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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
"arch") A series of arches supported by columns. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. the darker the tone). architrave (It. or organization. There are several variants of the technique. The term applies also to a print made by this method. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. the lowest part of the entablature). A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period).e. which is fused to the plate by heating. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Lancet and Tudor. The adjective is apsidal. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "architectural") Relating to structure. arcus. at the east end of a church behind the altar. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. including Goya. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.A semicircular projection. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. the moulding around a window or door. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arcade (Lat. but in essence the process is as follows. . was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Picasso. design. piers or pillars. roofed with a half-dome. architectonic (Gk. Degas. and Rouault. In Greek and Roman literature. Also known as an exedra. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arkhitektonikos.
Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. dominate.archivolt (Ital. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person.and the Comedy . archeiu. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . usually a saint. archivolto.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. aureole (Lat. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "front arch. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. In the case of martyrs. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century." from Gk. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "golden. Ars Moriendi (Lat. "begin. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. attribute (Lat. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting." and Lat. aureolus. voltus. attributum. Dante's Vita nuova .
B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. applied to the physically . the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). or baldacchino (It. Six pontificates later. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. paintings of everyday life. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The actual move was made in 1309. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. 'Captivity'. that of Cardano. who had been residing in France since 1305. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. in 1377. Later. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. baldachin. often anecdotal.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. the god of wine and fertility. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI.
the Temple of Venus. Florence. AD 273. beggars in rags. Parma. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. a church. AD 300). and Nocera in Italy. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Easter. Croatia]. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. set beneath a domical ciborium. Pentecost. pope between 432 and 440. or canopy.. and abject filthy things. built by Sixtus III. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. banderuola.g. el Kantara. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). As eight follows the "complete" number. .." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Baalbek. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. or forecourt. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. a visual metaphor for the number eight. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Customarily. Lebanon. seven. Alg. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and Poitiers. or connected with. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. and Epiphany. France. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Spalato [Split. such as those at Pisa. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. banderole (It. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.
Vermeer). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Also tunnel vault. 1811-1889). or baptismal chapels. 1817-1878). in the 1840s and 1850s. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts.In the 10th century. . 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. 1807-1876). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. which is reserved for the clergy. Théodore Rousseau (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and (3) everyday realism.an allusion to entering the Christian life. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. baptisteries. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. 1796-1875). Jean-François Millet (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). in its usual location near the church door . Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). something of earlier symbolism survives. In architecture. were often omitted entirely. Originally. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Rubens). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and thus a church. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. however. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. stoa basilike. basilica (Gk. achieved through scale. southeast of Paris. usually facing east. barocco. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1814-1875). 1810-1865). Baroque (Port. Jules Dupré (French. "king's hall") a church building. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Constant Troyon (French.
who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. like their Dutch counterparts. Biscuit porcelain. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. 1650 in Spain. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). up until the mid-17th century. in which still-life predominates. however. There were. particularly porcelain. also incorrectly called bisque. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Spanish still-lifes. especially Spanish. The term was mainly used up to c. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. were referred to by their specific contents. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. bodegón Image. Bodegónes. which is either not yet glazed. as is to be expected. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). such as those by Diego Velázquez. or which is to be left as it is. such as Waldmüller. domesticity. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. often with food and drink. and often sentimentality. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. By association. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Book of Hours . though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories.
often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto(Italian. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. By extension. but can also be used for painted sketches. and the fact that it is easily workable . varying from silverish to a rich. durability. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. See flying buttress. a rapid sketch in oil. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.by a variety of processes.an advantage over marble sculpture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . made as a study for a larger picture. . or seasons.both hot and cold . bozzetto Strictly speaking. though these are more often called 'modelli'. Chantilly). sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. days of the week. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. months. coppery red.
Based largely on Roman and Greek art. and Giotto. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. notable from Syria and Egypt. which was often allegorical. "a chest. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. its forms highly stylized. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). manuscript illuminations. casson. It also served to glorify the emperor.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. private room where works of art. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. box") In architecture. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. C cabinet A small. and work in precious metals. glass. cameo Small relief made from gems. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Duccio. caisson (Fr. Among its most distinctive products were icons. mosaics. camera obscura . ceramics. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). over time the term was used for the collections themselves. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.
both of which have richly carved marble panels. candela. Portable versions were built. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. hemp. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. usually in a church. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. usually with several branches or arms. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candelabra. which isolates the fabric from the paint. usually decorated. cantorie (It. other materials used are cotton. followed by smaller and even pocket models. candelabrum (It. ." and the earliest versions. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. only very rough effects will be obtainable. usually built beside or attached to a church. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). candlestick. capital (Lat. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The Latin name means "dark chamber. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. cantoria. as an aid to drawing.) A gallery for singers or musicians.Ancestor of the photographic camera.-N. "candle") A large. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. which was usually whitened. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. sing. capitellum. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. Niepce created photography. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. Structurally. dating to antiquity. pl. by the 16th century. campanile Bell tower. and jute. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.
cartellino. cartouche . Cardinal Virtues (Lat. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartoon (It. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. near Grenoble. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude).a humorous drawing or parody. tapestry. and humanism. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartellini In a painting. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". pl. details of the subject.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In fresco painting. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. The order combines reclusive and community life. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted.both Italians and artists from other countries . were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. or a motto. or fresco. the endeavour to attain true humanity. At the height of the Middle Ages. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. New Charterhouses. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cardinalis. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Carthusian Order (Lat. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the date of the painting. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartone. Carmelites (Lat.
Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. These lead up to the north and south transepts. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular.) "castle". or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). or nave. In the 15th century. or arms of the cross. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. putti (cupids). of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. caryatid (Gk. Paolo Uccello. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. a cathedral always faces west . The altar is placed at the east end. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. decorated with gilt gesso. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. and many other items of her dowry.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. they were also used in other countries. where the throne of the bishop is placed. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. cathedral (cathedra. Cascina. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. The main body. They contained the bride's clothes. castello (It. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. linen.toward the setting sun. palace. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. . and swags of fruit and flowers. cassone (It. Worked on at intervals 1504-06.
Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. central perspective (Lat. in accordance with their distance from the observer. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Relative to the observer. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. and perspicere.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. or birdlike characteristics. "in the centre". continually praise him. animal. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. centralis. Both the statement of St. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Christian. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. . rather than intercessory functions. buildings and figures that are being depicted. a celestial winged being with human. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. as celestial attendants of God. champlevé (Fr. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. landscapes. a throne bearer of the deity. and Islamic literature. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish.
chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service.chiaroscuro (It. "light dark") In painting. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). Lastly. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. North of the Alps. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Since Carolingian times. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . or for choral singing. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. replacing tempera. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. the Order of the Hospital of St. choros. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. choir (Gk. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). reserved for the clergy to pray together. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry.
whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. which was shaped like an inverted cone. is as typically Churrigueresque. ciborium . and repetition of pattern. balustrades. undulating lines. The Transparente (completed 1732). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. gilded rays. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. stucco shells. undulating cornices. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. The Mexico cathedral (1718). In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. an architect. Very few still exist in their original positions. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and the Churrigueresque column. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated.intersect). further enriching the style. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. reversed volutes. Sculpted clouds. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. a massing of carved angels. and garlands. became the most common motif. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area.
on July 22. placing one of their members. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Without being members of a guild. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. the wool carder Michele di Lando. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Members of the lower classes. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. but self-employed. including the ciompi. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. High Renaissance). In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. controlled by the minor guilds. who were raised to the status of a guild. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Then. Quattrocento (1400s. In reaction to this revolutionary . Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. etc. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. combers. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Their economic condition worsened. They were forbidden to form a trade association. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. craft of dyeing. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. ciompi.and post-medieval Italy. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. or achieve political representation. The new government. beaters. as also were those in the associated.
clair-obscur (Fr. with Italian scholars. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. and politics. the black contours usually with a special line plate. on which strings were plucked. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. however. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. philosophy.as in Italy these were dispensed with. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.episode. .) An ancient musical instrument. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. the ciompi guild was abolished. changed greatly from one period to the next. resembling a lyre. writers. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. cithara (Gk. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. literature. scholars patiently finding. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). Concepts of the classical. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. In the 15th century Greek literature. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. philosophy and art . except in cases where . editing and translating a wide range of texts.
Coffered ceilings. occasionally made of wood. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. as well as from the Bible. intensify one another. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). The name was derived from the condotta. [hora] completa. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. literature or music. the church service at which these prayers are said. terrorized the country. Green and red. a work's underlying theme. concetti (It. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. pl. cognoscenti. compline (Lat. blue and orange. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. when set side by side." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. pl. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. or "contract. arch or ceiling. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. condottieri (It. those with refined tastes. sing. concetto. . condottiere. cognoscente (It. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so.
associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. convents of convertite. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. clergy. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. or with the spiritual assistance of. By the end of the 14th century. in the service of Naples. Umbria. flagellant confraternities. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Carmagnola. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Toward the end of the 15th century. confraternities Confraternities. and his rival Braccio da Montone.devastating Romagna. disappeared. primarily for syphilitics. who won control of Milan in 1450. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. in Venice. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. . The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Mark (1432). commonly called either Compagnia di S. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. often under the direction of. Muzio's son. By the 16th century. scuole. i. With no goal beyond personal gain. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Martino).e. i. Francesco Sforza. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. in the service of Perugia.e. and German--the condottieri. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. often called compagnie or. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. and Tuscany. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. which spread in the 15th century. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Spanish.
e. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. flat outlines. and refuges for maidens. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. In medieval painting. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. the Florentine Neri. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Later. which accompanied condemned prisoners. contour (Fr. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. reformed prostitutes. While the Doge ranked above the Council. e. however. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. but sometimes had their own premises.i. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.g. Confraternities. contours were initially regular. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. "Council of Ten") established in 1310.g. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). founded c. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Dorotea in Trastevere. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. contour. 1514 in S. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. in Florence. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. notwithstanding their location.e. while the Venetian government. contrapposto (It. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.
Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. declining moral standards. large cornice or other feature. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. an engraving produced in this way. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Reform programs. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. aes cyprium. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. corbel In architecture. The style spread as far as England. 1280). conventiculurn. 1100 and 1300. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. cuprum.weight on one leg. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. They are often ornamented. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. conventicle (Lat. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. . the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. a bracket of stone. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Lat. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. whose names are inscribed on several works. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. did not achieve any lasting results.
the condemned man. Jews. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Usually. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Death. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. cupula. or "scourged. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Carthaginians. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. the first Christian emperor. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. reedy sound. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club.e. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. i. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. after being whipped. D dado . a small dome. Next. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. particularly among the Persians. There were various methods of performing the execution. a semi-circular vault. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. An ancestor of the oboe. Seleucids. cupola (Lat.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. "small vat") In architecture. Constantine the Great. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the most famous victim of crucifixion. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists.
