A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

"chiefbeam") In classical architecture. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. including Goya. Picasso. The adjective is apsidal. but in essence the process is as follows. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. "architectural") Relating to structure. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. In Greek and Roman literature. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). architectonic (Gk. and Rouault. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). or organization. at the east end of a church behind the altar. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i.A semicircular projection. the moulding around a window or door. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. the darker the tone). The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Also known as an exedra.e. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. roofed with a half-dome. design. Lancet and Tudor. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. The term applies also to a print made by this method. the lowest part of the entablature). There are several variants of the technique. arcade (Lat. arkhitektonikos. architrave (It. Degas. which is fused to the plate by heating. piers or pillars. . arcus.

"golden. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. voltus. attributum. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. aureolus. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archeiu. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "begin. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .archivolt (Ital. archivolto. attribute (Lat." and Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated." from Gk. dominate. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "front arch. Dante's Vita nuova . aureole (Lat. usually a saint. In the case of martyrs.and the Comedy .

The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. that of Cardano. applied to the physically . who had been residing in France since 1305. Later. Six pontificates later. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. or baldacchino (It. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. The actual move was made in 1309. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. often anecdotal. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. the god of wine and fertility. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. baldachin. paintings of everyday life. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. 'Captivity'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. in 1377.

g. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Easter. and Epiphany. or forecourt. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. . and Poitiers. AD 273. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. or connected with. AD 300). so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and Nocera in Italy. Pentecost.. seven. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. banderuola. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. or canopy. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. banderole (It. Croatia]. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium.. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and abject filthy things. a church. Customarily. France. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Alg. el Kantara. Lebanon. Parma. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. built by Sixtus III. set beneath a domical ciborium. beggars in rags. Baalbek. Florence. the Temple of Venus. pope between 432 and 440. Spalato [Split. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. such as those at Pisa. As eight follows the "complete" number. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small.

in the 1840s and 1850s. 1817-1878). Jules Dupré (French. Théodore Rousseau (French. . contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Also tunnel vault. basilica (Gk. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and (3) everyday realism. something of earlier symbolism survives. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Constant Troyon (French. baptisteries. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. stoa basilike. were often omitted entirely. however. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Rubens). Vermeer). 1811-1889). and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1814-1875). usually facing east. which is reserved for the clergy. "king's hall") a church building. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Jean-François Millet (French. 1810-1865).an allusion to entering the Christian life. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. southeast of Paris. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1807-1876). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1796-1875). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group.In the 10th century. and thus a church. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. In architecture. Baroque (Port. or baptismal chapels. barocco. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. achieved through scale. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. in its usual location near the church door . barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Originally.

were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. such as Waldmüller. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Bodegónes. which is either not yet glazed.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. The term was mainly used up to c. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Book of Hours . Biscuit porcelain. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. in which still-life predominates. 1650 in Spain. often with food and drink. There were. particularly porcelain. By association. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). were referred to by their specific contents. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Spanish still-lifes. bodegón Image. or which is to be left as it is. as is to be expected. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. like their Dutch counterparts. domesticity. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. also incorrectly called bisque. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. especially Spanish. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. and often sentimentality. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. It takes its name from its grainy texture. up until the mid-17th century. however.

days of the week.by a variety of processes. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. made as a study for a larger picture. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. See flying buttress. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . varying from silverish to a rich. a rapid sketch in oil. bozzetto(Italian. durability. Chantilly). often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and the fact that it is easily workable . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. or seasons. By extension.an advantage over marble sculpture.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.both hot and cold . usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. coppery red. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. months. bozzetto Strictly speaking. . but can also be used for painted sketches. though these are more often called 'modelli'.

Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. manuscript illuminations. private room where works of art. glass. mosaics. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Based largely on Roman and Greek art. notable from Syria and Egypt. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). which was often allegorical. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. and work in precious metals. "a chest. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Duccio. It also served to glorify the emperor. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cameo Small relief made from gems. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. box") In architecture. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Among its most distinctive products were icons. ceramics. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. its forms highly stylized. C cabinet A small. casson. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. and Giotto. caisson (Fr. camera obscura .

cantorie (It. "candle") A large. pl.Ancestor of the photographic camera. capital (Lat. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. followed by smaller and even pocket models. and jute. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. as an aid to drawing. Portable versions were built. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. capitellum. Niepce created photography. Structurally. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. other materials used are cotton. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. sing. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. candelabra. cantoria. candlestick. usually decorated. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. by the 16th century. candela. candelabrum (It. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy)." and the earliest versions.) A gallery for singers or musicians. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. which isolates the fabric from the paint. dating to antiquity. usually built beside or attached to a church. both of which have richly carved marble panels. . only very rough effects will be obtainable.-N. which was usually whitened. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. campanile Bell tower. hemp. usually with several branches or arms. usually in a church. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports.

were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. pl. cartone. monasteries containing separate hermitages. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. At the height of the Middle Ages. near Grenoble. Fortitudo (Fortitude). and humanism. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans.a humorous drawing or parody. the endeavour to attain true humanity. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartouche . a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. In fresco painting. The order combines reclusive and community life. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cartellini In a painting. Carmelites (Lat.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. cardinalis. New Charterhouses. or a motto. or fresco. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartoon (It. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). cartellino. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).both Italians and artists from other countries . the Carmelites were originally hermits. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Carthusian Order (Lat. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . the date of the painting. tapestry. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". details of the subject.

