A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and Rouault. roofed with a half-dome. design. The term applies also to a print made by this method. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. including Goya. the darker the tone). aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). architrave (It. which is fused to the plate by heating. There are several variants of the technique. the moulding around a window or door. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. arcade (Lat. piers or pillars. "architectural") Relating to structure. In Greek and Roman literature.e. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. arkhitektonikos. The adjective is apsidal. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Also known as an exedra. but in essence the process is as follows. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. . A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. the lowest part of the entablature). arcus. architectonic (Gk. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Picasso. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface.A semicircular projection. Lancet and Tudor. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. or organization. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Degas. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i.

Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . Dante's Vita nuova . attributum. aureolus.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "begin. archeiu.and the Comedy ." and Lat. archivolto.archivolt (Ital. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85)." from Gk. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "front arch. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . In the case of martyrs. "golden. aureole (Lat. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. attribute (Lat. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Ars Moriendi (Lat. dominate.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. usually a saint. voltus. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom.

"brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. who had been residing in France since 1305. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. that of Cardano. 'Captivity'. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. in 1377. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The actual move was made in 1309. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. applied to the physically . Six pontificates later. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. paintings of everyday life. the god of wine and fertility. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. baldachin. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. often anecdotal. Later. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). or baldacchino (It. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France.

Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Easter. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. and Epiphany. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. AD 300). and Nocera in Italy. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. banderuola. Croatia]. Pentecost. As eight follows the "complete" number. Customarily. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Alg. Florence. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. seven. or canopy. banderole (It. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. the Temple of Venus. pope between 432 and 440. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. such as those at Pisa. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and abject filthy things. or forecourt.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). . beggars in rags.. el Kantara. Spalato [Split. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures.g. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. built by Sixtus III. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. a church. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. set beneath a domical ciborium. Parma. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. France. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Baalbek. and Poitiers.. or connected with. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Lebanon. a visual metaphor for the number eight. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. AD 273.

something of earlier symbolism survives. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Baroque (Port. Constant Troyon (French. 1796-1875). In architecture. 1814-1875). "king's hall") a church building. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Théodore Rousseau (French. basilica (Gk. in the 1840s and 1850s. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1810-1865). 1817-1878). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Also tunnel vault. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Rubens). Jules Dupré (French. Originally. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. usually facing east. achieved through scale. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. which is reserved for the clergy.an allusion to entering the Christian life. or baptismal chapels. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and (3) everyday realism.In the 10th century. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. however. southeast of Paris. Vermeer). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. in its usual location near the church door . it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. stoa basilike. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. were often omitted entirely. 1807-1876). (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). . In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and increasingly elaborate decoration. barocco. 1811-1889). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). baptisteries. Jean-François Millet (French. and thus a church. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. the dramatic use of light and shadow. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt.

and often sentimentality. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. domesticity. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. bodegón Image. also incorrectly called bisque. were referred to by their specific contents. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. in which still-life predominates. which is either not yet glazed. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Spanish still-lifes. especially Spanish. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. particularly porcelain. Book of Hours . who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. often with food and drink. as is to be expected. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). like their Dutch counterparts. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Bodegónes.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. such as Waldmüller. 1650 in Spain. Biscuit porcelain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. or which is to be left as it is. By association. It takes its name from its grainy texture. There were. The term was mainly used up to c. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. up until the mid-17th century. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. however.

but can also be used for painted sketches. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.an advantage over marble sculpture. days of the week. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. durability. varying from silverish to a rich. coppery red. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.by a variety of processes. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. and the fact that it is easily workable . By extension. . Chantilly). See flying buttress.both hot and cold . or seasons. made as a study for a larger picture. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bozzetto Strictly speaking. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. a rapid sketch in oil. though these are more often called 'modelli'. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. months. bozzetto(Italian. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.

Based largely on Roman and Greek art. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Duccio. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. C cabinet A small. and work in precious metals. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). and Giotto. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. ceramics. cameo Small relief made from gems. camera obscura . an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. notable from Syria and Egypt. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. casson.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. private room where works of art. its forms highly stylized. box") In architecture. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. caisson (Fr. which was often allegorical. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. "a chest. mosaics. glass. It also served to glorify the emperor. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Among its most distinctive products were icons. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. manuscript illuminations.

usually with several branches or arms. which was usually whitened. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. "candle") A large. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. by the 16th century. dating to antiquity. only very rough effects will be obtainable. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually in a church.Ancestor of the photographic camera. usually decorated. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candelabrum (It. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. Portable versions were built. followed by smaller and even pocket models. campanile Bell tower. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. other materials used are cotton. sing.) A gallery for singers or musicians. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments." and the earliest versions.-N. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Niepce created photography. and jute. cantorie (It. . consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. usually built beside or attached to a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. Structurally. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. both of which have richly carved marble panels. pl. capital (Lat. cantoria. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. hemp. capitellum. as an aid to drawing. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. The Latin name means "dark chamber. candlestick. candela. candelabra.

a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartoon (It. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Carthusian Order (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. cartellino. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. near Grenoble. cartone. New Charterhouses. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. cardinalis.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. pl. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. or fresco. and humanism. details of the subject. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. the date of the painting. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the endeavour to attain true humanity.a humorous drawing or parody. tapestry. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Carmelites (Lat. cartouche .both Italians and artists from other countries . In fresco painting. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. or a motto. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. cartellini In a painting. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). At the height of the Middle Ages. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Cardinal Virtues (Lat.