and Linz possessed common characteristics. Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. danse macabre The dance of death. Passau. usually in matching pairs. diptychos. often an altarpiece. which was help to be the basis of all art. diakonos. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Deësis (Gk. an expressive use of nature. decorated diffrently from the upper section. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . e. design") In Renaissance art theory. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. deacon (Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. but the concept behind an art work. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. diptychum. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. "drawing. Germany. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. diptych (Lat. a favorite late medieval picture subject. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Anglican and Orthodox churches.g. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. disegno (It. The term stresses not the literal drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them.
it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. donator. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. distemper (Lat. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. "to mix. such as we still use today. doublet A male garment. when painters took to working out of doors. also used it on canvas.Thomas Aquinas. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Dominicans (Lat. though a few artists. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it.fully realize. a 19th-century invention. dome in architecture. which runs on castors or wheels. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. donor (Lat. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Ordo Praedictatorum. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. formerly worn under armour. The studio easel. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. distemperare. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. is a heavy piece of furniture. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket.
epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "word") . whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. It consists of the architrave. fresco. in art. and the cornice. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. eschaton. sometimes combining panel painting. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. epitaph (Gk. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. entablature In classical architecture. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. and logos. the frieze. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. en face In portraiture. "last".forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. a depiction of Jesus. and architecture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. eschatology (Gk. Hence. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. John (19. sculpture. Ecce Homo (Lat. bound and flogged. ensemble (Fr. full face.
Carnesecchi and Ochino. "good. which is called "maiolica. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Eucharist (Gk. and Scandinavia. . Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Vittoria Colonna. notably Cardinal Pole. Giovanni Morone. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. fields and livestock. Italy. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. 4500 BCE. Spain. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. which was developed in the Near East ca. protector of shepherds. Equated with the Greek god Pan. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Augustine. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Contarini.death and resurrection. celebrated with bread and wine." and charis. Marcantonio Flaminio. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. eu. and of the last things. and is named for Faenza. Saints Ambrose. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Germany. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which is called "delftware." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. which was famous for maiolica. Jerome. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification." and that made in the Netherlands and England. particularly ware made in France. farmers. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church.
Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). frescos in Italy . they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. drying to a slightly different tint. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind.8). fluted of a column or pillar. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. relaxed. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fresco (It. Committed to charitable and missionary work. leaves. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Only a small area can be painted in a day. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.festoni (It. and these areas. famine and death. war. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. sword and set of balances. and flowers suspended in a loop. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. 2 . can in time be seen. Their attributes are the bow. a technique known as a secco fresco. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. The colour of his horse is white. that of the others red. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. such as plague. black and dun. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. a swag. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ.
covings and ceilings. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. for example. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. where the atmosphere was too damp. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. a person's invisible tutelary god. In art from the classical period onwards. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the intonaco. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. landscape and portraiture. The technique of buon fresco. are genres of painting. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster.Save in Venice. Final details. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. or true fresco. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. both in churches and in private and public palaces. usually childish figure. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. genre In a broad sense. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . or fresco secco. G Garter. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. Genius in classical Rome.
Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. how it differed from notoriety. Maria Gloriosa). glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). whether it must be connected with the public good. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Bernardo Daddi. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. in portraits and on tombs. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Gobelins . As such. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. and as spurring on men of action. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. as well as writers and artists. Maso di Banco. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism.
founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building.French tapestry manufactory. This ratio is approximately 8:13. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. golden section (Lat. In other Italian cities. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Golden Fleece. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Paris. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. and although it reopened in 1699. who appointed Lebrun Director. thereafter it made only tapestries. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. still in existence today. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. . The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.
Denis. from the 13th until the 17th century. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. 1270. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Nevertheless. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. like the cultural and commercial. painting. The artistic. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. In sculpture and in painting. the superficial particularities of form. that the effects are to be felt. Gothic Gothic. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. or the influence of one building. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. In thinking of Nicola (d. Amiens. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. painting. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. . 1200 and c. and lies much deeper than. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. There is a transcendental quality. c. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. In particular. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.
but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. starch. and Morris Graves. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.and hog-hair brushes. It is thinned with water for applying. Honey. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. and above all Italy. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Such tours often took a year or more. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. to silk. the beau idéal of the French.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Klee. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). chiefly to France. to white or tinted paper and card and. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. if required. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and taste among the English. with sable. Pannini. and the great style. notably in the writings of Bellori. Dubuffet. These qualities. sometimes in the company of a tutor. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and Piranesi. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. the Netherlands. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. . It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. occasionally. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Canaletto. without visible brush marks. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. genius. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects.
when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. then as now. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. c. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. . exclude drawing from this definition. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. From 1266 to 1268. however. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. 1216.e. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. which had recruited most of the merchant class. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. and Waiblingen. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. to Provence and Paris. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. usually gray. After the War of the Eight Saints. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. In Florence. however. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. gris. after this. In another sense. Some writers. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. including text as well as illustrations. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the parties taking a multitude of local names. became an abiding feature of European politics. In the context of the fine arts. grisaille (Fr. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. brother of Louis IX. Although its palace was rebuilt c. internal factions in Florence went under other names. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. through central Italy.
