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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
arcus. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. at the east end of a church behind the altar. the lowest part of the entablature). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. In Greek and Roman literature. Degas. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. . design. and Rouault. The term applies also to a print made by this method.A semicircular projection. The adjective is apsidal. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Lancet and Tudor. Also known as an exedra. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. roofed with a half-dome. arcade (Lat. which is fused to the plate by heating. or organization. There are several variants of the technique. "architectural") Relating to structure. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. the darker the tone). architectonic (Gk. Picasso. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. piers or pillars. including Goya. arkhitektonikos. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. architrave (It. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.e. the moulding around a window or door. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. but in essence the process is as follows. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period).
archivolt (Ital. aureole (Lat. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530." from Gk. Dante's Vita nuova . archeiu. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "begin. aureolus.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.and the Comedy . Ars Moriendi (Lat." and Lat. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. archivolto. usually a saint. attribute (Lat. attributum. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. dominate. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "golden. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. voltus. "front arch. In the case of martyrs.
that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. in 1377. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. the god of wine and fertility. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Later. applied to the physically . Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. often anecdotal. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bambocciati Group of relatively small.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. 'Captivity'. who had been residing in France since 1305. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Six pontificates later. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The actual move was made in 1309. paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. baldachin. that of Cardano. or baldacchino (It. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. All the popes elected at Avignon were French.
baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. or canopy. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. beggars in rags. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and Nocera in Italy. el Kantara. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Pentecost. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. banderuola. Florence. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Easter. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. France. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. a visual metaphor for the number eight. a church. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. the Temple of Venus. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. such as those at Pisa. Lebanon. AD 273. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. or connected with. banderole (It. Parma. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Alg. Spalato [Split. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and abject filthy things. pope between 432 and 440. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion.. . and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. seven. AD 300). Croatia]. As eight follows the "complete" number. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Baalbek.." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. and Epiphany. Customarily. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. set beneath a domical ciborium.g. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and Poitiers. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. built by Sixtus III. or forecourt.
1811-1889). southeast of Paris. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French.In the 10th century. barocco. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1810-1865). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Rubens). basilica (Gk. Also tunnel vault. . a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Jean-François Millet (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Vermeer). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. and (3) everyday realism. Jules Dupré (French. achieved through scale. stoa basilike. and thus a church. which is reserved for the clergy. 1807-1876). Originally. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. in the 1840s and 1850s. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. were often omitted entirely. 1796-1875). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. or baptismal chapels. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. baptisteries.an allusion to entering the Christian life. something of earlier symbolism survives. in its usual location near the church door . and increasingly elaborate decoration. usually facing east. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1817-1878). however. Théodore Rousseau (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Constant Troyon (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. 1814-1875). "king's hall") a church building. Baroque (Port. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. In architecture. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt.
Spanish still-lifes. By association. or which is to be left as it is. especially Spanish.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. It takes its name from its grainy texture. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. however. domesticity. as is to be expected. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). There were. such as those by Diego Velázquez. particularly porcelain. The term was mainly used up to c. often with food and drink. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. 1650 in Spain. and often sentimentality. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. in which still-life predominates. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. up until the mid-17th century. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Biscuit porcelain. such as Waldmüller. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. also incorrectly called bisque. Bodegónes.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Book of Hours . which is either not yet glazed. bodegón Image. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. were referred to by their specific contents. like their Dutch counterparts.
both hot and cold .by a variety of processes. varying from silverish to a rich. a rapid sketch in oil. but can also be used for painted sketches. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. durability. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. . coppery red. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. By extension. though these are more often called 'modelli'. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. Chantilly). bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. days of the week. bozzetto(Italian. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.an advantage over marble sculpture.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. made as a study for a larger picture. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. See flying buttress. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. months. and the fact that it is easily workable . It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bozzetto Strictly speaking. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. or seasons.
cameo Small relief made from gems. its forms highly stylized. notable from Syria and Egypt. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. C cabinet A small. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. mosaics. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. private room where works of art.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. casson. manuscript illuminations. camera obscura . a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. It also served to glorify the emperor. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. which was often allegorical. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. and work in precious metals. glass. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. box") In architecture. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. and Giotto. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Among its most distinctive products were icons. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caisson (Fr. Duccio. "a chest. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. ceramics.
followed by smaller and even pocket models. by the 16th century. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.-N. cantoria. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. cantorie (It. campanile Bell tower. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. . capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. only very rough effects will be obtainable. hemp. candlestick. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar." and the earliest versions. Structurally. candelabra. "candle") A large. capitellum. Niepce created photography. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. sing. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. as an aid to drawing. and jute. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually in a church. capital (Lat. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. both of which have richly carved marble panels. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually with several branches or arms. usually decorated. which isolates the fabric from the paint. candela. usually built beside or attached to a church. dating to antiquity. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The Latin name means "dark chamber. which was usually whitened.) A gallery for singers or musicians. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. other materials used are cotton. pl. Portable versions were built.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candelabrum (It.