where the throne of the bishop is placed. or arms of the cross. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and many other items of her dowry. The main body. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. castello (It. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon.toward the setting sun. putti (cupids). and swags of fruit and flowers. or nave. The altar is placed at the east end. These lead up to the north and south transepts. In the 15th century. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. they were also used in other countries. They contained the bride's clothes. caryatid (Gk.) "castle". palace. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. . a cathedral always faces west . Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Cascina. cathedral (cathedra. cassone (It. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. linen. Paolo Uccello. decorated with gilt gesso.

and perspicere. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Relative to the observer. Christian. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. or birdlike characteristics. champlevé (Fr. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. buildings and figures that are being depicted. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. centralis. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). a throne bearer of the deity. central perspective (Lat. as celestial attendants of God. "in the centre". Both the statement of St. continually praise him. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. and Islamic literature. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. rather than intercessory functions. landscapes. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. animal. in accordance with their distance from the observer. a celestial winged being with human. . In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice.

replacing tempera. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept .chiaroscuro (It. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. North of the Alps. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Hans Burgkmair (1510). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. choros. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. Since Carolingian times. "light dark") In painting. or for choral singing. Lastly. the Order of the Hospital of St. reserved for the clergy to pray together. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. choir (Gk. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used.

Sculpted clouds. a massing of carved angels. ciborium . Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The Transparente (completed 1732). an architect. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. reversed volutes. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. became the most common motif. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. which was shaped like an inverted cone.intersect). stucco shells. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Mexico cathedral (1718). balustrades. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. further enriching the style. undulating lines. undulating cornices. Very few still exist in their original positions. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. is as typically Churrigueresque. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. and repetition of pattern. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and the Churrigueresque column. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. gilded rays. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. and garlands. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches.

A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. In reaction to this revolutionary . the wool carder Michele di Lando. beaters. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Then. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds.and post-medieval Italy. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. including the ciompi. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. who were raised to the status of a guild. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Members of the lower classes. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. but self-employed. controlled by the minor guilds. Their economic condition worsened. High Renaissance). none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. The new government. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. They were forbidden to form a trade association. as also were those in the associated. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Without being members of a guild. Quattrocento (1400s. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. on July 22. combers. etc. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. placing one of their members. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. or achieve political representation. ciompi. craft of dyeing.

where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. scholars patiently finding. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. literature. In the 15th century Greek literature. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity).together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. Concepts of the classical. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. on which strings were plucked. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. the ciompi guild was abolished. clair-obscur (Fr. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. except in cases where . and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. resembling a lyre. philosophy. philosophy and art . the black contours usually with a special line plate. cithara (Gk. .) An ancient musical instrument.as in Italy these were dispensed with. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). writers. with Italian scholars. however. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). changed greatly from one period to the next. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and politics.episode.

sing. cognoscenti. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. .coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. cognoscente (It. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. Green and red. intensify one another. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. pl. Coffered ceilings. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. The name was derived from the condotta." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. pl. a work's underlying theme. when set side by side. concetto. occasionally made of wood. literature or music. the church service at which these prayers are said. compline (Lat. those with refined tastes. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. condottiere. or "contract. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. concetti (It. [hora] completa. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. condottieri (It. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. as well as from the Bible. terrorized the country. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. blue and orange. arch or ceiling.

Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Francesco Sforza. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. disappeared. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. flagellant confraternities. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Spanish. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. and Tuscany. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. which spread in the 15th century.e. With no goal beyond personal gain. By the 16th century. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. commonly called either Compagnia di S. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Carmagnola. or with the spiritual assistance of. and German--the condottieri. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. clergy. By the end of the 14th century. Umbria. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. i. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. . The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Italians began to raise mercenary armies.e. Toward the end of the 15th century. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Mark (1432). (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. i. scuole. Martino). respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. often under the direction of. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. convents of convertite. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Muzio's son. in the service of Perugia. and his rival Braccio da Montone.devastating Romagna. often called compagnie or. primarily for syphilitics. confraternities Confraternities. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. in Venice. who won control of Milan in 1450. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. in the service of Naples.

"placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention.g. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. contour (Fr. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. and those which aided imprisoned debtors.i. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. While the Doge ranked above the Council. 1514 in S. in Florence. Confraternities.g. contour. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. and refuges for maidens. while the Venetian government. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. founded c. In medieval painting. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. contours were initially regular. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Dorotea in Trastevere. e. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. however. Later. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the Florentine Neri. which accompanied condemned prisoners.e. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. contrapposto (It. e. notwithstanding their location. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. but sometimes had their own premises. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. flat outlines. reformed prostitutes. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order.

did not achieve any lasting results. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. 1280). Reform programs. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. a bracket of stone. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. started the process of inner reform in the Church. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Lat. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. conventicle (Lat. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. an engraving produced in this way. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. cuprum. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. 1100 and 1300. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. large cornice or other feature. conventiculurn.weight on one leg. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. The style spread as far as England. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. . aes cyprium. declining moral standards. They are often ornamented. whose names are inscribed on several works. corbel In architecture. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. executed by imported Italian craftsmen.

Constantine the Great. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the condemned man. the first Christian emperor. or "scourged. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Next. Carthaginians. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. a small dome. There were various methods of performing the execution. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. An ancestor of the oboe. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. reedy sound. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime.e. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Death. a semi-circular vault. D dado . so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. the most famous victim of crucifixion. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. i. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Usually. "small vat") In architecture. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. cupola (Lat. after being whipped. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. cupula. Seleucids. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Jews. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. particularly among the Persians.