of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Cascina. linen. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.toward the setting sun. or nave. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and many other items of her dowry. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). In the 15th century. where the throne of the bishop is placed. palace. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. they were also used in other countries. The main body. Paolo Uccello. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. castello (It. cassone (It. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. or arms of the cross. a cathedral always faces west . the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. The altar is placed at the east end. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. They contained the bride's clothes. decorated with gilt gesso.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. These lead up to the north and south transepts. cathedral (cathedra. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. . caryatid (Gk. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and swags of fruit and flowers. For reasons lost to time and tradition. putti (cupids).) "castle".

cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. buildings and figures that are being depicted. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Both the statement of St. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. rather than intercessory functions. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Christian. a throne bearer of the deity. continually praise him. and Islamic literature. animal.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. centralis. a celestial winged being with human. in accordance with their distance from the observer. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. central perspective (Lat. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. champlevé (Fr. . The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. and perspicere. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. "in the centre". as celestial attendants of God. landscapes. or birdlike characteristics. Relative to the observer. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.

replacing tempera. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept ." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. Since Carolingian times. choir (Gk. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. "light dark") In painting. the Order of the Hospital of St. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. reserved for the clergy to pray together. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. North of the Alps. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition.chiaroscuro (It. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. Hans Burgkmair (1510). or for choral singing. choros. Lastly. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men.

In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. gilded rays. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. balustrades. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Very few still exist in their original positions. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). a massing of carved angels. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Sculpted clouds. and the Churrigueresque column. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. undulating lines. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches.intersect). In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. ciborium . most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. undulating cornices. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. reversed volutes. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. further enriching the style. stucco shells. is as typically Churrigueresque. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. became the most common motif. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The Mexico cathedral (1718). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. and garlands. an architect. and repetition of pattern. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The Transparente (completed 1732). and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758).

the wool carder Michele di Lando. combers.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. as also were those in the associated. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Then. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. or achieve political representation. The new government. Members of the lower classes. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. ciompi. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. beaters. Quattrocento (1400s. placing one of their members. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. who were raised to the status of a guild. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Their economic condition worsened. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Without being members of a guild. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. craft of dyeing. on July 22. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. including the ciompi. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them.and post-medieval Italy. etc. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. controlled by the minor guilds. High Renaissance). In reaction to this revolutionary . but self-employed.

) An ancient musical instrument. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. cithara (Gk. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). writers. In the 15th century Greek literature. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. however.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. changed greatly from one period to the next. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). on which strings were plucked. the black contours usually with a special line plate.episode. literature. scholars patiently finding. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. Concepts of the classical.as in Italy these were dispensed with. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and politics. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. clair-obscur (Fr. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. resembling a lyre. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. except in cases where . philosophy. with Italian scholars. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. . The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. philosophy and art . the ciompi guild was abolished. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.

colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. or "contract. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. terrorized the country. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. pl. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. cognoscenti. occasionally made of wood. condottiere. cognoscente (It. intensify one another. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. literature or music. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. . condottieri (It. a work's underlying theme. The name was derived from the condotta. when set side by side. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Coffered ceilings. Green and red. pl. concetti (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. sing. the church service at which these prayers are said. compline (Lat. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. concetto. arch or ceiling." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. those with refined tastes. [hora] completa. as well as from the Bible. blue and orange. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.

The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. or with the spiritual assistance of. By the 16th century. Spanish. commonly called either Compagnia di S. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. and Tuscany. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Umbria. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. By the end of the 14th century. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. confraternities Confraternities. in the service of Perugia.e. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Muzio's son. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. disappeared. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. often under the direction of. . scuole. in the service of Naples. and his rival Braccio da Montone.e. Toward the end of the 15th century. (2) Confraternite del Rosario.devastating Romagna. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. With no goal beyond personal gain. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. often called compagnie or. and German--the condottieri. primarily for syphilitics. which spread in the 15th century. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. i. clergy. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. convents of convertite. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Francesco Sforza. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. in Venice. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. flagellant confraternities. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Carmagnola. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Martino). Mark (1432). one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. i. who won control of Milan in 1450.

reformed prostitutes. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. founded c. and refuges for maidens. contour (Fr. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Later. contrapposto (It. notwithstanding their location. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. while the Venetian government. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. in Florence. contours were initially regular. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. e. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. contour. In medieval painting. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. e. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Dorotea in Trastevere. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. the highest political decision-making body in Venice.g.e. however. which accompanied condemned prisoners. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. 1514 in S. but sometimes had their own premises.g. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Confraternities.i. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. the Florentine Neri. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. flat outlines.

and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. . Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). corbel In architecture. They are often ornamented. conventicle (Lat. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Reform programs. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. 1280). In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. 1100 and 1300. executed by imported Italian craftsmen.weight on one leg. Lat. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. conventiculurn. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. declining moral standards. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. The style spread as far as England. large cornice or other feature. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. a bracket of stone. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. aes cyprium. did not achieve any lasting results. an engraving produced in this way. cuprum. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. whose names are inscribed on several works.

usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Usually. Next. cupola (Lat. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the condemned man. or "scourged. Jews. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. after being whipped. Seleucids. i. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. cupula. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. the first Christian emperor." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. reedy sound.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the most famous victim of crucifixion. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. a semi-circular vault. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.e. There were various methods of performing the execution. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. D dado . due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. An ancestor of the oboe. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Death. "small vat") In architecture. particularly among the Persians. Carthaginians. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Constantine the Great. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. a small dome.

decorated diffrently from the upper section. Anglican and Orthodox churches. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. disegno (It. but the concept behind an art work. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. often an altarpiece. Germany. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. diptychos. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. danse macabre The dance of death. diakonos. The term stresses not the literal drawing. deacon (Gk. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diptych (Lat. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. an expressive use of nature.g. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Passau. design") In Renaissance art theory. Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptychum. Deësis (Gk. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. a favorite late medieval picture subject. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. usually in matching pairs. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. e. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety.

