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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
piers or pillars. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Lancet and Tudor. and Rouault. architrave (It. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. There are several variants of the technique. the moulding around a window or door. arkhitektonikos. including Goya. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. "architectural") Relating to structure. The term applies also to a print made by this method. or organization. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the darker the tone). The adjective is apsidal. which is fused to the plate by heating. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Also known as an exedra. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. architectonic (Gk. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. roofed with a half-dome. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). In Greek and Roman literature. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. at the east end of a church behind the altar. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Degas. the lowest part of the entablature).A semicircular projection. . aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines.e. arcus. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Picasso. design. but in essence the process is as follows. arcade (Lat.
In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.and the Comedy ." from Gk. aureole (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. archeiu. attributum. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "front arch. attribute (Lat. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person." and Lat. usually a saint. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.archivolt (Ital.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "begin. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. In the case of martyrs. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . voltus. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "golden. dominate. aureolus. archivolto.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine.
Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Later. 'Captivity'. often anecdotal. that of Cardano. The actual move was made in 1309. paintings of everyday life. the god of wine and fertility. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. or baldacchino (It. who had been residing in France since 1305. Six pontificates later. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. in 1377. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). baldachin. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. applied to the physically . the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.
or connected with. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Alg. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. el Kantara. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. AD 273. Lebanon. seven. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. . beggars in rags. a church. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and Nocera in Italy. banderuola. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and Poitiers.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. the Temple of Venus. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Easter. Croatia]. Pentecost. pope between 432 and 440. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. As eight follows the "complete" number. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Spalato [Split. or forecourt. AD 300). the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. built by Sixtus III. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. or canopy. a visual metaphor for the number eight. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Parma. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. banderole (It.. France. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. set beneath a domical ciborium.g. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. such as those at Pisa. Customarily. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and Epiphany. Baalbek. Florence. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning.. and abject filthy things.
basilica (Gk. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Also tunnel vault. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. and (3) everyday realism. usually facing east. 1810-1865). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. or baptismal chapels. Baroque (Port. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Originally. 1807-1876). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1814-1875). in its usual location near the church door . and thus a church. "king's hall") a church building. the dramatic use of light and shadow. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts.an allusion to entering the Christian life. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. however. and increasingly elaborate decoration. achieved through scale. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Constant Troyon (French. 1796-1875). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. . 1811-1889). southeast of Paris. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Jean-François Millet (French. were often omitted entirely. which is reserved for the clergy. baptisteries. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. barocco. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). in the 1840s and 1850s. something of earlier symbolism survives. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Jules Dupré (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Rubens). In architecture. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Théodore Rousseau (French. Vermeer). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1817-1878). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. stoa basilike. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration.In the 10th century.
Book of Hours . The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. often with food and drink. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. or which is to be left as it is. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. in which still-life predominates. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. It takes its name from its grainy texture. were referred to by their specific contents. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Biscuit porcelain. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. particularly porcelain. The term was mainly used up to c. domesticity.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. however. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. up until the mid-17th century. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Spanish still-lifes. also incorrectly called bisque. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. as is to be expected. like their Dutch counterparts. There were. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Bodegónes. and often sentimentality. bodegón Image. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. 1650 in Spain. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). such as Waldmüller. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. By association. which is either not yet glazed. especially Spanish. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins.
By extension.by a variety of processes. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. days of the week. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. See flying buttress. bozzetto Strictly speaking. varying from silverish to a rich. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. coppery red. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. Chantilly). . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.both hot and cold . and the fact that it is easily workable . durability. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. a rapid sketch in oil.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. made as a study for a larger picture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.an advantage over marble sculpture. or seasons. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. but can also be used for painted sketches. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. months. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bozzetto(Italian.
and Giotto. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. C cabinet A small. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. its forms highly stylized. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. cameo Small relief made from gems. which was often allegorical. box") In architecture. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. and work in precious metals. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. ceramics. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). manuscript illuminations. caisson (Fr. private room where works of art. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. "a chest. glass. It also served to glorify the emperor. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. camera obscura . notable from Syria and Egypt. casson. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. Duccio. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Among its most distinctive products were icons. mosaics.
candelabrum (It. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. pl. cantorie (It. usually with several branches or arms. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. The Latin name means "dark chamber. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. Portable versions were built. candlestick. candela. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. as an aid to drawing. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. other materials used are cotton.Ancestor of the photographic camera. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. . candelabra. "candle") A large. hemp. and jute. by the 16th century. capital (Lat." and the earliest versions. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. capitellum. usually built beside or attached to a church. Structurally. sing. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. followed by smaller and even pocket models. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. which was usually whitened. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. both of which have richly carved marble panels. usually decorated.-N. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. campanile Bell tower. Niepce created photography. which isolates the fabric from the paint. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. dating to antiquity. only very rough effects will be obtainable. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.) A gallery for singers or musicians. usually in a church. cantoria.
Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cardinalis. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. monasteries containing separate hermitages. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. The order combines reclusive and community life. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cartone. Carthusian Order (Lat. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. At the height of the Middle Ages. cartoon (It. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. or fresco. near Grenoble. New Charterhouses. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). and humanism.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartouche . tapestry. pl. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the date of the painting. details of the subject. Carmelites (Lat. or a motto. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. In fresco painting. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartellino.a humorous drawing or parody. the endeavour to attain true humanity.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Fortitudo (Fortitude). Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the Carmelites were originally hermits. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartellini In a painting.
. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. These lead up to the north and south transepts. or arms of the cross. a cathedral always faces west . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. In the 15th century. Paolo Uccello. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. cathedral (cathedra. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Cascina. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. or nave. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. and many other items of her dowry. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. The altar is placed at the east end. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. and swags of fruit and flowers. castello (It. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. cassone (It. putti (cupids).) "castle". where the throne of the bishop is placed. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. decorated with gilt gesso. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. linen. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). palace. They contained the bride's clothes.toward the setting sun. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. The main body. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. caryatid (Gk. For reasons lost to time and tradition. they were also used in other countries.
and Islamic literature. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Christian. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. central perspective (Lat. as celestial attendants of God. centralis. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. and perspicere. "in the centre". In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. or birdlike characteristics. continually praise him. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). animal. a throne bearer of the deity.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Both the statement of St. landscapes. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. rather than intercessory functions. . An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. champlevé (Fr. in accordance with their distance from the observer. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Relative to the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. a celestial winged being with human. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning.
or for choral singing. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Burgkmair (1510). John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). notably Lucas Cranach (1506). Lastly. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. North of the Alps." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges.chiaroscuro (It. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . choros. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. "light dark") In painting. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. replacing tempera. Since Carolingian times. choir (Gk. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. the Order of the Hospital of St.
and repetition of pattern. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and the Churrigueresque column. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. undulating cornices. Sculpted clouds. The Mexico cathedral (1718). The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. stucco shells. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. ciborium . Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. an architect. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). a massing of carved angels. The Transparente (completed 1732). The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. became the most common motif. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. reversed volutes.intersect). gilded rays. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and garlands. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. balustrades. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. further enriching the style. undulating lines. is as typically Churrigueresque. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Very few still exist in their original positions.
On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Quattrocento (1400s. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. controlled by the minor guilds. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. as also were those in the associated. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. including the ciompi. or achieve political representation. craft of dyeing. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. The new government. In reaction to this revolutionary . Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Their economic condition worsened. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. etc. placing one of their members. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. the wool carder Michele di Lando. but self-employed. They were forbidden to form a trade association. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. ciompi. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. beaters. combers. Then.and post-medieval Italy. Without being members of a guild. who were raised to the status of a guild. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Members of the lower classes. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. High Renaissance). on July 22. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident.
episode.as in Italy these were dispensed with. writers. philosophy. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. . editing and translating a wide range of texts. literature. except in cases where . The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. resembling a lyre. philosophy and art . and politics. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. on which strings were plucked. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). the black contours usually with a special line plate.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. Concepts of the classical. In the 15th century Greek literature. the ciompi guild was abolished. clair-obscur (Fr. cithara (Gk.) An ancient musical instrument. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. however. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. scholars patiently finding. with Italian scholars. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. changed greatly from one period to the next. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate.
compline (Lat. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. literature or music. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. pl. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. blue and orange. cognoscente (It. concetto. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. condottiere. [hora] completa. a work's underlying theme. Green and red. concetti (It. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. those with refined tastes. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. sing. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. when set side by side. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. pl. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). arch or ceiling. or "contract. as well as from the Bible. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. . cognoscenti. condottieri (It. terrorized the country. The name was derived from the condotta. intensify one another. Coffered ceilings. occasionally made of wood. the church service at which these prayers are said. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art.
devastating Romagna. and Tuscany. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. which spread in the 15th century. Mark (1432). who won control of Milan in 1450. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. flagellant confraternities. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. often under the direction of. or with the spiritual assistance of.e. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. commonly called either Compagnia di S. With no goal beyond personal gain. By the 16th century. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. disappeared. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Spanish. convents of convertite. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. in Venice. Martino). and his rival Braccio da Montone. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. in the service of Naples. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. i. Toward the end of the 15th century. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline.e. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Muzio's son. often called compagnie or. in the service of Perugia. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Francesco Sforza. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. and German--the condottieri. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. primarily for syphilitics. . Umbria. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Carmagnola. confraternities Confraternities. i. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. scuole. By the end of the 14th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. clergy. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S.
1514 in S. reformed prostitutes.e. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contour. contrapposto (It. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Later. and refuges for maidens. contour (Fr.i. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . flat outlines. e. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. e. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. but sometimes had their own premises. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the Florentine Neri. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. In medieval painting. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Dorotea in Trastevere. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. while the Venetian government. notwithstanding their location. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. in Florence. founded c. Confraternities.g. however. While the Doge ranked above the Council. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contours were initially regular. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership).g.
the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. cuprum. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. started the process of inner reform in the Church. whose names are inscribed on several works. conventicle (Lat. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517).weight on one leg. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. conventiculurn. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. 1100 and 1300. 1280). "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Reform programs. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. an engraving produced in this way. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. . declining moral standards. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. corbel In architecture. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. large cornice or other feature. aes cyprium. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. did not achieve any lasting results. They are often ornamented. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. The style spread as far as England. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Lat. a bracket of stone. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch.
he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. after being whipped. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Death.e. Usually. D dado . An ancestor of the oboe. "small vat") In architecture. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Carthaginians. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Seleucids. i. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. the condemned man. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Jews. or "scourged. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. There were various methods of performing the execution. a small dome. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the most famous victim of crucifixion. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. a semi-circular vault. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. cupula. reedy sound. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Constantine the Great. Next. particularly among the Persians. the first Christian emperor. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. cupola (Lat.
and Linz possessed common characteristics. but the concept behind an art work. decorated diffrently from the upper section. diptychum. The term stresses not the literal drawing. an expressive use of nature. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. deacon (Gk. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). diakonos. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Germany. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. e. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Passau. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Deësis (Gk. a favorite late medieval picture subject.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. "drawing. diptychos. disegno (It. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. design") In Renaissance art theory. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. often an altarpiece. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg.g. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. usually in matching pairs. danse macabre The dance of death. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diptych (Lat.
