A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. . which is fused to the plate by heating. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and Rouault. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. arcus. Degas. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. Picasso. but in essence the process is as follows. including Goya. "architectural") Relating to structure. The adjective is apsidal. In Greek and Roman literature. There are several variants of the technique. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. design. architrave (It. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. the darker the tone). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arkhitektonikos. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. The term applies also to a print made by this method. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. arcade (Lat. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. the moulding around a window or door. the lowest part of the entablature). Also known as an exedra.e. at the east end of a church behind the altar. roofed with a half-dome. or organization.A semicircular projection. architectonic (Gk. piers or pillars. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Lancet and Tudor. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.

The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. usually a saint. dominate. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. voltus. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli." from Gk.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "begin.and the Comedy . archeiu. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. archivolto. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.archivolt (Ital. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. attribute (Lat. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. In the case of martyrs. aureole (Lat. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. Ars Moriendi (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements." and Lat. "golden. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. aureolus. "front arch. Dante's Vita nuova . Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . attributum.

Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. applied to the physically . leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. in 1377. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Six pontificates later.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). made in Rome in the mid-17th century. the god of wine and fertility. 'Captivity'. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. that of Cardano. or baldacchino (It. often anecdotal. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. who had been residing in France since 1305. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Later. paintings of everyday life. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. baldachin. The actual move was made in 1309. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time.

a baptistery was roofed with a dome." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. seven. Croatia]. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Pentecost. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. banderole (It.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). or connected with. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and Epiphany. the Temple of Venus.g. As eight follows the "complete" number. Florence. and Poitiers. a visual metaphor for the number eight. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Alg. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. and Nocera in Italy. AD 273. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. France. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. or canopy. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. . and abject filthy things. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. banderuola. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. such as those at Pisa. or forecourt. a church. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Spalato [Split. el Kantara. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. set beneath a domical ciborium. AD 300). built by Sixtus III.. beggars in rags. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Easter. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Parma. Baalbek. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Customarily. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Lebanon. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome.. pope between 432 and 440. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays.

In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Baroque (Port. in the 1840s and 1850s. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and thus a church. barocco. something of earlier symbolism survives. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. stoa basilike. were often omitted entirely. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1807-1876).In the 10th century. and increasingly elaborate decoration. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. basilica (Gk. usually facing east. or baptismal chapels. . baptisteries. 1810-1865). Théodore Rousseau (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1817-1878). Originally. 1811-1889). achieved through scale. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. In architecture. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Rubens). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. which is reserved for the clergy. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. 1796-1875). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Also tunnel vault. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Jean-François Millet (French. southeast of Paris. "king's hall") a church building. 1814-1875). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. in its usual location near the church door . a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Jules Dupré (French. however. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and (3) everyday realism.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Constant Troyon (French. Vermeer). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. the dramatic use of light and shadow. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur.

These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Bodegónes. often with food and drink. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. such as those by Diego Velázquez. like their Dutch counterparts. bodegón Image. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. such as Waldmüller. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. in which still-life predominates. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. as is to be expected. 1650 in Spain. It takes its name from its grainy texture. or which is to be left as it is. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. and often sentimentality. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). also incorrectly called bisque. Spanish still-lifes. By association. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. up until the mid-17th century. Biscuit porcelain. There were. especially Spanish. The term was mainly used up to c. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. however. particularly porcelain. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Book of Hours . Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. were referred to by their specific contents. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. which is either not yet glazed. domesticity. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.

breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bozzetto(Italian. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. but can also be used for painted sketches.by a variety of processes. though these are more often called 'modelli'. days of the week. By extension.both hot and cold . a rapid sketch in oil. varying from silverish to a rich. made as a study for a larger picture. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. months. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. and the fact that it is easily workable . sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. . coppery red. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. See flying buttress. bozzetto Strictly speaking. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina.an advantage over marble sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . or seasons.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. durability. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. Chantilly).

caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. private room where works of art. camera obscura . box") In architecture. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. ceramics. C cabinet A small. and Giotto. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. "a chest. caisson (Fr.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. casson. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. its forms highly stylized. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. notable from Syria and Egypt. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. manuscript illuminations. and work in precious metals. glass. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). which was often allegorical. cameo Small relief made from gems. mosaics. Among its most distinctive products were icons. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Duccio. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. It also served to glorify the emperor.

otherwise it will absorb too much paint. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. cantoria. Structurally. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. followed by smaller and even pocket models. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). other materials used are cotton. hemp. usually with several branches or arms." and the earliest versions. Portable versions were built. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. "candle") A large. which was usually whitened. dating to antiquity.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candela. Niepce created photography. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. and jute. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. sing. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candelabrum (It. candlestick. only very rough effects will be obtainable. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. The Latin name means "dark chamber. usually decorated. campanile Bell tower. usually built beside or attached to a church. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. capitellum. as an aid to drawing. . both of which have richly carved marble panels. usually in a church. by the 16th century. cantorie (It. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. candelabra. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. pl.) A gallery for singers or musicians. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. capital (Lat. which isolates the fabric from the paint.-N.

pl. details of the subject. In fresco painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Carmelites (Lat.a humorous drawing or parody. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . or a motto. near Grenoble. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartoon (It.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartellini In a painting. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. or fresco. monasteries containing separate hermitages. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartone. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. cardinalis.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Carthusian Order (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. cartellino. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the endeavour to attain true humanity. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartouche . the date of the painting. and humanism. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. New Charterhouses. tapestry. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". At the height of the Middle Ages.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . the Carmelites were originally hermits.

