A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Lancet and Tudor. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. but in essence the process is as follows. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. or organization. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arkhitektonikos. arcus.A semicircular projection. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
. Degas. at the east end of a church behind the altar. the darker the tone). The adjective is apsidal. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks).e. piers or pillars. "architectural") Relating to structure. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. design. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. The term applies also to a print made by this method. architectonic (Gk. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. the moulding around a window or door. architrave (It. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Also known as an exedra. the lowest part of the entablature). In Greek and Roman literature. There are several variants of the technique. including Goya. roofed with a half-dome. arcade (Lat. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. and Rouault. which is fused to the plate by heating. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Picasso. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period).
aureolus." and Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.and the Comedy . dominate. attribute (Lat. aureole (Lat. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.archivolt (Ital. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530." from Gk. "begin. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action:
.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. usually a saint. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "front arch. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. archivolto. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. attributum. archeiu. In the case of martyrs. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. voltus. "golden. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova .
made in Rome in the mid-17th century. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. baldachin. 'Captivity'. The actual move was made in 1309. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. who had been residing in France since 1305. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. or baldacchino (It. paintings of everyday life. applied to the physically
. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Later. often anecdotal. that of Cardano.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. in 1377. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Six pontificates later. the god of wine and fertility. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time.
banderole (It. or canopy. such as those at Pisa. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. or connected with. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. Spalato [Split. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism.. a church. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Lebanon. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Customarily. Pentecost. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. set beneath a domical ciborium. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting.g. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Baalbek. France. and Poitiers. Croatia]. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. or forecourt.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). AD 300). beggars in rags. AD 273. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. As eight follows the "complete" number. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.. and Epiphany." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Parma. the Temple of Venus. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. seven. Easter. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. banderuola. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. pope between 432 and 440. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Alg. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and abject filthy things. el Kantara. built by Sixtus III. a visual metaphor for the number eight.
. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Florence. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. and Nocera in Italy. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example.
Théodore Rousseau (French. in its usual location near the church door . Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. in the 1840s and 1850s. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Rubens). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and (3) everyday realism. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1814-1875). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Originally. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. however. "king's hall") a church building. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. achieved through scale. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1807-1876). southeast of Paris. and thus a church. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). stoa basilike. barocco. Vermeer). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. something of earlier symbolism survives. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches.an allusion to entering the Christian life. In architecture. baptisteries. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. usually facing east. Also tunnel vault. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. basilica (Gk. Jean-François Millet (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Baroque (Port. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1810-1865).In the 10th century. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1796-1875). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1811-1889). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. 1817-1878). or baptismal chapels. were often omitted entirely. which is reserved for the clergy. Constant Troyon (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Jules Dupré (French.
. the dramatic use of light and shadow.
no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. in which still-life predominates. There were. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Spanish still-lifes. By association.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. as is to be expected. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848).and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. 1650 in Spain. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. It takes its name from its grainy texture. and often sentimentality. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Bodegónes. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. or which is to be left as it is. up until the mid-17th century. also incorrectly called bisque. Book of Hours
. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. which is either not yet glazed. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. like their Dutch counterparts. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). bodegón Image. The term was mainly used up to c. such as Waldmüller. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. domesticity. particularly porcelain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. especially Spanish. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. however. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Biscuit porcelain. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. often with food and drink. were referred to by their specific contents. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.
made as a study for a larger picture.both hot and cold . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and the fact that it is easily workable . bozzetto Strictly speaking. or seasons.an advantage over marble sculpture. varying from silverish to a rich. though these are more often called 'modelli'. durability. Chantilly). bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto(Italian.
. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. By extension. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. See flying buttress. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. a rapid sketch in oil. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. months. days of the week. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. coppery red. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.by a variety of processes. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. but can also be used for painted sketches.
valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. "a chest. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. which was often allegorical. glass. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. box") In architecture. C cabinet A small. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. and work in precious metals. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium).Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). and Giotto. casson. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. mosaics. caisson (Fr. camera obscura
. cameo Small relief made from gems. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. private room where works of art. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Among its most distinctive products were icons. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. notable from Syria and Egypt. manuscript illuminations. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. ceramics. Duccio. It also served to glorify the emperor. its forms highly stylized.
and jute. Portable versions were built. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. other materials used are cotton. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture." and the earliest versions. usually decorated. candlestick. usually with several branches or arms. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. "candle") A large. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. candelabra. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. usually in a church. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. by the 16th century. cantoria. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. campanile Bell tower. capitellum. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. sing.
. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. hemp. pl. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Structurally. usually built beside or attached to a church. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means.-N. as an aid to drawing. both of which have richly carved marble panels. dating to antiquity. which was usually whitened. candela. capital (Lat. The Latin name means "dark chamber. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up.Ancestor of the photographic camera. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Niepce created photography.) A gallery for singers or musicians. only very rough effects will be obtainable. cantorie (It. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candelabrum (It.
the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. and humanism. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartouche
. cartone. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Carthusian Order (Lat. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the endeavour to attain true humanity. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . In fresco painting. or a motto. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. monasteries containing separate hermitages. pl. New Charterhouses. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). cartellino. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century.both Italians and artists from other countries . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Carmelites (Lat. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cardinalis. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. At the height of the Middle Ages.a humorous drawing or parody. the Carmelites were originally hermits. the date of the painting. cartoon (It. The order combines reclusive and community life. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. or fresco. near Grenoble. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. cartellini In a painting. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". tapestry. details of the subject. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).
Paolo Uccello. decorated with gilt gesso. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. The altar is placed at the east end. and many other items of her dowry.) "castle". or arms of the cross. castello (It. In the 15th century. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families.
. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. cassone (It. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. linen. putti (cupids). The main body. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. For reasons lost to time and tradition. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. cathedral (cathedra. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. and swags of fruit and flowers. where the throne of the bishop is placed. palace. These lead up to the north and south transepts. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Cascina. a cathedral always faces west . Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. they were also used in other countries.toward the setting sun. or nave. They contained the bride's clothes. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. caryatid (Gk. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom.
rather than intercessory functions. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Christian. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. a celestial winged being with human. champlevé (Fr. a throne bearer of the deity. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). or birdlike characteristics. "in the centre". Relative to the observer. animal. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. buildings and figures that are being depicted. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. centralis. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. and perspicere. as celestial attendants of God. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and.
. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Both the statement of St. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. central perspective (Lat. continually praise him. and Islamic literature. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. landscapes.
choros. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. replacing tempera. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. Since Carolingian times. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). the Order of the Hospital of St. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. "light dark") In painting. North of the Alps. or for choral singing. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. choir (Gk. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights.chiaroscuro (It." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept
. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Lastly. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. reserved for the clergy to pray together.
and garlands. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. an architect. The Transparente (completed 1732). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. reversed volutes. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and repetition of pattern. undulating cornices. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Mexico cathedral (1718). In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Very few still exist in their original positions. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano.intersect). is as typically Churrigueresque. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. ciborium
. and the Churrigueresque column. a massing of carved angels. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. further enriching the style. undulating lines. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Sculpted clouds. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. stucco shells. balustrades. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. which was shaped like an inverted cone. became the most common motif. gilded rays.
But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. controlled by the minor guilds. but self-employed. including the ciompi. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. beaters. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. the wool carder Michele di Lando. on July 22. Members of the lower classes. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Then. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. The new government. etc. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. In reaction to this revolutionary
. Quattrocento (1400s. High Renaissance). continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. or achieve political representation. They were forbidden to form a trade association. who were raised to the status of a guild. as also were those in the associated. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Without being members of a guild. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. craft of dyeing. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. ciompi. combers. Their economic condition worsened.and post-medieval Italy. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. placing one of their members. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino.
"light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. with Italian scholars. scholars patiently finding.) An ancient musical instrument. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. philosophy and art . clair-obscur (Fr. the black contours usually with a special line plate. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. resembling a lyre.episode. except in cases where . cithara (Gk. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. philosophy.as in Italy these were dispensed with. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. however. writers. and politics. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In the 15th century Greek literature. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. literature. changed greatly from one period to the next. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. editing and translating a wide range of texts. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. Concepts of the classical. on which strings were plucked. the ciompi guild was abolished.
colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. [hora] completa. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. those with refined tastes. concetti (It. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. condottieri (It. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. pl. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. intensify one another. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. literature or music.
. arch or ceiling. Coffered ceilings. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. a work's underlying theme. or "contract. the church service at which these prayers are said. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. blue and orange. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). condottiere. The name was derived from the condotta. cognoscenti. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. when set side by side. occasionally made of wood. sing. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Green and red. cognoscente (It. pl. compline (Lat. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. as well as from the Bible. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. terrorized the country. concetto.
i. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. Muzio's son. in Venice. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Martino). often called compagnie or. Toward the end of the 15th century. clergy. convents of convertite. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi.e. Spanish.e. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. who won control of Milan in 1450. flagellant confraternities. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. With no goal beyond personal gain. Mark (1432).devastating Romagna. which spread in the 15th century. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Carmagnola. scuole. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. and Tuscany. confraternities Confraternities. in the service of Naples. Umbria. and German--the condottieri. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. commonly called either Compagnia di S. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St.
. By the end of the 14th century. i. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. disappeared. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Francesco Sforza. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. or with the spiritual assistance of. By the 16th century. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. in the service of Perugia. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. primarily for syphilitics. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. often under the direction of.
the highest political decision-making body in Venice. and refuges for maidens. e. notwithstanding their location. the Florentine Neri. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Dorotea in Trastevere. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. but sometimes had their own premises. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate.i.e. however. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. Confraternities. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. e. reformed prostitutes. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. flat outlines. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. contour.g. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. 1514 in S. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Later. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. which accompanied condemned prisoners. while the Venetian government. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. in Florence. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. founded c.g. In medieval painting. contour (Fr. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. contrapposto (It. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their
. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. contours were initially regular.
Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. conventiculurn. 1280). They are often ornamented. a bracket of stone. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. did not achieve any lasting results. Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. whose names are inscribed on several works. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses.
.weight on one leg. large cornice or other feature. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. 1100 and 1300. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). corbel In architecture. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. conventicle (Lat. declining moral standards. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Reform programs. The style spread as far as England. cuprum. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. aes cyprium. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. an engraving produced in this way. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c.
"small vat") In architecture. the first Christian emperor. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Jews. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. particularly among the Persians. An ancestor of the oboe. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Death. Seleucids. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. cupola (Lat. cupula. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Carthaginians. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Usually. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. or "scourged.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. a small dome. after being whipped. the condemned man. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the most famous victim of crucifixion. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. There were various methods of performing the execution. reedy sound. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club.e. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Next. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. D dado
. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. a semi-circular vault. Constantine the Great. i.
diakonos. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptychos. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. a favorite late medieval picture subject. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. diptych (Lat. usually in matching pairs. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. but the concept behind an art work.g. Passau. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never
. design") In Renaissance art theory. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. danse macabre The dance of death. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. which was help to be the basis of all art.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. The term stresses not the literal drawing. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. e. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. an expressive use of nature. diptychum. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. disegno (It. Anglican and Orthodox churches. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. deacon (Gk. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "drawing. Gk. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. often an altarpiece. Deësis (Gk. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Germany. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest.
"giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. distemperare. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. donor (Lat.fully realize. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. a 19th-century invention. Dominicans (Lat. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). also used it on canvas. distemper (Lat. dome in architecture. "to mix. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. which runs on castors or wheels. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. though a few artists. usually forming a ceiling or roof. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. is a heavy piece of furniture. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). doublet A male garment. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly
. when painters took to working out of doors.Thomas Aquinas. such as we still use today. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. donator. As disegno appeals to the intellect. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. The studio easel. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Ordo Praedictatorum. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. formerly worn under armour.
"Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. It consists of the architrave. ensemble (Fr. sometimes combining panel painting. "word")
. eschatology (Gk. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. eschaton. sculpture. Ecce Homo (Lat. fresco. and the cornice. in art. "last". Hence. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. en face In portraiture. John (19.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. bound and flogged. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. entablature In classical architecture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. full face. and logos. and architecture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. a depiction of Jesus. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. epitaph (Gk. the frieze.
"thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Vittoria Colonna. which is called "maiolica. which was developed in the Near East ca. notably Cardinal Pole." and charis. which was famous for maiolica. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Jerome.
. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. 4500 BCE. Augustine. and Scandinavia. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Italy. It developed in France in the early 16th century. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Spain. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. celebrated with bread and wine. particularly ware made in France.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. and is named for Faenza." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. farmers. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica.death and resurrection. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. "good. Saints Ambrose. Germany." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Contarini. Marcantonio Flaminio. protector of shepherds. fields and livestock. which is called "delftware. and of the last things. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. eu. Giovanni Morone. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Eucharist (Gk.
representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. frescos in Italy
. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Only a small area can be painted in a day. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Their attributes are the bow. and flowers suspended in a loop. Committed to charitable and missionary work. and these areas. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fluted of a column or pillar. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. war. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. that of the others red. relaxed. a technique known as a secco fresco.festoni (It. such as plague. leaves. famine and death.8). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. can in time be seen. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. black and dun. drying to a slightly different tint. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. a swag. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. fresco (It. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. 2 . The colour of his horse is white. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. sword and set of balances. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful.
Save in Venice. are genres of painting. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. or true fresco. Genius in classical Rome. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Final details. covings and ceilings. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. or fresco secco. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. usually childish figure. landscape and portraiture.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. both in churches and in private and public palaces. In art from the classical period onwards. G Garter. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with
. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. a person's invisible tutelary god. genre In a broad sense. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. where the atmosphere was too damp.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The technique of buon fresco. for example. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the intonaco. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.
and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. As such. and as spurring on men of action. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Bernardo Daddi. how it differed from notoriety. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. as well as writers and artists. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Maso di Banco. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Gobelins
. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi').such artists as Pieter Bruegel. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Maria Gloriosa). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. whether it must be connected with the public good. in portraits and on tombs. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument.
In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. This ratio is approximately 8:13. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Paris. Golden Fleece. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. thereafter it made only tapestries. and although it reopened in 1699. who appointed Lebrun Director. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew.
. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. In other Italian cities. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives.French tapestry manufactory. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. golden section (Lat. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. still in existence today. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer").
Nevertheless. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. Amiens. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. There is a transcendental quality. In thinking of Nicola (d. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. 1270. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. c.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. In particular. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. painting.
. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Gothic Gothic. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. The artistic. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. from the 13th until the 17th century. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. the superficial particularities of form. or the influence of one building. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In sculpture and in painting. like the cultural and commercial. and lies much deeper than. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Denis. painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. 1200 and c. that the effects are to be felt. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure.
It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and Morris Graves. It is thinned with water for applying. the Netherlands. to silk. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. without visible brush marks.
. genius. There was also a flourishing market in guide books.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. to white or tinted paper and card and. occasionally.and hog-hair brushes. the beau idéal of the French. Pannini. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and taste among the English. Such tours often took a year or more. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Klee. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. with sable. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. These qualities. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Canaletto. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and Piranesi. Dubuffet. notably in the writings of Bellori. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. if required. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Honey. are but different appellations of the same thing'. starch. and the great style. chiefly to France. and above all Italy. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. sometimes in the company of a tutor.
usually gray. exclude drawing from this definition. and Waiblingen. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines.e. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. 1216. including text as well as illustrations. c. through central Italy. gris. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. After the War of the Eight Saints. internal factions in Florence went under other names. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria.
. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. brother of Louis IX. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In Florence. which had recruited most of the merchant class.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. however. Although its palace was rebuilt c. to Provence and Paris. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. From 1266 to 1268. became an abiding feature of European politics. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. however. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. drawing and the various forms of engraving. In another sense. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In the context of the fine arts. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. after this. grisaille (Fr. the parties taking a multitude of local names. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. then as now. Some writers. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created.
heraldry (Fr. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. "[knowledge of] heraldry. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In some cities. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office." from Fr. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. The guild also monitored standards of work. "herald")
. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. as some did). acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. The guilds were not equal. héraut. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. goldsmiths. or professions. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. and greater hostility between master and man. In 16th century Venice.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. trade or profession (painters. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. surgeons. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. H hatching In a drawing. for example. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and provided assistance to members in need. print or painting. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. trades. notably Florence in the 14th century. Guilds were also patrons of art. [science] héraldique. such as Brescia and Vicenza. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. but in time they acquired other functions. In Florence. In Italy they go back a long way. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. In some towns.
Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. one great missionary community. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. from the start. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. However. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. they were condemned in 1184. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. indeed. normative for churchmen. i. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy).e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. head of the 'carnal Church'. while others merged with the Waldensians. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. with the rules governing their use. the followers of Juan de Valdes. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. d. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. By contrast. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. the Cathars were an anti-church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. together with brethren north of the Alps. as Antichrist. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. the Waldensian. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. The main impact of the
. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23.
'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. F. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. and. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery
. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. J. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. my spouse'. the emancipation of man from God took place. its subjects considered morally elevating. Germany. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Morse. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. American painters were studying in Rome. Jasper Cropsey. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Thomas Cole. Kensett. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. F. In humanism. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. humanism (Lat. mainly in the south. history (usually classical history).movement upon the laity was in southern France. B. working from 1825 to 1875. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. At the same time. humanus. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Durand. George Inness. Frederick E. S. hortus conclusus (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Church. and classical literature. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Henry Inman. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. in his earlier work.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the pincers. trecento rococo and lyrical style. there are representations of the bundle of rods. investiture
. Human figures. inventio (It. originality. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. etc. are also used in art literature. the veil of St. invention. the ability to create. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the scourge that was used in the scourging. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). it denominates a kind of behaviour. beautiful style. with many further details added. and the ladder. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. the hammer. or of other saints. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Derived from classical rhetoric. usually the donors of a work of art. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Veronica. and they are also depicted on their own. The terms court style. Donatallo. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. For instance. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. the rooster of Peter's denial. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. soft style.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion.g. In the second half of the 14th century. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts.
were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. principally Dutch. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Italianizers Northern artists. Both and Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jerome's writings. Andries and Jan Both. although they are usually called Romanists. Upon his return to Holland. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. of Utrecht. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The Both brothers.
. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. who traveled in Italy and. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and Jan Asselijn. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. bathed in a golden haze. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. generally Dutch or Flemish. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance.
The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Legenda Aurea (Lat. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). lectern A reading stand or desk. the rite of communion is based on this. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. As their military role grew.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .1519). liberal arts
. encouraged by the Crusades. John of Jerusalem . Emperor Maximilian I (1459. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. especially one at which the Bible is read. Archbishop of Genoa. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).
then the basis of a philosophical training. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Pythagoras for arithmetic. comprising arithmetic. Maria Novella in Florence). the quadrivium. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. "little moon") In architecture.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides.g. and Frederick E. astronomy and music. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. often sublime. lunette (Fr. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. painting or sculptural decoration. John F. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. It is related to. its roof supported by columns.grammar. a semicircular space. commemorating a marriage. geometry. Heade (1819-1904). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Tubal for music). that could be used for public ceremonies. together with identifying attributes (e. Kensett (1816-1872). loggia (It. through the use of aerial perspective. Martin J. rhetoric and dialectic. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. first the preparatory trivium . and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. often standing in markets and town squares. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Church (1826-1900).g. that may contain a window.
. poetic atmosphere.
historical subjects. mandorla (It. magna mater (Lat. copper green. originally sung without accompaniment. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. madrigal A part song. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). "almond")
. usually for the lute. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and however bright their lighting effects. When white is used for painting. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. manganese purple. but they painted genre scenes. 1855–65. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. the goddess Cybele. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. originating in Italy in the 14th century. "great mother") A mother goddess. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). active mainly in Florence c. antimony yellow. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. particularly such ware produced in Italy. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. for example. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. Specifically. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. being written. and iron red. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and accompaniments. and portraits as well as landscapes. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters.
Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. bound. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. worn open. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and literary texts. El Greco and Tintoretto. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. marked by flagellation. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. ecclesiastical. often ornamented with decorative borders. It reached to the knee or foot. more strictly. strong. maniera. illuminated initials and miniatures. Burgundy. in a specific sense. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. complex and crowded compositions. Parmigianino. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. which was quarried at Mount
. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Flanders. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Developing out of the Renaissance. In Mannerist painting. Mannerism (It. "manner. the Codex manuscriptus. depending on the social class of the wearer. and crowned with thorns. Bronzino.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. mantle An overcoat. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. In architecture. the hand-written medieval book.
The pure white Carrara marble. Carrara. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse.Pentelicon in Attica. marmi finti (It. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. sleek surface. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Like the finest Imperial coins. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. having finished his training. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. martyrdom (Gk. the medal's purpose was commemorative. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). quarried at Massa. particularly by Michelangelo. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. medallion In architecture. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. proof") the sufferings. "witness. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. an inscription running round the rim. Without monetary value. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn
. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. martyrion. a different design on the reverse. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. This was partly because ancient Roman coins.
The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. the stress on individual character. even grain. 1452-1526/27). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. as it were. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. A Dutch officer. This yields a soft effect in the print. 1467-688). Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d.
. supposedly to petrify her enemies. who reflected them. 14601528). perhaps oddly. When Perseus cuts off her head. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. particularly. 1425-1504). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. It was. In pure mezzotint. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. no line drawing is employed. c. a Gorgon. in England. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone.round the neck. Ludwig von Siegen. The process is essentially extinct today. often anonymous. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. of the person portrayed on the other side. 1640. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Medusa In Greek mythology. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. for landscapes and portraits. c. and of the many. The work of these men. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings.
The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. a branch of the Franciscan order. usually portraits. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. saying")
. Many such small versions.. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. e. miter A high. a painting executed in a single color. Parmigianino (d. monochrome (Gk. often quite highly finished. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. still exist. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. executed on a very small scale.g. painting in gouache on vellum or card.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Francis himself. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. "one color") Painted in a single color. pointed headdress worn by bishops. motto (Ital. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. ink and paint. "word. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. monokhromatos.