As disegno appeals to the intellect. distemper (Lat. when painters took to working out of doors. doublet A male garment. though a few artists. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. is a heavy piece of furniture. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. formerly worn under armour. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. such as we still use today. Dominicans (Lat. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. a 19th-century invention. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. usually forming a ceiling or roof. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). donor (Lat. The studio easel. Ordo Praedictatorum. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters.fully realize. "to mix. also used it on canvas. donator. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket.Thomas Aquinas. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. which runs on castors or wheels. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. distemperare. dome in architecture.
the frieze. epitaph (Gk. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. sculpture. en face In portraiture. sometimes combining panel painting. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. and the cornice. Hence. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschatology (Gk. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. and architecture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "last". "word") . "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. a depiction of Jesus. and logos. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. John (19. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. in art. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. Ecce Homo (Lat. full face. bound and flogged. entablature In classical architecture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. It consists of the architrave. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. eschaton. fresco. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. ensemble (Fr.
Vittoria Colonna. Germany. which was developed in the Near East ca. Augustine. Contarini. farmers. Marcantonio Flaminio. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church." and that made in the Netherlands and England. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Eucharist (Gk. protector of shepherds. celebrated with bread and wine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature.death and resurrection. particularly ware made in France. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. which is called "maiolica. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Italy. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Equated with the Greek god Pan. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Giovanni Morone. eu. fields and livestock. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Saints Ambrose. Jerome. notably Cardinal Pole. "good. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. 4500 BCE." and charis. which is called "delftware. Spain. which was famous for maiolica. Carnesecchi and Ochino. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. . and is named for Faenza. and Scandinavia. It developed in France in the early 16th century. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and of the last things.
and these areas. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. drying to a slightly different tint. Their attributes are the bow. relaxed. frescos in Italy . and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. can in time be seen. a swag. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. that of the others red. a technique known as a secco fresco. leaves. black and dun. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. war. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Only a small area can be painted in a day. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. 2 . a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.festoni (It. and flowers suspended in a loop. The colour of his horse is white. famine and death. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. sword and set of balances. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. fresco (It. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. such as plague. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous.8). representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. fluted of a column or pillar.
where the atmosphere was too damp. usually childish figure. genre In a broad sense. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. are genres of painting. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. or fresco secco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. covings and ceilings. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. In art from the classical period onwards. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the intonaco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. Genius in classical Rome. Final details. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. or true fresco. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall.Save in Venice. The technique of buon fresco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). landscape and portraiture. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. a person's invisible tutelary god. G Garter. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. for example. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.
as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. as well as writers and artists. Gobelins . whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. As such. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. in portraits and on tombs. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. whether it must be connected with the public good. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. how it differed from notoriety. Maria Gloriosa). Bernardo Daddi. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. and as spurring on men of action. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Maso di Banco. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse.
The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. thereafter it made only tapestries. In other Italian cities. . Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. and although it reopened in 1699. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. who appointed Lebrun Director.French tapestry manufactory. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. This ratio is approximately 8:13. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. golden section (Lat. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Golden Fleece. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. still in existence today. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Paris. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church.
is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. that the effects are to be felt. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. There is a transcendental quality. 1270. The artistic. like the cultural and commercial. . the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. and lies much deeper than.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. Denis. Nevertheless. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Gothic Gothic. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. Amiens. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. In thinking of Nicola (d. 1200 and c. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. from the 13th until the 17th century. In sculpture and in painting. In particular. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. painting. or the influence of one building. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. the superficial particularities of form. painting. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons.
and taste among the English. . sometimes in the company of a tutor. starch. Pannini. if required. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. These qualities. and above all Italy.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Dubuffet. occasionally. with sable.and hog-hair brushes. the Netherlands. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Canaletto. Honey. Klee. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. chiefly to France. Such tours often took a year or more. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. notably in the writings of Bellori. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and the great style. and Morris Graves. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. It is thinned with water for applying. to silk. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and Piranesi. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. to white or tinted paper and card and. genius. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. without visible brush marks. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. the beau idéal of the French. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings.
with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. however. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. 1216.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. including text as well as illustrations. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. drawing and the various forms of engraving. . Although its palace was rebuilt c. brother of Louis IX. became an abiding feature of European politics. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. gris. to Provence and Paris. usually gray. through central Italy. c. In Florence. and Waiblingen. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. after this. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. internal factions in Florence went under other names. then as now. exclude drawing from this definition. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. After the War of the Eight Saints. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture.e. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. In another sense. which had recruited most of the merchant class. grisaille (Fr. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. however. In the context of the fine arts. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. From 1266 to 1268. Some writers. the parties taking a multitude of local names. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria.
they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. "[knowledge of] heraldry. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and provided assistance to members in need. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In some cities. In Florence. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The guild also monitored standards of work. goldsmiths. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. H hatching In a drawing. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. or professions. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. trade or profession (painters. surgeons. [science] héraldique. Guilds were also patrons of art." from Fr. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. trades. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. such as Brescia and Vicenza. but in time they acquired other functions. In some towns. héraut. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. "herald") . In 16th century Venice. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. In Italy they go back a long way. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. heraldry (Fr. notably Florence in the 14th century. as some did). including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. and greater hostility between master and man. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. for example. The guilds were not equal. print or painting. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control.
