A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

the lowest part of the entablature). It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. arcade (Lat. Degas. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Also known as an exedra. In Greek and Roman literature. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. . at the east end of a church behind the altar. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. There are several variants of the technique. or organization. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The term applies also to a print made by this method. the darker the tone).e. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. arkhitektonikos. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). the moulding around a window or door. and Rouault. architectonic (Gk. The adjective is apsidal. roofed with a half-dome. Lancet and Tudor. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.A semicircular projection. piers or pillars. design. arcus. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. "architectural") Relating to structure. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. which is fused to the plate by heating. architrave (It. but in essence the process is as follows. Picasso. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. including Goya.

voltus. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.and the Comedy . aureole (Lat. attributum. archeiu. In the case of martyrs. dominate. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "begin. Dante's Vita nuova . usually a saint. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Ars Moriendi (Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. attribute (Lat. archivolto. "golden. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530." and Lat.archivolt (Ital. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. aureolus. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "front arch." from Gk. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person.

often anecdotal. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Six pontificates later. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). 'Captivity'. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. in 1377. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. or baldacchino (It. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. applied to the physically . leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. that of Cardano. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. the god of wine and fertility. baldachin. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The actual move was made in 1309. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Later. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). who had been residing in France since 1305. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. paintings of everyday life.

beggars in rags. a church. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Customarily. banderole (It. and Epiphany. AD 300). In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Easter. Lebanon. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. As eight follows the "complete" number.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642).. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. banderuola. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and Nocera in Italy. Croatia]. . Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or canopy. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Baalbek. Pentecost. built by Sixtus III. pope between 432 and 440. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. or forecourt. the Temple of Venus. Parma. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. Alg. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism.g. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. and Poitiers. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. AD 273. Florence. el Kantara. a visual metaphor for the number eight. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts.. Spalato [Split. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. seven. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. and abject filthy things. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. set beneath a domical ciborium. or connected with. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. France. such as those at Pisa. of the church and were often large and richly decorated.

Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon.an allusion to entering the Christian life. stoa basilike. 1807-1876). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. in its usual location near the church door .In the 10th century. southeast of Paris. Vermeer). barocco. Jules Dupré (French. achieved through scale. Constant Troyon (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1796-1875). Jean-François Millet (French. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. and increasingly elaborate decoration. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. in the 1840s and 1850s. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. basilica (Gk. Also tunnel vault. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. 1814-1875). were often omitted entirely. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. something of earlier symbolism survives. usually facing east. and (3) everyday realism. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). "king's hall") a church building. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Baroque (Port. In architecture. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. 1811-1889). however. baptisteries. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1817-1878). Originally. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. . Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. which is reserved for the clergy. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Rubens). Théodore Rousseau (French. 1810-1865). and thus a church. or baptismal chapels. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French.

As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. or which is to be left as it is. Spanish still-lifes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves).and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. such as those by Diego Velázquez. were referred to by their specific contents. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Book of Hours . bodegón Image. particularly porcelain. such as Waldmüller. The term was mainly used up to c. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. There were. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. up until the mid-17th century. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. as is to be expected. Biscuit porcelain. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. which is either not yet glazed. It takes its name from its grainy texture. in which still-life predominates. and often sentimentality. 1650 in Spain. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). often with food and drink. especially Spanish. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. By association. however. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Bodegónes. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. like their Dutch counterparts. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. also incorrectly called bisque. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. domesticity.

illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. though these are more often called 'modelli'. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. . bozzetto Strictly speaking. made as a study for a larger picture. By extension. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. but can also be used for painted sketches. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. durability. or seasons.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. months. Chantilly). breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. varying from silverish to a rich. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. coppery red. days of the week. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. a rapid sketch in oil. bozzetto(Italian. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.both hot and cold . See flying buttress.an advantage over marble sculpture.by a variety of processes. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. and the fact that it is easily workable .

glass. manuscript illuminations. ceramics. mosaics. camera obscura . It also served to glorify the emperor. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. caisson (Fr. cameo Small relief made from gems. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. casson. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. Duccio. box") In architecture. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which was often allegorical. private room where works of art. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. and work in precious metals. C cabinet A small. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. "a chest. notable from Syria and Egypt. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). its forms highly stylized. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. and Giotto.