"herald") . the 7 'Greater Guilds'. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. goldsmiths. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In Italy they go back a long way. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. and provided assistance to members in need. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. but in time they acquired other functions. In 16th century Venice. In some cities. heraldry (Fr. The guilds were not equal. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. or professions. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. such as Brescia and Vicenza. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state." from Fr. The guild also monitored standards of work. In some towns. H hatching In a drawing. surgeons. notably Florence in the 14th century. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. héraut. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. Guilds were also patrons of art. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. trade or profession (painters. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. as some did). there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In Florence. for example. print or painting. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. trades. [science] héraldique. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. and greater hostility between master and man. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts.
which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. with the rules governing their use. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. i. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. By contrast. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. together with brethren north of the Alps. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. from the start. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. d. while others merged with the Waldensians. as Antichrist. indeed. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. However. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The main impact of the . only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. they were condemned in 1184. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. and regarded themselves as forming. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. normative for churchmen. the Waldensian. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. the Cathars were an anti-church. head of the 'carnal Church'. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. one great missionary community. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy).the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence.
the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. F. mainly in the south. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Kensett. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. humanism (Lat. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Thomas Cole. its subjects considered morally elevating. and. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). the emancipation of man from God took place. Henry Inman. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Church. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. B. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. American painters were studying in Rome. Germany. J. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. S.movement upon the laity was in southern France. history (usually classical history). and classical literature. Frederick E. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. working from 1825 to 1875. F. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. humanus. Jasper Cropsey. In humanism. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Durand. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. At the same time. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. in his earlier work. my spouse'. Morse. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. George Inness. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. hortus conclusus (Lat.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
inventio (It. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. the pincers. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). and they are also depicted on their own. soft style. Human figures. beautiful style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. there are representations of the bundle of rods. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. For instance. Veronica. and the ladder. usually the donors of a work of art. with many further details added. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Derived from classical rhetoric. are also used in art literature. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. etc. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the veil of St. or of other saints. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. In the second half of the 14th century. the ability to create. the rooster of Peter's denial. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. invention. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. investiture . the hammer. The terms court style. the scourge that was used in the scourging. originality. Donatallo. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts.g.
although they are usually called Romanists. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Upon his return to Holland. generally Dutch or Flemish. and Jan Asselijn. The Both brothers. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Nicolaes Berchem. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. principally Dutch. Andries and Jan Both. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. bathed in a golden haze. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. of Utrecht. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Both and Berchem. Jerome's writings. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). . who traveled in Italy and. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins.
In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). encouraged by the Crusades. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. the rite of communion is based on this. Legenda Aurea (Lat.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. John of Jerusalem . They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. As their military role grew. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). lectern A reading stand or desk. especially one at which the Bible is read. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.1519). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .as the Friars of the Hospital of St. liberal arts . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Archbishop of Genoa. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.
often standing in markets and town squares. Maria Novella in Florence). commemorating a marriage. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). often sublime.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. then the basis of a philosophical training. "little moon") In architecture. John F. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. painting or sculptural decoration. geometry.g. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.g. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Tubal for music). comprising arithmetic. that may contain a window. poetic atmosphere. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. first the preparatory trivium . loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Martin J. the quadrivium. Kensett (1816-1872). rhetoric and dialectic. . Heade (1819-1904).grammar. Church (1826-1900). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). lunette (Fr. loggia (It.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. and Frederick E. It is related to. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. together with identifying attributes (e. Pythagoras for arithmetic. a semicircular space. astronomy and music. through the use of aerial perspective. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. its roof supported by columns. that could be used for public ceremonies.
they never lost a sense of solidity of form. 1855–65. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. When white is used for painting. and however bright their lighting effects. the goddess Cybele. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. originally sung without accompaniment. but they painted genre scenes. usually for the lute. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. active mainly in Florence c. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). historical subjects. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). for example. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. mandorla (It. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. antimony yellow. and iron red. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. being written. Specifically. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. madrigal A part song. "almond") . They were influenced by the Barbizon School. copper green. particularly such ware produced in Italy. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. manganese purple. magna mater (Lat. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. "great mother") A mother goddess. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. and accompaniments. and portraits as well as landscapes. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).
In Mannerist painting. It reached to the knee or foot. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. "manner. and crowned with thorns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. the Codex manuscriptus. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Bronzino. El Greco and Tintoretto. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. depending on the social class of the wearer. ecclesiastical. and literary texts. Mannerism (It. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. In architecture. strong. Developing out of the Renaissance. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. the hand-written medieval book. which was quarried at Mount . bound. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Burgundy. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. mantle An overcoat. maniera. illuminated initials and miniatures. Flanders. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. worn open. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. more strictly. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. in a specific sense. complex and crowded compositions. Parmigianino. marked by flagellation. often ornamented with decorative borders. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors.
who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by Michelangelo. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. having finished his training. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Carrara. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. sleek surface. Without monetary value. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. proof") the sufferings. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. marmi finti (It.Pentelicon in Attica. Like the finest Imperial coins. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. quarried at Massa. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. martyrion. martyrdom (Gk. "witness. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. the medal's purpose was commemorative. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). an inscription running round the rim. medallion In architecture. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. a different design on the reverse. The pure white Carrara marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy.
c. a Gorgon. in England. as it were. often anonymous. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. particularly. the stress on individual character. 1640. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Ludwig von Siegen. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. and of the many. 14601528). of the person portrayed on the other side. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. . The work of these men. 1425-1504). Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. When Perseus cuts off her head. no line drawing is employed. Medusa In Greek mythology. for landscapes and portraits. In pure mezzotint. 1467-688).round the neck. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1452-1526/27). This yields a soft effect in the print. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. A Dutch officer. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. supposedly to petrify her enemies. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. It was. perhaps oddly. who reflected them. c. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. The process is essentially extinct today. even grain.
monochrome (Gk. Many such small versions. "word.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. still exist. "one color") Painted in a single color. motto (Ital. by Tiepolo and Rubens.g. miter A high. pointed headdress worn by bishops. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. saying") . monokhromatos. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. often quite highly finished. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a painting executed in a single color. ink and paint. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. a branch of the Franciscan order.. Francis himself. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Parmigianino (d. executed on a very small scale. painting in gouache on vellum or card. e. usually portraits.