The main body. or arms of the cross. or nave. castello (It. caryatid (Gk. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. cassone (It. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. These lead up to the north and south transepts. cathedral (cathedra. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. palace. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and many other items of her dowry. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved.) "castle". Paolo Uccello. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. they were also used in other countries. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. where the throne of the bishop is placed. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Cascina. putti (cupids). They contained the bride's clothes. decorated with gilt gesso. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. linen. The altar is placed at the east end. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. In the 15th century.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese.toward the setting sun. . For reasons lost to time and tradition. and swags of fruit and flowers. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. a cathedral always faces west . Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom.

centralis. champlevé (Fr. as celestial attendants of God. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Both the statement of St. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Christian. or birdlike characteristics.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. animal. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. and Islamic literature. "in the centre". Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Relative to the observer. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. and perspicere. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. in accordance with their distance from the observer. . The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. a throne bearer of the deity. continually praise him. central perspective (Lat. a celestial winged being with human. landscapes. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. buildings and figures that are being depicted. rather than intercessory functions.

notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . or for choral singing. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. replacing tempera." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. choir (Gk. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Since Carolingian times. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. reserved for the clergy to pray together. the Order of the Hospital of St. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. Lastly. North of the Alps. choros. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars).chiaroscuro (It. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). "light dark") In painting. Hans Burgkmair (1510). Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights.

Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. and repetition of pattern. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. undulating lines. a massing of carved angels. Very few still exist in their original positions. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque.intersect). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. ciborium . Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). balustrades. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The Transparente (completed 1732). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Sculpted clouds. reversed volutes. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. stucco shells. and garlands. further enriching the style. is as typically Churrigueresque. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Mexico cathedral (1718). The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. an architect. gilded rays. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. undulating cornices. became the most common motif. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and the Churrigueresque column.

ciompi. Their economic condition worsened. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. or achieve political representation. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. They were forbidden to form a trade association. craft of dyeing. etc. combers. placing one of their members. as also were those in the associated. including the ciompi. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. The new government. Without being members of a guild. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the wool carder Michele di Lando. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. beaters. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Members of the lower classes. Quattrocento (1400s. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. but self-employed.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. High Renaissance). the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. In reaction to this revolutionary . The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. who were raised to the status of a guild.and post-medieval Italy. on July 22. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Then. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. controlled by the minor guilds.

In the 15th century Greek literature.as in Italy these were dispensed with. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. philosophy. literature. with Italian scholars. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.episode. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.) An ancient musical instrument. the ciompi guild was abolished. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. resembling a lyre. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. clair-obscur (Fr. writers. except in cases where . Concepts of the classical. changed greatly from one period to the next. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and politics. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). cithara (Gk. however. . on which strings were plucked. scholars patiently finding.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. the black contours usually with a special line plate. philosophy and art . They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.

Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). pl. blue and orange. compline (Lat. cognoscenti. condottieri (It. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. or "contract. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. Green and red. occasionally made of wood. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. literature or music. "concept") In Renaissance art theory." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. as well as from the Bible.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. pl. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. sing. [hora] completa. those with refined tastes. condottiere. intensify one another. the church service at which these prayers are said. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. when set side by side. Coffered ceilings. arch or ceiling. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. concetti (It. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. . a work's underlying theme. cognoscente (It. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. terrorized the country. The name was derived from the condotta. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. concetto.

one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. in the service of Perugia. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. disappeared. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Martino). Umbria. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. often called compagnie or. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Toward the end of the 15th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'.e. Carmagnola. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. clergy. Muzio's son. confraternities Confraternities. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in the service of Naples. convents of convertite. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Spanish. and Tuscany. By the 16th century.devastating Romagna. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. who won control of Milan in 1450. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. scuole. Francesco Sforza. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. primarily for syphilitics. which spread in the 15th century. commonly called either Compagnia di S. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. often under the direction of. or with the spiritual assistance of. flagellant confraternities. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. and German--the condottieri. in Venice. Mark (1432).e. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. i. By the end of the 14th century. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. i. . With no goal beyond personal gain. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly.

while the Venetian government. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. contour (Fr. the Florentine Neri. but sometimes had their own premises.i. e. contours were initially regular.g. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. While the Doge ranked above the Council. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. and refuges for maidens. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. 1514 in S. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. contrapposto (It. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Confraternities. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Dorotea in Trastevere. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. flat outlines.e. in Florence. e. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy.g. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. In medieval painting. founded c. Later. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . reformed prostitutes. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contour. notwithstanding their location. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. however. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them.

Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs.weight on one leg. large cornice or other feature. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). whose names are inscribed on several works. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. an engraving produced in this way. aes cyprium. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Reform programs. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. conventicle (Lat. cuprum. The style spread as far as England. declining moral standards. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. did not achieve any lasting results. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. conventiculurn. 1100 and 1300. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. 1280). With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. They are often ornamented. Lat. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. . Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. a bracket of stone. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. started the process of inner reform in the Church. corbel In architecture. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso.

