for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. More usually. Italy. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Rococo A style of design. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Romanesque art. however. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Louis XV furniture. rocaille (French. Spain . Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. like 'Gothic'. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized.France. almost simultaneously. . Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. With the development of freestanding altars. richly decorated with organic forms. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. painting. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. "relief") In painting. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). is a typical product. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. and architecture dominating the 18th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. rilievo (It. and 'Romanesque'. As the name suggests. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. the first style to achieve such international currency. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. retables have become extinct. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Germany. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). literally.in the 11th century. Originally commissioned in 976.
such as red ochre. Q. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. the development of nationalistic pride. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. M. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. B. Claude. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Rome. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. . Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist).Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. van Heemskerk. Pannini and Mengs. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Orley. In addition. stylized design representing an open rose. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. The aim of painting. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Mabuse. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. they maintained. Piranesi. Massys and M.
The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. supported by lay confraternities.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Sacra Conversazione (It. but others were the work of well-known figures. confirmation. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. penance. pious legend and hagiography. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. matrimony.expressed through gesture. gutted.greatly increased. Orthodox. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Written primarily in ottava rima. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. the Eucharist. when it finally left the city it had devastated. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Many compositions were anonymous. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. In the . Subjects were nominally sacred. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and impoverished. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Eastern independent. glance and movement . There were no limits on time. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. holy orders. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and Lorenzo de' Medici. local saints. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and anointing of the sick. multiple sets used in succession. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Clement escaped into Castel S. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. and Protestant churches. from the Old and New Testaments. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance.
the Rocca Paolina. the symbolic direction of Christ.) Hall. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. The theology of the Orthodox Church. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. was not maintained as a sacrament. Anglican. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. replaces the Lord's Supper. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. The chief focus of discontent. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. It is still practiced on special occasions. Hence. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .e. chapter 13. The classical Protestant churches (i. Immediately following baptism. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Lutheran. baptism and the Eucharist. was buried under a new fortress. the Bentivoglio. Candidates first face west. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the sun of righteousness. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. as an excuse to revolt. Salt War. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. Thus. the Orthodox Church does not." which are called sacramentals.. used for drawing.early church the number of sacraments varied. as in the Church of the Brethren. sacraments. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. notably from Florence and in Germany. They were still seeking aid. in principle. large room. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.e. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. and then face east." sala (Ital. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. make such strict distinctions. that the price of salt should be increased. strictly speaking. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. which in the Gospel According to John. Saracens . foot washing.i. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. and sacraments. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan.
legs and horns of a goat. made of stone.During the Middle Ages. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. whose writings. 270 BC). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the Arabs or Muslims. pl. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 45 BC). The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. sarcophagi (Gk. 210 AD). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 160 . The publication of Latin (1562. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. the god of wine. are lost. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. and many others. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 360 . Little known in the Middle Ages. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. sarcophagus. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.c. satyr In Greek mythology. wood or terracotta. human-like woodland deities with the ears. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.
for. in June 1409. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. on one side. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. from time to time both he and his opponents. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Louis I (d. while England. with France and her allies Aragon. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). who recognized the Roman pope. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. scholasticism . As a result. In northern Italy. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Alexander V. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. but with little effect. 1386) and his son Ladislas. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. while devout Christians agonized. and therefore far more purely Italian princes.for example Pieter van Laer. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. most of whom. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. was called Bamboccio. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Schism. However. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.they had individual Bentnames . Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. and. one of the early leaders. on the other. being Frenchmen. than their medieval predecessors. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. the Florentines. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources.
) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Padua. As such. notably Aquinas. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. textual scholarship. if lime-water was used.The term is ambivalent. as it were. Serenissima (Ital. Christian. None the less. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. because the secco technique is much less permanent. university-based study. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy.) . rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Medieval scholars. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Often called the burning ones. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. that scholasticism was left. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. and Islamic literature. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). It was because the central concerns of humanism . were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). as it is easier to add details in this way. and theology. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.moral philosophy. moreover. on one side. history and rhetoric . (See also: fresco. the plaster had to be damped before painting.were different from those of medieval.
brass. in the period of classical antiquity. sibyls (Gk. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. and the delicate. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Signoria (It. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Originally. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Passion and Resurrection of Christ.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.. sfumato A technique. "the most serene republic of Venice"). in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. usually presided over by individual families. "prophetess") In antiquity. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. at the same time. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. there was only one Sibyl. Med. term. sibylla. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Servite (Lat. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sinopia . Lat. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in use since the Middle Ages. They first appear in alpine monasteries. In Christian legend. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. the number gradually rose to ten.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. women who could prophesy. which were all identical in thickness. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.
brand.. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. stigmata.) Wooden ceiling decoration. as the name implies. Francis of Assisi. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. especially in the flow of drapery.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). . It is very closely related to International Gothic.'Beautiful Madonnas'. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. stigma (Gk. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. Ital. soffit (Lat. pronounced as French. Stanze (Ital. sing. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. sotto in sù (It. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and. in other words. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. staffage This word. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. "mark. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.