In fresco painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Carthusian Order (Lat. or a motto. near Grenoble. Carmelites (Lat. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. At the height of the Middle Ages. Fortitudo (Fortitude). In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century.a humorous drawing or parody. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. cartoon (It. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. or fresco. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. New Charterhouses. cartellini In a painting. tapestry. details of the subject. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartone. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartellino. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Cardinal Virtues (Lat.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism.both Italians and artists from other countries . monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartouche . and humanism. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. The order combines reclusive and community life. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). cardinalis. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the endeavour to attain true humanity. the date of the painting. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. pl. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).
or nave. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. decorated with gilt gesso. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. cathedral (cathedra. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. castello (It.toward the setting sun. . Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. caryatid (Gk. cassone (It. palace.) "castle". linen. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. they were also used in other countries. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. putti (cupids). Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. The altar is placed at the east end. Paolo Uccello. and swags of fruit and flowers. The main body. a cathedral always faces west . They contained the bride's clothes. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. In the 15th century. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. where the throne of the bishop is placed. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. or arms of the cross. Cascina. For reasons lost to time and tradition. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and many other items of her dowry. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework.
rather than intercessory functions. or birdlike characteristics. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. landscapes. a throne bearer of the deity. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. as celestial attendants of God. centralis. central perspective (Lat. and Islamic literature. continually praise him. a celestial winged being with human. Both the statement of St. animal. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. buildings and figures that are being depicted. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. "in the centre". champlevé (Fr. and perspicere. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Christian. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Relative to the observer. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. . in accordance with their distance from the observer.
When the contrast of light and dark is strong. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. or for choral singing. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. choros. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Burgkmair (1510). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church.chiaroscuro (It. the Order of the Hospital of St. North of the Alps. choir (Gk. "light dark") In painting. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. replacing tempera. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. Since Carolingian times. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Lastly. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio.
is as typically Churrigueresque. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Sculpted clouds. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The Transparente (completed 1732). Very few still exist in their original positions. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and the Churrigueresque column. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. became the most common motif. which was shaped like an inverted cone. further enriching the style. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and repetition of pattern. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. undulating lines. ciborium . undulating cornices. The Mexico cathedral (1718). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. an architect. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and garlands.intersect). In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). reversed volutes. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. a massing of carved angels. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. gilded rays. stucco shells. balustrades.
Members of the lower classes. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. They were forbidden to form a trade association. etc.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. placing one of their members. or achieve political representation. Then. High Renaissance). the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. on July 22. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Their economic condition worsened. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. but self-employed. including the ciompi. Quattrocento (1400s. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. ciompi. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. the wool carder Michele di Lando. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. as also were those in the associated. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. In reaction to this revolutionary . called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. combers. The new government. craft of dyeing. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. beaters. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. who were raised to the status of a guild. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Without being members of a guild. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted.and post-medieval Italy. controlled by the minor guilds.
scholars patiently finding. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). philosophy and art . and politics. In the 15th century Greek literature. literature. writers. except in cases where . changed greatly from one period to the next. philosophy. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. the black contours usually with a special line plate. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. editing and translating a wide range of texts. however. cithara (Gk. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.as in Italy these were dispensed with. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. the ciompi guild was abolished. clair-obscur (Fr.) An ancient musical instrument.episode. with Italian scholars. Concepts of the classical. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. on which strings were plucked. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. resembling a lyre. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. . In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate.
Coffered ceilings. the church service at which these prayers are said. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). concetti (It." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. literature or music. . sing. Green and red.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. condottiere. blue and orange. as well as from the Bible. concetto. [hora] completa. a work's underlying theme. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. compline (Lat. cognoscenti. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. condottieri (It. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. or "contract. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. terrorized the country. those with refined tastes. pl. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. occasionally made of wood. The name was derived from the condotta. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. intensify one another. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. arch or ceiling. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. cognoscente (It. when set side by side. pl.
Toward the end of the 15th century. or with the spiritual assistance of. By the end of the 14th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. in the service of Perugia. Carmagnola. Martino). i. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity.devastating Romagna. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. often called compagnie or. With no goal beyond personal gain. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. and Tuscany. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. . Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Mark (1432). primarily for syphilitics. who won control of Milan in 1450. confraternities Confraternities. scuole. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds.e. clergy. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. commonly called either Compagnia di S. flagellant confraternities. disappeared.e. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Muzio's son. convents of convertite. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. and his rival Braccio da Montone. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Francesco Sforza. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. which spread in the 15th century. i. Umbria. often under the direction of. and German--the condottieri. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. in the service of Naples. in Venice. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. By the 16th century. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Spanish. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed.
the Florentine Neri. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. but sometimes had their own premises. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. and refuges for maidens. While the Doge ranked above the Council. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. contour. which accompanied condemned prisoners. 1514 in S. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. in Florence.i. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. contrapposto (It.g. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . while the Venetian government. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Dorotea in Trastevere. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. however. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Confraternities. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Later.e. e. reformed prostitutes. contours were initially regular. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. flat outlines. e. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor.g. contour (Fr. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. founded c. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. In medieval painting. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. notwithstanding their location. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the Venetian parliament of noblemen.
It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen.weight on one leg. . started the process of inner reform in the Church. They are often ornamented. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Lat. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. The style spread as far as England. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. an engraving produced in this way. conventiculurn. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. large cornice or other feature. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). whose names are inscribed on several works. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. 1280). Reform programs. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. conventicle (Lat. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. a bracket of stone. corbel In architecture. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. declining moral standards. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. aes cyprium. cuprum. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. did not achieve any lasting results. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. 1100 and 1300. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull.
due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the most famous victim of crucifixion. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. "small vat") In architecture. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Jews. There were various methods of performing the execution. cupola (Lat. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Constantine the Great. D dado . An ancestor of the oboe. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Seleucids. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the condemned man. Death. particularly among the Persians.e. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Carthaginians. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Usually. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. a small dome. reedy sound. cupula. or "scourged. Next. a semi-circular vault. i. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. after being whipped. the first Christian emperor. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.