head of the 'carnal Church'. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. while others merged with the Waldensians. as Antichrist. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. the Cathars were an anti-church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. By contrast. normative for churchmen. the followers of Juan de Valdes. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. indeed. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. they were condemned in 1184. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. i. with the rules governing their use. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. However. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. one great missionary community.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. together with brethren north of the Alps. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The main impact of the . from the start. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the Waldensian.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. d.
hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Church. humanus. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. J. Henry Inman. F. S. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. Durand. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. in his earlier work. At the same time. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Kensett. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Thomas Cole. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. F. Morse. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. mainly in the south. Frederick E. hortus conclusus (Lat. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Jasper Cropsey. Germany. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. its subjects considered morally elevating. humanism (Lat. In humanism. B. the emancipation of man from God took place. working from 1825 to 1875. and. history (usually classical history). American painters were studying in Rome. George Inness. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. and classical literature. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden.movement upon the laity was in southern France. my spouse'. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
inventio (It. The terms court style. etc. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. beautiful style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Veronica. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the ability to create. invention. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. usually the donors of a work of art. originality. or of other saints. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Derived from classical rhetoric. soft style. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. In the second half of the 14th century. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. trecento rococo and lyrical style. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Donatallo. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Human figures. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century.g. investiture . the rooster of Peter's denial. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the hammer. the veil of St. are also used in art literature. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. the pincers. For instance. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. and they are also depicted on their own. and the ladder. with many further details added. the scourge that was used in the scourging. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it.
Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. principally Dutch. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. of Utrecht. Italianizers Northern artists. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Upon his return to Holland. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Jerome's writings. Andries and Jan Both. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. . who traveled in Italy and. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. bathed in a golden haze. The Both brothers. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Both and Berchem. generally Dutch or Flemish. and Jan Asselijn. although they are usually called Romanists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Nicolaes Berchem. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office.
Legenda Aurea (Lat. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). liberal arts . Archbishop of Genoa. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. the rite of communion is based on this.1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. encouraged by the Crusades. especially one at which the Bible is read.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. As their military role grew. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). lectern A reading stand or desk. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. John of Jerusalem . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.
often standing in markets and town squares. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. rhetoric and dialectic. . astronomy and music. "little moon") In architecture. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. its roof supported by columns. Pythagoras for arithmetic. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.grammar. commemorating a marriage. that could be used for public ceremonies. geometry. poetic atmosphere. lunette (Fr. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. first the preparatory trivium . through the use of aerial perspective. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. often sublime.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Kensett (1816-1872). the quadrivium. John F.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. then the basis of a philosophical training. painting or sculptural decoration. and Frederick E. that may contain a window. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Church (1826-1900). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. loggia (It. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900).g.g. Tubal for music). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. together with identifying attributes (e. Heade (1819-1904). It is related to.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). comprising arithmetic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. a semicircular space. Martin J. Maria Novella in Florence). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's).
It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. historical subjects. antimony yellow. and iron red. and however bright their lighting effects.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and accompaniments. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. mandorla (It. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). active mainly in Florence c. being written. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. manganese purple. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). but they painted genre scenes. the goddess Cybele. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. Specifically. copper green. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. for example. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. "almond") . usually for the lute. magna mater (Lat. 1855–65. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and portraits as well as landscapes. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). originally sung without accompaniment. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. madrigal A part song. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. particularly such ware produced in Italy. "great mother") A mother goddess. When white is used for painting. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware.
more strictly. In architecture. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. El Greco and Tintoretto. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. mantle An overcoat. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. ecclesiastical. Mannerism (It. which was quarried at Mount . At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. maniera. the hand-written medieval book. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and literary texts. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. "manner. the Codex manuscriptus. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. bound. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. complex and crowded compositions. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and crowned with thorns. Developing out of the Renaissance. Parmigianino. marked by flagellation. In Mannerist painting. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. often ornamented with decorative borders. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. It reached to the knee or foot. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Flanders. Bronzino. depending on the social class of the wearer.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Burgundy. strong. illuminated initials and miniatures. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. in a specific sense. worn open.
it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . particularly by Michelangelo. a different design on the reverse. Without monetary value. the medal's purpose was commemorative. martyrion. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. quarried at Massa. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. having finished his training. marmi finti (It. medallion In architecture. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). martyrdom (Gk. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. an inscription running round the rim. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. which were beginning to be reverently collected. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Like the finest Imperial coins. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. sleek surface. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. "witness. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Carrara. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. The pure white Carrara marble.Pentelicon in Attica.
even grain. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. a Gorgon. 14601528). When Perseus cuts off her head. and of the many. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. no line drawing is employed. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. A Dutch officer. 1640. . Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. The work of these men. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. supposedly to petrify her enemies. who reflected them. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1467-688). Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. In pure mezzotint. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Ludwig von Siegen. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. in England. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. as it were. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. of the person portrayed on the other side. the stress on individual character. perhaps oddly. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. c. The process is essentially extinct today. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Her head features on Minerva's shield. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. 1425-1504). Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. often anonymous. 1452-1526/27). particularly. for landscapes and portraits.round the neck. It was. This yields a soft effect in the print. c. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Medusa In Greek mythology. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi).
miter A high. e. monochrome (Gk. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. executed on a very small scale. Many such small versions. ink and paint. "word. saying") . a branch of the Franciscan order. painting in gouache on vellum or card. monokhromatos. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. motto (Ital. still exist. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. a painting executed in a single color. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Francis himself. "one color") Painted in a single color. pointed headdress worn by bishops. often quite highly finished. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St.g. by Tiepolo and Rubens. usually portraits. Parmigianino (d.
which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. The invention of personal mottos. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Isidore.from the Middle Ages. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. often separated from it by pillars. but often insipid. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. In general. and is intersected by the transept. and two other members moved to Rome. It may have parallel aisles on each side. named after the patron saint of painting. In 1810 0verbeck. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. 1816-17. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. navis. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). naturalism (Fr. Berlin. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and Casino Massimo. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Rome. Nazarenes A group of young. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. . 1817-29). naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. nave (from Lat. Pforr.