The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. but often insipid. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. named after the patron saint of painting. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and Casino Massimo. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. The invention of personal mottos. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Rome. and is intersected by the transept. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible.from the Middle Ages. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Isidore. In 1810 0verbeck. Berlin. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. In general. Nazarenes A group of young. nave (from Lat. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. naturalism (Fr. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. 1817-29). navis. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and two other members moved to Rome. Pforr. often separated from it by pillars. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. 1816-17. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. . "ship") the main interior space of a church building.
and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black.) . Nymphaeum (Gk. moreover. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. usually golden. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. were usually old when elected. "aureole") The disc or halo. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. is as true as it is notorious. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. niello (Lat. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Popes. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. but their ideas continued to be influential. nigellus. nimbus (Lat. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. the style of the Ancien Régime. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers.
It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. They are seen in the form of the columns. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. Greek goddesses of Nature. the Doric order. its richness of colour. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. with a sturdy. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. such as linseed. orders of architecture In classical architecture. a small private chapel. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. O obsequies (Lat. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. or poppy. a more elaborate base. and its greater tonal range. obsequia. . The Ionic order had a slenderer column. walnut. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. fluted column and a plain capital. The Corinthian order was the most ornate.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. was the simplest. The earliest. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and entablatures. the three basic styles of design. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). capital. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. "services. inborn sin.
like cities. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). and. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. designed as a . while shops came to be thought undignified. and the main apartments above. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. palazzo (It. Palazzo Strozzi).g. P pala (Ital. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. tradition and social structure. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. standing at the foot of the Cross. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. with biforate windows. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. the Cancelleria). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.
The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). evolved influential types. behind a sober Florentine façade. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia.g. often built next to their titular churches. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. panel . with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Papal incentives to build. came to be applied all over Europe. Palazzo Massimi). Following Oriental patterns. Rich. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). like Genoa. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. especially after the Sack of Rome. like the colonnaded vestibule.g. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. e. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. column-caps. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. palmette. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Movement of patrons and architects. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. In Venice. and Palladio's in Vicenza. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and large households. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy.scholarly retreat. Other cities. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. cornices and abutments. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves.
the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. however. As successors to St Peter. including beech. chestnut. as it were. so that they might have a voice at court. secular rulers. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. slate has occasionally been used as a support. to influence popes in their favour. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). A number of matters. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and the pressure and temptations . fibre-board. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. or other rigid substance. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. linden. teak. In the 20th century cedar. Then. enforce law and order. Having a circular plan. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies.Term in painting for a support of wood. olive. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and dark walnut are favourites. or the incidence of taxation. The third aspect was administrative.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. mahogany. fir. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. as distinct from canvas. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. and spanned by a single dome. the management of clerical dues and taxation. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Many other types were used. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. On a larger scale. and other synthetic materials as supports. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and modern painters have also used plywood. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. To maintain their authority. metal. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and walnut. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. cedar. the. larch. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome.
it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. from the point of view of its religious associations. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. which seems so inevitable. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. By then. which met at Constance 1414-18. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. possess an authority which. Colonna and Caetani. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). The identification of the Papacy with Rome. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. could supersede that of a pope. in the eyes of God. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. however. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence.as well. if it did no serious damage to the faith. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. however. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. at Avignon. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . as such. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. To resolve the problem of divided authority. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . however. There remained.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. would. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. was long in doubt. So onerous. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. It was argued that such a council. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377.that could be applied to them. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. to be long delayed. As at Avignon. of individuals. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. in spite of further absences from Rome. the most appropriate . The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months.
leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. to a world peopled by shepherds. and with Zeuxis (c. However. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. the creation of a cultural capital. less frequently pig. pastor. as well as a governmental one. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. and satyrs. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. 400-300 BC). goat. and other animals. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Passion . Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. through lavish patronage of artists. in classical literature. Parrhasius (c.. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). it has also been used for painting. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. scholars and men of letters. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. pastoral (Lat. nymphs.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum.
and so on. the crown of thorns. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. projecting either centrally or at both ends. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Portrayals of the Passion. patrician (Lat. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. which focus on the Suffering Christ. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Meanwhile. a region in north-central Italy. wealthy citizen. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. 1478. a small. pastiche (fr. such as a garden summerhouse.) or pasticcio (It.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. . ornamental building. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pavilion (Lat. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. but not necessarily a direct copy. and also the archbishop of Pisa. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. patricius. papilio. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. Francesco Salviati. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. "butterfly. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize.The events leading up to Good Friday. 1478). hence tent") A lightly constructed.
Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. perspective (Lat. "person". in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "to see through. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "nature". They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. . dependent") One of a pair of related art works. pergola (It. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and facere. and gnomon. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "hanging. physis. or related elements within an art work. physiognomy (Gk. pendant (Fr. persona. in particular the face. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). personification (Lat. perspicere.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. concept or deity. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers.
pigmentum. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. glue. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Pietà (Lat.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Peter's. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. containing the public rooms. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. usually above the ground floor. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. . in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands.piano nobile (Ital. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. to be expressed in painting.) The main floor of a building. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. pigment (Lat. Rome. affording a good subject for a landscape. exemplified. A pier is generally larger than a column. for example. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. remarkable for singularity. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. both real and painted. curious details. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. but may consist of a cluster of columns. but full of variety. proper to take a landscape from. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). or resin to make paint.
low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. though in less widespread. in October 1347. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. a shaft. perhaps. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Rocco and Sebastian. also used in Spain's American colonies. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Thenceforward. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7.pilaster (Lat. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. "pillar") A flat. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. and capital. however. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. During 1348 the Black Death. It seems probable. It is often fluted. outside Tuscany. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). it has a base. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. plague Plague. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. since. and thereafter all Europe. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . For this reason. In the 15th century. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. the burning of 'infected' clothing. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. moreover. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. such as Florence and Genoa. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. it is difficult to find. more sporadic outbreaks. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. for instance. despite regional variations. pilastrum.