Berlin. nave (from Lat.
. Rome. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In general. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. navis. Nazarenes A group of young. often separated from it by pillars. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Isidore. named after the patron saint of painting. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The invention of personal mottos. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). 1817-29). 1816-17. Pforr. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. but often insipid. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins.from the Middle Ages. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. It may have parallel aisles on each side. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. and Casino Massimo. and is intersected by the transept. In 1810 0verbeck. and two other members moved to Rome. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. naturalism (Fr.
Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.)
. the style of the Ancien Régime. nigellus. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. niello (Lat. Nymphaeum (Gk. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. moreover. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). usually golden. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. but their ideas continued to be influential. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Popes. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. is as true as it is notorious. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. nimbus (Lat. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. "aureole") The disc or halo. were usually old when elected.
a small private chapel. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. capital. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. such as linseed. walnut. orders of architecture In classical architecture. inborn sin.
. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. was the simplest. and its greater tonal range. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. O obsequies (Lat. the three basic styles of design. the Doric order. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. They are seen in the form of the columns. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. observances") Rites performed for the dead. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The earliest. its richness of colour. a more elaborate base. with a sturdy. Greek goddesses of Nature. or poppy. "services. fluted column and a plain capital. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. obsequia. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. and entablatures. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595).Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus).
designed as a
.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. standing at the foot of the Cross. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy.g. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. and the main apartments above. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. tradition and social structure.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. Palazzo Strozzi). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. while shops came to be thought undignified. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. palazzo (It. the Cancelleria). like cities. P pala (Ital. with biforate windows. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.
Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. behind a sober Florentine façade. evolved influential types. often built next to their titular churches. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona.g. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Following Oriental patterns. came to be applied all over Europe. panel
.g. column-caps. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. especially after the Sack of Rome. and large households. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Papal incentives to build. like Genoa. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. In Venice. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Rich. palmette. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Palazzo Massimi). originally evolved in response to specific conditions. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. cornices and abutments. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Other cities. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and Palladio's in Vicenza.scholarly retreat. e. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). like the colonnaded vestibule. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Movement of patrons and architects.
the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. to influence popes in their favour. and walnut. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. and dark walnut are favourites. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. as it were. olive. the management of clerical dues and taxation. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. including beech. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. chestnut. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the. so that they might have a voice at court. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. larch. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. fibre-board. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Many other types were used. teak. In the 20th century cedar. As successors to St Peter. or the incidence of taxation. linden. however. and the pressure and temptations
. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar.Term in painting for a support of wood. and modern painters have also used plywood. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. or other rigid substance. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). cedar. enforce law and order. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. as distinct from canvas. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Then. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. mahogany. slate has occasionally been used as a support. On a larger scale. and spanned by a single dome. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. fir. metal. The third aspect was administrative. secular rulers. To maintain their authority. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and other synthetic materials as supports. A number of matters. Having a circular plan.
in the eyes of God. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. which met at Constance 1414-18. if it did no serious damage to the faith. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. By then. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . considered perfectly suitable for the role played
. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. So onerous. from the point of view of its religious associations. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). however. as such. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. which seems so inevitable. As at Avignon. to be long delayed. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. There remained. To resolve the problem of divided authority. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. could supersede that of a pope. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. however. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. in spite of further absences from Rome. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. It was argued that such a council. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences).base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city.that could be applied to them.as well. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. possess an authority which. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. of individuals. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). was long in doubt. at Avignon. the most appropriate . however. Colonna and Caetani. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. would.
The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. less frequently pig. goat. to a world peopled by shepherds. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. through lavish patronage of artists. Parrhasius (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. the creation of a cultural capital.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Passion
. in classical literature. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and with Zeuxis (c. as well as a governmental one. it has also been used for painting. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and other animals. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. scholars and men of letters. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 400-300 BC). and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and satyrs. pastoral (Lat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. However.. nymphs. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. pastor. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals.
A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. the crown of thorns. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. which focus on the Suffering Christ. such as a garden summerhouse.) or pasticcio (It. but not necessarily a direct copy. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. Portrayals of the Passion. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau.The events leading up to Good Friday. "butterfly. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Francesco Salviati. projecting either centrally or at both ends.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize.
. and also the archbishop of Pisa. pastiche (fr. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. patricius. 1478. pavilion (Lat. papilio. wealthy citizen. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. a region in north-central Italy. 1478). In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. and so on. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. ornamental building. patrician (Lat. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a prominent section of a monumental façade. hence tent") A lightly constructed. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. a small. Meanwhile. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble.
and facere. "hanging. or related elements within an art work. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "interpreter") the external appearance of a person.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. pergola (It. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. personification (Lat. pendant (Fr. perspective (Lat. and gnomon. physiognomy (Gk. "nature". "person". The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. persona. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth.
. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. concept or deity. in particular the face.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. physis. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "to see through. perspicere. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective).
Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet.piano nobile (Ital. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. to be expressed in painting. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. affording a good subject for a landscape. containing the public rooms. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye.) The main floor of a building.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. pigment (Lat. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. usually above the ground floor. but full of variety. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. pigmentum. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. both real and painted. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). proper to take a landscape from. Peter's.
