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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
In Greek and Roman literature. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. The adjective is apsidal. arcus. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.e. Lancet and Tudor. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Also known as an exedra. design. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. which is fused to the plate by heating. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the darker the tone). and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. including Goya. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines.A semicircular projection. or organization. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. architrave (It. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. at the east end of a church behind the altar. "architectural") Relating to structure. There are several variants of the technique. and Rouault. but in essence the process is as follows. arcade (Lat. . Picasso. Degas. roofed with a half-dome. piers or pillars. the lowest part of the entablature). arkhitektonikos. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. the moulding around a window or door. architectonic (Gk. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i.
"begin. "golden.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. voltus.and the Comedy . attributum. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. dominate. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.archivolt (Ital. aureolus. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Dante's Vita nuova . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. aureole (Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. In the case of martyrs. archivolto. archeiu. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death." from Gk. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Ars Moriendi (Lat. usually a saint. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "front arch. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated." and Lat. attribute (Lat.
Bambocciati Group of relatively small. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). who had been residing in France since 1305. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). often anecdotal. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. baldachin. applied to the physically . which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The actual move was made in 1309. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. that of Cardano. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. the god of wine and fertility. or baldacchino (It. paintings of everyday life. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Later. 'Captivity'. in 1377. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Six pontificates later.
Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Pentecost. Florence. el Kantara. Spalato [Split. Baalbek. Lebanon. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. such as those at Pisa. Customarily. the Temple of Venus. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels.g. France. pope between 432 and 440. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. built by Sixtus III. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts.. or forecourt. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. and Nocera in Italy. or connected with. banderole (It. a church. . Alg. Croatia]. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Parma. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. beggars in rags. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. As eight follows the "complete" number. and Epiphany.. AD 300). Easter. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and abject filthy things. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. seven. The baptismal font was usually octagonal." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. or canopy. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. banderuola. a visual metaphor for the number eight. set beneath a domical ciborium. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. a baptistery was roofed with a dome.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). AD 273. and Poitiers. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches.
and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Baroque (Port. stoa basilike. southeast of Paris. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1811-1889). In architecture. usually facing east. the dramatic use of light and shadow. in its usual location near the church door . Vermeer). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). basilica (Gk. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. were often omitted entirely. 1796-1875). achieved through scale. and (3) everyday realism. which is reserved for the clergy. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Jules Dupré (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu.In the 10th century. . Théodore Rousseau (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1814-1875). something of earlier symbolism survives. or baptismal chapels. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. barocco. however. Constant Troyon (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). "king's hall") a church building. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Also tunnel vault. Jean-François Millet (French. and thus a church. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1807-1876). in the 1840s and 1850s. 1810-1865). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1817-1878). Originally. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display.an allusion to entering the Christian life. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Rubens). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. baptisteries.
like their Dutch counterparts. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. domesticity. The term was mainly used up to c. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. By association. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Biscuit porcelain. up until the mid-17th century. also incorrectly called bisque.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. 1650 in Spain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. however. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. such as those by Diego Velázquez. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. and often sentimentality. such as Waldmüller. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. or which is to be left as it is. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. were referred to by their specific contents. particularly porcelain. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). which is either not yet glazed. bodegón Image. There were. as is to be expected. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Book of Hours . Spanish still-lifes.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. often with food and drink. Bodegónes. It takes its name from its grainy texture. in which still-life predominates. especially Spanish.
but can also be used for painted sketches. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. made as a study for a larger picture. though these are more often called 'modelli'. and the fact that it is easily workable . a rapid sketch in oil. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. durability. varying from silverish to a rich. months. . usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. Chantilly). illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. By extension. coppery red. bozzetto(Italian.by a variety of processes.both hot and cold . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina.an advantage over marble sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bozzetto Strictly speaking. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. days of the week. or seasons. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. See flying buttress. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts.
Based largely on Roman and Greek art. and work in precious metals. manuscript illuminations. private room where works of art. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Among its most distinctive products were icons. cameo Small relief made from gems. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. notable from Syria and Egypt. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. It also served to glorify the emperor. casson. "a chest. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. camera obscura . The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. glass. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caisson (Fr. its forms highly stylized. ceramics.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). and Giotto. which was often allegorical. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. mosaics. box") In architecture. Duccio. C cabinet A small. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure.
sing. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. cantoria.) A gallery for singers or musicians. . usually in a church. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). capitellum. by the 16th century. usually decorated.Ancestor of the photographic camera. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. usually built beside or attached to a church. dating to antiquity. Portable versions were built.-N. only very rough effects will be obtainable. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. candela. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. Structurally. candlestick. usually with several branches or arms. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. pl. which was usually whitened. other materials used are cotton. The Latin name means "dark chamber. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Niepce created photography. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. which isolates the fabric from the paint. candelabrum (It. campanile Bell tower. capital (Lat. followed by smaller and even pocket models. and jute." and the earliest versions. hemp. cantorie (It. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. as an aid to drawing. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. candelabra. "candle") A large.
who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartellini In a painting. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Fortitudo (Fortitude). pl. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. New Charterhouses. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Carmelites (Lat. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the Carmelites were originally hermits. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. The order combines reclusive and community life. cartellino. cardinalis. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). and humanism. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.both Italians and artists from other countries . the date of the painting. Carthusian Order (Lat. or fresco.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartone. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartoon (It. cartouche . Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.a humorous drawing or parody. tapestry. near Grenoble. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. At the height of the Middle Ages. or a motto. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . details of the subject. In fresco painting.