Constantine the Great. i. Death. reedy sound. or "scourged.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the first Christian emperor. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. "small vat") In architecture. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. There were various methods of performing the execution. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Jews. Next. An ancestor of the oboe. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Usually. D dado . Carthaginians. the most famous victim of crucifixion. the condemned man. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. cupula. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. particularly among the Persians. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. a semi-circular vault. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Seleucids. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. after being whipped. a small dome.e. cupola (Lat. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook.

which was help to be the basis of all art. Passau. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. diptychum. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Gk. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. design") In Renaissance art theory. disegno (It. danse macabre The dance of death. Germany. often an altarpiece. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diakonos. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. "drawing. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. an expressive use of nature. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. but the concept behind an art work. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Anglican and Orthodox churches. deacon (Gk. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. diptych (Lat. diptychos.g. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. usually in matching pairs. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Deësis (Gk. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). e. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. The term stresses not the literal drawing.

their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. distemper (Lat. is a heavy piece of furniture. doublet A male garment. Dominicans (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. such as we still use today. when painters took to working out of doors. donator.fully realize. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. which runs on castors or wheels. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ordo Praedictatorum. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The studio easel. dome in architecture. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition.Thomas Aquinas. a 19th-century invention. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. distemperare. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. though a few artists. formerly worn under armour. usually forming a ceiling or roof. also used it on canvas. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). "to mix. donor (Lat. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.

5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. sculpture. Hence. "last". and logos. Ecce Homo (Lat. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "word") . full face. ensemble (Fr. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. and architecture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. en face In portraiture. fresco. a depiction of Jesus. in art. eschaton. eschatology (Gk. It consists of the architrave. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. epitaph (Gk. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. entablature In classical architecture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. sometimes combining panel painting. John (19. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. the frieze. bound and flogged. and the cornice.

the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. which was famous for maiolica. Jerome. and is named for Faenza. Spain. notably Cardinal Pole. farmers. protector of shepherds. It developed in France in the early 16th century. which is called "maiolica. convinced of the inefficacy of human works." and charis. Italy. and of the last things. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Saints Ambrose. and Scandinavia. Marcantonio Flaminio. fields and livestock. which is called "delftware. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Vittoria Colonna. Giovanni Morone." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Eucharist (Gk. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Germany. eu. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. 4500 BCE. "good. which was developed in the Near East ca. Equated with the Greek god Pan. faun Ancient Roman god of nature.death and resurrection. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. . Contarini. celebrated with bread and wine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Augustine. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. particularly ware made in France. and also to Giulia Gonzaga.

drying to a slightly different tint. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. 2 . In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Only a small area can be painted in a day. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. fresco (It. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. war. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. black and dun.festoni (It. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Committed to charitable and missionary work. a swag. leaves. a technique known as a secco fresco. sword and set of balances. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). that of the others red. frescos in Italy . fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. The colour of his horse is white. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. fluted of a column or pillar.8). and these areas. relaxed. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Their attributes are the bow. and flowers suspended in a loop. famine and death. such as plague. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. can in time be seen.

this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. for example. The technique of buon fresco. In art from the classical period onwards. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). landscape and portraiture. Final details. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. are genres of painting. where the atmosphere was too damp.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . usually childish figure. genre In a broad sense. Genius in classical Rome. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. the intonaco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster.Save in Venice. or true fresco. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. a person's invisible tutelary god. covings and ceilings. G Garter. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. or fresco secco. both in churches and in private and public palaces. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.

whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maso di Banco. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Bernardo Daddi. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and as spurring on men of action. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. in portraits and on tombs. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. as well as writers and artists. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. As such. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Gobelins . (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Maria Gloriosa). how it differed from notoriety. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. whether it must be connected with the public good.

the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. This ratio is approximately 8:13. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Golden Fleece. In other Italian cities. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. . still in existence today. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. who appointed Lebrun Director. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). thereafter it made only tapestries. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Paris. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70).French tapestry manufactory. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. and although it reopened in 1699. golden section (Lat.

interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. Nevertheless. that the effects are to be felt. and lies much deeper than. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. 1270. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. In particular. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. . and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. There is a transcendental quality. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. or the influence of one building. 1200 and c. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. the superficial particularities of form. In sculpture and in painting. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. from the 13th until the 17th century. Amiens. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). Denis. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. c. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. painting. In thinking of Nicola (d. Gothic Gothic. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. like the cultural and commercial. painting. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. The artistic.

Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. notably in the writings of Bellori. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. These qualities. and above all Italy. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Such tours often took a year or more. Klee. occasionally. the beau idéal of the French. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. with sable. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Honey.and hog-hair brushes. . It is thinned with water for applying. without visible brush marks. are but different appellations of the same thing'. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and taste among the English. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Pannini. the Netherlands. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and the great style. Dubuffet. genius. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). if required. sometimes in the company of a tutor. to silk. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and Morris Graves. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. starch. and Piranesi. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Canaletto. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. to white or tinted paper and card and. chiefly to France. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century.

. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. 1216. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. through central Italy. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. usually gray. exclude drawing from this definition. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial.e. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. which had recruited most of the merchant class. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In Florence. and Waiblingen. after this. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. however. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. internal factions in Florence went under other names. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. In another sense. then as now.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. grisaille (Fr. Although its palace was rebuilt c. brother of Louis IX. however. became an abiding feature of European politics. From 1266 to 1268. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Some writers. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. gris. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the parties taking a multitude of local names. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. to Provence and Paris. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. c. including text as well as illustrations. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. In the context of the fine arts. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50.

they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In 16th century Venice. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. trades. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and provided assistance to members in need. or professions. "[knowledge of] heraldry. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In Italy they go back a long way. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. but in time they acquired other functions. The guild also monitored standards of work. trade or profession (painters. Guilds were also patrons of art. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. as some did). heraldry (Fr. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The guilds were not equal. In some towns. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. H hatching In a drawing. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In some cities. goldsmiths. héraut. print or painting. surgeons. and greater hostility between master and man. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Florence. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. notably Florence in the 14th century. [science] héraldique. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. "herald") . there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. for example. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers." from Fr. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts.

the Waldensian. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. i. d. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. while others merged with the Waldensians. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. By contrast. with the rules governing their use. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. from the start. one great missionary community. and regarded themselves as forming. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The main impact of the . heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. However. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. they were condemned in 1184. the Cathars were an anti-church. together with brethren north of the Alps. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. normative for churchmen. the followers of Juan de Valdes. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. as Antichrist. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). head of the 'carnal Church'. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. indeed. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati.