. Rome. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. A pier is generally larger than a column. but may consist of a cluster of columns. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. exemplified. Pietà (Lat. or resin to make paint. curious details. remarkable for singularity. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. for example. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. glue.
also used in Spain's American colonies. pilastrum. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. For this reason. the burning of 'infected' clothing. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. more sporadic outbreaks. It is often fluted. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. In the 15th century. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the
. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. for instance. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. It seems probable. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. During 1348 the Black Death. though in less widespread. in October 1347. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. since. perhaps. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who.pilaster (Lat. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. moreover. Rocco and Sebastian. however. outside Tuscany. and thereafter all Europe. it is difficult to find. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. plague Plague. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. despite regional variations. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. "pillar") A flat. a shaft. Thenceforward. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. such as Florence and Genoa. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). it has a base. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and capital.
In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. or simply the Plateresque. Phaedrus. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. The second phase. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis..surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The first phase. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Diego evolved a purer. utilized Mudejar ornament -. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. placement. The first phase. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. like its successor. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In contrast with Aristotle. and sinuous scrolls. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Phaedo.e. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Renaissance-Plateresque. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. or appropriateness. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. are the masterworks of the second style. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. composition. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. which lasted only a few decades. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. harmonious. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Thus empirical science does not have a central role
. more severe. i. Timaeus. correct classical orders became frequent. Philebus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. heraldic escutcheons. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. A student of Socrates. the Symposium.
replaced Ficino's. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. partially. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. and the Chaldaic Oracles. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1472-c. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Unlike the case of Aristotle. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. A new Latin translation. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and he utilized many other writings. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Rather unsystematic. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. but not completely. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . all of which he also translated into Latin. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. near Florence.1577) becoming particularly popular. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Plotinus.in Plato's thought. and Agostino Steuco (c. Iamblichus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. It was especially in a number of academies in France and
. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. systematized and added to what Plato had done. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. including those of Plotinus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world.
polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. portico (Lat. where a pectoral is used to close it. pluvial (Med. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by
. Lat. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Frequently supports a pediment. plinthos. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Some polyptychs were very elaborate.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Plato was read in the universities. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. plinth (Gk. pluviale. as in classical architecture). polyptych (Gk. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. such as processions and consecrations. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pointed arch In architecture. or statue. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. column. porticus. poluptukhos. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks.
1328. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. and only a decorative accessory to form. Campidoglio). Siena. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Colleoni. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. psychologically more complex. Venice). flattened image. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The realism of the clear. Group portraits. decorating whole rooms.e. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. was revived in the 14th century. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. inessential. Gattarnelata. The equestrian portrait. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Cathedral) by Uccello.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. the Carracci. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome.. Maria Novella. Desiderio da Settignano. Mantua. and the
. National Gallery). include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo Farnese). Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Florence (1486-90). Florence.
Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. abrasive even. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishop of Asti. by contrast with the mendicant preachers." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. primarily the mendicants. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Borromeo. The sermons of Visdomini. not least those of statesmen and prelates. 1494). was versed in classical and patristic
. are not florid in style. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. and. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). from the secular clergy. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. As Poussin was a Frenchman. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and Peter Paul Rubens. to discharge their preaching duties.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Savonarola and Musso. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85)." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Charles Le Brun. The styles of S. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. who had as their ideal masters Titian. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Correggio. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. minatory exhortations. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. together with the Dominican Savonarola. of the sermon as an art form. however. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). several of whom became bishops. Fiamma's sermons. bishop of Chioggia. bishops especially.
These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala).they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.rhetoric. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Louis of Toulouse (1317. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.g. and so forth. Naples). aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. prefiguration Typology . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. though often relatively very wide . the temptations of Adam and Christ. among them Holman Hunt. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. however. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Millais and Rossetti. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. presbyterion "Council of Elders")
. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The New Testament references in these would. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. tapestries. Because of the small size of predelle . predella (It. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.
a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. intended as complete works of art in themselves. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. 2. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. profil perdu (Fr. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Fragonard.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). sculpture and architecture. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the golden section. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Prix de Rome A scholarship. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. proportio. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. and Houdon among sculptors. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Girardon. these highly finished drawings. notably David. proportion (Lat. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. 3. which uses the square
. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the Canon of Proportion. "evenness") in painting. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. again indicative of the purpose they served. The following are important: 1. the quadrature.
in whose celebrated ceiling in S. for example). and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. the steward or treasurer of a church. putti sing. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. a fifth = 2:3. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. triangulation. provenance The origins of an art work. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. and 5. Unlike Pozzo. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. the history of a work's ownership since its creation.
. "boys") Plump naked little boys. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. Rome. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). putto (It. It was common in Roman art. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. a fourth = 3:4. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Ignazio.as a unit of measurement. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. 4. harmonic proportions. one half the length of the other).
It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Brunelleschi. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.Quattrocento (It. canons regular. Among the
. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. In 16th century Europe. hermits. also known as the Realist school. e. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in which figures are seen half round. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relic (Lat. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Botticelli. friars and nuns. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Fra Angelico and others. the object of particular veneration. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). or some item connected with a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. and high relief (alto rilievo). Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. or the Jesuits. "remains") a part of the body of a saint.g. Donatello. Lat. with the Anglican Church developing in England. refectory (Med. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. basso rilievo). relicquiae. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in which figures are almost detached from their background. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relief (Lat. relevare. in particular works by Masaccio. the great orders of monks.
The same bull
. Padua. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.e. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Silvestrines. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Maria di Fregonaia. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. That of S. Founded by St Romuald c. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. In 1517. Lucca. Benedetto. was the congregation of S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. presided over by chapters general. the Conventuals. Salvatore. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. the great patriarch of Venice. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Giustina. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. which was to become the main Italian one. Venice (1404). Mantua. Lorenzo Giustiniani.contemplative orders. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. After the repression of the Spirituals. who had no overall organization originally. At the same time. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Bernardino of Siena. Bologna (1419). and their more institutionalized brethren. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. although technically of secular canons. i. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. it became the Cassinese congregation. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. the most notable being S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. however. various groups were fused in the latter body. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. In 1504. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Giorgio in Alga. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. The Conventuals. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. The Benedictines. and the generally moderate Observants. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. 1012.