An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. castello (It. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. Cascina. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. they were also used in other countries. a cathedral always faces west . caryatid (Gk. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Paolo Uccello. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. The main body. decorated with gilt gesso. and swags of fruit and flowers. palace. linen. cathedral (cathedra. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. For reasons lost to time and tradition. cassone (It. They contained the bride's clothes. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.toward the setting sun. where the throne of the bishop is placed. or nave. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and many other items of her dowry. putti (cupids). A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. The altar is placed at the east end. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. or arms of the cross. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. These lead up to the north and south transepts. . battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. In the 15th century. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno.) "castle". when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest.
and perspicere. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. in accordance with their distance from the observer. a throne bearer of the deity. and Islamic literature. or birdlike characteristics. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. landscapes. "in the centre". Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. . It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Christian. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. rather than intercessory functions. Both the statement of St. Relative to the observer. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. centralis. central perspective (Lat. as celestial attendants of God. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. animal. buildings and figures that are being depicted. continually praise him. champlevé (Fr. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. a celestial winged being with human. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.
Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. the Order of the Hospital of St. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. or for choral singing." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. North of the Alps. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. replacing tempera. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20).chiaroscuro (It. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. "light dark") In painting. choros. Hans Burgkmair (1510). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. choir (Gk. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. Lastly. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. Since Carolingian times. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). notably Lucas Cranach (1506). the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. reserved for the clergy to pray together.
The Transparente (completed 1732). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. The Mexico cathedral (1718). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Sculpted clouds.intersect). seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. reversed volutes. further enriching the style. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Very few still exist in their original positions. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and repetition of pattern. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. stucco shells. undulating cornices. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. balustrades. is as typically Churrigueresque. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and garlands. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. undulating lines. an architect. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. a massing of carved angels. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. ciborium . and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. became the most common motif. and the Churrigueresque column. gilded rays.
none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. placing one of their members. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Quattrocento (1400s. the lower classes forcibly took over the government.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. as also were those in the associated. but self-employed. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Their economic condition worsened. craft of dyeing. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. or achieve political representation. etc. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. ciompi. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. controlled by the minor guilds. including the ciompi. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. combers. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Then. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. the wool carder Michele di Lando. In reaction to this revolutionary .and post-medieval Italy. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. who were raised to the status of a guild. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. on July 22. The new government. High Renaissance). Members of the lower classes. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Without being members of a guild. beaters.
cithara (Gk. resembling a lyre. writers. literature. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. and politics. however. . in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). philosophy and art . scholars patiently finding. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. except in cases where . cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). Concepts of the classical. clair-obscur (Fr.episode. In the 15th century Greek literature. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. on which strings were plucked. changed greatly from one period to the next. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. editing and translating a wide range of texts.) An ancient musical instrument.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. philosophy. with Italian scholars. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.as in Italy these were dispensed with. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. the ciompi guild was abolished. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. the black contours usually with a special line plate.
sing. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. concetti (It. compline (Lat. pl. Coffered ceilings. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. those with refined tastes. literature or music. terrorized the country. arch or ceiling. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. concetto. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. or "contract. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. as well as from the Bible. intensify one another. cognoscenti. condottiere. cognoscente (It. a work's underlying theme. pl. blue and orange. [hora] completa. . the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. the church service at which these prayers are said. occasionally made of wood. when set side by side. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. The name was derived from the condotta. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. Green and red. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). condottieri (It.
e. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. in Venice. i. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. . and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. often called compagnie or.devastating Romagna. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. By the 16th century. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. scuole. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. clergy. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. flagellant confraternities. convents of convertite. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour.e. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. and German--the condottieri. in the service of Naples. often under the direction of. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. who won control of Milan in 1450. i. commonly called either Compagnia di S. confraternities Confraternities. Mark (1432). were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Carmagnola. in the service of Perugia. Toward the end of the 15th century. Umbria. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. By the end of the 14th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. disappeared. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Francesco Sforza. or with the spiritual assistance of. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Muzio's son. which spread in the 15th century. Martino). who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. primarily for syphilitics. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Spanish. and Tuscany. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. With no goal beyond personal gain.
and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. but sometimes had their own premises. Later. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.g. Confraternities. notwithstanding their location. and refuges for maidens. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). founded c. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. In medieval painting. e. in Florence. flat outlines. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the Florentine Neri. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. while the Venetian government. however. While the Doge ranked above the Council. e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. reformed prostitutes. contour. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. 1514 in S. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. contours were initially regular. Dorotea in Trastevere. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. contrapposto (It.e. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. contour (Fr. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love.i. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role.g. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. which accompanied condemned prisoners.
Lat. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. did not achieve any lasting results. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. a bracket of stone. They are often ornamented. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. corbel In architecture. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. conventicle (Lat. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. 1100 and 1300. large cornice or other feature. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. an engraving produced in this way. started the process of inner reform in the Church. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. declining moral standards. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. 1280). . Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. The style spread as far as England.weight on one leg. Reform programs. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. cuprum. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. aes cyprium. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. whose names are inscribed on several works. conventiculurn. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist.
could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Constantine the Great. the condemned man. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. There were various methods of performing the execution. Death. or "scourged. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. the most famous victim of crucifixion.e. Jews. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. reedy sound. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. cupola (Lat. i. An ancestor of the oboe. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. cupula. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. "small vat") In architecture. Carthaginians. D dado . Usually. after being whipped. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Seleucids. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. a small dome. a semi-circular vault. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Next. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. the first Christian emperor. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. particularly among the Persians. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.
danse macabre The dance of death. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. "drawing. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. e. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Gk. and Linz possessed common characteristics. which was help to be the basis of all art. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. design") In Renaissance art theory. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. often an altarpiece. usually in matching pairs. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. diptych (Lat. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. disegno (It. Anglican and Orthodox churches. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Passau. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. The term stresses not the literal drawing. an expressive use of nature. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. deacon (Gk. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities.g. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diakonos. Deësis (Gk. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. decorated diffrently from the upper section. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. diptychum. Germany. a favorite late medieval picture subject. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). diptychos. but the concept behind an art work.