Passau. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diakonos. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. and Linz possessed common characteristics.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. deacon (Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. which was help to be the basis of all art. usually in matching pairs. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. diptychos. diptych (Lat. Anglican and Orthodox churches. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. e. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "drawing. Gk. Deësis (Gk. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Germany. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. disegno (It. diptychum. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature.g. decorated diffrently from the upper section. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. The term stresses not the literal drawing. often an altarpiece. a favorite late medieval picture subject. design") In Renaissance art theory. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. an expressive use of nature. danse macabre The dance of death. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. but the concept behind an art work.

it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. distemperare. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. dome in architecture. The studio easel.Thomas Aquinas. which runs on castors or wheels. is a heavy piece of furniture. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. when painters took to working out of doors. Ordo Praedictatorum. though a few artists. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. distemper (Lat.fully realize. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). also used it on canvas. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. doublet A male garment. donor (Lat. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). such as we still use today. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Dominicans (Lat. usually forming a ceiling or roof. "to mix. formerly worn under armour. a 19th-century invention. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. donator. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it.

ensemble (Fr. in art. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. and architecture. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. epitaph (Gk. It consists of the architrave. en face In portraiture. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. a depiction of Jesus. eschaton. sculpture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. "word") . which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "last". The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. fresco. the frieze. sometimes combining panel painting.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. John (19. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. eschatology (Gk. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. and the cornice. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. entablature In classical architecture. Ecce Homo (Lat. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Hence. bound and flogged. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. full face. and logos.

death and resurrection. notably Cardinal Pole. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. "good. Spain." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Giovanni Morone." and charis. 4500 BCE. and of the last things. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Marcantonio Flaminio. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Equated with the Greek god Pan. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. which was famous for maiolica. Vittoria Colonna. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. which is called "delftware. and is named for Faenza.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. celebrated with bread and wine. Carnesecchi and Ochino. farmers. . It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Contarini. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. eu. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. It developed in France in the early 16th century. protector of shepherds. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Augustine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Italy. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. which was developed in the Near East ca. particularly ware made in France. Jerome. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Germany. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. which is called "maiolica. and Scandinavia. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Saints Ambrose. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Eucharist (Gk. fields and livestock.

such as plague. leaves. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. frescos in Italy . well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Their attributes are the bow. relaxed. a technique known as a secco fresco. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. that of the others red. black and dun. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth.festoni (It. 2 . The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. can in time be seen. Only a small area can be painted in a day. Committed to charitable and missionary work. war. fluted of a column or pillar. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. a swag. famine and death. The colour of his horse is white. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). fresco (It. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. sword and set of balances.8). and these areas. and flowers suspended in a loop. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. drying to a slightly different tint. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous.

the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. landscape and portraiture. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. where the atmosphere was too damp. both in churches and in private and public palaces. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. The technique of buon fresco. genre In a broad sense. In art from the classical period onwards. covings and ceilings. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. or true fresco. the intonaco. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing .Save in Venice. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. are genres of painting. a person's invisible tutelary god. for example. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Final details. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or fresco secco. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Genius in classical Rome. G Garter.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. usually childish figure. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .

and as spurring on men of action. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. in portraits and on tombs. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. As such. whether it must be connected with the public good. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Gobelins . and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Maso di Banco. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Maria Gloriosa). Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. as well as writers and artists.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Bernardo Daddi. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. how it differed from notoriety. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy.

The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. still in existence today. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. who appointed Lebrun Director. In other Italian cities. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. and although it reopened in 1699.French tapestry manufactory. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. This ratio is approximately 8:13. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. golden section (Lat. . named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Golden Fleece. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. thereafter it made only tapestries. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Paris. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states.

painting. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. the superficial particularities of form. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In sculpture and in painting.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. Nevertheless. Denis. In particular. or the influence of one building. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. 1270. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Gothic Gothic. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. The artistic. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. like the cultural and commercial. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. from the 13th until the 17th century. There is a transcendental quality. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and lies much deeper than. painting. Amiens. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. In thinking of Nicola (d. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. 1200 and c. . whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. c. that the effects are to be felt. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage.

are but different appellations of the same thing'. and Piranesi. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Such tours often took a year or more. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. to silk. starch. to white or tinted paper and card and. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. if required. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. sometimes in the company of a tutor. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. notably in the writings of Bellori. Pannini. Dubuffet. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. . These qualities. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. chiefly to France. and Morris Graves. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Canaletto. the beau idéal of the French. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. genius. and the great style. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Honey. and above all Italy. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. occasionally.and hog-hair brushes. Klee. the Netherlands. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. It is thinned with water for applying. with sable. and taste among the English. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. without visible brush marks.

like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. brother of Louis IX. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In the context of the fine arts. exclude drawing from this definition. In another sense. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. however. From 1266 to 1268. including text as well as illustrations. the parties taking a multitude of local names. however. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. through central Italy. . which had recruited most of the merchant class. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. internal factions in Florence went under other names. 1216. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Although its palace was rebuilt c. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. grisaille (Fr. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. usually gray. Some writers. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. and Waiblingen. drawing and the various forms of engraving. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. after this. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. gris. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. to Provence and Paris. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. In Florence.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts.e. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. then as now. became an abiding feature of European politics. c. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. After the War of the Eight Saints. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i.