Gk. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. danse macabre The dance of death. disegno (It. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. an expressive use of nature. diptych (Lat. deacon (Gk. diptychum. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. often an altarpiece. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. e. design") In Renaissance art theory. The term stresses not the literal drawing. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Passau. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety.g. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. decorated diffrently from the upper section. "drawing. Germany. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. diakonos. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. usually in matching pairs. which was help to be the basis of all art. Anglican and Orthodox churches. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Deësis (Gk. but the concept behind an art work. diptychos. a favorite late medieval picture subject. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture.
it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). dome in architecture. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. when painters took to working out of doors. distemperare. also used it on canvas. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. distemper (Lat. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. though a few artists. The studio easel. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. "to mix. doublet A male garment. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. such as we still use today. is a heavy piece of furniture. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. donor (Lat. which runs on castors or wheels. a 19th-century invention. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. formerly worn under armour. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Dominicans (Lat. usually forming a ceiling or roof. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Ordo Praedictatorum. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). As disegno appeals to the intellect. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.fully realize. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters.Thomas Aquinas. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. donator.
en face In portraiture. entablature In classical architecture. John (19. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. ensemble (Fr. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. bound and flogged. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. "last". engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. Hence. "word") . Ecce Homo (Lat. epitaph (Gk. and architecture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. eschaton. It consists of the architrave. eschatology (Gk. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the frieze. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. fresco. and the cornice. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. full face.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. sculpture. a depiction of Jesus. and logos. sometimes combining panel painting. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. in art.
F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. farmers. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Saints Ambrose.death and resurrection. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Jerome. and of the last things. fields and livestock. which was developed in the Near East ca. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy." and charis." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Giovanni Morone. Eucharist (Gk. 4500 BCE. Vittoria Colonna. Carnesecchi and Ochino. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Marcantonio Flaminio. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Contarini. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Germany. which was famous for maiolica. eu. which is called "delftware. which is called "maiolica. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Spain. Augustine. . "good. notably Cardinal Pole. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Italy. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. protector of shepherds. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. celebrated with bread and wine." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. and Scandinavia. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. and is named for Faenza. particularly ware made in France.
such as plague. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous.festoni (It. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. and flowers suspended in a loop. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. leaves. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. famine and death. war. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. relaxed. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Their attributes are the bow. Committed to charitable and missionary work. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. frescos in Italy . sword and set of balances. Only a small area can be painted in a day. that of the others red. 2 . drying to a slightly different tint. and these areas.8). can in time be seen. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. a technique known as a secco fresco. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The colour of his horse is white. fresco (It. fluted of a column or pillar. a swag. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. black and dun. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster.
That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. a person's invisible tutelary god. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work.Save in Venice. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. both in churches and in private and public palaces. In art from the classical period onwards. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . where the atmosphere was too damp. or fresco secco. Genius in classical Rome. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Final details. for example. usually childish figure. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. the intonaco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The technique of buon fresco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. landscape and portraiture. are genres of painting. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. or true fresco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and to a lesser extent for tapestries. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. G Garter. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. genre In a broad sense. covings and ceilings. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged.
and as spurring on men of action. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. As such.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Maria Gloriosa). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Gobelins . how it differed from notoriety. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Maso di Banco. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. whether it must be connected with the public good. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Bernardo Daddi. in portraits and on tombs. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. as well as writers and artists.
Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. Paris. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. and although it reopened in 1699. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. who appointed Lebrun Director. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. golden section (Lat. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. thereafter it made only tapestries. still in existence today. In other Italian cities. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture.French tapestry manufactory. Golden Fleece. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. This ratio is approximately 8:13. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. .
painting. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. that the effects are to be felt. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. and lies much deeper than. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). painting. c. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. 1200 and c.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Denis. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. Gothic Gothic. There is a transcendental quality. 1270. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. In thinking of Nicola (d. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. from the 13th until the 17th century. like the cultural and commercial. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. The artistic. In particular. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In sculpture and in painting. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Nevertheless. the superficial particularities of form. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. . Amiens. or the influence of one building.
Such tours often took a year or more. Honey. and above all Italy. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and Piranesi. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. if required. starch. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Klee. to white or tinted paper and card and. and taste among the English. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. the beau idéal of the French. without visible brush marks. Dubuffet. chiefly to France. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. are but different appellations of the same thing'. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. It is thinned with water for applying. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. occasionally. known also as poster paint and designer's colour.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour.and hog-hair brushes. to silk. with sable. and Morris Graves. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. . notably in the writings of Bellori. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. genius. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Canaletto. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). the Netherlands. These qualities. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Pannini. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and the great style. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. There was also a flourishing market in guide books.
after this. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. through central Italy. After the War of the Eight Saints. 1216. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. however. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. to Provence and Paris. then as now. however.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. In the context of the fine arts. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. c. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. usually gray. which had recruited most of the merchant class. including text as well as illustrations. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In another sense. and Waiblingen. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. . so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the parties taking a multitude of local names. From 1266 to 1268. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. gris. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. grisaille (Fr. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. brother of Louis IX. Some writers. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing.e. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In Florence. became an abiding feature of European politics. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. exclude drawing from this definition.
and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. [science] héraldique. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. and provided assistance to members in need. In Italy they go back a long way. goldsmiths. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. In Florence. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. surgeons. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. The guild also monitored standards of work. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. or professions. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. héraut. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. as some did). Guilds were also patrons of art. such as Brescia and Vicenza. "herald") . The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. H hatching In a drawing. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. for example. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. heraldry (Fr. trades. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The guilds were not equal. "[knowledge of] heraldry. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. trade or profession (painters. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In 16th century Venice." from Fr. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. notably Florence in the 14th century. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In some cities. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. print or painting. but in time they acquired other functions. In some towns. and greater hostility between master and man. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control.
d. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. the followers of Juan de Valdes. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. By contrast. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. while others merged with the Waldensians. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. with the rules governing their use. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. and regarded themselves as forming. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The main impact of the . which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. one great missionary community. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. they were condemned in 1184. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. i.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. However. the Waldensian. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. head of the 'carnal Church'. as Antichrist. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. normative for churchmen. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. the Cathars were an anti-church. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. from the start. indeed. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). together with brethren north of the Alps.