The studio easel. usually forming a ceiling or roof. doublet A male garment. such as we still use today. dome in architecture. distemperare. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. when painters took to working out of doors. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. though a few artists. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. donor (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. is a heavy piece of furniture.Thomas Aquinas. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Ordo Praedictatorum. donator. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. distemper (Lat. Dominicans (Lat. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. which runs on castors or wheels. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. formerly worn under armour. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. "to mix. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. also used it on canvas. As disegno appeals to the intellect. a 19th-century invention. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions.fully realize.

enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. epitaph (Gk. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. fresco. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. It consists of the architrave. sometimes combining panel painting. "word") . a depiction of Jesus. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. and logos. John (19. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. bound and flogged.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. Hence. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. "last". the frieze. and the cornice. in art. sculpture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. entablature In classical architecture. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. eschaton. full face. eschatology (Gk. Ecce Homo (Lat. en face In portraiture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. and architecture. ensemble (Fr.

faun Ancient Roman god of nature. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Giovanni Morone. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. which is called "delftware. Augustine. and of the last things. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. ." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. which is called "maiolica." and charis. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and Scandinavia. 4500 BCE. Jerome. Eucharist (Gk.death and resurrection. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Contarini. and is named for Faenza. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. protector of shepherds. eu. fields and livestock. farmers. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Saints Ambrose. which was developed in the Near East ca. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. particularly ware made in France. Vittoria Colonna. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Italy. Spain. Equated with the Greek god Pan. celebrated with bread and wine. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. It developed in France in the early 16th century. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Germany.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. which was famous for maiolica. "good. Marcantonio Flaminio." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. notably Cardinal Pole.

Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Their attributes are the bow. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. can in time be seen. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. famine and death. frescos in Italy . The colour of his horse is white. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. drying to a slightly different tint. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. a technique known as a secco fresco. leaves. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. black and dun. 2 . a swag. and flowers suspended in a loop. sword and set of balances. such as plague. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. and these areas. fluted of a column or pillar. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. that of the others red. Only a small area can be painted in a day. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fresco (It.8). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. war. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Committed to charitable and missionary work.festoni (It. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. relaxed. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous.

genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. the intonaco. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The technique of buon fresco. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. genre In a broad sense. or fresco secco. or true fresco. for example. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. G Garter.Save in Venice. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . are genres of painting. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. usually childish figure. where the atmosphere was too damp. covings and ceilings. Final details. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . In art from the classical period onwards. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Genius in classical Rome. landscape and portraiture. both in churches and in private and public palaces. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. a person's invisible tutelary god.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper.

The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. As such.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. as well as writers and artists. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Maso di Banco. how it differed from notoriety. Bernardo Daddi. and as spurring on men of action. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. whether it must be connected with the public good. Maria Gloriosa). it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Gobelins . where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. in portraits and on tombs. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature.

The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV.French tapestry manufactory. In other Italian cities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. and although it reopened in 1699. golden section (Lat. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. This ratio is approximately 8:13. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. thereafter it made only tapestries. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. . the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. Golden Fleece. Paris. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. still in existence today. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). who appointed Lebrun Director. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean).

and which then spread throughout northern Europe. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. There is a transcendental quality. 1200 and c. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. In thinking of Nicola (d. and lies much deeper than. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Gothic Gothic.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. from the 13th until the 17th century. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. like the cultural and commercial. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. painting. In particular. The artistic. the superficial particularities of form. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. c. . In sculpture and in painting. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. or the influence of one building. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. 1270. that the effects are to be felt. painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. Denis. Nevertheless. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. Amiens. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification.

with sable.and hog-hair brushes. and above all Italy. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Dubuffet. Klee. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Honey. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. the beau idéal of the French. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. and Piranesi. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. starch.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. to white or tinted paper and card and. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. to silk. Pannini. These qualities. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and taste among the English. without visible brush marks. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. if required. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. occasionally. genius. and Morris Graves. the Netherlands. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. notably in the writings of Bellori. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Such tours often took a year or more. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Canaletto. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). It is thinned with water for applying. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and the great style. . The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. are but different appellations of the same thing'. chiefly to France.

grisaille (Fr. which had recruited most of the merchant class. exclude drawing from this definition. c. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. became an abiding feature of European politics. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. 1216. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In another sense. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Some writers. In 1266-67 the Guelf party.e. From 1266 to 1268. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. however. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. however. then as now. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Although its palace was rebuilt c. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In the context of the fine arts. the parties taking a multitude of local names. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. after this. . After the War of the Eight Saints. through central Italy. to Provence and Paris. usually gray. including text as well as illustrations. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. In Florence. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. brother of Louis IX. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. and Waiblingen. gris.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers.