Thomas Aquinas. The studio easel. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. distemper (Lat. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. dome in architecture. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. donor (Lat. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. formerly worn under armour. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Dominicans (Lat. though a few artists. distemperare. is a heavy piece of furniture. also used it on canvas. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. a 19th-century invention. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). "to mix. As disegno appeals to the intellect. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. doublet A male garment. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. which runs on castors or wheels. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . donator. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. when painters took to working out of doors. such as we still use today.fully realize. Ordo Praedictatorum. usually forming a ceiling or roof.
Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. fresco. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. Hence. ensemble (Fr. and logos. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. a depiction of Jesus. eschatology (Gk. in art. full face. "last". a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "word") . Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. It consists of the architrave. and architecture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. and the cornice. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. eschaton. John (19. epitaph (Gk. entablature In classical architecture. sculpture. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. bound and flogged. sometimes combining panel painting.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. en face In portraiture. Ecce Homo (Lat. the frieze. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds.
It developed in France in the early 16th century. protector of shepherds. Jerome. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and Scandinavia. fields and livestock. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. particularly ware made in France. Augustine. Germany. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Eucharist (Gk. which was famous for maiolica. and of the last things. Marcantonio Flaminio. which is called "delftware. "good. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Vittoria Colonna. Saints Ambrose. Contarini.death and resurrection. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. farmers. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Italy. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church." and charis. which is called "maiolica. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. eu. and is named for Faenza. 4500 BCE. celebrated with bread and wine. Giovanni Morone. Spain. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. notably Cardinal Pole. . "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which was developed in the Near East ca. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Equated with the Greek god Pan.
Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Their attributes are the bow. fresco (It. a swag. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Committed to charitable and missionary work. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. frescos in Italy . black and dun. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. such as plague. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. and these areas. a technique known as a secco fresco. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. fluted of a column or pillar. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. war. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). 2 . relaxed. leaves. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance.festoni (It. Only a small area can be painted in a day.8). they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. famine and death. that of the others red. sword and set of balances. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. can in time be seen. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. The colour of his horse is white. and flowers suspended in a loop. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. drying to a slightly different tint.
just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. genre In a broad sense. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. covings and ceilings. Final details. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . for example. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. landscape and portraiture. or fresco secco. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. The technique of buon fresco. the intonaco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art.Save in Venice. both in churches and in private and public palaces. are genres of painting. Genius in classical Rome. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. a person's invisible tutelary god. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. where the atmosphere was too damp. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or true fresco. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. In art from the classical period onwards. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. usually childish figure.
gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. whether it must be connected with the public good. as well as writers and artists. and as spurring on men of action. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Gobelins . Bernardo Daddi. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Maso di Banco. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. in portraits and on tombs. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Maria Gloriosa). The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. how it differed from notoriety. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. As such. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as a formidable influence on cultural patronage.
played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. who appointed Lebrun Director. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV.French tapestry manufactory. In other Italian cities. thereafter it made only tapestries. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Golden Fleece. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. golden section (Lat. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). Paris. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. . This ratio is approximately 8:13. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. still in existence today. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. and although it reopened in 1699. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia.
Denis. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. painting. Nevertheless. the superficial particularities of form. c. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. There is a transcendental quality. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. from the 13th until the 17th century. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The artistic. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and lies much deeper than. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In particular. like the cultural and commercial. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. painting. In thinking of Nicola (d.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. 1200 and c. that the effects are to be felt. Amiens. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Gothic Gothic. or the influence of one building. 1270. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. . after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. In sculpture and in painting.
known also as poster paint and designer's colour. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. are but different appellations of the same thing'. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and taste among the English. It is thinned with water for applying. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. genius. the beau idéal of the French. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Canaletto. notably in the writings of Bellori. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael.and hog-hair brushes. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. to silk. Such tours often took a year or more. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. with sable. chiefly to France. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. . The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Klee. These qualities. to white or tinted paper and card and. and Piranesi. if required. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and the great style. Dubuffet. the Netherlands. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. occasionally. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. without visible brush marks. and above all Italy. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Honey. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and Morris Graves. starch. Pannini. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.
then as now. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. usually gray. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. to Provence and Paris. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. In Florence. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. c. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. became an abiding feature of European politics. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. and Waiblingen. grisaille (Fr. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. In another sense.e. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. 1216. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. drawing and the various forms of engraving. . the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. gris. internal factions in Florence went under other names. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. however. the parties taking a multitude of local names. through central Italy. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. including text as well as illustrations. From 1266 to 1268. which had recruited most of the merchant class. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. In the context of the fine arts. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Some writers. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. after this. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. however. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. exclude drawing from this definition. brother of Louis IX. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. After the War of the Eight Saints.