But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. but their ideas continued to be influential. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. is as true as it is notorious. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. "aureole") The disc or halo.) . and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. moreover. Popes. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Nymphaeum (Gk. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). niello (Lat. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). were usually old when elected. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. the style of the Ancien Régime. nimbus (Lat. usually golden. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. nigellus.
observances") Rites performed for the dead. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. its richness of colour. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. with a sturdy. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. was the simplest. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. such as linseed. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. The earliest. fluted column and a plain capital.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. "services. or poppy. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. and entablatures. the three basic styles of design. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. walnut. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. . ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. They are seen in the form of the columns. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. O obsequies (Lat. Greek goddesses of Nature. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). a more elaborate base. capital. orders of architecture In classical architecture. obsequia. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. a small private chapel. the Doric order. and its greater tonal range. inborn sin. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus).
The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. with biforate windows. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. and the main apartments above.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. and. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. tradition and social structure. like cities. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. the Cancelleria). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type.g. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. designed as a . Palazzo Strozzi).Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. palazzo (It. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. standing at the foot of the Cross. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. P pala (Ital. while shops came to be thought undignified.
defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. like the colonnaded vestibule. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Other cities. came to be applied all over Europe. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. palmette. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". column-caps. In Venice. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and large households. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Rich. Movement of patrons and architects. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Palazzo Massimi). the architectural pace was set by the papal court. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). panel . meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. behind a sober Florentine façade. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. often built next to their titular churches.scholarly retreat. especially after the Sack of Rome. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. cornices and abutments. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus.g. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Papal incentives to build. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. like Genoa. Following Oriental patterns. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. evolved influential types.g. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. e. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements.
Having a circular plan. the. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). as it were. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. chestnut. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. slate has occasionally been used as a support. On a larger scale. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. metal. mahogany. enforce law and order. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and dark walnut are favourites. fir. so that they might have a voice at court. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. however. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. linden. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. In the 20th century cedar. To maintain their authority.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Many other types were used. or the incidence of taxation. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. A number of matters. secular rulers. Then. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. or other rigid substance. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. cedar. the management of clerical dues and taxation. and walnut. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. as distinct from canvas. fibre-board. As successors to St Peter. including beech. and spanned by a single dome. to influence popes in their favour. The third aspect was administrative. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. larch. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe.Term in painting for a support of wood. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and other synthetic materials as supports. and the pressure and temptations . could lead to conflict with secular authorities. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and modern painters have also used plywood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. olive. teak.
criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. which seems so inevitable. which met at Constance 1414-18. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. in the eyes of God. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. It was argued that such a council. the most appropriate . the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). possess an authority which. as such. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. however.that could be applied to them. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. Colonna and Caetani. of individuals. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. from the point of view of its religious associations. was long in doubt. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . however. at Avignon. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. To resolve the problem of divided authority. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. By then. however. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. could supersede that of a pope. if it did no serious damage to the faith. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. So onerous. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). The identification of the Papacy with Rome. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. There remained. would. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. to be long delayed. in spite of further absences from Rome. As at Avignon. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.as well. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State.
hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum).. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. to a world peopled by shepherds. and other animals. However. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and with Zeuxis (c. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. nymphs. Parrhasius (c. pastoral (Lat. through lavish patronage of artists. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. in classical literature. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. less frequently pig. Passion . Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. as well as a governmental one. goat. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. it has also been used for painting. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. scholars and men of letters. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and satyrs. 400-300 BC). and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. pastor. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. the creation of a cultural capital. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf.
from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. a region in north-central Italy. which focus on the Suffering Christ. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. a prominent section of a monumental façade. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.The events leading up to Good Friday. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. and so on. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family.) or pasticcio (It. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. pavilion (Lat. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a small. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. . pastiche (fr. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. and also the archbishop of Pisa. "butterfly. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. but not necessarily a direct copy. papilio. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. the crown of thorns. such as a garden summerhouse. patrician (Lat. wealthy citizen. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Meanwhile. Portrayals of the Passion. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. ornamental building. Francesco Salviati. patricius. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. 1478. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. projecting either centrally or at both ends. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. 1478).
perspective (Lat. personification (Lat. "nature". concept or deity. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. . and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). dependent") One of a pair of related art works. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and facere. pergola (It. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "to see through. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "person". often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physiognomy (Gk. "hanging. physis. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. persona. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. and gnomon. pendant (Fr. perspicere. or related elements within an art work. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. in particular the face.
exemplified. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. containing the public rooms. glue. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. pigmentum. Peter's.) The main floor of a building.piano nobile (Ital. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. usually above the ground floor. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Pietà (Lat. A pier is generally larger than a column. striking the imagination with the force of painting. proper to take a landscape from. curious details. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. to be expressed in painting. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. pigment (Lat. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. but may consist of a cluster of columns. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. remarkable for singularity. Rome. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. affording a good subject for a landscape. but full of variety. for example. both real and painted. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). . Developing in Germany in the 14th century. or resin to make paint.
Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. perhaps. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. in October 1347. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Rocco and Sebastian. outside Tuscany. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. moreover. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). though in less widespread. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . It seems probable. During 1348 the Black Death. for instance. It is often fluted. and capital. In the 15th century. plague Plague. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. the burning of 'infected' clothing. pilastrum. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). despite regional variations. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy.pilaster (Lat. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. and thereafter all Europe. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Thenceforward. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. however. more sporadic outbreaks. it is difficult to find. a shaft. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. "pillar") A flat. it has a base. For this reason. also used in Spain's American colonies. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. since. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. such as Florence and Genoa.
and sinuous scrolls. the Renaissance-Plateresque. which lasted only a few decades. The first phase. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Timaeus. i. and unified style using massive geometric forms. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. or appropriateness. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. more severe. Theatetus and the Laws. like its successor. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. harmonious. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Phaedrus. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Phaedo. Philebus. or simply the Plateresque. The second phase. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). placement. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Diego evolved a purer. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). A student of Socrates. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. In contrast with Aristotle. utilized Mudejar ornament -. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland.. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase.e. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. are the masterworks of the second style. heraldic escutcheons. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. correct classical orders became frequent. composition. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. the Symposium. The first phase. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic.
1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. and he utilized many other writings. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. and the Chaldaic Oracles. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1472-c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). all of which he also translated into Latin. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. including those of Plotinus. and Agostino Steuco (c. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 .1577) becoming particularly popular. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. partially. Rather unsystematic. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. A new Latin translation. Plotinus. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. near Florence. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Iamblichus. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. but not completely.in Plato's thought. the greatest of his ancient disciples. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. replaced Ficino's. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. systematized and added to what Plato had done. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c.
an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. plinthos. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. portico (Lat. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. column. or statue. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. where a pectoral is used to close it. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. poluptukhos. polyptych (Gk. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pluviale. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluvial (Med. as in classical architecture). pointed arch In architecture. such as processions and consecrations. porticus. Lat. plinth (Gk. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Plato was read in the universities.
The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Desiderio da Settignano. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Florence. Palazzo Farnese). Campidoglio). Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. The equestrian portrait. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. 1328. Florence (1486-90). Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. and only a decorative accessory to form. Maria Novella. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Mantua. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. flattened image.e. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. the Carracci. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. inessential. Venice).sculptors such as Donatello. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Gattarnelata. psychologically more complex. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Siena. was revived in the 14th century. and the .. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Group portraits. Cathedral) by Uccello. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The realism of the clear. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Colleoni. The 16th century portrait became generalized. decorating whole rooms. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. National Gallery).
but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The sermons of Visdomini. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. The styles of S. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. and. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. of the sermon as an art form. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. was versed in classical and patristic . there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). who had as their ideal masters Titian. bishop of Asti. Fiamma's sermons." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. are not florid in style. several of whom became bishops. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Savonarola and Musso. Borromeo. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. abrasive even. As Poussin was a Frenchman. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. bishops especially. Charles Le Brun. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. and Peter Paul Rubens. Correggio. however. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. minatory exhortations. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. together with the Dominican Savonarola. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. to discharge their preaching duties. primarily the mendicants. bishop of Chioggia. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). 1494). when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. from the secular clergy. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks.
Because of the small size of predelle . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. among them Holman Hunt. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . The New Testament references in these would. however. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. though often relatively very wide . Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. and so forth.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. predella (It. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Millais and Rossetti. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Naples). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. the temptations of Adam and Christ. tapestries.g. prefiguration Typology . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.rhetoric. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.
Girardon. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the golden section. notably David. proportion (Lat. these highly finished drawings. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Prix de Rome A scholarship. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. sculpture and architecture. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. which uses the square . 2. again indicative of the purpose they served. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Fragonard. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. intended as complete works of art in themselves. profil perdu (Fr. 3. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. "evenness") in painting.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. the Canon of Proportion. and Houdon among sculptors. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the quadrature. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. proportio. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The following are important: 1.
Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. harmonic proportions. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. triangulation. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. It was common in Roman art. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. . Ignazio.as a unit of measurement. putto (It. Unlike Pozzo. and 5. the steward or treasurer of a church. putti sing. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. "boys") Plump naked little boys. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. a fourth = 3:4. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. a fifth = 2:3. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. 4. provenance The origins of an art work. Rome. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. one half the length of the other). the history of a work's ownership since its creation. for example). which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction.
or some item connected with a saint. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Botticelli. the great orders of monks. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. hermits. Brunelleschi. canons regular. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. friars and nuns. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. relicquiae. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. also known as the Realist school. In 16th century Europe. and high relief (alto rilievo). with the Anglican Church developing in England. Donatello. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. e. Fra Angelico and others. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the object of particular veneration. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. basso rilievo). in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. or the Jesuits. in which figures are seen half round. in which figures are almost detached from their background.g. Among the . It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R").Quattrocento (It. relevare. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. refectory (Med. relic (Lat. in particular works by Masaccio. Lat. relief (Lat.
The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Giustina. Mantua. Padua. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. the most notable being S. The Silvestrines. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. who had no overall organization originally. which was to become the main Italian one. Venice (1404). presided over by chapters general. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. S. although technically of secular canons. Lucca. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Benedetto. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Founded by St Romuald c. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. and their more institutionalized brethren. After the repression of the Spirituals. the great patriarch of Venice. In 1504. i. The Benedictines. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. That of S. the Conventuals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. and the generally moderate Observants. The same bull . they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life.contemplative orders. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Giorgio in Alga. Maria di Fregonaia. however. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Bernardino of Siena. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Salvatore. At the same time. In 1517. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Bologna (1419). various groups were fused in the latter body. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. 1012. was the congregation of S.e. The Conventuals. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. it became the Cassinese congregation. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation.