Henry Inman. the emancipation of man from God took place. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . F. working from 1825 to 1875. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Kensett. American painters were studying in Rome. my spouse'. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. its subjects considered morally elevating. B. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and classical literature. Thomas Cole. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Durand. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. At the same time. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. J. S. and. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). In humanism. humanism (Lat. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. mainly in the south. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Frederick E. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Jasper Cropsey. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. humanus. hortus conclusus (Lat.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Germany. George Inness. Church. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. in his earlier work. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. history (usually classical history). absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. F. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Morse.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

soft style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. The terms court style. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. investiture .surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. are also used in art literature. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. the ability to create. the pincers. the hammer. Human figures. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). etc. and the ladder. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Derived from classical rhetoric. usually the donors of a work of art. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Veronica. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the rooster of Peter's denial. In the second half of the 14th century. and they are also depicted on their own. the scourge that was used in the scourging. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. it denominates a kind of behaviour. invention. For instance. or of other saints.g. the veil of St. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. inventio (It. Donatallo. originality. with many further details added. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. trecento rococo and lyrical style. beautiful style.

The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Upon his return to Holland. Jerome's writings. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. generally Dutch or Flemish. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. . Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Italianizers Northern artists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Both and Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. and Jan Asselijn. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Nicolaes Berchem. principally Dutch. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. who traveled in Italy and. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Andries and Jan Both. of Utrecht. although they are usually called Romanists. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The Both brothers. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.

lectern A reading stand or desk. encouraged by the Crusades. Archbishop of Genoa. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. John of Jerusalem . Legenda Aurea (Lat. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. the rite of communion is based on this.1519). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. especially one at which the Bible is read. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. As their military role grew. liberal arts .

whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. first the preparatory trivium . Kensett (1816-1872).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Church (1826-1900). and Frederick E. often sublime. It is related to. that may contain a window. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). the quadrivium. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Maria Novella in Florence). together with identifying attributes (e. often standing in markets and town squares. that could be used for public ceremonies. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Heade (1819-1904). commemorating a marriage. John F. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. rhetoric and dialectic. poetic atmosphere. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. geometry. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. its roof supported by columns. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).g. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. astronomy and music. Martin J. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns.grammar. loggia (It. a semicircular space. then the basis of a philosophical training. . a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. painting or sculptural decoration. comprising arithmetic. Tubal for music).) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. "little moon") In architecture. lunette (Fr.g. through the use of aerial perspective. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.

originally sung without accompaniment. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. the goddess Cybele. and accompaniments. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. being written. active mainly in Florence c. but they painted genre scenes. originating in Italy in the 14th century. When white is used for painting. mandorla (It. for example. Specifically. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. copper green. historical subjects. particularly such ware produced in Italy. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. antimony yellow. 1855–65. usually for the lute. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. magna mater (Lat. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and however bright their lighting effects. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). manganese purple. and iron red. madrigal A part song. "almond") . and portraits as well as landscapes. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). "great mother") A mother goddess.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect.

It reached to the knee or foot.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. the Codex manuscriptus. depending on the social class of the wearer. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Mannerism (It. often ornamented with decorative borders. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. strong. complex and crowded compositions. ecclesiastical. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. worn open. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Developing out of the Renaissance. bound. marked by flagellation. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. El Greco and Tintoretto. In architecture. "manner. In Mannerist painting. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Flanders. the hand-written medieval book. maniera. in a specific sense. Parmigianino. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. mantle An overcoat. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and crowned with thorns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and literary texts. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Bronzino. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Burgundy. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. which was quarried at Mount . illuminated initials and miniatures. more strictly.

Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. having finished his training. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. martyrion. martyrdom (Gk. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. sleek surface. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). which were beginning to be reverently collected. Carrara. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). particularly by Michelangelo. proof") the sufferings. a different design on the reverse.Pentelicon in Attica. medallion In architecture. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. quarried at Massa. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. the medal's purpose was commemorative. The pure white Carrara marble. Like the finest Imperial coins. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Without monetary value. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. "witness. an inscription running round the rim. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. marmi finti (It.

Ludwig von Siegen. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 1452-1526/27). A Dutch officer. often anonymous. 14601528). even grain. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. who reflected them. of the person portrayed on the other side. the stress on individual character. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1640. c. for landscapes and portraits. Medusa In Greek mythology. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. In pure mezzotint. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. no line drawing is employed. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre.round the neck. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. particularly. The process is essentially extinct today. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. 1467-688). Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. as it were. in England. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. and of the many. a Gorgon. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Her head features on Minerva's shield. When Perseus cuts off her head. . Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. perhaps oddly. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. 1425-1504). The work of these men. It was. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. c. This yields a soft effect in the print. supposedly to petrify her enemies.

saying") .miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. e. Parmigianino (d. monokhromatos.g. a branch of the Franciscan order. executed on a very small scale. often quite highly finished. Francis himself. usually portraits. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. "one color") Painted in a single color. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. still exist. motto (Ital. pointed headdress worn by bishops. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. miter A high. ink and paint. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. monochrome (Gk. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. "word. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. a painting executed in a single color. Many such small versions. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. by Tiepolo and Rubens..