In Italy they go back a long way. trades. [science] héraldique. In 16th century Venice. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. Guilds were also patrons of art. for example. and provided assistance to members in need. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. but in time they acquired other functions. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. surgeons. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. H hatching In a drawing. In some towns. print or painting. or professions. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In some cities. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. notably Florence in the 14th century. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. The guilds were not equal. trade or profession (painters. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. as some did). In Florence." from Fr. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. heraldry (Fr. héraut. goldsmiths. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and greater hostility between master and man. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The guild also monitored standards of work. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. "herald") . and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century.

divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. indeed. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. However. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. together with brethren north of the Alps. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. the Cathars were an anti-church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. as Antichrist.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. normative for churchmen. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). while others merged with the Waldensians. they were condemned in 1184. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. from the start. one great missionary community. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The main impact of the . only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. i. By contrast. d. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. head of the 'carnal Church'. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. with the rules governing their use. and regarded themselves as forming. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. the Waldensian. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons.

and classical literature. working from 1825 to 1875. Morse. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. S. F. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece.movement upon the laity was in southern France. George Inness. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. American painters were studying in Rome. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Durand. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). my spouse'. humanus. Kensett. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Frederick E. the emancipation of man from God took place. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Jasper Cropsey. hortus conclusus (Lat. in his earlier work. mainly in the south. J. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Henry Inman. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. In humanism. F. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . At the same time. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. its subjects considered morally elevating. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. humanism (Lat. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. B. Thomas Cole. Church. and. Germany. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. history (usually classical history).

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

"invention") In Renaissance art theory. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the pincers. originality. usually the donors of a work of art.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the hammer. Donatallo. and they are also depicted on their own. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. are also used in art literature. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. investiture . the veil of St. the ability to create. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. or of other saints. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Veronica. and the ladder. etc. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). with many further details added. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Human figures. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. the rooster of Peter's denial. Derived from classical rhetoric. beautiful style. the scourge that was used in the scourging. it denominates a kind of behaviour. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. there are representations of the bundle of rods. trecento rococo and lyrical style. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. For instance.g. In the second half of the 14th century. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. invention. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. soft style. inventio (It. The terms court style.

Andries and Jan Both. generally Dutch or Flemish. . Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. and Jan Asselijn. who traveled in Italy and. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. principally Dutch. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. although they are usually called Romanists. bathed in a golden haze. Jerome's writings. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Both and Berchem. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. The Both brothers. Italianizers Northern artists. Nicolaes Berchem. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. of Utrecht. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Upon his return to Holland. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain.

Legenda Aurea (Lat. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. especially one at which the Bible is read. lectern A reading stand or desk. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. the rite of communion is based on this. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.1519). liberal arts . Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). encouraged by the Crusades. Archbishop of Genoa.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). John of Jerusalem .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. As their military role grew. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.

through the use of aerial perspective.g. "little moon") In architecture.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.g. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Martin J. painting or sculptural decoration. poetic atmosphere. astronomy and music. rhetoric and dialectic. the quadrivium. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Kensett (1816-1872). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. comprising arithmetic. . Renaissance loggias were also separate structure.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. often standing in markets and town squares. commemorating a marriage. then the basis of a philosophical training. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. geometry.grammar. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Pythagoras for arithmetic. that could be used for public ceremonies. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. together with identifying attributes (e. Church (1826-1900). Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Tubal for music). lunette (Fr.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Heade (1819-1904). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. and Frederick E. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. first the preparatory trivium . whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. its roof supported by columns. that may contain a window. often sublime. a semicircular space. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). John F. Maria Novella in Florence). loggia (It. It is related to. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.

The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. magna mater (Lat. and portraits as well as landscapes. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. madrigal A part song. manganese purple. originally sung without accompaniment. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. active mainly in Florence c. "almond") . antimony yellow. 1855–65. historical subjects. but they painted genre scenes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. originating in Italy in the 14th century. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. Specifically. and accompaniments. and iron red. and however bright their lighting effects. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. "great mother") A mother goddess. mandorla (It. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. usually for the lute. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). copper green. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). for example. the goddess Cybele. particularly such ware produced in Italy. When white is used for painting. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. being written. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware.

depending on the social class of the wearer. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. In Mannerist painting.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Mannerism (It. Developing out of the Renaissance. bound. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. worn open. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. complex and crowded compositions. In architecture. in a specific sense. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. "manner. Burgundy. which was quarried at Mount . maniera. and literary texts. Flanders. Bronzino. marked by flagellation. Parmigianino. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. the hand-written medieval book. often ornamented with decorative borders. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. and crowned with thorns. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. illuminated initials and miniatures. the Codex manuscriptus. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. El Greco and Tintoretto. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. more strictly. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. It reached to the knee or foot. mantle An overcoat. strong. ecclesiastical. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies.

it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). the medal's purpose was commemorative. marmi finti (It. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. having finished his training. sleek surface. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. a different design on the reverse. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. medallion In architecture. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. quarried at Massa. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. proof") the sufferings. an inscription running round the rim. particularly by Michelangelo. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. martyrdom (Gk. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Like the finest Imperial coins. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Carrara. Without monetary value. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles.Pentelicon in Attica. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. The pure white Carrara marble. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. martyrion. "witness.

mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. who reflected them. and of the many. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. When Perseus cuts off her head. Her head features on Minerva's shield. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Medusa In Greek mythology. supposedly to petrify her enemies. as it were. even grain. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. of the person portrayed on the other side. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1640. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. often anonymous. This yields a soft effect in the print. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. A Dutch officer. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. a Gorgon. particularly. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. the stress on individual character. . The work of these men. c. no line drawing is employed. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. c. It was. perhaps oddly. In pure mezzotint. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Ludwig von Siegen. in England. 1467-688). for landscapes and portraits. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. 1425-1504). Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The process is essentially extinct today. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings.round the neck. 1452-1526/27). 14601528). Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike.

e. monochrome (Gk. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. motto (Ital. a branch of the Franciscan order. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. Parmigianino (d. "one color") Painted in a single color. executed on a very small scale. a painting executed in a single color. ink and paint. Many such small versions. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. pointed headdress worn by bishops. monokhromatos.g. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. saying") .. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. miter A high. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. still exist. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. "word. Francis himself. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. by Tiepolo and Rubens. usually portraits. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. often quite highly finished. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.