The guilds were not equal. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. In Italy they go back a long way. print or painting. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. and greater hostility between master and man. for example. In Florence. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. "herald") . surgeons. trade or profession (painters. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. or professions. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and provided assistance to members in need. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. "[knowledge of] heraldry. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In 16th century Venice. as some did). Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. In some cities. heraldry (Fr. but in time they acquired other functions. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. [science] héraldique. H hatching In a drawing. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. goldsmiths. Guilds were also patrons of art. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. héraut. trades. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. The guild also monitored standards of work. In some towns. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. such as Brescia and Vicenza." from Fr. notably Florence in the 14th century. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers.

the Waldensian. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. with the rules governing their use. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. as Antichrist. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. indeed. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. head of the 'carnal Church'. one great missionary community. d. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. while others merged with the Waldensians. However. together with brethren north of the Alps. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. they were condemned in 1184. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. By contrast. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. the followers of Juan de Valdes. normative for churchmen. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The main impact of the . 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. i. the Cathars were an anti-church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. from the start.

for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. In humanism. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Kensett. humanus. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. humanism (Lat. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. and. S. its subjects considered morally elevating. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . George Inness. Church. and classical literature. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. At the same time. the emancipation of man from God took place. Frederick E. history (usually classical history). and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. American painters were studying in Rome. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. in his earlier work. F. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. mainly in the south. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. working from 1825 to 1875. Morse. J. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Durand. F. Henry Inman. Thomas Cole. Jasper Cropsey. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. hortus conclusus (Lat. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. B. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden.movement upon the laity was in southern France. my spouse'. Germany. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

the rooster of Peter's denial. and the ladder. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. and they are also depicted on their own. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. The terms court style.g. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. invention. usually the donors of a work of art. the pincers. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. inventio (It. the scourge that was used in the scourging. trecento rococo and lyrical style. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the ability to create. soft style. etc. or of other saints. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the veil of St. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Donatallo. Veronica. the hammer. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. are also used in art literature. For instance. with many further details added. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). Judas' thirty pieces of silver. originality. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Derived from classical rhetoric. it denominates a kind of behaviour.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Human figures. In the second half of the 14th century. beautiful style. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. investiture .

Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Upon his return to Holland. Both and Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Andries and Jan Both. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Italianizers Northern artists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. and Jan Asselijn. of Utrecht. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. The Both brothers. although they are usually called Romanists. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. generally Dutch or Flemish. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. . Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. who traveled in Italy and. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jerome's writings. principally Dutch. bathed in a golden haze.

especially one at which the Bible is read. liberal arts . Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. the rite of communion is based on this. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Archbishop of Genoa. John of Jerusalem . In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Emperor Maximilian I (1459. lectern A reading stand or desk. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). As their military role grew. encouraged by the Crusades.1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.

and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. first the preparatory trivium . the quadrivium.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. painting or sculptural decoration.g. a semicircular space. Heade (1819-1904). often sublime. that may contain a window. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Tubal for music). Pythagoras for arithmetic. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Maria Novella in Florence). Church (1826-1900). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. loggia (It.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. comprising arithmetic. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. its roof supported by columns. then the basis of a philosophical training. "little moon") In architecture. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). lunette (Fr. .g. often standing in markets and town squares.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. and Frederick E. Kensett (1816-1872). through the use of aerial perspective. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). poetic atmosphere. commemorating a marriage. that could be used for public ceremonies. geometry. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). John F. It is related to. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Martin J.grammar. together with identifying attributes (e. astronomy and music. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. rhetoric and dialectic.

and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. originating in Italy in the 14th century. Specifically. manganese purple. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. for example. historical subjects. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. "almond") . being written. but they painted genre scenes. magna mater (Lat. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. When white is used for painting. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. madrigal A part song. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. and however bright their lighting effects. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. particularly such ware produced in Italy. active mainly in Florence c. and iron red. "great mother") A mother goddess.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. and accompaniments. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. 1855–65. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. antimony yellow. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. originally sung without accompaniment. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and portraits as well as landscapes. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). mandorla (It. copper green. usually for the lute. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. the goddess Cybele.

but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. the Codex manuscriptus. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. which was quarried at Mount . sometimes harsh or discordant colors. more strictly. "manner. Parmigianino. strong. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. depending on the social class of the wearer. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. El Greco and Tintoretto. often ornamented with decorative borders. mantle An overcoat. Bronzino. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Developing out of the Renaissance. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. complex and crowded compositions. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Flanders. In Mannerist painting. In architecture. in a specific sense. maniera. the hand-written medieval book. marked by flagellation. It reached to the knee or foot. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and crowned with thorns. ecclesiastical. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and literary texts. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. illuminated initials and miniatures. worn open.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. bound. Burgundy. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Mannerism (It.

particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). a different design on the reverse. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. martyrion. particularly by Michelangelo. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. proof") the sufferings. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Without monetary value. martyrdom (Gk. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Carrara. "witness. having finished his training. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. The pure white Carrara marble. quarried at Massa. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. an inscription running round the rim. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . sleek surface. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman.Pentelicon in Attica. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. medallion In architecture. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Like the finest Imperial coins. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. the medal's purpose was commemorative. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. marmi finti (It.

for landscapes and portraits. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. who reflected them. even grain. 1640. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Medusa In Greek mythology. This yields a soft effect in the print. and of the many. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. of the person portrayed on the other side. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. no line drawing is employed. Ludwig von Siegen. a Gorgon. 14601528). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. the stress on individual character. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. A Dutch officer. Her head features on Minerva's shield. perhaps oddly. in England. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. often anonymous. 1452-1526/27). It was. . particularly. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. as it were. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1425-1504). The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello.round the neck. supposedly to petrify her enemies. The process is essentially extinct today. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. In pure mezzotint. c. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. 1467-688). The work of these men. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. c. When Perseus cuts off her head. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa.