Rome. and Casino Massimo. 1817-29). In general.from the Middle Ages. but often insipid. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Nazarenes A group of young. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. nave (from Lat. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. . as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. often separated from it by pillars. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and is intersected by the transept. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. navis. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. The invention of personal mottos. Isidore. Pforr. and two other members moved to Rome. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). naturalism (Fr. Berlin. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. In 1810 0verbeck. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. 1816-17. named after the patron saint of painting.

Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. moreover. nigellus. Nymphaeum (Gk. were usually old when elected. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. is as true as it is notorious. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Popes. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. but their ideas continued to be influential.) . This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. nimbus (Lat. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. the style of the Ancien Régime. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "aureole") The disc or halo. usually golden. niello (Lat. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance.

original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. a small private chapel. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. the three basic styles of design. "services. walnut. its richness of colour. and entablatures. the Doric order. . The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. with a sturdy. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a more elaborate base. fluted column and a plain capital. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and its greater tonal range. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. such as linseed. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. obsequia. capital. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. O obsequies (Lat. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. inborn sin. orders of architecture In classical architecture. or poppy. The earliest. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. was the simplest. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). They are seen in the form of the columns. Greek goddesses of Nature. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities.

The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. while shops came to be thought undignified. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and the main apartments above. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.g. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. P pala (Ital. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. tradition and social structure. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. standing at the foot of the Cross. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. designed as a . "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Palazzo Strozzi). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and. with biforate windows. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. like cities. the Cancelleria). The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. palazzo (It. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court.

Palazzo Massimi). with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. often built next to their titular churches. palmette. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. especially after the Sack of Rome.g. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). like Genoa. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. and large households. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. panel . Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). column-caps. came to be applied all over Europe. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Papal incentives to build. like the colonnaded vestibule. In Venice.scholarly retreat. evolved influential types. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). e.g. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. cornices and abutments. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Movement of patrons and architects. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Rich. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Other cities. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. behind a sober Florentine façade. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Following Oriental patterns.

and the pressure and temptations . cedar. to influence popes in their favour. Having a circular plan. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. including beech. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. or the incidence of taxation. Then. slate has occasionally been used as a support. secular rulers. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and walnut. and other synthetic materials as supports. fibre-board. fir.Term in painting for a support of wood. teak. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. or other rigid substance. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. olive. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and spanned by a single dome. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and dark walnut are favourites. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. To maintain their authority. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. A number of matters. metal. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. as distinct from canvas. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. In the 20th century cedar. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. enforce law and order.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. as it were. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the. The third aspect was administrative. so that they might have a voice at court. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and modern painters have also used plywood. Many other types were used. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. however. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. larch. On a larger scale. linden. chestnut. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. mahogany. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. As successors to St Peter. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other.

who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. would. To resolve the problem of divided authority. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. at Avignon. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. if it did no serious damage to the faith. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. possess an authority which. which met at Constance 1414-18. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. in spite of further absences from Rome. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. to be long delayed. however. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. There remained. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. Colonna and Caetani. in the eyes of God. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. the most appropriate . So onerous. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). however. which seems so inevitable. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. It was argued that such a council. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. could supersede that of a pope. As at Avignon. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. of individuals. The identification of the Papacy with Rome.as well. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. By then. was long in doubt. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. as such. from the point of view of its religious associations. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. however. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67).that could be applied to them. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority.

by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. scholars and men of letters. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). less frequently pig. and satyrs. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Parrhasius (c. pastor. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. However. nymphs. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. goat. as well as a governmental one. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. through lavish patronage of artists. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 400-300 BC). Passion . in classical literature. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. it has also been used for painting. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. the creation of a cultural capital.. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and other animals. to a world peopled by shepherds. pastoral (Lat. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and with Zeuxis (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.

and also the archbishop of Pisa.The events leading up to Good Friday. patrician (Lat. ornamental building. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. Meanwhile. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. wealthy citizen. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. 1478). "butterfly. pavilion (Lat. papilio. pastiche (fr. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. but not necessarily a direct copy.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. 1478.) or pasticcio (It. a prominent section of a monumental façade. a small. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. which focus on the Suffering Christ. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. such as a garden summerhouse. . hence tent") A lightly constructed. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. a region in north-central Italy. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. patricius. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. the crown of thorns. Francesco Salviati. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. and so on. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. Portrayals of the Passion. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. projecting either centrally or at both ends.

) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "to see through. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. persona. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. or related elements within an art work. . physiognomy (Gk. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. and gnomon. in particular the face. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. personification (Lat. "nature". and facere. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. pergola (It. "hanging. pendant (Fr. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physis. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. concept or deity. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). perspicere. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "person". perspective (Lat.

' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. or resin to make paint. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. pigmentum. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. remarkable for singularity. Pietà (Lat. affording a good subject for a landscape. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. striking the imagination with the force of painting. but may consist of a cluster of columns. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. to be expressed in painting. containing the public rooms. both real and painted. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. for example. Peter's.) The main floor of a building. glue. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. curious details. A pier is generally larger than a column. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). pigment (Lat. usually above the ground floor. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. proper to take a landscape from. . and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. but full of variety. Rome.piano nobile (Ital. exemplified. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. moreover. for instance. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. pilastrum.pilaster (Lat. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . it has a base. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. and capital. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. it is difficult to find. During 1348 the Black Death. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. though in less widespread. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Rocco and Sebastian. outside Tuscany. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. since. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. and thereafter all Europe. "pillar") A flat. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. however. in October 1347. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. such as Florence and Genoa. It seems probable. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. In the 15th century. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. more sporadic outbreaks. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). despite regional variations. plague Plague. Thenceforward. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. perhaps. the burning of 'infected' clothing. a shaft. It is often fluted. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. For this reason. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. also used in Spain's American colonies.