The invention of personal mottos. Pforr. Berlin. Nazarenes A group of young. Isidore. nave (from Lat. It may have parallel aisles on each side. named after the patron saint of painting. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. but often insipid. and is intersected by the transept. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period.from the Middle Ages. . The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. and two other members moved to Rome. often separated from it by pillars. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and Casino Massimo. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. 1817-29). navis. Rome. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. In general. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. 1816-17. naturalism (Fr. In 1810 0verbeck. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages.

"black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. were usually old when elected. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. nimbus (Lat. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. is as true as it is notorious. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Nymphaeum (Gk.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. "aureole") The disc or halo. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nigellus. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. moreover. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. usually golden. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. but their ideas continued to be influential. the style of the Ancien Régime. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Popes. niello (Lat.) .

its richness of colour. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. observances") Rites performed for the dead. or poppy. with a sturdy. a small private chapel. walnut. O obsequies (Lat. was the simplest. fluted column and a plain capital. orders of architecture In classical architecture. inborn sin. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus).Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. capital. a more elaborate base. and its greater tonal range. such as linseed. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. "services. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. . Greek goddesses of Nature. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). They are seen in the form of the columns. the Doric order. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. obsequia. The earliest. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. the three basic styles of design. and entablatures.

Palazzo Strozzi). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.g. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. designed as a . and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. the Cancelleria). although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. P pala (Ital. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and the main apartments above.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition).Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. tradition and social structure. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. and. with biforate windows. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. while shops came to be thought undignified. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. standing at the foot of the Cross. palazzo (It. like cities. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.

In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and Palladio's in Vicenza. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. like Genoa. especially after the Sack of Rome. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. panel . the architectural pace was set by the papal court. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Papal incentives to build. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". evolved influential types. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Palazzo Massimi). Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Movement of patrons and architects. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. came to be applied all over Europe. like the colonnaded vestibule. palmette. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. cornices and abutments. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. In Venice. Rich. and large households. Other cities. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice.g. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. behind a sober Florentine façade. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Following Oriental patterns. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila).scholarly retreat. column-caps.g. e. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. often built next to their titular churches.

it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. Then. and dark walnut are favourites. linden. cedar. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. so that they might have a voice at court. Many other types were used. and modern painters have also used plywood. To maintain their authority. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. metal. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Having a circular plan. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. olive. and the pressure and temptations . As successors to St Peter. and other synthetic materials as supports. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example).popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the.Term in painting for a support of wood. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. teak. and spanned by a single dome. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. larch. or other rigid substance. fir. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. fibre-board. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. The third aspect was administrative. mahogany. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. On a larger scale. as it were. enforce law and order. or the incidence of taxation. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. In the 20th century cedar. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. however. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. secular rulers. and walnut. including beech. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. to influence popes in their favour. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. the management of clerical dues and taxation. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. A number of matters. as distinct from canvas. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. chestnut. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish.

as well. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. as such. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. in the eyes of God. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. however. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. As at Avignon. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. which met at Constance 1414-18. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. could supersede that of a pope. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. of individuals. There remained. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. So onerous. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. possess an authority which. Colonna and Caetani. however. It was argued that such a council. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. in spite of further absences from Rome. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . from the point of view of its religious associations. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. would. To resolve the problem of divided authority.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. By then. the most appropriate . This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. at Avignon. however. which seems so inevitable. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. was long in doubt. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. to be long delayed. if it did no serious damage to the faith. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months.that could be applied to them.

not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). in classical literature. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. less frequently pig. to a world peopled by shepherds. and with Zeuxis (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. scholars and men of letters. it has also been used for painting. Passion . leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. as well as a governmental one. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. the creation of a cultural capital. 400-300 BC). nymphs. pastor. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and satyrs. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. through lavish patronage of artists. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. pastoral (Lat.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. goat. and other animals. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. However. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Parrhasius (c.. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper.

patricius. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. projecting either centrally or at both ends. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. pastiche (fr. 1478). but not necessarily a direct copy. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. "butterfly. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. and also the archbishop of Pisa. Francesco Salviati. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. and so on. which focus on the Suffering Christ. papilio. . The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.The events leading up to Good Friday. wealthy citizen. pavilion (Lat. 1478. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. patrician (Lat. the crown of thorns. a prominent section of a monumental façade. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. such as a garden summerhouse. ornamental building. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.) or pasticcio (It. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. a small. a region in north-central Italy. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. Meanwhile. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Portrayals of the Passion. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26.

physis. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. and facere. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. and gnomon. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "to see through. . The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). Peace of Augsburg A treaty. perspective (Lat. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "person". pendant (Fr. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. perspicere. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. persona. physiognomy (Gk. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "nature". Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. personification (Lat. concept or deity. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. in particular the face. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. or related elements within an art work.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. pergola (It.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "hanging. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.

and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. proper to take a landscape from. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. but may consist of a cluster of columns. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Peter's. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. usually above the ground floor. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Rome.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. containing the public rooms. remarkable for singularity. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigmentum. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. both real and painted. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. glue. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. A pier is generally larger than a column. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). or resin to make paint. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. for example. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. curious details. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. striking the imagination with the force of painting. but full of variety.) The main floor of a building.piano nobile (Ital. . pigment (Lat. to be expressed in painting. exemplified. affording a good subject for a landscape. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Pietà (Lat. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.

more sporadic outbreaks. plague Plague. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy.pilaster (Lat. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. In the 15th century. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. For this reason. outside Tuscany. despite regional variations. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. the burning of 'infected' clothing. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. for instance. since. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. moreover. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. also used in Spain's American colonies. perhaps. Rocco and Sebastian. in October 1347. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. it has a base. it is difficult to find. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. and capital. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. though in less widespread. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. and thereafter all Europe. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. a shaft. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). such as Florence and Genoa. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Thenceforward. pilastrum. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. It seems probable. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. It is often fluted. however. During 1348 the Black Death. "pillar") A flat.

Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. more severe. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. utilized Mudejar ornament -. and unified style using massive geometric forms. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In contrast with Aristotle. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. The second phase. The first phase. correct classical orders became frequent. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. like its successor. heraldic escutcheons. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. which lasted only a few decades. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Timaeus. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. or appropriateness. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Philebus. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Phaedo. Phaedrus. or simply the Plateresque. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Theatetus and the Laws. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The first phase. are the masterworks of the second style. A student of Socrates. composition.e.. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. harmonious. i. placement. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the Renaissance-Plateresque. the Symposium. Diego evolved a purer. and sinuous scrolls.

The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 .in Plato's thought. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and Agostino Steuco (c. Rather unsystematic. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. systematized and added to what Plato had done. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. replaced Ficino's. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). the greatest of his ancient disciples. 1472-c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. partially. but not completely. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Plotinus. including those of Plotinus. and the Chaldaic Oracles. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. near Florence. A new Latin translation. Iamblichus. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. and he utilized many other writings. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe.1577) becoming particularly popular. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. all of which he also translated into Latin.

"folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. portico (Lat. Plato was read in the universities. pointed arch In architecture. porticus. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. column. or statue. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Frequently supports a pediment. pluvial (Med. as in classical architecture). where a pectoral is used to close it. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. Lat. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. poluptukhos. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. polyptych (Gk. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. pluviale. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. plinthos. such as processions and consecrations. plinth (Gk. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round.

Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. and the . Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. National Gallery). Colleoni. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527.. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. was revived in the 14th century. Florence (1486-90). Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Venice). inessential. Maria Novella. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. and only a decorative accessory to form.e. Siena. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The equestrian portrait. Campidoglio). Mantua.sculptors such as Donatello. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Desiderio da Settignano. the Carracci. Gattarnelata. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo Farnese). decorating whole rooms. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Cathedral) by Uccello. 1328. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Florence. flattened image. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Group portraits. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The realism of the clear. psychologically more complex.

For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). abrasive even. and. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. from the secular clergy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. however. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. and Peter Paul Rubens. minatory exhortations. Correggio. As Poussin was a Frenchman. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. was versed in classical and patristic . bishops especially. bishop of Asti. The sermons of Visdomini. are not florid in style. not least those of statesmen and prelates." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Savonarola and Musso. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Borromeo. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. together with the Dominican Savonarola. to discharge their preaching duties. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. 1494). Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. primarily the mendicants. The styles of S. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. who had as their ideal masters Titian. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Fiamma's sermons. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Charles Le Brun. bishop of Chioggia. several of whom became bishops. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. of the sermon as an art form.

have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. among them Holman Hunt.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. the temptations of Adam and Christ. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Naples). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.rhetoric. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ.g. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). though often relatively very wide . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The New Testament references in these would. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. predella (It. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Because of the small size of predelle . prefiguration Typology . tapestries.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. however. and so forth. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Millais and Rossetti. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.

Girardon. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. notably David. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. proportion (Lat. proportio. sculpture and architecture. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. and Houdon among sculptors. profil perdu (Fr. the golden section. which uses the square . The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. the quadrature. again indicative of the purpose they served. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. 3. The following are important: 1. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. intended as complete works of art in themselves. Fragonard. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Prix de Rome A scholarship. 2. the Canon of Proportion. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. "evenness") in painting. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. these highly finished drawings. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy.

a fifth = 2:3. harmonic proportions. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. for example). Unlike Pozzo. . putto (It. "boys") Plump naked little boys. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. one half the length of the other). the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. It was common in Roman art. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. triangulation. 4. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provenance The origins of an art work. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Rome. putti sing. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Ignazio. and 5. a fourth = 3:4. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy.

relevare. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. relicquiae. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Brunelleschi. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief.g. Fra Angelico and others. Among the . Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. canons regular. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). and high relief (alto rilievo). in particular works by Masaccio. basso rilievo). e. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. refectory (Med. relief (Lat. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. In 16th century Europe. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. hermits. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. the object of particular veneration. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Lat. Donatello. in which figures are seen half round. in which figures are almost detached from their background. or some item connected with a saint. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Botticelli. or the Jesuits. the great orders of monks.Quattrocento (It. friars and nuns. with the Anglican Church developing in England. also known as the Realist school. relic (Lat.

were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. i. Lorenzo Giustiniani. presided over by chapters general. and their more institutionalized brethren. Padua. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Benedetto. the great patriarch of Venice. 1012. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. who had no overall organization originally. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. and the generally moderate Observants. In 1504. their resources being in the hands of trustees. however. Giorgio in Alga. The Conventuals. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. it became the Cassinese congregation. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. various groups were fused in the latter body. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Lucca. The same bull . although technically of secular canons. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Mantua. Venice (1404). The Silvestrines. was the congregation of S. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Maria di Fregonaia. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo.contemplative orders. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Salvatore. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars.e. Giustina. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. At the same time. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. That of S. The Benedictines. Bernardino of Siena. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Bologna (1419). there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. In 1517. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. After the repression of the Spirituals. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. the most notable being S. Founded by St Romuald c. which was to become the main Italian one. the Conventuals. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines.

Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. however. founded by S. founded in 1535 by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Filippo Neri. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. also. however. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. a historical period. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Angela Merici. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the Theatines. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Venice. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Gerolamo Aemiliani. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. The first. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Michele in Isola. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Gaetano da Thiene. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th .

there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. even Amoralism. of an energetic revival of interest in. of scholarship. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. however. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. and competition with. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. of arts. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. because its core of energy. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. the historical reality of antiquity. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. 1875-86). and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. life. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of 'darkness'. as well as political. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Thereafter. was so vast and potent. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). and his own as potentially one of light. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. too long forgotten glories. of letters. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. however. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. For long. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them.century. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. All-Roundness. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. which had begun early in the 14th century. increasingly. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. .

especially in the High Gothic period. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Though thus challenged. let alone a uniform. the previous record . (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. sometimes.) was the term chosen. letters. and mass media. statues. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. There was an early. later still to Genoa. of industrialization. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. gratefully. consist merely of a painting. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. candlesticks. congruence between. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. however. etc. mobilized nationalism. though sometimes of metal. Ghent).with all its shabbiness . the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. The challenges are to be accepted. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Cathedral of SaintBavon. in the more limited sense. It is for this additional. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. (3) There is not a true.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). etc.erased. retables can be detached and. and is decorated with paintings. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. and other liturgical objects.

the impression that an object is three-dimensional. however.France. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). "relief") In painting. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. With the development of freestanding altars. the first style to achieve such international currency. . for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Italy. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. in several countries . Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. almost simultaneously. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. richly decorated with organic forms. Germany. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. rilievo (It. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo A style of design. is a typical product. literally. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. and 'Romanesque'. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. retables have become extinct. More usually. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753).in the 11th century. As the name suggests. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.of St Mark in Venice. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Romanesque art. Louis XV furniture. Originally commissioned in 976. rocaille (French. like 'Gothic'. its mood lighthearted and witry. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. painting. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. the St. Spain .

in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Mabuse. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. stylized design representing an open rose. van Heemskerk. The aim of painting. Massys and M. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. the development of nationalistic pride. . M.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. such as red ochre. Q. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Pannini and Mengs. In addition. Rome. they maintained. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. B. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Claude. van Orley. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Piranesi.

and Lorenzo de' Medici. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. from the Old and New Testaments. Sacra Conversazione (It.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. and anointing of the sick. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Clement escaped into Castel S. multiple sets used in succession. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. when it finally left the city it had devastated. matrimony. Written primarily in ottava rima. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. the Eucharist.expressed through gesture. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. pious legend and hagiography. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and impoverished. gutted. local saints. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. In the . holy orders. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and Protestant churches. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). confirmation. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted.greatly increased. Orthodox. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. but others were the work of well-known figures. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. penance. Eastern independent. There were no limits on time. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. glance and movement . sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Many compositions were anonymous. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Subjects were nominally sacred. supported by lay confraternities.

Anglican. Lutheran. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. as an excuse to revolt. Immediately following baptism. Salt War. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. sacraments. large room. as in the Church of the Brethren. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.e. was buried under a new fortress. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. replaces the Lord's Supper. Thus. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. They were still seeking aid. strictly speaking. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. The chief focus of discontent. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Saracens . used for drawing. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.e. and sacraments. Candidates first face west. baptism and the Eucharist. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the Rocca Paolina.i." sala (Ital. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. which in the Gospel According to John. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. in principle.) Hall. chapter 13. the symbolic direction of Christ. the Bentivoglio. foot washing. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. Hence. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. make such strict distinctions. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. the Orthodox Church does not. notably from Florence and in Germany. The theology of the Orthodox Church." which are called sacramentals. It is still practiced on special occasions.early church the number of sacraments varied. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. was not maintained as a sacrament. the sun of righteousness. and then face east.. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The classical Protestant churches (i. that the price of salt should be increased.

the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. The publication of Latin (1562. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. legs and horns of a goat. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). wood or terracotta. made of stone. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. satyr In Greek mythology. 160 . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism.c. human-like woodland deities with the ears. 45 BC).c. and many others. sarcophagus. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 360 . The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. sarcophagi (Gk. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Arabs or Muslims. whose writings. Little known in the Middle Ages. 210 AD). The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. the god of wine. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.During the Middle Ages. are lost. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . pl. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). 270 BC).

practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Alexander V. from time to time both he and his opponents.for example Pieter van Laer. Louis I (d. 1386) and his son Ladislas. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Charles III of Durazzo (d. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. who recognized the Roman pope. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). was called Bamboccio. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. In northern Italy. and.they had individual Bentnames . the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. who had the support of the Avignon pope. most of whom. Schism. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. However. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. one of the early leaders. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. on one side. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. being Frenchmen. while devout Christians agonized. while England. the Florentines. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. than their medieval predecessors. As a result. in June 1409. with France and her allies Aragon. for. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. but with little effect. scholasticism . on the other. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII).

(See also: fresco. as it were. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). that scholasticism was left. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). textual scholarship. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Padua. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. the plaster had to be damped before painting. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. It was because the central concerns of humanism . 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. because the secco technique is much less permanent. as it is easier to add details in this way. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Christian. notably Aquinas. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. university-based study. and theology.) . It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. and Islamic literature. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.were different from those of medieval. As such. Medieval scholars.The term is ambivalent. if lime-water was used. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. on one side.moral philosophy. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. None the less. Often called the burning ones. Serenissima (Ital. history and rhetoric . it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. moreover. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.