In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. print or painting. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In some cities. or professions. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and provided assistance to members in need. trades. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. Guilds were also patrons of art." from Fr. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. héraut. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. notably Florence in the 14th century. heraldry (Fr. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. H hatching In a drawing. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In some towns. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In Florence. such as Brescia and Vicenza. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In 16th century Venice. goldsmiths. "[knowledge of] heraldry. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. for example. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. [science] héraldique. In Italy they go back a long way. "herald") . and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. trade or profession (painters. and greater hostility between master and man. as some did). there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guild also monitored standards of work. but in time they acquired other functions. surgeons. The guilds were not equal.
heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. indeed. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. together with brethren north of the Alps.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. from the start. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. the Cathars were an anti-church. normative for churchmen. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. as Antichrist. they were condemned in 1184.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. i. However. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The main impact of the . with the rules governing their use. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. the Waldensian. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. head of the 'carnal Church'. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. and regarded themselves as forming. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. one great missionary community. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the followers of Juan de Valdes. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. while others merged with the Waldensians. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. d. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. By contrast. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure.
the emancipation of man from God took place. hortus conclusus (Lat. In humanism. J. At the same time. Kensett. mainly in the south. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. S. Henry Inman. and. humanus. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. American painters were studying in Rome. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. George Inness. its subjects considered morally elevating. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. F. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland.movement upon the laity was in southern France. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Morse. and classical literature. humanism (Lat. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. my spouse'. Jasper Cropsey. history (usually classical history). Germany. working from 1825 to 1875. Frederick E. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . B. Thomas Cole. F. Durand. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Church. in his earlier work. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
For instance. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. In the second half of the 14th century. it denominates a kind of behaviour. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Donatallo. Veronica. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the veil of St. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Derived from classical rhetoric. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Human figures. the ability to create. the pincers. are also used in art literature. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. etc. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. invention. investiture . or of other saints. usually the donors of a work of art. inventio (It.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs.g. and the ladder. The terms court style. beautiful style. and they are also depicted on their own. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the rooster of Peter's denial. soft style. the hammer. originality. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. with many further details added. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the scourge that was used in the scourging. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread.
Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Jerome's writings. The Both brothers. and Jan Asselijn. . Both and Berchem. Andries and Jan Both. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. principally Dutch. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. of Utrecht. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Nicolaes Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. who traveled in Italy and. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Italianizers Northern artists. bathed in a golden haze. although they are usually called Romanists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Upon his return to Holland. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. generally Dutch or Flemish.
Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Legenda Aurea (Lat.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. especially one at which the Bible is read. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. lectern A reading stand or desk. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. the rite of communion is based on this.1519). Archbishop of Genoa. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. John of Jerusalem . As their military role grew. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. encouraged by the Crusades. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. liberal arts .K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Church (1826-1900). geometry. through the use of aerial perspective.grammar. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. John F. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. its roof supported by columns. painting or sculptural decoration. the quadrivium. that may contain a window. first the preparatory trivium . and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.g. astronomy and music. together with identifying attributes (e. . comprising arithmetic. Kensett (1816-1872). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. a semicircular space. poetic atmosphere. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. rhetoric and dialectic.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Pythagoras for arithmetic. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. and Frederick E. Maria Novella in Florence). Heade (1819-1904). that could be used for public ceremonies. It is related to. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). lunette (Fr. often sublime. "little moon") In architecture. loggia (It. commemorating a marriage. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.g.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Tubal for music). often standing in markets and town squares.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Martin J. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. then the basis of a philosophical training.
When white is used for painting. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. and however bright their lighting effects. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Specifically. antimony yellow. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. mandorla (It. and accompaniments. the goddess Cybele. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. and portraits as well as landscapes. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. particularly such ware produced in Italy. madrigal A part song. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). magna mater (Lat. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. "great mother") A mother goddess. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. "almond") . and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. and iron red. being written. for example. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. but they painted genre scenes. manganese purple. historical subjects. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. originating in Italy in the 14th century. 1855–65. usually for the lute. originally sung without accompaniment. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). active mainly in Florence c. copper green. Silvestro Lega (1826–95).
Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. which was quarried at Mount . and literary texts. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. ecclesiastical. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. mantle An overcoat. depending on the social class of the wearer. often ornamented with decorative borders. It reached to the knee or foot. and crowned with thorns. the hand-written medieval book. maniera. Parmigianino. more strictly. "manner. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. El Greco and Tintoretto. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Mannerism (It. bound. worn open. illuminated initials and miniatures. complex and crowded compositions. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. in a specific sense. Bronzino. strong.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. marked by flagellation. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Flanders. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. the Codex manuscriptus. Burgundy. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. In architecture. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Developing out of the Renaissance. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. In Mannerist painting.
particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. which were beginning to be reverently collected. a different design on the reverse. marmi finti (It. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Like the finest Imperial coins. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Carrara. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. an inscription running round the rim. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. quarried at Massa. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. The pure white Carrara marble. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. martyrion. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medallion In architecture. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by Michelangelo. having finished his training. sleek surface. the medal's purpose was commemorative. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary.Pentelicon in Attica. proof") the sufferings. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. "witness. Without monetary value. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. martyrdom (Gk. and was much favoured in the Renaissance.
hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. c. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. The process is essentially extinct today. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Medusa In Greek mythology. a Gorgon. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. in England. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. for landscapes and portraits. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. of the person portrayed on the other side. Ludwig von Siegen. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. 1425-1504). is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. no line drawing is employed. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. This yields a soft effect in the print. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. 1452-1526/27). Her head features on Minerva's shield. It was. In pure mezzotint. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. even grain. the stress on individual character. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. 1640. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. The work of these men.round the neck. . Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. who reflected them. 14601528). L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. perhaps oddly. as it were. and of the many. particularly. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 1467-688). c. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. When Perseus cuts off her head. often anonymous. A Dutch officer.