Timaeus. which lasted only a few decades. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. or appropriateness. correct classical orders became frequent. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The first phase. more severe. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Theatetus and the Laws. A student of Socrates. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Phaedrus. composition. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The second phase. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. i. are the masterworks of the second style. Philebus. and unified style using massive geometric forms. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Diego evolved a purer. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. placement. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). harmonious.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. The first phase. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. the Symposium. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. like its successor. or simply the Plateresque. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. utilized Mudejar ornament -. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In contrast with Aristotle. heraldic escutcheons. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedo. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland.e. and sinuous scrolls.
while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. all of which he also translated into Latin. Unlike the case of Aristotle. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 1472-c. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Plotinus. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. A new Latin translation. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. including those of Plotinus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction.1577) becoming particularly popular. partially. Rather unsystematic. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. replaced Ficino's. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. near Florence. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . and Agostino Steuco (c.in Plato's thought. and the Chaldaic Oracles. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. systematized and added to what Plato had done. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and he utilized many other writings. Iamblichus. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. but not completely. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe.
polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Lat. pluviale. pluvial (Med. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. polyptych (Gk. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. column. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. portico (Lat. plinth (Gk. porticus. as in classical architecture). an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. poluptukhos. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. where a pectoral is used to close it. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Plato was read in the universities. such as processions and consecrations. plinthos. pointed arch In architecture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. or statue. Frequently supports a pediment. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks.
Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Venice). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c.sculptors such as Donatello. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli.. and only a decorative accessory to form. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Desiderio da Settignano. Group portraits. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo Farnese). the Carracci. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. National Gallery). 1328. Florence. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Florence (1486-90). Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Cathedral) by Uccello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. decorating whole rooms. Siena. and the .e. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Colleoni. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. psychologically more complex. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Gattarnelata. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Mantua. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The equestrian portrait. Maria Novella. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The realism of the clear. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. flattened image. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Campidoglio). inessential. was revived in the 14th century. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546.
The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Borromeo. bishop of Asti. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. and. to discharge their preaching duties. primarily the mendicants. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. bishop of Chioggia. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. from the secular clergy. are not florid in style. of the sermon as an art form. together with the Dominican Savonarola. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. As Poussin was a Frenchman. several of whom became bishops. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. minatory exhortations. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. bishops especially. abrasive even. Correggio. Fiamma's sermons. and Peter Paul Rubens. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Charles Le Brun. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The sermons of Visdomini. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. however. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. not least those of statesmen and prelates. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. star preachers journeyed all over Italy." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. was versed in classical and patristic . Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Savonarola and Musso. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. The styles of S. 1494). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d.
like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. though often relatively very wide . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.g. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. tapestries. Louis of Toulouse (1317. prefiguration Typology . Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. among them Holman Hunt. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and so forth.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . the temptations of Adam and Christ. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. however. Because of the small size of predelle . presbyterion "Council of Elders") .had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Naples). the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.rhetoric. Millais and Rossetti. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. The New Testament references in these would. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. predella (It. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.
and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. "evenness") in painting. 3. the Canon of Proportion. these highly finished drawings. 2. proportion (Lat. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. intended as complete works of art in themselves. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. notably David. Girardon. Prix de Rome A scholarship. which uses the square .The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the quadrature. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). and Houdon among sculptors. projecting shelf on which to kneel. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Fragonard. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. sculpture and architecture. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The following are important: 1. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. proportio. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. profil perdu (Fr. again indicative of the purpose they served. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. the golden section. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice.
for example). Rome. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. a fifth = 2:3. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). It was common in Roman art. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Ignazio. provenance The origins of an art work. and 5. triangulation. harmonic proportions. a fourth = 3:4. 4. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. putti sing. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Unlike Pozzo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. one half the length of the other). psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. . The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. "boys") Plump naked little boys. putto (It. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space.
also known as the Realist school. relic (Lat. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. the object of particular veneration.g. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Among the . canons regular. in particular works by Masaccio. relevare. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in which figures are seen half round. or the Jesuits. relief (Lat. with the Anglican Church developing in England. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Fra Angelico and others. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. basso rilievo). refectory (Med. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. in which figures are almost detached from their background. the great orders of monks. Brunelleschi. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. or some item connected with a saint. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Lat. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Botticelli. friars and nuns. relicquiae. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art.Quattrocento (It. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Donatello. e. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. hermits. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. In 16th century Europe. and high relief (alto rilievo).
i. After the repression of the Spirituals. their resources being in the hands of trustees. and their more institutionalized brethren. Venice (1404). was the congregation of S. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life.e. In 1504. The Benedictines. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. the Conventuals. presided over by chapters general. it became the Cassinese congregation. Lucca. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. S. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. the great patriarch of Venice. which was to become the main Italian one. Bernardino of Siena. Giorgio in Alga. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. although technically of secular canons. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. who had no overall organization originally. Benedetto. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. The Conventuals. and the generally moderate Observants. At the same time. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Padua. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Founded by St Romuald c. That of S. In 1517. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. the most notable being S. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Lorenzo Giustiniani. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S.contemplative orders. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Giustina. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. various groups were fused in the latter body. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Salvatore. Mantua. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. The Silvestrines. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. however. Maria di Fregonaia. Bologna (1419). He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. 1012. The same bull . the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals.