Originally. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. "the most serene republic of Venice"). light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Lat. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. sfumato A technique. sinopia . the number gradually rose to ten. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibyls (Gk. Servite (Lat. term.. in the period of classical antiquity. sibylla. and the delicate. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. at the same time. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. women who could prophesy. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. usually presided over by individual families. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. which were all identical in thickness. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. there was only one Sibyl. brass. In Christian legend. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Signoria (It. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Med. in use since the Middle Ages. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. "prophetess") In antiquity. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament.

The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. in other words. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Ital. staffage This word. and. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. Francis of Assisi. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. stigma (Gk. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. Stanze (Ital. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. "mark.. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.) Wooden ceiling decoration. pronounced as French. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. especially in the flow of drapery.'Beautiful Madonnas'. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. sing. . It is very closely related to International Gothic. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. soffit (Lat. as the name implies. stigmata. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. brand. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. sotto in sù (It. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.

This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. In a looser sense. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Indeed. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. stucco A type of light. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. studiolo. with that for the Picturesque. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). pl. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. whose verses actually fabrications . and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. John Milton.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim).) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. The vogue for the Sublime. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. supremacy .stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. studioli (It. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. both external and internal.

then being replaced by oil paint. 1407). i. tempera (Lat. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. Salviati and Allori. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). temperare. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. These were imported. into Italy. and in literature. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. . To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. doubtless. both for panel painting and fresco. The subject is underexplored. his own headquarters. chiefly from Flanders. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. London. But the Italians did not make them.e. was being decorated with frescoes.Historically.and. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. or cartoons. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries.

quarter face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. triumphal arch. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. "a commonplace") In literature. and sculptures. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and other surfaces. tondi (It. figure of speech. terraferma (Ital. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). model. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. Trajan's Column . vessels. topia. theme or motif. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. in art. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. and later to subdivide gable ends. pl. walls. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topoi (Gk. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.e. topiary (Gk. pl. topos. and profile.terracotta (It. i. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. "fields. widely used form. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tondo.

Early triptychs were often portable. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. of both sexes'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. or wings. Battista Sforza. the wars by which they were won . come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the Son and the Holy Spirit. a car so brave'. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. as it were. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. fame. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. into a number of less controversial forms. .A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . trinitas. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. the military triumph became sublimated. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. behind it. Trinity (Lat. "threefold") in Christianity. patriarchs and prophets.' Before it go the apostles. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. added to the glamour of the triumph. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. beside it the army of martyrs. Meanwhile. tryptychos. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. after 'a countless number of virgins. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Disseminated soon after his death.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. chastity. death. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). time and eternity. triptych (Gk. of virtues and of the arts. "threefold") A painting in three sections. usually an altarpiece.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love.

Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. In medieval architecture. typology . "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. first recorded in 1232. enclosed by an arch. tusche A thick. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. it is usually decorated with carvings. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. through various naturalistic devices. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. often decorated with sculptures. Dating from classical times. "drum") In classical architecture. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. It incorporates Renaissance features. viscous black ink. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tympanum (Lat. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I).

but brothel scenes and pictures in sets.g. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. In Christian thought. knew his former patrons.A system of classification. each had access to his paintings. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. such as five works devoted to the senses. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . lanterns. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. were popular with them also.Dirck van Baburen (c. 1610). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. U uomo universale (It. . The numerous candles. killer of Holofernes. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. e. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. where they were most accessible. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. 1590-1624).) The Renaissance "universal man". Judith. and David. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. slayer of Goliath. especially his half-length figural groups. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).

"variety") In Renaissance art theory. hour-glasses and clocks. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. "evening") . Parisian craftsmen. and the rib vault. it was used to decorate furniture. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. often gold. carriages. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. overturned vessels. vesper. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. the groin vault. a work's richness of subject matter. snuff boxes and other objects. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. Also varietas (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. varietà (It. guttering candles. V vanishing point In perspective. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Vespers (Lat. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. There are a wide range of forms.). Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. vanitas (Lat. and even flowers (which will soon fade). vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. mixed in. formed when two barrel vaults intersect.

in which the word signifies efficacy. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Hope. the church service at which these prayers are said. "life") . the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. and Justice. virtù could be used. "not exposed to winds". virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. vita. Gluttony. actual or latent. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. if you have it not'. pl. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Anger. In ancient Roman dwellings. Covetousness. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. vite (Lat. Lust. Vestibule (Lat. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. vimperga Of German origin. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. for example. Fortitude. Temperance. and Sloth. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. 'Assume a virtue. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Prudence. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vestibulum. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Charity. Envy. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic.Prayers said in the evening. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross.

as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. or recovery from illness has been made. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. in fact. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Vitruvius Pollio. published in 1550 and 1568. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. and appalled recognition of. 1478-80. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty.An account of someone's life and work. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. usually when a prayer for good fortune. The wars from 1494 do. Marcus (1st cent. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. protection from harm. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1472.g. 1482-84). The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. a biography. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. Sculptors and Architects"). they were from the 18th century . AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. those of Volterera. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. and of Ferrara. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

"Western work of art". Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. usually restorers. "world view") A comprehensive world view. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. usually linear. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. gallery. woodcut A print made from a wood block. during its subsequent history. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands.Weltanschauung (Gr. a philosophy of life. . Westwerk German word. pompous on the floor above. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. It was intended to have a variety of functions.

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