This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The vogue for the Sublime.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Indeed. with that for the Picturesque. studioli (It. both external and internal.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. John Milton. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studiolo. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. In a looser sense. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. supremacy . helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. pl.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. whose verses actually fabrications . stucco A type of light.
Salviati and Allori. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. his own headquarters. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. then being replaced by oil paint. doubtless.e. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.Historically. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. tempera (Lat. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. i. chiefly from Flanders. . and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. But the Italians did not make them. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua.and. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. both for panel painting and fresco. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. These were imported. 1407). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. The subject is underexplored. or cartoons. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. was being decorated with frescoes. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. into Italy. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . and in literature. temperare. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England.
"round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topia. walls. tondi (It. topoi (Gk. model. widely used form. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "a commonplace") In literature. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. terraferma (Ital. and other surfaces. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. triumphal arch. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and profile. figure of speech.terracotta (It. topos. Trajan's Column . "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. theme or motif. i. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "fields. and later to subdivide gable ends. vessels.e. and sculptures. quarter face. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). pl. pl. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tondo. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topiary (Gk. in art. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony.
most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. beside it the army of martyrs. tryptychos. the military triumph became sublimated. triptych (Gk. Early triptychs were often portable. into a number of less controversial forms. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.' Before it go the apostles. after 'a countless number of virgins. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court).poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. a car so brave'. of virtues and of the arts. the Son and the Holy Spirit. time and eternity. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. behind it. death. chastity. "threefold") in Christianity. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. as it were. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. usually an altarpiece. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Trinity (Lat. Battista Sforza. patriarchs and prophets. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the wars by which they were won . or wings. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . . fame. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. added to the glamour of the triumph. of both sexes'.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Meanwhile. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. trinitas. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Disseminated soon after his death. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. "threefold") A painting in three sections.
Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tympanum (Lat. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. it is usually decorated with carvings. It incorporates Renaissance features. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. typology . viscous black ink. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. enclosed by an arch.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. In medieval architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. through various naturalistic devices. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Dating from classical times. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tusche A thick. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. first recorded in 1232. often decorated with sculptures. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "drum") In classical architecture. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tromp l'oeil (Fr.
e. U uomo universale (It. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. killer of Holofernes. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).Dirck van Baburen (c. were popular with them also. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. knew his former patrons. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.g.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and David. lanterns. In Christian thought. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.A system of classification. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Judith. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. The numerous candles. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Their subjects are frequently religious ones. . especially his half-length figural groups.) The Renaissance "universal man". which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. 1590-1624). and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. slayer of Goliath. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. each had access to his paintings. 1610). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). such as five works devoted to the senses. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . where they were most accessible.
it was used to decorate furniture. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the rib vault. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified.). painting at both the Dutch and English courts. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Parisian craftsmen. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. V vanishing point In perspective. There are a wide range of forms. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. the groin vault. often gold. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. hour-glasses and clocks. Also varietas (Lat. carriages. Vespers (Lat. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. guttering candles. vanitas (Lat. vesper. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. overturned vessels. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. snuff boxes and other objects. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. varietà (It. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. "evening") . Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. a work's richness of subject matter. mixed in. formed when two barrel vaults intersect.
the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. 'Assume a virtue. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. vimperga Of German origin. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. actual or latent. vite (Lat. Envy. Gluttony. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. In ancient Roman dwellings. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. the church service at which these prayers are said. for example. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Hope. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. vestibulum.Prayers said in the evening. and Justice. in which the word signifies efficacy. if you have it not'. pl. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Covetousness. Lust. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Anger. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Fortitude. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Temperance. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). "not exposed to winds". to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. vita. and Sloth. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Prudence. virtù could be used. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. "life") . Charity. Vestibule (Lat.
Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and of Ferrara. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Marcus (1st cent. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1472. protection from harm. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454.g. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. published in 1550 and 1568. or recovery from illness has been made. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. a biography. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. those of Volterera.An account of someone's life and work. The wars from 1494 do. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. in fact. and appalled recognition of. Vitruvius Pollio. usually when a prayer for good fortune. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. Sculptors and Architects"). 1482-84). 1478-80. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. they were from the 18th century . 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
usually restorers. . Westwerk German word. gallery. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "world view") A comprehensive world view. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. woodcut A print made from a wood block. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. usually linear. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. a philosophy of life. based on stylization of various animal forms. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. treasury or a place where justice was administered.Weltanschauung (Gr. during its subsequent history. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. pompous on the floor above. "Western work of art". but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. It was intended to have a variety of functions.
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