In contrast with Aristotle. like its successor. i. Timaeus. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. correct classical orders became frequent. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. or appropriateness. are the masterworks of the second style. or simply the Plateresque. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. heraldic escutcheons. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. and unified style using massive geometric forms. harmonious. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Diego evolved a purer. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Phaedrus. Phaedo.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. which lasted only a few decades. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. A student of Socrates. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The second phase. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The first phase. the Symposium. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. utilized Mudejar ornament -. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Philebus. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. placement. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). composition.e. and sinuous scrolls. more severe. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.

including those of Plotinus. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. A new Latin translation. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. but not completely. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. and he utilized many other writings. and the Chaldaic Oracles. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source.in Plato's thought. Plotinus. 1472-c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. all of which he also translated into Latin. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Iamblichus.1577) becoming particularly popular. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. and Agostino Steuco (c. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Rather unsystematic. partially. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. replaced Ficino's. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. near Florence. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. the greatest of his ancient disciples.

Some polyptychs were very elaborate. pointed arch In architecture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. plinthos. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. poluptukhos. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. plinth (Gk. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. column. such as processions and consecrations. porticus. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pluvial (Med. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. as in classical architecture). the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Lat.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. Plato was read in the universities. where a pectoral is used to close it. Frequently supports a pediment. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. portico (Lat. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. or statue. pluviale. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. polyptych (Gk. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture.

whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. and only a decorative accessory to form. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Florence (1486-90). based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Colleoni. Cathedral) by Uccello. and the . was revived in the 14th century. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature.e. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Campidoglio). Siena. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Venice). The realism of the clear. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. 1328. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799.sculptors such as Donatello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. psychologically more complex. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. the Carracci. Desiderio da Settignano. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Group portraits. Maria Novella. inessential. flattened image. decorating whole rooms. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. National Gallery). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The equestrian portrait. Gattarnelata. Mantua. Florence. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Farnese). include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474.

the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The sermons of Visdomini. together with the Dominican Savonarola. from the secular clergy. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. who had as their ideal masters Titian. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Correggio. Fiamma's sermons. was versed in classical and patristic . bishop of Asti. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. minatory exhortations. to discharge their preaching duties. and Peter Paul Rubens. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. primarily the mendicants. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. 1494). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. are not florid in style. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. and. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Charles Le Brun. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. star preachers journeyed all over Italy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Borromeo. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Savonarola and Musso." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. The styles of S. of the sermon as an art form. bishops especially. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. several of whom became bishops. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. bishop of Chioggia. As Poussin was a Frenchman. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. abrasive even. however. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. in their appeals for communal religious renewal.

they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. though often relatively very wide . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Naples). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. among them Holman Hunt. predella (It.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. prefiguration Typology . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Because of the small size of predelle . These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. tapestries.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Louis of Toulouse (1317. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. The New Testament references in these would. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). however. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Millais and Rossetti. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. the temptations of Adam and Christ. and so forth. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.rhetoric. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.g. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.

The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. again indicative of the purpose they served. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. the quadrature. The following are important: 1. intended as complete works of art in themselves. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. 2. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. notably David. and Houdon among sculptors. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. "evenness") in painting. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. Girardon. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. proportio. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. the Canon of Proportion. sculpture and architecture. which uses the square . projecting shelf on which to kneel. profil perdu (Fr. 3. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Fragonard. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. these highly finished drawings. the golden section. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. proportion (Lat. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10).

The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. one half the length of the other). 4. and 5. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. putto (It.as a unit of measurement. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. "boys") Plump naked little boys. triangulation. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Ignazio. for example). quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. harmonic proportions. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. the steward or treasurer of a church. putti sing. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). provenance The origins of an art work. It was common in Roman art. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Unlike Pozzo. a fifth = 2:3. Rome. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. . in whose celebrated ceiling in S. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. a fourth = 3:4. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century.

relic (Lat.g. Botticelli. the object of particular veneration. relief (Lat. or the Jesuits. also known as the Realist school. refectory (Med. Lat. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. in which figures are seen half round. Donatello. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. canons regular. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. e. with the Anglican Church developing in England. hermits. the great orders of monks. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Brunelleschi. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Fra Angelico and others. friars and nuns. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. and high relief (alto rilievo). basso rilievo). In 16th century Europe. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Among the . Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. or some item connected with a saint. in particular works by Masaccio. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. relevare. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists.Quattrocento (It. relicquiae.

whose friaries were technically non-property owning. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The same bull . the most notable being S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Bologna (1419). 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Venice (1404). they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Maria di Fregonaia. That of S. Giustina. 1012. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Padua. presided over by chapters general. Bernardino of Siena. the Conventuals. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. The Silvestrines. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Mantua. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. In 1517. Giorgio in Alga. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Salvatore. After the repression of the Spirituals. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. In 1504. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. which was to become the main Italian one. and the generally moderate Observants. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Lucca. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. At the same time. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Benedetto. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. various groups were fused in the latter body. who had no overall organization originally. Founded by St Romuald c. their resources being in the hands of trustees. i.e. The Benedictines. the great patriarch of Venice. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. and their more institutionalized brethren. The Conventuals. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. was the congregation of S.contemplative orders. however. it became the Cassinese congregation. although technically of secular canons. Lorenzo Giustiniani.