From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. George Inness. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Kensett. In humanism. its subjects considered morally elevating.movement upon the laity was in southern France. humanism (Lat. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. working from 1825 to 1875. Henry Inman. B. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. American painters were studying in Rome. F. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. my spouse'. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. S. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. the emancipation of man from God took place. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. hortus conclusus (Lat. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. J. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . humanus. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. and classical literature. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Germany. Durand. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. F. Frederick E. Jasper Cropsey. At the same time. mainly in the south. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. in his earlier work. Church. history (usually classical history). and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Thomas Cole. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Morse. and. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. For instance. the pincers. inventio (It. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the ability to create. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Derived from classical rhetoric. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. The terms court style. etc. originality. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the veil of St. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. usually the donors of a work of art. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Veronica. investiture . intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. are also used in art literature. and they are also depicted on their own. or of other saints. with many further details added. beautiful style.g. Human figures. it denominates a kind of behaviour. soft style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the hammer. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the rooster of Peter's denial. there are representations of the bundle of rods. and the ladder. the scourge that was used in the scourging. In the second half of the 14th century. Donatallo. invention.
J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. of Utrecht. Italianizers Northern artists. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Jerome's writings. bathed in a golden haze. principally Dutch. The Both brothers. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. generally Dutch or Flemish. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Both and Berchem.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. . and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Upon his return to Holland. Nicolaes Berchem. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. who traveled in Italy and. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. although they are usually called Romanists. and Jan Asselijn. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Andries and Jan Both.
lectern A reading stand or desk. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Archbishop of Genoa. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). John of Jerusalem . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . the rite of communion is based on this. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. encouraged by the Crusades. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. especially one at which the Bible is read.1519). liberal arts . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Legenda Aurea (Lat.
Pythagoras for arithmetic. comprising arithmetic. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e.grammar. through the use of aerial perspective. Church (1826-1900). painting or sculptural decoration. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. often standing in markets and town squares. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. then the basis of a philosophical training.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. It is related to. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. geometry. first the preparatory trivium . .g. together with identifying attributes (e. often sublime. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Kensett (1816-1872). Heade (1819-1904). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). John F. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). lunette (Fr. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.g. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. that could be used for public ceremonies. that may contain a window. a semicircular space. astronomy and music. "little moon") In architecture. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. commemorating a marriage. Tubal for music). and Frederick E. its roof supported by columns. poetic atmosphere.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Martin J. loggia (It. Maria Novella in Florence). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. rhetoric and dialectic. the quadrivium.
active mainly in Florence c. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. but they painted genre scenes. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. for example. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and portraits as well as landscapes. particularly such ware produced in Italy. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). They were influenced by the Barbizon School. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. "great mother") A mother goddess. being written. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. and accompaniments. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. the goddess Cybele. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. madrigal A part song. usually for the lute. antimony yellow. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. magna mater (Lat. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. and however bright their lighting effects. 1855–65. "almond") . they never lost a sense of solidity of form. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). manganese purple. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. originally sung without accompaniment. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. historical subjects. Specifically. copper green. When white is used for painting. mandorla (It. and iron red. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities.
Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and crowned with thorns. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. the Codex manuscriptus. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. illuminated initials and miniatures. In architecture. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. depending on the social class of the wearer. complex and crowded compositions. in a specific sense. bound. Burgundy. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. ecclesiastical. which was quarried at Mount . Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Bronzino. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. more strictly. and literary texts. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. "manner. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. In Mannerist painting. It reached to the knee or foot. Parmigianino.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. often ornamented with decorative borders. the hand-written medieval book. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Developing out of the Renaissance. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. marked by flagellation. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. El Greco and Tintoretto. Mannerism (It. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. strong. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Flanders. mantle An overcoat. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. worn open. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. maniera.
The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Like the finest Imperial coins. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. "witness. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. an inscription running round the rim. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. quarried at Massa. Carrara. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. medallion In architecture. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. having finished his training. The pure white Carrara marble. Without monetary value. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. a different design on the reverse. This was partly because ancient Roman coins.Pentelicon in Attica. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. marmi finti (It. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). martyrion. sleek surface. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . martyrdom (Gk. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. particularly by Michelangelo. proof") the sufferings. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.
the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. 14601528). sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. 1467-688). particularly. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. for landscapes and portraits. In pure mezzotint. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. no line drawing is employed. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. The work of these men. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Ludwig von Siegen. 1425-1504). hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. a Gorgon. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. A Dutch officer. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. 1640. This yields a soft effect in the print. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. as it were. 1452-1526/27). of the person portrayed on the other side. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Her head features on Minerva's shield. c. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. When Perseus cuts off her head.round the neck. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. perhaps oddly. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. c. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. even grain. . and of the many. in England. It was. the stress on individual character. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Medusa In Greek mythology. often anonymous. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. The process is essentially extinct today. who reflected them. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone.
Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Parmigianino (d. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. executed on a very small scale.. saying") . monokhromatos. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. ink and paint. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Francis himself. miter A high. "word. motto (Ital. painting in gouache on vellum or card. monochrome (Gk.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. still exist.g. by Tiepolo and Rubens. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. usually portraits. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. "one color") Painted in a single color. often quite highly finished. Many such small versions. pointed headdress worn by bishops. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. e. a painting executed in a single color. a branch of the Franciscan order.
where they occupied the disused monastery of S. The invention of personal mottos. 1816-17. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Pforr. and two other members moved to Rome. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. navis. Berlin. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. . and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. nave (from Lat. naturalism (Fr. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. It may have parallel aisles on each side. In general. and Casino Massimo. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. often separated from it by pillars.from the Middle Ages. 1817-29). In 1810 0verbeck. Rome. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. named after the patron saint of painting. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. but often insipid. Nazarenes A group of young. Isidore. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and is intersected by the transept.
To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. "aureole") The disc or halo. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. usually golden. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. is as true as it is notorious. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. nigellus.) . William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. moreover. nimbus (Lat.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Nymphaeum (Gk. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). niello (Lat. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. the style of the Ancien Régime. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. Popes. but their ideas continued to be influential. were usually old when elected.
a more elaborate base. capital. Greek goddesses of Nature. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. walnut. They are seen in the form of the columns. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). obsequia. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The earliest. its richness of colour. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. . and its greater tonal range. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. and entablatures. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. or poppy. with a sturdy. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. "services. the Doric order. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. a small private chapel. O obsequies (Lat. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. inborn sin. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. orders of architecture In classical architecture. fluted column and a plain capital. such as linseed. was the simplest. observances") Rites performed for the dead. the three basic styles of design.
"panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). Palazzo Strozzi). and large windows appeared on the ground floor. standing at the foot of the Cross. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. tradition and social structure. P pala (Ital. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. designed as a . of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. while shops came to be thought undignified. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. and the main apartments above. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. like cities. with biforate windows. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà).Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. palazzo (It.g.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. the Cancelleria). On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.
defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions.scholarly retreat. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Other cities. evolved influential types. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. like Genoa. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. panel . Rich. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Palazzo Massimi). the architectural pace was set by the papal court. especially after the Sack of Rome. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.g. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds.g. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Following Oriental patterns. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. came to be applied all over Europe. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and large households. behind a sober Florentine façade. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. In Venice. like the colonnaded vestibule. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). column-caps. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). cornices and abutments. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. e. palmette. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. often built next to their titular churches. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and Palladio's in Vicenza. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Papal incentives to build. Movement of patrons and architects.
so that they might have a voice at court. or other rigid substance. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and walnut. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. enforce law and order. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). however. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. as distinct from canvas. A number of matters. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. In the 20th century cedar. and dark walnut are favourites. To maintain their authority. The third aspect was administrative. metal. larch. and modern painters have also used plywood. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. On a larger scale. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. to influence popes in their favour. and other synthetic materials as supports. mahogany. olive. slate has occasionally been used as a support. fibre-board. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe.Term in painting for a support of wood. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the management of clerical dues and taxation. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. secular rulers. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. teak. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. chestnut. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. and the pressure and temptations . linden. fir. as it were. Many other types were used. Then. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. As successors to St Peter. cedar. and spanned by a single dome. Having a circular plan. the. or the incidence of taxation. including beech. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith.
fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. however. To resolve the problem of divided authority. however. as such. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. possess an authority which. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. was long in doubt. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. however. in spite of further absences from Rome. at Avignon. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. in the eyes of God. could supersede that of a pope. There remained. from the point of view of its religious associations. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. which seems so inevitable.as well. of individuals. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. which met at Constance 1414-18. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. would. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The identification of the Papacy with Rome.that could be applied to them. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. It was argued that such a council. As at Avignon. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. the most appropriate . above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). By then. to be long delayed. if it did no serious damage to the faith. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Colonna and Caetani. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. So onerous. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.
in classical literature. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. pastor. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. scholars and men of letters. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. the creation of a cultural capital. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). as well as a governmental one. it has also been used for painting. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. nymphs. However. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. to a world peopled by shepherds. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and with Zeuxis (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. goat. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and other animals. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. pastoral (Lat. less frequently pig.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe.. through lavish patronage of artists. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. 400-300 BC). Parrhasius (c. Passion . and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and satyrs.
"butterfly. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. the crown of thorns. patrician (Lat. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.) or pasticcio (It. pavilion (Lat. a small. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. and so on. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario.The events leading up to Good Friday. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. but not necessarily a direct copy. . such as a garden summerhouse. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Meanwhile. Francesco Salviati. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. which focus on the Suffering Christ. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. 1478. pastiche (fr. ornamental building. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. and also the archbishop of Pisa. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. 1478). the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. projecting either centrally or at both ends. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Portrayals of the Passion. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. wealthy citizen. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. patricius. papilio. a prominent section of a monumental façade. a region in north-central Italy. hence tent") A lightly constructed.
concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. personification (Lat.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. persona. or related elements within an art work. physis. "nature". Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. pergola (It. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "person". and facere. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. perspicere.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. and gnomon. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concept or deity. "hanging. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. in particular the face. "to see through. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. perspective (Lat. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. . Peace of Augsburg A treaty. physiognomy (Gk. pendant (Fr. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.
pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. but full of variety. Rome. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. remarkable for singularity. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. pigment (Lat. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. both real and painted.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period.) The main floor of a building. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. exemplified. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. or resin to make paint. Peter's. to be expressed in painting. Pietà (Lat. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. proper to take a landscape from.piano nobile (Ital. glue. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. pigmentum. but may consist of a cluster of columns. curious details. . One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. usually above the ground floor. A pier is generally larger than a column. affording a good subject for a landscape. striking the imagination with the force of painting. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. for example. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. containing the public rooms.
returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. such as Florence and Genoa. despite regional variations. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. since. the burning of 'infected' clothing. in October 1347. plague Plague. Rocco and Sebastian. for instance. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. though in less widespread. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. It seems probable. For this reason. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. It is often fluted. a shaft. more sporadic outbreaks. however. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. and capital. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. perhaps. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. During 1348 the Black Death. moreover. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. "pillar") A flat. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. it is difficult to find. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Thenceforward. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. outside Tuscany. pilastrum. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. it has a base. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. also used in Spain's American colonies. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like).pilaster (Lat. In the 15th century. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. and thereafter all Europe. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague.
harmonious. Phaedrus. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and sinuous scrolls. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. like its successor.. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. The first phase. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Diego evolved a purer. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Phaedo. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. or simply the Plateresque. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. or appropriateness. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The first phase. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. A student of Socrates. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Timaeus. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Theatetus and the Laws. utilized Mudejar ornament -. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. placement. heraldic escutcheons.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In contrast with Aristotle. are the masterworks of the second style. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The second phase. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). which lasted only a few decades.e. more severe. Philebus. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. composition. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. correct classical orders became frequent. i. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. the Symposium.
Iamblichus. partially. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. A new Latin translation. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. the greatest of his ancient disciples. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French.in Plato's thought. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Plotinus. all of which he also translated into Latin. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . and he utilized many other writings. and Agostino Steuco (c. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 1472-c. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. replaced Ficino's. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Rather unsystematic. near Florence. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). but not completely. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. and the Chaldaic Oracles. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. including those of Plotinus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400.1577) becoming particularly popular. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d.
porticus. polyptych (Gk. pointed arch In architecture. Frequently supports a pediment. or statue. poluptukhos. where a pectoral is used to close it. column. plinthos. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. plinth (Gk. pluvial (Med. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. Plato was read in the universities. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. as in classical architecture). "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. such as processions and consecrations. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Lat. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pluviale. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. portico (Lat.
directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. psychologically more complex. National Gallery).sculptors such as Donatello. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers.e. The realism of the clear. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S.. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Group portraits. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. decorating whole rooms. The equestrian portrait. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. 1328. Palazzo Farnese). A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Maria Novella. flattened image. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Florence (1486-90). and the . Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Siena. and only a decorative accessory to form. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Colleoni. Mantua. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. inessential. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Florence. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Campidoglio). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Venice). Desiderio da Settignano. was revived in the 14th century. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Cathedral) by Uccello. the Carracci. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Gattarnelata.
bishop of Chioggia. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). together with the Dominican Savonarola. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Savonarola and Musso. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). bishop of Asti. of the sermon as an art form. The styles of S. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. are not florid in style. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Fiamma's sermons. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. from the secular clergy. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Charles Le Brun. primarily the mendicants. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. was versed in classical and patristic . bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. and Peter Paul Rubens. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. minatory exhortations. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. and. abrasive even." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. however. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. 1494). Borromeo. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Correggio. several of whom became bishops. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. to discharge their preaching duties. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The sermons of Visdomini. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. bishops especially. As Poussin was a Frenchman. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists.
they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. though often relatively very wide . The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. and so forth.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. among them Holman Hunt. the temptations of Adam and Christ. however. Naples). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. tapestries. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Because of the small size of predelle . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala).rhetoric. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. The New Testament references in these would. Millais and Rossetti. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.g. predella (It.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . prefiguration Typology . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Louis of Toulouse (1317.
presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. the quadrature. The following are important: 1. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. 3. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the Canon of Proportion. these highly finished drawings. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Fragonard. and Houdon among sculptors. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the golden section. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. sculpture and architecture. which uses the square . 2. projecting shelf on which to kneel. profil perdu (Fr. proportio. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666).The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. again indicative of the purpose they served. notably David. proportion (Lat. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. intended as complete works of art in themselves. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Girardon. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. "evenness") in painting.
architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and 5. for example). They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. putti sing. Rome. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. "boys") Plump naked little boys. It was common in Roman art. triangulation. provenance The origins of an art work. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. harmonic proportions.as a unit of measurement. one half the length of the other). putto (It. . The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. a fifth = 2:3. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Unlike Pozzo. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Ignazio. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. 4. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. the steward or treasurer of a church. a fourth = 3:4.
the great orders of monks. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Brunelleschi. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectory (Med. e. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. or some item connected with a saint. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Among the . Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. and high relief (alto rilievo). denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. also known as the Realist school. relief (Lat. Donatello. in which figures are seen half round. friars and nuns. relevare. relic (Lat. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Lat. relicquiae. In 16th century Europe. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Fra Angelico and others. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Botticelli. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). A congregation may be either a subsection of an order.Quattrocento (It. basso rilievo). or the Jesuits. with the Anglican Church developing in England. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. canons regular. hermits. in particular works by Masaccio. the object of particular veneration.g. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). in which figures are almost detached from their background. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "remains") a part of the body of a saint.
Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. presided over by chapters general. was the congregation of S. however. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. That of S. and their more institutionalized brethren. who had no overall organization originally. which was to become the main Italian one. Bernardino of Siena. Maria di Fregonaia. Venice (1404). Lucca. The Benedictines. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. i. the most notable being S. the Conventuals. Mantua. Padua. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Lorenzo Giustiniani. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. The Silvestrines. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Giorgio in Alga. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Salvatore. and the generally moderate Observants. Giustina. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. In 1517. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. the great patriarch of Venice. Benedetto. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Founded by St Romuald c. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. At the same time. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. although technically of secular canons. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. After the repression of the Spirituals. it became the Cassinese congregation. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. In 1504.contemplative orders. S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Bologna (1419). 1012. The same bull . their resources being in the hands of trustees. various groups were fused in the latter body. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S.e. The Conventuals.