Gerolamo Aemiliani. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The first. also. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. however. founded in 1535 by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. however. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Angela Merici. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Venice. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the Theatines. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Gaetano da Thiene. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Michele in Isola. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. founded by S. Filippo Neri. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. a historical period.
century. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. and competition with. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. increasingly. which had begun early in the 14th century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. was so vast and potent. of 'darkness'. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. the historical reality of antiquity. For long. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. Thereafter. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. of scholarship. even Amoralism. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. because its core of energy. as well as political. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. however. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). of an energetic revival of interest in. however. and his own as potentially one of light. too long forgotten glories. of letters. All-Roundness. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. 1875-86). and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. life. . of arts. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth.
A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. and mass media. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Cathedral of SaintBavon. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. let alone a uniform. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. statues. There was an early. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Though thus challenged.) was the term chosen. Ghent). Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. and other liturgical objects. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. though sometimes of metal. It is for this additional. gratefully.with all its shabbiness . Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. The challenges are to be accepted. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. sometimes. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. in the more limited sense. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. especially in the High Gothic period. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. etc. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . later still to Genoa. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. letters.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. and is decorated with paintings. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. consist merely of a painting. mobilized nationalism. etc.erased. congruence between. candlesticks. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. (3) There is not a true. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. the previous record . of industrialization. however. retables can be detached and. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start.
"relief") In painting.of St Mark in Venice. rilievo (It. in several countries . the impression that an object is three-dimensional. As the name suggests. the St. and architecture dominating the 18th century. More usually. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. almost simultaneously. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. like 'Gothic'. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Germany. retables have become extinct. literally. Louis XV furniture. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Rococo A style of design. richly decorated with organic forms. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Spain . for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. . its mood lighthearted and witry. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. painting. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Originally commissioned in 976. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753).in the 11th century. Italy. and 'Romanesque'.France. however. Romanesque art. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. rocaille (French. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. With the development of freestanding altars. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. is a typical product. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200.
Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. stylized design representing an open rose. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. . The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. M. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Pannini and Mengs. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Mabuse. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Rome. van Orley. such as red ochre. Massys and M. van Heemskerk. The aim of painting. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. In addition. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Q. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Piranesi. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Claude. B. they maintained. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. ruddle Any red-earth pigment.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting.
Sacra Conversazione (It. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. glance and movement . the Eucharist. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. from the Old and New Testaments. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. pious legend and hagiography. and anointing of the sick. Orthodox. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. gutted. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).greatly increased. In the . confirmation. and impoverished. penance. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. local saints. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. There were no limits on time. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. supported by lay confraternities. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Eastern independent. but others were the work of well-known figures. multiple sets used in succession. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Clement escaped into Castel S. and Lorenzo de' Medici. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Subjects were nominally sacred. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Written primarily in ottava rima. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).expressed through gesture. and Protestant churches. when it finally left the city it had devastated. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. holy orders. Many compositions were anonymous. matrimony. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May.
replaces the Lord's Supper. make such strict distinctions. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . the Orthodox Church does not. Hence. Thus. strictly speaking. as in the Church of the Brethren. The classical Protestant churches (i. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not." sala (Ital. The chief focus of discontent. as an excuse to revolt. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. Anglican. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.) Hall. was buried under a new fortress. notably from Florence and in Germany. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Saracens .i. The theology of the Orthodox Church. sacraments. They were still seeking aid. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place.. and then face east. large room. It is still practiced on special occasions. used for drawing. Immediately following baptism. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Salt War. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.early church the number of sacraments varied. that the price of salt should be increased. was not maintained as a sacrament. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. baptism and the Eucharist.e. Candidates first face west. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. the Bentivoglio.e. the sun of righteousness. in principle. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the symbolic direction of Christ. which in the Gospel According to John. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. chapter 13. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. foot washing. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. and sacraments." which are called sacramentals. the Rocca Paolina. Lutheran..
The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c.During the Middle Ages. and many others. pl. 210 AD). whose writings. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 45 BC). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity.c. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.c. The publication of Latin (1562. 160 . Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . sarcophagi (Gk. are lost. wood or terracotta. 270 BC). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. the god of wine. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. made of stone. 360 . legs and horns of a goat. human-like woodland deities with the ears. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. satyr In Greek mythology. the Arabs or Muslims. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Little known in the Middle Ages. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). sarcophagus. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus.
than their medieval predecessors. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. being Frenchmen. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who recognized the Roman pope. scholasticism . 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Schism. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). In northern Italy. one of the early leaders. while England. was called Bamboccio.they had individual Bentnames . causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. with France and her allies Aragon. Louis I (d. 1386) and his son Ladislas. most of whom. However. and. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Charles III of Durazzo (d. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. on one side. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Alexander V. the Florentines. but with little effect. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. in June 1409. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). on the other. who had the support of the Avignon pope. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. for. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. As a result.for example Pieter van Laer. while devout Christians agonized. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. from time to time both he and his opponents.
university-based study. Christian. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. and Islamic literature. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.) . As such. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. as it is easier to add details in this way. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). rather than wet plaster as in fresco. as it were. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. Padua. because the secco technique is much less permanent. such passages have frequently flaked off with time.were different from those of medieval. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Medieval scholars. the plaster had to be damped before painting. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. that scholasticism was left. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Serenissima (Ital. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. Often called the burning ones. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. on one side. moreover.The term is ambivalent. and theology. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. if lime-water was used. It was because the central concerns of humanism . notably Aquinas. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. None the less. history and rhetoric .) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.moral philosophy. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. textual scholarship. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). (See also: fresco.