the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. also. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Michele in Isola. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Filippo Neri. Gerolamo Aemiliani. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The first. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. however. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Angela Merici. Gaetano da Thiene. however. a historical period. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. founded by S. Venice. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the Theatines. founded in 1535 by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). S.

if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. life. as well as political. and competition with. because its core of energy. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and his own as potentially one of light. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. of 'darkness'. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. however. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Thereafter. however. of arts. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). increasingly. . too long forgotten glories. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. 1875-86). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. For long. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of an energetic revival of interest in. of letters. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. even Amoralism. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. the historical reality of antiquity. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism.century. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). was so vast and potent. of scholarship. All-Roundness. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. which had begun early in the 14th century.

etc. There was an early. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. sometimes.with all its shabbiness . Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. consist merely of a painting. and other liturgical objects.) was the term chosen. though sometimes of metal. however. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. (3) There is not a true. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. and mass media. candlesticks. retables can be detached and. etc. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. statues. Ghent). later still to Genoa. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Though thus challenged. The challenges are to be accepted. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. in the more limited sense. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Cathedral of SaintBavon. let alone a uniform. especially in the High Gothic period. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. mobilized nationalism. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. gratefully. the previous record .A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt').erased. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. letters. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. and is decorated with paintings. congruence between. It is for this additional. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. of industrialization.

that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Originally commissioned in 976. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Louis XV furniture. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Italy. . and architecture dominating the 18th century. Rococo A style of design.of St Mark in Venice. retables have become extinct. its mood lighthearted and witry. Germany. and 'Romanesque'. literally. With the development of freestanding altars.in the 11th century. rocaille (French. rilievo (It. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. is a typical product. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). richly decorated with organic forms. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. almost simultaneously. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. More usually. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. the first style to achieve such international currency. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture.France. As the name suggests. painting. the St. like 'Gothic'. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. in several countries . has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Spain . often considered the last stage of the Baroque. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Romanesque art. "relief") In painting. however.

the development of nationalistic pride. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. van Heemskerk. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). usually as a result of a visit to Italy. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Rome. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Mabuse. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. van Orley. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. In addition. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The aim of painting. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. they maintained. B. stylized design representing an open rose. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Piranesi.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Pannini and Mengs. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. . Q. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Massys and M. Claude. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. such as red ochre. M. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries.

and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Clement escaped into Castel S. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. There were no limits on time. when it finally left the city it had devastated. penance. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Many compositions were anonymous. and Lorenzo de' Medici. and anointing of the sick. Sacra Conversazione (It.greatly increased. the Eucharist. matrimony. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Eastern independent. and Protestant churches. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). local saints. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. but others were the work of well-known figures. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic.expressed through gesture. Written primarily in ottava rima. supported by lay confraternities. glance and movement . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. holy orders. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Subjects were nominally sacred. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. and impoverished. In the . Orthodox. confirmation. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. gutted. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. multiple sets used in succession. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. from the Old and New Testaments. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. pious legend and hagiography.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy.

The classical Protestant churches (i. The theology of the Orthodox Church. baptism and the Eucharist. Lutheran. the sun of righteousness. large room. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.i.e.early church the number of sacraments varied." sala (Ital. It is still practiced on special occasions. The chief focus of discontent. the Bentivoglio.e. Salt War. Hence. strictly speaking. chapter 13. Anglican. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Immediately following baptism. that the price of salt should be increased.. replaces the Lord's Supper. sacraments. in principle. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Thus. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. notably from Florence and in Germany. Candidates first face west. and sacraments. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. and then face east. was not maintained as a sacrament. was buried under a new fortress. as an excuse to revolt. foot washing." which are called sacramentals. make such strict distinctions. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.) Hall. used for drawing. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. the Orthodox Church does not. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. They were still seeking aid. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. Saracens . spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. which in the Gospel According to John. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. the Rocca Paolina. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. the symbolic direction of Christ. as in the Church of the Brethren.

45 BC). 360 . Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). sarcophagus.During the Middle Ages. sarcophagi (Gk. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . made of stone. the god of wine. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. satyr In Greek mythology. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 270 BC). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. the Arabs or Muslims. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). human-like woodland deities with the ears. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Little known in the Middle Ages.c. 210 AD).c. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. whose writings. wood or terracotta. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. are lost. The publication of Latin (1562. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. legs and horns of a goat. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. pl. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. and many others. 160 .

In northern Italy. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. but with little effect. the Florentines. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. while England. one of the early leaders. from time to time both he and his opponents. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Schism. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. most of whom. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. 1386) and his son Ladislas. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Louis I (d. However.for example Pieter van Laer. scholasticism . elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). being Frenchmen. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. on one side. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. in June 1409. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. who had the support of the Avignon pope. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. while devout Christians agonized. than their medieval predecessors. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. was called Bamboccio.they had individual Bentnames . Alexander V. on the other. As a result. who recognized the Roman pope. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. for. and. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. with France and her allies Aragon. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See.

notably Aquinas.) . secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.The term is ambivalent.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. because the secco technique is much less permanent. textual scholarship. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco.were different from those of medieval. if lime-water was used. Padua. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. and theology. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). and Islamic literature. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). the plaster had to be damped before painting. Often called the burning ones. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. As such. as it were. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. on one side. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. It was because the central concerns of humanism . (See also: fresco. None the less. Medieval scholars. as it is easier to add details in this way. that scholasticism was left. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. university-based study. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. history and rhetoric . moreover. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Christian. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.moral philosophy. Serenissima (Ital.