1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. pointed headdress worn by bishops. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. "one color") Painted in a single color. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. Parmigianino (d. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. painting in gouache on vellum or card. monochrome (Gk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Many such small versions. monokhromatos. by Tiepolo and Rubens. executed on a very small scale.g. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. motto (Ital. ink and paint. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. usually portraits. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Francis himself. saying") . "word. still exist. e. a branch of the Franciscan order. a painting executed in a single color. miter A high.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. often quite highly finished.
Rome. and Casino Massimo. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and two other members moved to Rome. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. named after the patron saint of painting. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). In 1810 0verbeck. Pforr. navis. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. . In general. 1816-17. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Isidore. The invention of personal mottos. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. but often insipid. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. often separated from it by pillars. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins.from the Middle Ages. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and is intersected by the transept. nave (from Lat. Berlin. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. naturalism (Fr. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Nazarenes A group of young. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. 1817-29).
but their ideas continued to be influential. nigellus. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Nymphaeum (Gk. were usually old when elected. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.) . But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. niello (Lat. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Popes. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. moreover. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. nimbus (Lat. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. is as true as it is notorious. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the style of the Ancien Régime. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. "aureole") The disc or halo. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. usually golden. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.
orders of architecture In classical architecture. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. a more elaborate base. . the three basic styles of design. walnut. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. fluted column and a plain capital. was the simplest. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. "services. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. or poppy. the Doric order. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. such as linseed. capital. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). They are seen in the form of the columns. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. O obsequies (Lat. inborn sin. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and entablatures. with a sturdy. obsequia. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. its richness of colour. a small private chapel.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The earliest. Greek goddesses of Nature. and its greater tonal range.
and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. standing at the foot of the Cross. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Usually pointed or rounded at the top.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Palazzo Strozzi). palazzo (It. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. with biforate windows. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). P pala (Ital. the Cancelleria). 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. and. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. tradition and social structure.g. while shops came to be thought undignified.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. like cities. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). and the main apartments above. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. designed as a . The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes.
cornices and abutments. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. like Genoa. Rich. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy.scholarly retreat. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. column-caps. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). evolved influential types. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Palazzo Massimi). came to be applied all over Europe. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Movement of patrons and architects. Other cities.g. and large households. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. often built next to their titular churches. panel . and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). palmette. Papal incentives to build. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. In Venice. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and Palladio's in Vicenza. e. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). behind a sober Florentine façade.g. especially after the Sack of Rome. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). originally evolved in response to specific conditions. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". like the colonnaded vestibule. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Following Oriental patterns. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified.
To maintain their authority.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Having a circular plan.Term in painting for a support of wood. olive. to influence popes in their favour. or the incidence of taxation. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. teak. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. so that they might have a voice at court. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and modern painters have also used plywood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. linden. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. slate has occasionally been used as a support. the management of clerical dues and taxation. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and walnut. enforce law and order. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Many other types were used. the. In the 20th century cedar. as distinct from canvas. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. chestnut. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. as it were. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. The third aspect was administrative. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and spanned by a single dome. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and the pressure and temptations . and dark walnut are favourites. or other rigid substance. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. and other synthetic materials as supports. secular rulers. including beech. Then. however. cedar. A number of matters. metal. fir. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. On a larger scale. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. larch. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). mahogany. fibre-board. As successors to St Peter.
further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. By then. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). was long in doubt. in spite of further absences from Rome. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. considered perfectly suitable for the role played .base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. at Avignon.as well. which met at Constance 1414-18. however. to be long delayed. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. could supersede that of a pope. possess an authority which. if it did no serious damage to the faith. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. the most appropriate . building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. of individuals. It was argued that such a council. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. in the eyes of God. from the point of view of its religious associations. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. As at Avignon. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. as such. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. however. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. Colonna and Caetani. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was.that could be applied to them. To resolve the problem of divided authority. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. would. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. however. So onerous. which seems so inevitable. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. There remained. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'.
It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. in classical literature. pastor. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). as well as a governmental one. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Parrhasius (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. through lavish patronage of artists. it has also been used for painting. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and other animals.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. nymphs. and with Zeuxis (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. However. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. pastoral (Lat. less frequently pig. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. goat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Passion . The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. to a world peopled by shepherds. the creation of a cultural capital. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. scholars and men of letters. and satyrs. 400-300 BC). leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life..
a small. Francesco Salviati. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario.) or pasticcio (It. pastiche (fr. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. 1478).The events leading up to Good Friday. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. and also the archbishop of Pisa. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. which focus on the Suffering Christ. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. a prominent section of a monumental façade. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. a region in north-central Italy. ornamental building. pavilion (Lat. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. "butterfly. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. . patricius. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. papilio. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Meanwhile. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. patrician (Lat. the crown of thorns. 1478. but not necessarily a direct copy. Portrayals of the Passion. hence tent") A lightly constructed. and so on. projecting either centrally or at both ends. such as a garden summerhouse. wealthy citizen. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.
Peace of Augsburg A treaty. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. perspective (Lat. pendant (Fr. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. and gnomon. "hanging. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "to see through. physiognomy (Gk. "nature". in particular the face. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. persona. pergola (It. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. personification (Lat. perspicere. physis.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "person".) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. . and facere. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. concept or deity. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. or related elements within an art work.
Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. containing the public rooms. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Rome.piano nobile (Ital. exemplified. pigment (Lat. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. A pier is generally larger than a column. Peter's. affording a good subject for a landscape. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. for example. usually above the ground floor. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil.) The main floor of a building. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. remarkable for singularity. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. glue. proper to take a landscape from. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. both real and painted. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. or resin to make paint. to be expressed in painting. but full of variety. pigmentum. . much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. curious details.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. but may consist of a cluster of columns. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Pietà (Lat.
moreover. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague.pilaster (Lat. also used in Spain's American colonies. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. such as Florence and Genoa. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. it is difficult to find. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. in October 1347. however. In the 15th century. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. During 1348 the Black Death. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Thenceforward. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. and thereafter all Europe. a shaft. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. perhaps. outside Tuscany. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. It is often fluted. it has a base. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. plague Plague. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. more sporadic outbreaks. the burning of 'infected' clothing. despite regional variations. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Rocco and Sebastian. and capital. though in less widespread. For this reason. "pillar") A flat. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). since. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. pilastrum. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. for instance. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. It seems probable. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like).
In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. The second phase. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Diego evolved a purer. or simply the Plateresque. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. and unified style using massive geometric forms. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale.. harmonious. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. which lasted only a few decades. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Timaeus. are the masterworks of the second style. The first phase. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. the Symposium. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle.e. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . utilized Mudejar ornament -. In contrast with Aristotle. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Renaissance-Plateresque. or appropriateness. heraldic escutcheons. placement. i. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Philebus. correct classical orders became frequent. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Phaedrus. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. and sinuous scrolls. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. more severe. Theatetus and the Laws. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. like its successor. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. composition. The first phase. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Phaedo. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. A student of Socrates. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.
the translations of Louis Le Roy (d.in Plato's thought. Iamblichus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. but not completely. and he utilized many other writings. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. and Agostino Steuco (c. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. near Florence. Rather unsystematic. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. systematized and added to what Plato had done. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century.1577) becoming particularly popular. Unlike the case of Aristotle. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. the greatest of his ancient disciples. replaced Ficino's. partially. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. A new Latin translation. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Plotinus. including those of Plotinus. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1472-c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. and the Chaldaic Oracles. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). all of which he also translated into Latin. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists.
such as processions and consecrations. plinth (Gk. Plato was read in the universities. where a pectoral is used to close it. as in classical architecture). Lat. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pointed arch In architecture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. column. pluviale. pluvial (Med. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. portico (Lat. poluptukhos. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. or statue. polyptych (Gk. plinthos. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . porticus. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks.
Group portraits.. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Desiderio da Settignano. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Florence (1486-90). and the . Campidoglio). Palazzo Farnese). was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The equestrian portrait. Florence. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. inessential. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. 1328. Colleoni. and only a decorative accessory to form. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.e. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Siena. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Maria Novella. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Venice). pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. decorating whole rooms. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. psychologically more complex. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The realism of the clear. Mantua. was revived in the 14th century. flattened image. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799.sculptors such as Donatello. National Gallery). Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Gattarnelata. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. the Carracci. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Cathedral) by Uccello. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.
Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. was versed in classical and patristic . the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Savonarola and Musso. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. abrasive even. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. who had as their ideal masters Titian. from the secular clergy. together with the Dominican Savonarola. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. bishop of Chioggia. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Borromeo. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Fiamma's sermons. Correggio. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. primarily the mendicants. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The styles of S. bishop of Asti. to discharge their preaching duties. 1494). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. of the sermon as an art form. several of whom became bishops. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. and. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The sermons of Visdomini. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. are not florid in style. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. and Peter Paul Rubens. minatory exhortations. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishops especially. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Charles Le Brun. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. however.
they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. The New Testament references in these would. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.rhetoric. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. tapestries. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.g. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. prefiguration Typology . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Because of the small size of predelle . the temptations of Adam and Christ. and so forth. predella (It. though often relatively very wide . however. among them Holman Hunt. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Naples).the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Millais and Rossetti. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.
The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. again indicative of the purpose they served. Girardon. 3. which uses the square . The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Prix de Rome A scholarship. Fragonard. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The following are important: 1. proportio. "evenness") in painting. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. the Canon of Proportion. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. the golden section. these highly finished drawings. projecting shelf on which to kneel. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. profil perdu (Fr. proportion (Lat. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. sculpture and architecture. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. and Houdon among sculptors. 2. notably David. the quadrature.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy.
Unlike Pozzo. Rome. It was common in Roman art. the steward or treasurer of a church. a fifth = 2:3. 4. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Ignazio. for example). They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). the history of a work's ownership since its creation. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. triangulation. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. and 5. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. putti sing. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. one half the length of the other). for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. harmonic proportions. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction.as a unit of measurement. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. putto (It. provenance The origins of an art work. "boys") Plump naked little boys. a fourth = 3:4. . and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy.
Brunelleschi. and high relief (alto rilievo). refectorium) Monastic dining hall.g. relic (Lat. Donatello. relief (Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). basso rilievo). Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the . In 16th century Europe. refectory (Med. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Fra Angelico and others. Botticelli. canons regular. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. or some item connected with a saint. relevare. Lat. in particular works by Masaccio. the great orders of monks. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. also known as the Realist school. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order.Quattrocento (It. relicquiae. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. in which figures are almost detached from their background. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). in which figures are seen half round. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. with the Anglican Church developing in England. friars and nuns. or the Jesuits. hermits. e. the object of particular veneration. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message.
having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Padua. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. was the congregation of S. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Mantua. which was to become the main Italian one. Giorgio in Alga. At the same time. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. The same bull . the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. That of S. Salvatore. In 1504. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. the great patriarch of Venice. various groups were fused in the latter body. The Benedictines. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Maria di Fregonaia. and the generally moderate Observants. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Silvestrines. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. although technically of secular canons. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Bologna (1419). with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Venice (1404). 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Founded by St Romuald c. After the repression of the Spirituals. presided over by chapters general. 1012. i. however. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Conventuals. the Conventuals. the most notable being S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. and their more institutionalized brethren.e. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Lucca. who had no overall organization originally. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Benedetto. S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.contemplative orders. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Giustina. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. In 1517. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. it became the Cassinese congregation. Bernardino of Siena.