For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). however. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. however. a historical period. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the Theatines. Venice. founded in 1535 by S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The first. S. also. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. founded by S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Filippo Neri. Angela Merici. Gerolamo Aemiliani. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Michele in Isola. Gaetano da Thiene. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively).
morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of arts. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. life. as well as political. All-Roundness. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Thereafter. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). because its core of energy. and his own as potentially one of light. too long forgotten glories. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. and competition with. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of scholarship. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. even Amoralism. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. the historical reality of antiquity. . Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. of an energetic revival of interest in. however. of letters. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. increasingly. however. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. which had begun early in the 14th century. For long. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. of 'darkness'. was so vast and potent.century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. 1875-86).
the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. The challenges are to be accepted. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. It is for this additional. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. and mass media. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. let alone a uniform. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance').erased. There was an early. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. statues. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. etc. gratefully. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. retables can be detached and. candlesticks. Cathedral of SaintBavon. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. consist merely of a painting. mobilized nationalism. later still to Genoa. especially in the High Gothic period.with all its shabbiness . as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Though thus challenged. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. sometimes. however. congruence between. Ghent). of industrialization. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. in the more limited sense. and other liturgical objects. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. etc. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. the previous record .) was the term chosen. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. though sometimes of metal. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. and is decorated with paintings. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. letters. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. (3) There is not a true.
and architecture dominating the 18th century. almost simultaneously. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). like 'Gothic'. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. More usually. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. the first style to achieve such international currency. the St. Italy. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century.of St Mark in Venice. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized.France. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Germany. retables have become extinct. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. literally. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. With the development of freestanding altars. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. painting. Louis XV furniture. however. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). rilievo (It. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Romanesque art. As the name suggests. Rococo A style of design. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.in the 11th century. rocaille (French. richly decorated with organic forms. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. in several countries . with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. its mood lighthearted and witry. "relief") In painting. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. and 'Romanesque'. . often considered the last stage of the Baroque. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. is a typical product. Spain . Originally commissioned in 976.
Rome. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. The aim of painting. stylized design representing an open rose. the development of nationalistic pride. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. they maintained. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Q. Massys and M. Pannini and Mengs. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist).Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Orley. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. such as red ochre. Claude. M. van Heemskerk. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. B. . Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Piranesi. Mabuse. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. In addition. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin.
Many compositions were anonymous. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. pious legend and hagiography. but others were the work of well-known figures. and Protestant churches. when it finally left the city it had devastated. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. from the Old and New Testaments. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Orthodox. Written primarily in ottava rima. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. gutted. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and anointing of the sick. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature.expressed through gesture. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Subjects were nominally sacred. the Eucharist. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). local saints. Eastern independent. There were no limits on time. matrimony. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. confirmation. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. and impoverished. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati.greatly increased. In the . and Lorenzo de' Medici. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. multiple sets used in succession. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. penance. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Sacra Conversazione (It. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. supported by lay confraternities. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. glance and movement . Clement escaped into Castel S. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. holy orders. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism.
The theology of the Orthodox Church. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. that the price of salt should be increased. as in the Church of the Brethren. Immediately following baptism. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. make such strict distinctions. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. replaces the Lord's Supper. chapter 13. strictly speaking. sacraments. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . It is still practiced on special occasions. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Hence. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. was not maintained as a sacrament. Anglican. foot washing. The chief focus of discontent." which are called sacramentals. the sun of righteousness. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. and then face east. as an excuse to revolt. Salt War.. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. notably from Florence and in Germany. baptism and the Eucharist.i. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. The classical Protestant churches (i.early church the number of sacraments varied. was buried under a new fortress. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests." sala (Ital. the Rocca Paolina. Lutheran. and sacraments. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan..e. Saracens .e. the Bentivoglio. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. They were still seeking aid. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. used for drawing. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Thus. the symbolic direction of Christ. the Orthodox Church does not. in principle. Candidates first face west.) Hall. large room. which in the Gospel According to John.
Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity.c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. legs and horns of a goat. Little known in the Middle Ages.c. the god of wine. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. made of stone. sarcophagi (Gk. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. The publication of Latin (1562. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). 160 . are lost. 210 AD). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades.During the Middle Ages. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. satyr In Greek mythology. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. human-like woodland deities with the ears. 270 BC). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. the Arabs or Muslims. wood or terracotta. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). 45 BC). 360 . pl. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). and many others. whose writings. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. sarcophagus. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.
Alexander V. As a result. In northern Italy. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. for. the Florentines. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome.they had individual Bentnames . than their medieval predecessors. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Louis I (d. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. on one side. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). from time to time both he and his opponents. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. most of whom. who recognized the Roman pope. on the other. was called Bamboccio. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. However. scholasticism . and. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy.for example Pieter van Laer. with France and her allies Aragon. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. being Frenchmen. in June 1409. while England. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who had the support of the Avignon pope. one of the early leaders. Schism. while devout Christians agonized. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. but with little effect. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place.
Serenissima (Ital. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. on one side.) . were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. As such. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Medieval scholars. Padua. that scholasticism was left.moral philosophy. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. because the secco technique is much less permanent.were different from those of medieval. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. Christian. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. (See also: fresco. university-based study. None the less. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. as it were. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. and Islamic literature. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. if lime-water was used. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. Often called the burning ones. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. and theology. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. the plaster had to be damped before painting. moreover. textual scholarship. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. It was because the central concerns of humanism . history and rhetoric .The term is ambivalent. as it is easier to add details in this way. notably Aquinas.