The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). The first. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. however. Gaetano da Thiene. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Gerolamo Aemiliani. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. founded in 1535 by S. Michele in Isola. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. however. Filippo Neri. a historical period. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Venice. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. also. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. founded by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Angela Merici. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. the Theatines. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th
Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. 1875-86). however. life. All-Roundness. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of letters. and competition with. of an energetic revival of interest in. of 'darkness'.century. the historical reality of antiquity. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. even Amoralism. increasingly. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. was so vast and potent. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. which had begun early in the 14th century. however. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came).
. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Thereafter. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. as well as political. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. For long. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. too long forgotten glories. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. because its core of energy. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. of scholarship. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. and his own as potentially one of light. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of arts. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy.
sometimes. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. gratefully. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points.with all its shabbiness .) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). though sometimes of metal. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. candlesticks. Though thus challenged. congruence between. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica
. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. retables can be detached and. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. and is decorated with paintings.erased. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. consist merely of a painting. however. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. mobilized nationalism. letters. Cathedral of SaintBavon. the previous record . the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. There was an early. and mass media. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. etc. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (3) There is not a true. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. The challenges are to be accepted. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. of industrialization. Ghent). especially in the High Gothic period. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. and other liturgical objects. later still to Genoa. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church.) was the term chosen. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. It is for this additional. statues. let alone a uniform. etc. in the more limited sense.
it indicates a derivation from Roman art. rilievo (It. almost simultaneously. More usually. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. rocaille (French. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Spain . Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. and architecture dominating the 18th century. retables have become extinct. in several countries . is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. like 'Gothic'.in the 11th century. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Romanesque art. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Originally commissioned in 976. "relief") In painting. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Louis XV furniture. Germany. is a typical product. Rococo A style of design.
. Italy.of St Mark in Venice. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. the first style to achieve such international currency. its mood lighthearted and witry. painting. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. literally. With the development of freestanding altars. As the name suggests. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. however. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.France. and 'Romanesque'. the St. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. richly decorated with organic forms.
and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Rome. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. In addition. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. B. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Pannini and Mengs. the development of nationalistic pride. Massys and M.
. Claude. Mabuse. Q. The aim of painting. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. such as red ochre. M. van Heemskerk. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. they maintained. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. stylized design representing an open rose. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Orley. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Piranesi.
greatly increased. but others were the work of well-known figures. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. holy orders. gutted. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. when it finally left the city it had devastated. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. from the Old and New Testaments. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. supported by lay confraternities. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. In the
. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and impoverished. the Eucharist. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. multiple sets used in succession. matrimony. and anointing of the sick. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. There were no limits on time. Orthodox. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. glance and movement . Eastern independent. penance. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. pious legend and hagiography. and Lorenzo de' Medici. local saints. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Many compositions were anonymous.expressed through gesture. Clement escaped into Castel S. Subjects were nominally sacred. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Sacra Conversazione (It. and Protestant churches. confirmation. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Written primarily in ottava rima. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance.
It is still practiced on special occasions. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.. baptism and the Eucharist. that the price of salt should be increased. The chief focus of discontent. Candidates first face west. Lutheran. replaces the Lord's Supper. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge." which are called sacramentals. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. sacraments. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. foot washing. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Rocca Paolina. and then face east. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Saracens
. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.) Hall. the Bentivoglio. Immediately following baptism. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology.e. large room.early church the number of sacraments varied. the sun of righteousness. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Thus. and sacraments. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. was buried under a new fortress. The theology of the Orthodox Church. the Orthodox Church does not. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. notably from Florence and in Germany. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. as an excuse to revolt. They were still seeking aid. make such strict distinctions. Salt War. used for drawing. as in the Church of the Brethren. the symbolic direction of Christ. The classical Protestant churches (i. chapter 13. strictly speaking. Anglican.i. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Hence. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper." sala (Ital. in principle. which in the Gospel According to John..e. was not maintained as a sacrament.
the god of wine. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. The publication of Latin (1562. Little known in the Middle Ages. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 270 BC). satyr In Greek mythology. 360 . the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. and many others. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. legs and horns of a goat. sarcophagus. 160 .c. the Arabs or Muslims. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. 45 BC). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). 210 AD). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and
. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. made of stone. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. wood or terracotta.c. are lost. whose writings. pl. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. sarcophagi (Gk.During the Middle Ages. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus.
being Frenchmen. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Alexander V. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. who had the support of the Avignon pope. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. As a result. However. scholasticism
. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. for. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. was called Bamboccio. from time to time both he and his opponents. while England. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. in June 1409. the Florentines. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. while devout Christians agonized. who recognized the Roman pope.for example Pieter van Laer. but with little effect. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Schism. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. In northern Italy. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. on one side. and. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. one of the early leaders. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy.they had individual Bentnames . on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Louis I (d. most of whom. than their medieval predecessors. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. with France and her allies Aragon. on the other. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness.
with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. None the less. Padua. Serenissima (Ital. history and rhetoric . secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. and theology. moreover. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. (See also: fresco. Christian. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.)