this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. however. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Other orders of Friars were the Minims. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. a historical period. founded in 1535 by S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. the Theatines. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The first. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Gerolamo Aemiliani. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. founded by S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. S. Michele in Isola. also. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Filippo Neri. Angela Merici. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Gaetano da Thiene. Venice. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. however. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology.
a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. even Amoralism. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Thereafter. however. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). too long forgotten glories. and competition with. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. . man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). For long. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of 'darkness'. of letters. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. the historical reality of antiquity. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. increasingly. life. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of an energetic revival of interest in. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. All-Roundness. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. however. and his own as potentially one of light. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. of arts. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. because its core of energy. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. of scholarship. 1875-86). which had begun early in the 14th century.century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. was so vast and potent. as well as political.
in the more limited sense. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. let alone a uniform. retables can be detached and. consist merely of a painting. There was an early. Cathedral of SaintBavon. however. mobilized nationalism. Though thus challenged. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . The challenges are to be accepted. of industrialization. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. congruence between. sometimes. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck.with all its shabbiness . statues. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject.erased. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. etc. (3) There is not a true. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism.) was the term chosen. It is for this additional. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. and other liturgical objects. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. etc. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. candlesticks. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Ghent). It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. and is decorated with paintings. the previous record . Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. and mass media. gratefully. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. though sometimes of metal. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. letters. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). especially in the High Gothic period. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. later still to Genoa. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.
The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. As the name suggests. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.in the 11th century. literally. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. almost simultaneously. Rococo A style of design. "relief") In painting. and 'Romanesque'. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. . Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). the St. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated.of St Mark in Venice. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Spain . painting. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. however. like 'Gothic'. Originally commissioned in 976. and architecture dominating the 18th century. More usually. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. in several countries . it indicates a derivation from Roman art. retables have become extinct. its mood lighthearted and witry. With the development of freestanding altars. Italy. rilievo (It. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale.France. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. richly decorated with organic forms. rocaille (French. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque art. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Germany. Louis XV furniture. is a typical product. the first style to achieve such international currency.
such as red ochre. M. Claude. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Rome. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. B. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Pannini and Mengs. The aim of painting. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Q. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). van Heemskerk. Piranesi. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Massys and M. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Mabuse. . In addition. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. van Orley. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. they maintained. stylized design representing an open rose. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the development of nationalistic pride. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator.
S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. and Lorenzo de' Medici. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Orthodox. Clement escaped into Castel S. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Subjects were nominally sacred. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Many compositions were anonymous. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Written primarily in ottava rima. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. There were no limits on time. and anointing of the sick. when it finally left the city it had devastated. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Eastern independent. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. supported by lay confraternities. penance. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. and impoverished. Sacra Conversazione (It. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). holy orders. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. confirmation.greatly increased. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. matrimony. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. and Protestant churches. from the Old and New Testaments.expressed through gesture. gutted. In the . local saints. the Eucharist. pious legend and hagiography. glance and movement . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. but others were the work of well-known figures. multiple sets used in succession. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism.
Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. It is still practiced on special occasions. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. and then face east..e. as in the Church of the Brethren. that the price of salt should be increased. as an excuse to revolt. Hence. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Bentivoglio. large room. was not maintained as a sacrament. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. They were still seeking aid. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Thus. the Orthodox Church does not. replaces the Lord's Supper. foot washing. and sacraments. notably from Florence and in Germany.e. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Candidates first face west. make such strict distinctions. the sun of righteousness. The chief focus of discontent. chapter 13. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. was buried under a new fortress.) Hall. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Anglican. the symbolic direction of Christ. Immediately following baptism. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. in principle. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. The classical Protestant churches (i. Saracens . The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. used for drawing. Salt War. the Rocca Paolina. baptism and the Eucharist. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.." sala (Ital.early church the number of sacraments varied.i. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. Lutheran." which are called sacramentals. sacraments. which in the Gospel According to John. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. strictly speaking. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.
160 .During the Middle Ages. whose writings. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the Arabs or Muslims. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. satyr In Greek mythology. Little known in the Middle Ages. are lost. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). sarcophagus. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c.c. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 210 AD). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. human-like woodland deities with the ears. wood or terracotta. and many others. The publication of Latin (1562. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 270 BC). 45 BC). legs and horns of a goat. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. the god of wine. made of stone. 360 . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. pl. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. sarcophagi (Gk. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available.c.
the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. one of the early leaders. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. However. being Frenchmen. In northern Italy. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. on the other. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. who had the support of the Avignon pope. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Alexander V. but with little effect. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. with France and her allies Aragon. Louis I (d. Schism. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. from time to time both he and his opponents. As a result. than their medieval predecessors. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who recognized the Roman pope. and. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy.they had individual Bentnames . on one side. 1386) and his son Ladislas. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. the Florentines. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404).for example Pieter van Laer. while England. while devout Christians agonized. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. scholasticism . having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Charles III of Durazzo (d. most of whom. for. was called Bamboccio. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. in June 1409.
university-based study. the plaster had to be damped before painting. (See also: fresco. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. because the secco technique is much less permanent. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. on one side. notably Aquinas. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.moral philosophy. as it is easier to add details in this way. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Padua. Medieval scholars. and theology. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. as it were. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Serenissima (Ital. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). textual scholarship. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Often called the burning ones.The term is ambivalent. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. if lime-water was used. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. moreover.) . The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. As such. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.were different from those of medieval. Christian. history and rhetoric . that scholasticism was left. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. None the less. and Islamic literature. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.
silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Servite (Lat.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. and the delicate. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. brass. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Signoria (It. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sinopia .. "the most serene republic of Venice"). largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Originally. Lat. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Med. in the period of classical antiquity. the number gradually rose to ten. In Christian legend. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. usually presided over by individual families. at the same time. "prophetess") In antiquity. which were all identical in thickness. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. women who could prophesy. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in use since the Middle Ages. term. They first appear in alpine monasteries.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sibyls (Gk. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. sibylla. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. sfumato A technique. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. there was only one Sibyl.
stigmata.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. Francis of Assisi. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. It is very closely related to International Gothic. especially in the flow of drapery. and. . is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. "mark. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sing. Ital. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. as the name implies. Stanze (Ital. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint.. staffage This word. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. sotto in sù (It. soffit (Lat. stigma (Gk. pronounced as French.) Wooden ceiling decoration. brand. in other words. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .'Beautiful Madonnas'.
whose verses actually fabrications . The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In a looser sense. stucco A type of light. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. pl. studiolo. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate).were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. The vogue for the Sublime. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). both external and internal. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. supremacy . studioli (It. Indeed. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. with that for the Picturesque.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. John Milton. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.
tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. . These were imported. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. doubtless. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church.e. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.Historically. i. But the Italians did not make them. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. or cartoons. and in literature. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. was being decorated with frescoes. London. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. 1407). The subject is underexplored.and. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. into Italy. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Salviati and Allori. chiefly from Flanders. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. his own headquarters. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. both for panel painting and fresco. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. temperare. tempera (Lat. then being replaced by oil paint. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.
and other surfaces. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. topoi (Gk. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. topia. model. tondo. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Trajan's Column . in the architecture of ancient Rome. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. and profile. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and later to subdivide gable ends. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows.e. in art. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. pl. i. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. quarter face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. triumphal arch. widely used form. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. terraferma (Ital. theme or motif. pl. "fields. "a commonplace") In literature. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. walls. topos. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). tondi (It.terracotta (It. topiary (Gk. vessels. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. and sculptures. figure of speech. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.
' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. of virtues and of the arts. Disseminated soon after his death. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. beside it the army of martyrs. . Meanwhile. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. behind it. a car so brave'. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. the Son and the Holy Spirit. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. after 'a countless number of virgins. usually an altarpiece. the wars by which they were won . Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. "threefold") in Christianity. Early triptychs were often portable. "threefold") A painting in three sections. into a number of less controversial forms. chastity.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. as it were. or wings. trinitas. added to the glamour of the triumph. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. fame. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. death. triptych (Gk. time and eternity. the military triumph became sublimated. patriarchs and prophets. Trinity (Lat. of both sexes'. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Battista Sforza. tryptychos. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.' Before it go the apostles.
In medieval architecture. "drum") In classical architecture. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. through various naturalistic devices. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tusche A thick. Dating from classical times. tympanum (Lat.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. viscous black ink. enclosed by an arch. It incorporates Renaissance features. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. it is usually decorated with carvings. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). first recorded in 1232. typology . tromp l'oeil (Fr. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. often decorated with sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Tudor An obscure Welsh family.
the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. lanterns. e. were popular with them also.) The Renaissance "universal man". Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). especially his half-length figural groups. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. U uomo universale (It.Dirck van Baburen (c. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. 1610). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and David. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. knew his former patrons. 1590-1624). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.A system of classification. . such as five works devoted to the senses. Judith. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).g. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). each had access to his paintings. slayer of Goliath. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). killer of Holofernes. The numerous candles. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. In Christian thought. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. where they were most accessible. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters .
Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "evening") . and the rib vault. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. overturned vessels. vanitas (Lat. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. guttering candles. Also varietas (Lat. carriages. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Parisian craftsmen. it was used to decorate furniture. the groin vault. There are a wide range of forms. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. a work's richness of subject matter. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Vespers (Lat. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. snuff boxes and other objects. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. often gold. mixed in.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and even flowers (which will soon fade). V vanishing point In perspective. vesper.). hour-glasses and clocks. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. varietà (It. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.
actual or latent. and Justice. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Charity. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Vestibule (Lat. Covetousness. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Temperance. for example. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Gluttony. Lust. virtù could be used. Anger. vita. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. and Sloth. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. 'Assume a virtue. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. vestibulum. Hope. Envy. Fortitude. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vite (Lat. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. "life") . Prudence. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vimperga Of German origin. if you have it not'. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. in which the word signifies efficacy. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. "not exposed to winds". In ancient Roman dwellings.Prayers said in the evening.
they were from the 18th century . 1482-84). W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. or recovery from illness has been made. published in 1550 and 1568. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. a biography. 1472. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Vitruvius Pollio. 1478-80.An account of someone's life and work. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. and appalled recognition of. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. and of Ferrara. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters.g. Marcus (1st cent. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. those of Volterera. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. usually when a prayer for good fortune. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. protection from harm. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. The wars from 1494 do. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. Sculptors and Architects"). Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. in fact.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
"Western work of art". usually linear. Westwerk German word. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out.Weltanschauung (Gr. "world view") A comprehensive world view. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. pompous on the floor above. . Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. woodcut A print made from a wood block. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. during its subsequent history. a philosophy of life. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. It was intended to have a variety of functions. based on stylization of various animal forms. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. usually restorers. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. gallery. treasury or a place where justice was administered.