Filippo Neri. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. founded by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. a historical period. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. founded in 1535 by S. Michele in Isola. however. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Angela Merici. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the Theatines. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). however. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. The first. Gaetano da Thiene. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Venice. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . also. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century.
Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. 1875-86). Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). of letters. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. and competition with. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done.century. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. however. was so vast and potent. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. however. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. of scholarship. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. which had begun early in the 14th century. even Amoralism. of an energetic revival of interest in. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. of arts. of 'darkness'. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. All-Roundness. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. For long. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. life. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. and his own as potentially one of light. too long forgotten glories. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. as well as political. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. . because its core of energy. increasingly. Thereafter. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. the historical reality of antiquity.
Though thus challenged. consist merely of a painting. and other liturgical objects. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. in the more limited sense. sometimes. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. There was an early. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. (3) There is not a true. gratefully. the previous record . mobilized nationalism. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432.erased. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. It is for this additional.with all its shabbiness . It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. The challenges are to be accepted. candlesticks. subjective reason a term to be used with caution.) was the term chosen. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). etc. of industrialization. and mass media. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. letters. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. congruence between. later still to Genoa. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. however. though sometimes of metal. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Ghent). let alone a uniform. Cathedral of SaintBavon. statues. etc. and is decorated with paintings. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. especially in the High Gothic period. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. retables can be detached and. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points.
often considered the last stage of the Baroque. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. like 'Gothic'. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. painting. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. the first style to achieve such international currency. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Louis XV furniture. . that it stands out from its background fully rounded. rocaille (French. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. With the development of freestanding altars. More usually. is a typical product. Rococo A style of design. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Originally commissioned in 976. and 'Romanesque'. however. literally. its mood lighthearted and witry.France. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation.of St Mark in Venice. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). As the name suggests. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Italy. rilievo (It. and architecture dominating the 18th century. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. "relief") In painting. richly decorated with organic forms. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. almost simultaneously. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. the St. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Spain . retables have become extinct. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Germany. Romanesque art. in several countries .in the 11th century.
romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Mabuse. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. van Orley. Massys and M. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. In addition. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Rome. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. van Heemskerk. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Pannini and Mengs. such as red ochre. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Piranesi. stylized design representing an open rose. . making it the centre of the High Renaissance. M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. B. Claude. Q. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. the development of nationalistic pride. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The aim of painting. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. ruddle Any red-earth pigment.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. they maintained. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries.
The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. gutted. but others were the work of well-known figures. and impoverished. There were no limits on time. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. multiple sets used in succession. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Sacra Conversazione (It. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. holy orders. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Written primarily in ottava rima. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. and Protestant churches. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Orthodox. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. matrimony.greatly increased. pious legend and hagiography.expressed through gesture.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. local saints. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Eastern independent. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Many compositions were anonymous. In the . and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Subjects were nominally sacred. the Eucharist. and anointing of the sick. penance. and Lorenzo de' Medici. confirmation. supported by lay confraternities. from the Old and New Testaments. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. glance and movement . The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Clement escaped into Castel S.
chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Saracens . when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. the sun of righteousness. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.early church the number of sacraments varied. Anglican. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. large room. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Lutheran. which in the Gospel According to John. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. notably from Florence and in Germany. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. foot washing. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Hence. and sacraments. chapter 13. They were still seeking aid. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. It is still practiced on special occasions. baptism and the Eucharist.e. the symbolic direction of Christ. Salt War.) Hall. The chief focus of discontent.e. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . and then face east. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. that the price of salt should be increased. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. make such strict distinctions. replaces the Lord's Supper. as in the Church of the Brethren." which are called sacramentals. Thus.. used for drawing. the Rocca Paolina. in principle. was not maintained as a sacrament.i. The theology of the Orthodox Church." sala (Ital. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. as an excuse to revolt. sacraments. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540.. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the Orthodox Church does not. the Bentivoglio. strictly speaking. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Immediately following baptism. The classical Protestant churches (i. was buried under a new fortress. Candidates first face west.
scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. The publication of Latin (1562. 210 AD). the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and many others. made of stone. the god of wine.c.During the Middle Ages. 270 BC). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. 360 . 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 45 BC). The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. sarcophagus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). whose writings. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. pl. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). sarcophagi (Gk. human-like woodland deities with the ears. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 160 . the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. satyr In Greek mythology. wood or terracotta. Little known in the Middle Ages. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. are lost.c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. legs and horns of a goat. the Arabs or Muslims.
from time to time both he and his opponents. the Florentines. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. and. Louis I (d. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). In northern Italy. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Alexander V. in June 1409. for. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. on one side. 1386) and his son Ladislas.they had individual Bentnames . than their medieval predecessors. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. most of whom. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. who recognized the Roman pope. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. on the other. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. while England. As a result. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. However. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). scholasticism . one of the early leaders. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. being Frenchmen. who had the support of the Avignon pope. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Schism. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. but with little effect. was called Bamboccio. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome.for example Pieter van Laer. with France and her allies Aragon. while devout Christians agonized. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense.
In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). as it were. if lime-water was used. and theology. textual scholarship. Padua. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water.The term is ambivalent. Medieval scholars. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. that scholasticism was left. Serenissima (Ital. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.) . It was because the central concerns of humanism . because the secco technique is much less permanent. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. as it is easier to add details in this way. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. university-based study. on one side. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. None the less. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Christian. moreover. notably Aquinas. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Often called the burning ones. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. history and rhetoric . the plaster had to be damped before painting. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. and Islamic literature. As such. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.moral philosophy. (See also: fresco. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God.were different from those of medieval.