. the plaster had to be damped before painting. As such. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. as it were. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). textual scholarship. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.were different from those of medieval. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Medieval scholars. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. and Islamic literature. as it is easier to add details in this way. Often called the burning ones. on one side. because the secco technique is much less permanent. notably Aquinas. that scholasticism was left. university-based study. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. if lime-water was used.moral philosophy. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.The term is ambivalent. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers.
made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Servite (Lat. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. They first appear in alpine monasteries. sfumato A technique.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. usually presided over by individual families. term. "the most serene republic of Venice"). in use since the Middle Ages. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sinopia
. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Signoria (It. sibylla. there was only one Sibyl. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. which were all identical in thickness. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "prophetess") In antiquity. Originally. Sibyls foretold the Birth. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. brass. the number gradually rose to ten. Med. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Lat. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. In Christian legend.. at the same time. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sibyls (Gk. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. women who could prophesy. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. and the delicate. in the period of classical antiquity. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.
sing. and. in other words.) Wooden ceiling decoration. stigma (Gk. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigmata. as the name implies. sotto in sù (It. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. soffit (Lat. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. Francis of Assisi. staffage This word. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.'Beautiful Madonnas'. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . especially in the flow of drapery. It is very closely related to International Gothic. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.
. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Stanze (Ital. Ital. pronounced as French. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "mark. brand.. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.
In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. pl. Indeed. The vogue for the Sublime. supremacy
. In a looser sense. both external and internal. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. whose verses actually fabrications . with that for the Picturesque.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. stucco A type of light. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. studiolo. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. studioli (It. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). John Milton.
Tempera colors are bright and translucent. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. temperare. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.e. both for panel painting and fresco. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. 1407). But the Italians did not make them. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.Historically. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. Salviati and Allori. into Italy. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. or cartoons. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. London. then being replaced by oil paint. and in literature. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. doubtless. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. was being decorated with frescoes. i. tempera (Lat. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. The subject is underexplored. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk).
. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. chiefly from Flanders. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. his own headquarters. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino.and. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. These were imported.
It is used for architectural features and ornaments. triumphal arch. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. pl. terraferma (Ital. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "fields. in art. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. i. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. figure of speech.e. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. tondo. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. quarter face. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topiary (Gk. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and later to subdivide gable ends. and sculptures. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). walls. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. tondi (It. topos. vessels. topoi (Gk. Trajan's Column
. widely used form.terracotta (It. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. model. and profile. and other surfaces. pl. theme or motif. topia. "a commonplace") In literature.
triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. the military triumph became sublimated. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. as it were. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Battista Sforza.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Disseminated soon after his death. of both sexes'. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one.
.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.' Before it go the apostles. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. of virtues and of the arts. beside it the army of martyrs. death. a car so brave'. "threefold") in Christianity. Early triptychs were often portable. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. triptych (Gk. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. behind it. into a number of less controversial forms. usually an altarpiece. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. chastity. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. added to the glamour of the triumph. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. the wars by which they were won . Meanwhile. Trinity (Lat. after 'a countless number of virgins. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. tryptychos. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. "threefold") A painting in three sections. trinitas. time and eternity. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). or wings. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. fame. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. patriarchs and prophets. the Son and the Holy Spirit.
through various naturalistic devices. In medieval architecture. first recorded in 1232. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I).triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. typology
. Dating from classical times. "drum") In classical architecture. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tusche A thick. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. It incorporates Renaissance features. tromp l'oeil (Fr. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. often decorated with sculptures. enclosed by an arch. viscous black ink. it is usually decorated with carvings. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tympanum (Lat. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.
. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. such as five works devoted to the senses. especially his half-length figural groups. In Christian thought. U uomo universale (It. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.g. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. killer of Holofernes. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.) The Renaissance "universal man".Dirck van Baburen (c. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . where they were most accessible. The numerous candles. Judith. e. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. were popular with them also. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. slayer of Goliath. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). lanterns. 1590-1624). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and David.A system of classification. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. each had access to his paintings. 1610). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. knew his former patrons.
a work's richness of subject matter. it was used to decorate furniture. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Vespers (Lat. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. varietà (It. snuff boxes and other objects. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. "evening")
. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. and even flowers (which will soon fade). hour-glasses and clocks. vesper.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Parisian craftsmen. the groin vault. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vanitas (Lat. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. mixed in. V vanishing point In perspective. carriages. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. often gold. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. overturned vessels. guttering candles. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the rib vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. There are a wide range of forms.). Also varietas (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.
Temperance. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. vestibulum. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Covetousness. virtù could be used. Prudence. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Vestibule (Lat. Envy. vite (Lat. Charity. In ancient Roman dwellings. "life")
. Gluttony. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. 'Assume a virtue. actual or latent. Lust. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Hope. pl. Fortitude. and Sloth. if you have it not'. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross.Prayers said in the evening. "not exposed to winds". and Justice. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. The seven Virtues were: Faith. in which the word signifies efficacy. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. for example. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. the church service at which these prayers are said. vimperga Of German origin. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vita. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Anger.
and of Ferrara. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. protection from harm. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1472. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness.An account of someone's life and work. those of Volterera. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. usually when a prayer for good fortune. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. a biography. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. 1482-84).g. they were from the 18th century
. Sculptors and Architects"). The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. or recovery from illness has been made. 1478-80. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. The wars from 1494 do. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Vitruvius Pollio. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. in fact. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Marcus (1st cent. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. published in 1550 and 1568. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. and appalled recognition of. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
treasury or a place where justice was administered. during its subsequent history. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.
. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. It was intended to have a variety of functions. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. usually restorers.Weltanschauung (Gr. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Westwerk German word. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. gallery. a philosophy of life. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. usually linear. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. "Western work of art". pompous on the floor above. "world view") A comprehensive world view. woodcut A print made from a wood block.