Servite (Lat. in use since the Middle Ages. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. at the same time. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Med. which were all identical in thickness. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. sinopia . usually presided over by individual families. brass. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sibylla. term. in the period of classical antiquity. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. "prophetess") In antiquity. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. In Christian legend. "the most serene republic of Venice"). light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. women who could prophesy. Originally. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. They first appear in alpine monasteries. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. and the delicate. sibyls (Gk. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sfumato A technique. an expression of Venetian self-confidence.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. the number gradually rose to ten. Signoria (It.. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Passion and Resurrection of Christ.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Lat. there was only one Sibyl. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it.
is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.) Wooden ceiling decoration. soffit (Lat.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. sing.'Beautiful Madonnas'. sotto in sù (It. stigma (Gk. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. stigmata. . It is very closely related to International Gothic. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.. Francis of Assisi. especially in the flow of drapery. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. pronounced as French. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Stanze (Ital. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and. as the name implies. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. staffage This word. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. in other words. brand. Ital. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. "mark.
stucco A type of light. studioli (It. with that for the Picturesque. pl. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Indeed. John Milton. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. both external and internal. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. The vogue for the Sublime. supremacy .were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. In a looser sense. studiolo. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. whose verses actually fabrications . usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.
The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. tempera (Lat. and in literature. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. both for panel painting and fresco. then being replaced by oil paint. .Historically. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. chiefly from Flanders. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. The subject is underexplored. into Italy. or cartoons. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. London. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. temperare. But the Italians did not make them. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. i. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. was being decorated with frescoes. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Salviati and Allori. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.e. doubtless.and. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. 1407). the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). his own headquarters. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . These were imported.
terraferma (Ital. vessels. topoi (Gk. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. and profile. in art. topia. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. figure of speech. quarter face. triumphal arch. theme or motif. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. widely used form. Trajan's Column . pl. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. tondo. tondi (It. usually those of animals or geometrical forms.e. in the architecture of ancient Rome. model. i. walls. "a commonplace") In literature. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. topiary (Gk. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. "fields. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. and sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen).terracotta (It. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. and other surfaces. and later to subdivide gable ends. topos.
Disseminated soon after his death. death. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. behind it. "threefold") A painting in three sections.' Before it go the apostles. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. the wars by which they were won . trinitas. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Battista Sforza. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. after 'a countless number of virgins. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. triptych (Gk.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. patriarchs and prophets. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. of virtues and of the arts. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. fame. as it were. . of both sexes'. into a number of less controversial forms. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. chastity. Early triptychs were often portable. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. time and eternity. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. added to the glamour of the triumph. Trinity (Lat.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. usually an altarpiece. or wings. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. "threefold") in Christianity. a car so brave'. Meanwhile. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the military triumph became sublimated. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. the Son and the Holy Spirit. tryptychos. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . beside it the army of martyrs.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel.
tympanum (Lat. tusche A thick. Dating from classical times. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. it is usually decorated with carvings. It incorporates Renaissance features. first recorded in 1232. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "drum") In classical architecture. enclosed by an arch. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). In medieval architecture. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. often decorated with sculptures. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. typology . tromp l'oeil (Fr. through various naturalistic devices. viscous black ink. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome.
and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and David. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.) The Renaissance "universal man". of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). killer of Holofernes. U uomo universale (It.g.Dirck van Baburen (c. where they were most accessible. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Judith. . e. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.A system of classification. were popular with them also. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. 1590-1624). lanterns. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. 1610). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. such as five works devoted to the senses. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. each had access to his paintings. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. In Christian thought. The numerous candles. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. slayer of Goliath. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . especially his half-length figural groups. knew his former patrons.
the groin vault. There are a wide range of forms.). snuff boxes and other objects. Also varietas (Lat. carriages. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. and the rib vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. often gold. vanitas (Lat. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. mixed in. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. "evening") . The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. it was used to decorate furniture. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. and even flowers (which will soon fade). a work's richness of subject matter. vesper. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Vespers (Lat. Parisian craftsmen. V vanishing point In perspective. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. overturned vessels. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. guttering candles. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. hour-glasses and clocks. varietà (It.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time.
a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Fortitude. for example. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and Sloth. Prudence. Lust. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. pl. Anger. "not exposed to winds". even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Gluttony. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Hope. Covetousness. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. virtù could be used. and Justice. Envy.Prayers said in the evening. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. vite (Lat. vestibulum. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. actual or latent. "life") . the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. vita. Temperance. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. 'Assume a virtue. in which the word signifies efficacy. Vestibule (Lat. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. the church service at which these prayers are said. Charity. vimperga Of German origin. In ancient Roman dwellings. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. if you have it not'.
Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. a biography. published in 1550 and 1568. and of Ferrara.g. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. 1482-84). the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. usually when a prayer for good fortune. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. 1478-80. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Marcus (1st cent. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. The wars from 1494 do.An account of someone's life and work. they were from the 18th century . came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. protection from harm. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Vitruvius Pollio. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. and appalled recognition of. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. or recovery from illness has been made. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Sculptors and Architects"). whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1472. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. in fact. those of Volterera.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
usually restorers. a philosophy of life. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. . during its subsequent history. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. "Western work of art". based on stylization of various animal forms. It was intended to have a variety of functions. "world view") A comprehensive world view. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. pompous on the floor above. woodcut A print made from a wood block.Weltanschauung (Gr. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Westwerk German word. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. gallery. treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually linear. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel.
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