pointed headdress worn by bishops. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. e. still exist. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Parmigianino (d. a branch of the Franciscan order. painting in gouache on vellum or card. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. usually portraits. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Many such small versions. saying") . Francis himself. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. "word. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. miter A high. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. executed on a very small scale. by Tiepolo and Rubens.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. monochrome (Gk. ink and paint. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand..g. monokhromatos. often quite highly finished. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. "one color") Painted in a single color. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. motto (Ital. a painting executed in a single color.

navis. 1816-17. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. named after the patron saint of painting. Nazarenes A group of young. In general. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. but often insipid. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. It may have parallel aisles on each side. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and two other members moved to Rome. Berlin. In 1810 0verbeck. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. . and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. The invention of personal mottos. Rome. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. naturalism (Fr. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Isidore. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. nave (from Lat. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. often separated from it by pillars. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. 1817-29). Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and is intersected by the transept. Pforr. and Casino Massimo.from the Middle Ages.

surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nimbus (Lat. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. were usually old when elected. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.) . its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nigellus. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. niello (Lat. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). is as true as it is notorious. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Popes. but their ideas continued to be influential.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Nymphaeum (Gk. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. "aureole") The disc or halo. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. usually golden. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. moreover. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). the style of the Ancien Régime. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).

Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. observances") Rites performed for the dead. capital. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. such as linseed. Greek goddesses of Nature. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. its richness of colour. the Doric order. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). The earliest. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. or poppy. a small private chapel. . O obsequies (Lat. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. was the simplest. with a sturdy. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. "services. inborn sin. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. walnut. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. and entablatures. a more elaborate base. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. and its greater tonal range. orders of architecture In classical architecture. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. They are seen in the form of the columns. fluted column and a plain capital. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. obsequia. the three basic styles of design. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach.

Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. P pala (Ital. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. tradition and social structure. with biforate windows. designed as a . standing at the foot of the Cross. and. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. the Cancelleria). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and large windows appeared on the ground floor.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. palazzo (It.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. and the main apartments above. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. while shops came to be thought undignified. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Palazzo Strozzi). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). like cities. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy.g. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.

and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). evolved influential types. Movement of patrons and architects. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type.scholarly retreat. palmette. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. e. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. like the colonnaded vestibule. and large households. Following Oriental patterns. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. came to be applied all over Europe. column-caps. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Palazzo Massimi). adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. behind a sober Florentine façade. panel . enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. often built next to their titular churches. Rich. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. especially after the Sack of Rome. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation.g. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe.g. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). like Genoa. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Other cities. cornices and abutments. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Papal incentives to build. In Venice. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. and Palladio's in Vicenza.

including beech. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. the. On a larger scale. To maintain their authority. as it were. and spanned by a single dome. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. as distinct from canvas. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. In the 20th century cedar. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. and the pressure and temptations . Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). slate has occasionally been used as a support. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. teak. or other rigid substance. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. so that they might have a voice at court. enforce law and order. and dark walnut are favourites. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Many other types were used. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Then. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. however. secular rulers. The third aspect was administrative. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. chestnut. As successors to St Peter. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. to influence popes in their favour. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. mahogany. the management of clerical dues and taxation. or the incidence of taxation. cedar. fibre-board. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century.Term in painting for a support of wood. linden. and modern painters have also used plywood. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. larch. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and other synthetic materials as supports. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. Having a circular plan. A number of matters. metal. fir. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and walnut. olive.

it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. was long in doubt. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. if it did no serious damage to the faith. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. from the point of view of its religious associations. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. So onerous. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. however. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. possess an authority which. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. could supersede that of a pope. as such. There remained.as well. which seems so inevitable. the most appropriate . in spite of further absences from Rome. By then. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. to be long delayed. would. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. however. which met at Constance 1414-18. To resolve the problem of divided authority.that could be applied to them. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. Colonna and Caetani. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. at Avignon. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. As at Avignon. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. of individuals. It was argued that such a council. however. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. in the eyes of God. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. the acceptance of the city as the most practical .

and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). 400-300 BC). but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. as well as a governmental one. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. in classical literature. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. through lavish patronage of artists. and satyrs. goat. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Passion . and with Zeuxis (c. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. scholars and men of letters. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum).by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. the creation of a cultural capital. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and other animals. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. However. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. pastor. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. to a world peopled by shepherds. it has also been used for painting.. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Parrhasius (c. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. nymphs. pastoral (Lat. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. less frequently pig. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book.

ornamental building. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. wealthy citizen. 1478). 1478. Portrayals of the Passion. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Francesco Salviati. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26.) or pasticcio (It. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. but not necessarily a direct copy. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. patricius. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Meanwhile. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pastiche (fr. patrician (Lat. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. such as a garden summerhouse. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. a small. the crown of thorns. and also the archbishop of Pisa. which focus on the Suffering Christ. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. . beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. projecting either centrally or at both ends. a region in north-central Italy. papilio. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pavilion (Lat. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. "butterfly. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.The events leading up to Good Friday. and so on.

Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. pergola (It. concept or deity. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. or related elements within an art work. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. perspective (Lat. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physis. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. . "person". But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. in particular the face. "nature". persona. physiognomy (Gk. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. pendant (Fr. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "hanging. and facere. perspicere. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. personification (Lat. and gnomon. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "to see through.

remarkable for singularity. usually above the ground floor. but full of variety. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. glue. proper to take a landscape from. A pier is generally larger than a column. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque.piano nobile (Ital. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. exemplified. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Peter's. Pietà (Lat.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. containing the public rooms. or resin to make paint. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. for example. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. curious details. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. both real and painted. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. affording a good subject for a landscape. pigmentum. Rome. pigment (Lat. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire.) The main floor of a building. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. but may consist of a cluster of columns. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. to be expressed in painting. striking the imagination with the force of painting. .

sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. moreover. for instance. outside Tuscany. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). a shaft. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. perhaps. and capital. though in less widespread. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. During 1348 the Black Death. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. also used in Spain's American colonies. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. "pillar") A flat. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. in October 1347. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. It is often fluted. Rocco and Sebastian. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Thenceforward. For this reason. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. however. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). plague Plague. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. pilastrum.pilaster (Lat. and thereafter all Europe. it is difficult to find. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. more sporadic outbreaks. In the 15th century. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. it has a base. despite regional variations. since. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. It seems probable. such as Florence and Genoa.

the Renaissance-Plateresque. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. harmonious. Phaedo. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). In contrast with Aristotle.. more severe. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). placement. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). heraldic escutcheons. The first phase. are the masterworks of the second style. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . utilized Mudejar ornament -. The first phase. Diego evolved a purer. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and unified style using massive geometric forms. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Theatetus and the Laws. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. the Symposium. Timaeus. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. A student of Socrates. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. and sinuous scrolls. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. correct classical orders became frequent.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland.e. or appropriateness. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. composition. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. like its successor. i. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. The second phase. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. or simply the Plateresque. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Philebus. which lasted only a few decades. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Phaedrus.

with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Plotinus. all of which he also translated into Latin. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. systematized and added to what Plato had done. including those of Plotinus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. replaced Ficino's. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists.1577) becoming particularly popular.in Plato's thought. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . the greatest of his ancient disciples. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. but not completely. Rather unsystematic. A new Latin translation. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. and he utilized many other writings. 1472-c. partially. and the Chaldaic Oracles. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. and Agostino Steuco (c. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Iamblichus. near Florence. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism.

porticus. where a pectoral is used to close it. as in classical architecture). an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. polyptych (Gk. plinthos. plinth (Gk. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. or statue. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. pointed arch In architecture. pluviale. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pluvial (Med. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. column. portico (Lat. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. poluptukhos. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Lat. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Plato was read in the universities. such as processions and consecrations. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Frequently supports a pediment.

Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. and the .. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. flattened image. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Florence (1486-90). Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The realism of the clear. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Colleoni. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Florence. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Siena. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. psychologically more complex. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. inessential. Mantua. was revived in the 14th century. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Venice). Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Campidoglio). Desiderio da Settignano. and only a decorative accessory to form. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Group portraits. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London.e. National Gallery). the Carracci. Gattarnelata. 1328. Cathedral) by Uccello. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Maria Novella. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. decorating whole rooms. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait.sculptors such as Donatello. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Palazzo Farnese). The equestrian portrait.

who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. 1494). together with the Dominican Savonarola. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. bishop of Chioggia. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. primarily the mendicants. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. and Peter Paul Rubens. several of whom became bishops. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. who had as their ideal masters Titian. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. abrasive even. but 16th century ones were more cautious here." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. was versed in classical and patristic . however. bishop of Asti. As Poussin was a Frenchman. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). to discharge their preaching duties. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Savonarola and Musso. The styles of S. and. bishops especially. Correggio." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). not least those of statesmen and prelates. The sermons of Visdomini. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. are not florid in style. Borromeo. of the sermon as an art form. minatory exhortations. Fiamma's sermons. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Charles Le Brun. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. from the secular clergy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d.

Because of the small size of predelle . predella (It.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Naples). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. The New Testament references in these would. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. prefiguration Typology . aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. however. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Louis of Toulouse (1317. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. tapestries. though often relatively very wide . and so forth. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.rhetoric.g. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. among them Holman Hunt. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Millais and Rossetti.

profil perdu (Fr. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Girardon. and Houdon among sculptors. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. intended as complete works of art in themselves.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. sculpture and architecture. "evenness") in painting. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the golden section. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Prix de Rome A scholarship. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. Fragonard. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. the quadrature. proportion (Lat. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. proportio. again indicative of the purpose they served. 2. the Canon of Proportion. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. notably David. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). 3. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. these highly finished drawings. which uses the square . The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. The following are important: 1.

most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. a fourth = 3:4. "boys") Plump naked little boys. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. harmonic proportions. . the steward or treasurer of a church. for example). in whose celebrated ceiling in S. putto (It. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Unlike Pozzo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. putti sing. Rome. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century.as a unit of measurement. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. 4. and 5. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Ignazio. provenance The origins of an art work. one half the length of the other). It was common in Roman art. triangulation. a fifth = 2:3.

Fra Angelico and others. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. or the Jesuits. Lat. and high relief (alto rilievo). in particular works by Masaccio. the object of particular veneration. friars and nuns.Quattrocento (It. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. relief (Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. refectory (Med. Botticelli. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. basso rilievo). medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Donatello.g. e. hermits. Among the . relevare. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the great orders of monks. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Brunelleschi. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. or some item connected with a saint. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. In 16th century Europe. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. canons regular. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in which figures are almost detached from their background. in which figures are seen half round. relicquiae. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. also known as the Realist school. relic (Lat.

with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. various groups were fused in the latter body. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Founded by St Romuald c. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Lucca. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. who had no overall organization originally. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. After the repression of the Spirituals. In 1504. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. it became the Cassinese congregation. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Salvatore. The Silvestrines. 1012. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Giorgio in Alga. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. i. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Benedetto. the great patriarch of Venice. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. In 1517. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. and the generally moderate Observants. The same bull . Padua. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Maria di Fregonaia. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Mantua. That of S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. At the same time. Lorenzo Giustiniani. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. the most notable being S. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. although technically of secular canons. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation.e. was the congregation of S. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. The Conventuals. Bologna (1419).contemplative orders. presided over by chapters general. their resources being in the hands of trustees. however. The Benedictines. Bernardino of Siena. which was to become the main Italian one. and their more institutionalized brethren. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. the Conventuals. Giustina. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Venice (1404). Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks.