sibylla. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sinopia . "the most serene republic of Venice"). In Christian legend. at the same time. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. They first appear in alpine monasteries.. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. which were all identical in thickness. Servite (Lat.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Sibyls foretold the Birth. Originally. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. women who could prophesy. in use since the Middle Ages. the number gradually rose to ten. there was only one Sibyl. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. and the delicate. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Lat. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Med. "prophetess") In antiquity. in the period of classical antiquity. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibyls (Gk. Signoria (It. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. term. sfumato A technique. brass. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. usually presided over by individual families.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century.

hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. stigma (Gk.'Beautiful Madonnas'. as the name implies. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Ital. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. It is very closely related to International Gothic. especially in the flow of drapery. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. pronounced as French.) Wooden ceiling decoration.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. staffage This word. Stanze (Ital. "mark.. and. sotto in sù (It. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. stigmata. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. . sing. in other words. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. Francis of Assisi. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. brand. soffit (Lat.

Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. whose verses actually fabrications . the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. In a looser sense. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. both external and internal. The vogue for the Sublime. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. stucco A type of light. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. pl. studioli (It. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. supremacy . studiolo.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. with that for the Picturesque. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. Indeed. John Milton. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.

T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. But the Italians did not make them.e.Historically. The subject is underexplored. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. tempera (Lat. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . Salviati and Allori. or cartoons. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. . graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. 1407). tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. and in literature. chiefly from Flanders. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being.and. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. then being replaced by oil paint. his own headquarters. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. London. These were imported. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. temperare. into Italy. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. doubtless. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. was being decorated with frescoes. both for panel painting and fresco. i. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns.

and later to subdivide gable ends. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "a commonplace") In literature. Trajan's Column . though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. walls. and sculptures. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. in the architecture of ancient Rome. tondo. tondi (It. topos. pl. i. and other surfaces. pl. "fields. triumphal arch. model. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). usually those of animals or geometrical forms. topoi (Gk. topia. theme or motif. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child.terracotta (It. figure of speech.e. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. and profile. in art. topiary (Gk. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. vessels. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. terraferma (Ital. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. widely used form. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. quarter face.

The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. usually an altarpiece. of virtues and of the arts. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . added to the glamour of the triumph. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Battista Sforza. of both sexes'.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. or wings. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. "threefold") A painting in three sections. death. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Disseminated soon after his death.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. as it were. behind it. Early triptychs were often portable. . they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. after 'a countless number of virgins. a car so brave'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. the military triumph became sublimated. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Meanwhile. Trinity (Lat. beside it the army of martyrs. chastity. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. trinitas. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). the wars by which they were won . time and eternity. patriarchs and prophets. fame. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. into a number of less controversial forms. triptych (Gk. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the Son and the Holy Spirit. tryptychos.' Before it go the apostles. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. "threefold") in Christianity. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel.

often decorated with sculptures. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. typology . it is usually decorated with carvings. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tympanum (Lat. tromp l'oeil (Fr. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Dating from classical times. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. through various naturalistic devices. "drum") In classical architecture. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. It incorporates Renaissance features. tusche A thick. first recorded in 1232. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). enclosed by an arch. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. viscous black ink. In medieval architecture.

slayer of Goliath.g. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. In Christian thought. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. 1610). and David. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. were popular with them also. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). U uomo universale (It.A system of classification. each had access to his paintings. especially his half-length figural groups. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. lanterns. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. such as five works devoted to the senses. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. e. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. The numerous candles. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. 1590-1624). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. where they were most accessible. Judith. . killer of Holofernes. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).Dirck van Baburen (c. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. knew his former patrons.) The Renaissance "universal man". tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.

vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. V vanishing point In perspective. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. vesper. "evening") . vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. overturned vessels. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. the groin vault. Parisian craftsmen. mixed in. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. a work's richness of subject matter. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. vanitas (Lat. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. varietà (It. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Also varietas (Lat. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. guttering candles. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. it was used to decorate furniture. and even flowers (which will soon fade). carriages.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. and the rib vault. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. often gold. There are a wide range of forms.). Vespers (Lat. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. snuff boxes and other objects. hour-glasses and clocks.

"not exposed to winds". 'Assume a virtue. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Vestibule (Lat. vita. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. pl. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. virtù could be used. in which the word signifies efficacy. Prudence. In ancient Roman dwellings. and Sloth. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. vimperga Of German origin. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. vestibulum. Gluttony. "life") . as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. if you have it not'. Hope. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. actual or latent. and Justice. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The seven Virtues were: Faith. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Lust. Charity.Prayers said in the evening. Covetousness. Temperance. for example. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Envy. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. vite (Lat. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Anger. Fortitude. the church service at which these prayers are said. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices.

votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. 1472. Sculptors and Architects"). those of Volterera. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. 1482-84). of the Papacy and Naples against Florence.An account of someone's life and work. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. 1478-80. a biography. and of Ferrara. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Vitruvius Pollio. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. published in 1550 and 1568. usually when a prayer for good fortune. in fact. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. they were from the 18th century . No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. and appalled recognition of. Marcus (1st cent.g. protection from harm. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. or recovery from illness has been made. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The wars from 1494 do. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

It was intended to have a variety of functions. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. pompous on the floor above. woodcut A print made from a wood block. usually linear. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. usually restorers. a philosophy of life. treasury or a place where justice was administered. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. based on stylization of various animal forms. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. "Western work of art". during its subsequent history. Westwerk German word.Weltanschauung (Gr. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. gallery. "world view") A comprehensive world view. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. .

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