Sibyls foretold the Birth. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. In Christian legend. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. "prophetess") In antiquity. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Servite (Lat. in the period of classical antiquity. and the delicate. there was only one Sibyl. sinopia . The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. sibylla. They first appear in alpine monasteries. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. which were all identical in thickness. usually presided over by individual families. Lat. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sibyls (Gk. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. "the most serene republic of Venice"). sfumato A technique. Originally. Signoria (It. at the same time. in use since the Middle Ages.. Med. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. brass. the number gradually rose to ten. term.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. women who could prophesy.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.
'Beautiful Madonnas'. as the name implies. "mark. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. especially in the flow of drapery. It is very closely related to International Gothic. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. staffage This word. and. stigma (Gk. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. brand. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case.) Wooden ceiling decoration. soffit (Lat. pronounced as French.. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. sing. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. Francis of Assisi. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . in other words. Stanze (Ital. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. .The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). Ital. stigmata. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. sotto in sù (It. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.
The vogue for the Sublime. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. stucco A type of light. In a looser sense. pl. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. supremacy . helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. John Milton. Indeed. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. studioli (It. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). both external and internal. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. with that for the Picturesque. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. studiolo. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. whose verses actually fabrications . sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts.
T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. temperare. . To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. then being replaced by oil paint. The subject is underexplored.e. both for panel painting and fresco. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . chiefly from Flanders. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. tempera (Lat. But the Italians did not make them. These were imported. doubtless. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. Salviati and Allori.Historically. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). into Italy. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. i. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. his own headquarters. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. or cartoons. was being decorated with frescoes.and. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. and in literature. London. 1407). Tempera colors are bright and translucent.
It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "a commonplace") In literature. and sculptures. quarter face. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. topia. and other surfaces. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. topiary (Gk. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. triumphal arch. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Trajan's Column . tondi (It.e. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "fields. vessels. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). widely used form. pl. walls. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. figure of speech. topos. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. i. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. theme or motif.terracotta (It. and profile. and later to subdivide gable ends. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topoi (Gk. in art. tondo. terraferma (Ital. model. in the architecture of ancient Rome. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. pl.
Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. time and eternity. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. death. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. or wings.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. a car so brave'. triptych (Gk. the military triumph became sublimated. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. as it were. "threefold") in Christianity. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. patriarchs and prophets.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Early triptychs were often portable. into a number of less controversial forms. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. . behind it. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. the Son and the Holy Spirit. beside it the army of martyrs. trinitas. "threefold") A painting in three sections. fame. tryptychos. of both sexes'. added to the glamour of the triumph. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. usually an altarpiece. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). chastity. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Disseminated soon after his death. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Trinity (Lat. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Meanwhile. after 'a countless number of virgins. the wars by which they were won . In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Battista Sforza. of virtues and of the arts.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love.' Before it go the apostles. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.
"drum") In classical architecture. first recorded in 1232. tympanum (Lat. through various naturalistic devices. It incorporates Renaissance features. In medieval architecture.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. often decorated with sculptures. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tusche A thick. Dating from classical times. typology . though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. it is usually decorated with carvings. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. enclosed by an arch. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. viscous black ink. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tromp l'oeil (Fr. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel.
but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .) The Renaissance "universal man". where they were most accessible. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. 1610). In Christian thought. . Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . knew his former patrons. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. 1590-1624). Judith.g.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.A system of classification. The numerous candles. and David. were popular with them also. U uomo universale (It. especially his half-length figural groups. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.Dirck van Baburen (c. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. e. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). each had access to his paintings. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. killer of Holofernes. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). slayer of Goliath. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. such as five works devoted to the senses. lanterns. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.
formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Also varietas (Lat. often gold. There are a wide range of forms. Vespers (Lat. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. guttering candles. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. carriages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. vesper. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. a work's richness of subject matter. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. overturned vessels. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. the groin vault. hour-glasses and clocks. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. snuff boxes and other objects. it was used to decorate furniture. and the rib vault. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Parisian craftsmen. V vanishing point In perspective.). vanitas (Lat. mixed in. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. varietà (It. "evening") .
Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Temperance. Hope. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Lust. vite (Lat. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. and Sloth. vestibulum. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. virtù could be used. 'Assume a virtue. In ancient Roman dwellings. actual or latent. Envy. "life") . and Justice. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride.Prayers said in the evening. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Fortitude. if you have it not'. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Vestibule (Lat. Charity. the church service at which these prayers are said. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Anger. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Prudence. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. pl. for example. Covetousness. "not exposed to winds". in which the word signifies efficacy. vita. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vimperga Of German origin. Gluttony. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top.
Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. in fact. and appalled recognition of. 1478-80. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. The wars from 1494 do. 1482-84). The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Vitruvius Pollio. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Marcus (1st cent. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. a biography. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. published in 1550 and 1568. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. and of Ferrara. those of Volterera. 1472.An account of someone's life and work.g. protection from harm. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Sculptors and Architects"). Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. or recovery from illness has been made. they were from the 18th century . AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. treasury or a place where justice was administered. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. a philosophy of life. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. usually linear. based on stylization of various animal forms. Westwerk German word. . "Western work of art". during its subsequent history. usually restorers. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. It was intended to have a variety of functions. pompous on the floor above. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. woodcut A print made from a wood block.Weltanschauung (Gr. gallery. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "world view") A comprehensive world view.
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