Venice. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. a historical period. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Michele in Isola. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Angela Merici. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded by S. Gaetano da Thiene. also. The first. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Filippo Neri. however. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the Theatines. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. founded in 1535 by S. however. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life.

and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of scholarship. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. All-Roundness. For long. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of arts. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. of letters. and his own as potentially one of light. even Amoralism. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). was so vast and potent. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. as well as political. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Thereafter. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. however. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. the historical reality of antiquity. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. . which had begun early in the 14th century. of an energetic revival of interest in. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. life. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. however.century. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. too long forgotten glories. because its core of energy. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of 'darkness'. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. increasingly. 1875-86). and competition with.

(2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.erased. and mass media. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. gratefully. mobilized nationalism. etc. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. and is decorated with paintings. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. though sometimes of metal.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Ghent). the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.) was the term chosen. retables can be detached and. of industrialization. The challenges are to be accepted. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). in the more limited sense. letters. congruence between. It is for this additional. the previous record .A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Cathedral of SaintBavon.with all its shabbiness . a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. candlesticks. etc. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. let alone a uniform. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Though thus challenged. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. statues. especially in the High Gothic period. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. consist merely of a painting. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. There was an early. and other liturgical objects. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. (3) There is not a true. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. later still to Genoa. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. sometimes. however. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.

Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. and 'Romanesque'. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. almost simultaneously. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. "relief") In painting. Originally commissioned in 976. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque art. painting. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period.France. the first style to achieve such international currency. Spain .in the 11th century. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. in several countries . the impression that an object is three-dimensional.of St Mark in Venice. however. . the St. richly decorated with organic forms. its mood lighthearted and witry. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. As the name suggests. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Rococo A style of design. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. literally. Louis XV furniture. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. rilievo (It. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). like 'Gothic'. Germany. More usually. retables have become extinct. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. With the development of freestanding altars. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. rocaille (French. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). is a typical product. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Italy.

the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Massys and M. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Pannini and Mengs. Mabuse. In addition. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. M. van Heemskerk. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Piranesi. the development of nationalistic pride. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. The aim of painting. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. . Q. stylized design representing an open rose. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. such as red ochre. van Orley. Rome. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Claude. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. they maintained. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. B.

expressed through gesture. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. when it finally left the city it had devastated. penance. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. but others were the work of well-known figures. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. local saints. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and Lorenzo de' Medici. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. holy orders. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. pious legend and hagiography. gutted. Eastern independent. and anointing of the sick. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Orthodox. from the Old and New Testaments. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. and Protestant churches. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. glance and movement . the Eucharist. Clement escaped into Castel S. matrimony. multiple sets used in succession. Many compositions were anonymous. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Written primarily in ottava rima.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. In the . Subjects were nominally sacred. and impoverished. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Sacra Conversazione (It. There were no limits on time. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. supported by lay confraternities. confirmation. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati.greatly increased.

the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. The classical Protestant churches (i. replaces the Lord's Supper. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Lutheran. It is still practiced on special occasions. the Rocca Paolina. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and then face east.. as an excuse to revolt.early church the number of sacraments varied. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. in principle. the Orthodox Church does not. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. used for drawing. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The theology of the Orthodox Church. that the price of salt should be increased. Immediately following baptism. Saracens . Thus. The chief focus of discontent. large room. the symbolic direction of Christ. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper." which are called sacramentals. They were still seeking aid. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. make such strict distinctions. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.i. Salt War. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. chapter 13. which in the Gospel According to John. the sun of righteousness." sala (Ital.e. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the Bentivoglio. Candidates first face west. as in the Church of the Brethren. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.) Hall. Anglican. Hence. and sacraments. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. foot washing.e. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. was buried under a new fortress. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. sacraments. baptism and the Eucharist. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. notably from Florence and in Germany. strictly speaking. was not maintained as a sacrament.

the god of wine. made of stone. sarcophagus. legs and horns of a goat. The publication of Latin (1562. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. pl.c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 270 BC). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. satyr In Greek mythology. Little known in the Middle Ages. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and .c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity.During the Middle Ages. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. are lost. human-like woodland deities with the ears. sarcophagi (Gk. whose writings. the Arabs or Muslims. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 160 . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. wood or terracotta. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. 210 AD). Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). 45 BC). 360 . and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. and many others.

the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. who recognized the Roman pope. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. in June 1409. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.they had individual Bentnames . the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban.for example Pieter van Laer. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. while England. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. However. with France and her allies Aragon. most of whom. on one side. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. who had the support of the Avignon pope. and. than their medieval predecessors. for. 1386) and his son Ladislas. but with little effect. Louis I (d. scholasticism . and therefore far more purely Italian princes. In northern Italy. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. one of the early leaders. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Florentines. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Schism. while devout Christians agonized. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. As a result. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. was called Bamboccio. on the other. from time to time both he and his opponents. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Alexander V. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. being Frenchmen. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII).

were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. on one side. Christian. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. history and rhetoric . notably Aquinas. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. As such. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. that scholasticism was left. (See also: fresco. None the less. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. as it were. It was because the central concerns of humanism .moral philosophy. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.The term is ambivalent. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. Padua. such passages have frequently flaked off with time.) .were different from those of medieval. the plaster had to be damped before painting.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. moreover. if lime-water was used. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). and Islamic literature. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Often called the burning ones. Medieval scholars. because the secco technique is much less permanent. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Serenissima (Ital. university-based study. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). as it is easier to add details in this way. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. textual scholarship. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. and theology. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.