In Christian legend. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Sibyls foretold the Birth. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. sfumato A technique. Servite (Lat. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. there was only one Sibyl. "the most serene republic of Venice"). which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. and the delicate. in the period of classical antiquity. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci.. brass. usually presided over by individual families. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. at the same time. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Lat. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. women who could prophesy. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Originally. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. "prophetess") In antiquity. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sinopia . sibylla. which were all identical in thickness. term. Signoria (It. Med. sibyls (Gk. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. the number gradually rose to ten. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in use since the Middle Ages.
Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.. "mark.'Beautiful Madonnas'. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. stigma (Gk. sing. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. stigmata. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Francis of Assisi. It is very closely related to International Gothic. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. sotto in sù (It. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. Stanze (Ital. soffit (Lat. brand. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. and. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. as the name implies. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . in other words. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. especially in the flow of drapery. . pronounced as French. staffage This word.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. Ital.) Wooden ceiling decoration.
and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. stucco A type of light. Indeed. supremacy . sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). with that for the Picturesque.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). both external and internal. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The vogue for the Sublime. In a looser sense. whose verses actually fabrications . malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studiolo. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. pl. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. studioli (It. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. John Milton. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century.
or cartoons. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. These were imported. The subject is underexplored.e. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Salviati and Allori. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. both for panel painting and fresco. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. tempera (Lat. But the Italians did not make them. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. temperare. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. then being replaced by oil paint. and in literature. doubtless. i. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. into Italy. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. his own headquarters. London. 1407).Historically.and. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. was being decorated with frescoes. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. . These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. chiefly from Flanders. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.
and profile. tondo. topia. and sculptures. walls. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. pl. theme or motif. in the architecture of ancient Rome. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "a commonplace") In literature. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. topoi (Gk.e. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. and later to subdivide gable ends. model. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. and other surfaces.terracotta (It. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "fields. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. terraferma (Ital. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Trajan's Column . tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. topos. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. triumphal arch. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. in art. widely used form. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. vessels. tondi (It. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. figure of speech. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. quarter face. topiary (Gk. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. pl. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. i.
decorated marriage chests and other paintings. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. or wings. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Early triptychs were often portable. chastity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. of virtues and of the arts. tryptychos. time and eternity. after 'a countless number of virgins. death. a car so brave'. the wars by which they were won . loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Battista Sforza. usually an altarpiece. the military triumph became sublimated.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. trinitas. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.' Before it go the apostles. triptych (Gk. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. . in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. into a number of less controversial forms. Meanwhile. behind it.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. patriarchs and prophets. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Disseminated soon after his death. "threefold") in Christianity. of both sexes'. fame. beside it the army of martyrs. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. added to the glamour of the triumph. Trinity (Lat. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . as it were. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the Son and the Holy Spirit.
It incorporates Renaissance features. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. often decorated with sculptures. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tympanum (Lat. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. typology . first recorded in 1232. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tusche A thick. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. through various naturalistic devices. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Dating from classical times. viscous black ink. "drum") In classical architecture. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. enclosed by an arch. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. In medieval architecture. it is usually decorated with carvings. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre.
and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). In Christian thought. 1590-1624). lanterns. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).g. U uomo universale (It. e. where they were most accessible.A system of classification. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. The numerous candles. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1610). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). such as five works devoted to the senses. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. killer of Holofernes. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and David.) The Renaissance "universal man". Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. especially his half-length figural groups. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. knew his former patrons. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.Dirck van Baburen (c. slayer of Goliath. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . Judith. each had access to his paintings. were popular with them also.
carriages. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. snuff boxes and other objects. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. a work's richness of subject matter. often gold. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. varietà (It. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. mixed in. There are a wide range of forms. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the rib vault. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.). guttering candles. Parisian craftsmen. "evening") . formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vanitas (Lat. vesper. hour-glasses and clocks. V vanishing point In perspective.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. overturned vessels. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. Vespers (Lat. Also varietas (Lat. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. the groin vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade). it was used to decorate furniture.
the church service at which these prayers are said. Hope. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. "life") . to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Temperance. vite (Lat. actual or latent. Lust. pl. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The seven Virtues were: Faith. for example. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. in which the word signifies efficacy. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Fortitude. Gluttony. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Envy. if you have it not'. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. In ancient Roman dwellings. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vita. Prudence. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Covetousness. "not exposed to winds". Vestibule (Lat. vestibulum. and Justice. 'Assume a virtue. Anger. Charity. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vimperga Of German origin. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. and Sloth.Prayers said in the evening. virtù could be used. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride.
1478-80. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. a biography. in fact. they were from the 18th century . as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. 1472. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Vitruvius Pollio. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. protection from harm. Sculptors and Architects"). or recovery from illness has been made. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. The wars from 1494 do. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. 1482-84). whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and appalled recognition of. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables.g. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and of Ferrara. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. those of Volterera. fall into a different category from those that preceded them.An account of someone's life and work. published in 1550 and 1568. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Marcus (1st cent.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. "Western work of art". gallery. Westwerk German word. It was intended to have a variety of functions. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. pompous on the floor above. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. woodcut A print made from a wood block.Weltanschauung (Gr. based on stylization of various animal forms. usually restorers. treasury or a place where justice was administered. "world view") A comprehensive world view. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. during its subsequent history. usually linear. . They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. a philosophy of life. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.
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