in the period of classical antiquity. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Sibyls foretold the Birth. brass. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. term. Signoria (It. sinopia . Med. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Servite (Lat. "prophetess") In antiquity. In Christian legend. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. at the same time. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sibylla. usually presided over by individual families. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. the number gradually rose to ten. which were all identical in thickness. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Lat..) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sfumato A technique. there was only one Sibyl. Originally. "the most serene republic of Venice"). They first appear in alpine monasteries. and the delicate. women who could prophesy. in use since the Middle Ages. sibyls (Gk.

in other words.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. Stanze (Ital. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. soffit (Lat. stigma (Gk. sing. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. . is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . "mark. as the name implies. It is very closely related to International Gothic. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. sotto in sù (It. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. brand.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet.. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Francis of Assisi. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. pronounced as French. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. Ital. stigmata. staffage This word.) Wooden ceiling decoration. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. especially in the flow of drapery.

both external and internal. studiolo. pl.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studioli (It. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The vogue for the Sublime. Indeed. whose verses actually fabrications . the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. In a looser sense.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. stucco A type of light. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). with that for the Picturesque. supremacy . John Milton. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.

Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.Historically. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). London. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. and in literature. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. then being replaced by oil paint. doubtless. temperare. both for panel painting and fresco. The subject is underexplored. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . These were imported. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio).e. his own headquarters. 1407). the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. . now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. But the Italians did not make them. Salviati and Allori.and. into Italy. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. tempera (Lat. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. was being decorated with frescoes. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. i. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. or cartoons. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. chiefly from Flanders.

triumphal arch. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. pl. figure of speech. topia. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. terraferma (Ital. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. topiary (Gk. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. in the architecture of ancient Rome. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. quarter face. and profile. pl. widely used form. and later to subdivide gable ends. tondi (It. and other surfaces. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. topos. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tondo. and sculptures. theme or motif. model. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. "a commonplace") In literature. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). vessels. walls. i. topoi (Gk. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. in art. "fields. Trajan's Column . Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure.e.terracotta (It.

of virtues and of the arts. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . after 'a countless number of virgins. triptych (Gk. death. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. fame. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. time and eternity. . triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. "threefold") in Christianity. a car so brave'. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. the wars by which they were won . the Son and the Holy Spirit. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Disseminated soon after his death. as it were. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). or wings. Trinity (Lat. usually an altarpiece. patriarchs and prophets. trinitas. Early triptychs were often portable. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. added to the glamour of the triumph.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. "threefold") A painting in three sections. chastity.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. tryptychos. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. beside it the army of martyrs. Battista Sforza.' Before it go the apostles. Meanwhile. of both sexes'. into a number of less controversial forms. the military triumph became sublimated. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. behind it.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.

"deceives the eye") A type of painting which. viscous black ink. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tympanum (Lat. first recorded in 1232. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tusche A thick. enclosed by an arch. In medieval architecture. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. It incorporates Renaissance features. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). often decorated with sculptures. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. typology . Dating from classical times. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. through various naturalistic devices. it is usually decorated with carvings. "drum") In classical architecture. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys.

and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. especially his half-length figural groups. The numerous candles. Judith. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and David. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). In Christian thought. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). e. killer of Holofernes. knew his former patrons. . lanterns. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1610). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. each had access to his paintings.) The Renaissance "universal man". 1590-1624). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio.g.A system of classification. U uomo universale (It. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. slayer of Goliath. such as five works devoted to the senses. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).Dirck van Baburen (c. where they were most accessible. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. were popular with them also. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.

overturned vessels. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. Vespers (Lat. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. mixed in. it was used to decorate furniture. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. snuff boxes and other objects. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Also varietas (Lat. vanitas (Lat. varietà (It.). with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. hour-glasses and clocks.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. and even flowers (which will soon fade). painting at both the Dutch and English courts. the groin vault. carriages. guttering candles. "evening") . often gold. V vanishing point In perspective. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. a work's richness of subject matter. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the rib vault. vesper. Parisian craftsmen. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. There are a wide range of forms.

Prudence. "life") . Fortitude. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. In ancient Roman dwellings. for example. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Gluttony. Covetousness. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Vestibule (Lat. and Sloth. vita. "not exposed to winds". to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. vite (Lat. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. pl. vestibulum. Anger. Temperance. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. the church service at which these prayers are said. Hope. in which the word signifies efficacy. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). and Justice. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Envy.Prayers said in the evening. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. vimperga Of German origin. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Charity. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. if you have it not'. Lust. virtù could be used. The seven Virtues were: Faith. actual or latent. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. 'Assume a virtue.

and appalled recognition of. 1472. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. a biography. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. 1482-84). protection from harm.g.An account of someone's life and work. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Marcus (1st cent. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and of Ferrara. Sculptors and Architects"). or recovery from illness has been made. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. usually when a prayer for good fortune. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. in fact. The wars from 1494 do. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. those of Volterera. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Vitruvius Pollio. 1478-80. they were from the 18th century . published in 1550 and 1568. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. usually linear. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Westwerk German word. usually restorers. based on stylization of various animal forms. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "Western work of art". gallery. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor.Weltanschauung (Gr. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. "world view") A comprehensive world view. woodcut A print made from a wood block. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. a philosophy of life. It was intended to have a variety of functions. pompous on the floor above. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. during its subsequent history. . While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design.

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