the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually built beside or attached to a church. as an aid to drawing. capital (Lat. and jute. usually with several branches or arms. Structurally.) A gallery for singers or musicians. followed by smaller and even pocket models. cantoria. candlestick.-N. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). other materials used are cotton. candelabrum (It. cantorie (It. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. hemp. capitellum. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. candela. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. by the 16th century. Niepce created photography. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. usually in a church. dating to antiquity. campanile Bell tower.Ancestor of the photographic camera. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. which was usually whitened. "candle") A large. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. pl. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. Portable versions were built. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. sing. which isolates the fabric from the paint." and the earliest versions. The Latin name means "dark chamber. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. . only very rough effects will be obtainable. candelabra. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. usually decorated. both of which have richly carved marble panels. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.

or fresco. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.both Italians and artists from other countries . The order combines reclusive and community life. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .a humorous drawing or parody. cartellino. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cartellini In a painting. At the height of the Middle Ages. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. the date of the painting. Carmelites (Lat. cartouche . Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. New Charterhouses. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. and humanism. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). pl. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartone. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Cardinal Virtues (Lat. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. details of the subject. tapestry. cartoon (It. cardinalis. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. the Carmelites were originally hermits. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. or a motto.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . near Grenoble. Carthusian Order (Lat. In fresco painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century.

and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. castello (It. In the 15th century. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. linen. caryatid (Gk. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. palace. These lead up to the north and south transepts. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. putti (cupids). Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. cathedral (cathedra. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. cassone (It. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. or arms of the cross.toward the setting sun. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. . or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. where the throne of the bishop is placed. decorated with gilt gesso. They contained the bride's clothes.) "castle". Cascina. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. and many other items of her dowry. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The altar is placed at the east end. Paolo Uccello. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. The main body. and swags of fruit and flowers. For reasons lost to time and tradition. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. or nave. they were also used in other countries. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. a cathedral always faces west .

and Islamic literature. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. as celestial attendants of God. Both the statement of St. and perspicere. central perspective (Lat. a celestial winged being with human. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. rather than intercessory functions. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. in accordance with their distance from the observer. "in the centre". landscapes. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. buildings and figures that are being depicted. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Relative to the observer. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. . animal. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. centralis. champlevé (Fr. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. or birdlike characteristics. continually praise him. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Christian. a throne bearer of the deity. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition.

chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Lastly. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. replacing tempera.chiaroscuro (It. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. or for choral singing. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. reserved for the clergy to pray together. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. North of the Alps. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. Since Carolingian times. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. "light dark") In painting. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). the Order of the Hospital of St. choros. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. choir (Gk. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. Hans Burgkmair (1510)." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted.

is as typically Churrigueresque. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. an architect. and garlands. balustrades. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). became the most common motif. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. further enriching the style. undulating cornices. The Transparente (completed 1732). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. reversed volutes. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). undulating lines. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. ciborium . historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and repetition of pattern. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. a massing of carved angels. Spanish Rococo style in architecture.intersect). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. The Mexico cathedral (1718). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. gilded rays. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Sculpted clouds. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and the Churrigueresque column. Very few still exist in their original positions. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. stucco shells. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that.

Members of the lower classes. controlled by the minor guilds. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Then. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. combers. including the ciompi. but self-employed. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. They were forbidden to form a trade association. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Without being members of a guild. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. etc. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. High Renaissance). as also were those in the associated. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. who were raised to the status of a guild.and post-medieval Italy. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. or achieve political representation. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Their economic condition worsened.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. placing one of their members. the wool carder Michele di Lando. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. craft of dyeing. on July 22. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. ciompi. In reaction to this revolutionary . beaters. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Quattrocento (1400s. The new government. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds.

They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. resembling a lyre. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.episode. the ciompi guild was abolished. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).as in Italy these were dispensed with. on which strings were plucked. clair-obscur (Fr. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). cithara (Gk. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. writers. and politics. literature. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. except in cases where . in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. however. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. In the 15th century Greek literature. scholars patiently finding. with Italian scholars. philosophy. the black contours usually with a special line plate. Concepts of the classical. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. philosophy and art .) An ancient musical instrument. changed greatly from one period to the next. .

cognoscente (It. condottieri (It. occasionally made of wood.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. when set side by side. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. intensify one another. Green and red. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. arch or ceiling. blue and orange. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. sing." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. the church service at which these prayers are said. literature or music. [hora] completa. concetti (It. Coffered ceilings. concetto. . pl. cognoscenti. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. pl. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). condottiere. terrorized the country. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. The name was derived from the condotta. or "contract. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. as well as from the Bible. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. compline (Lat. a work's underlying theme. those with refined tastes.

or with the spiritual assistance of. confraternities Confraternities. Martino). Less fortunate was another great condottiere. clergy. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Italians began to raise mercenary armies.e. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. often called compagnie or. By the 16th century. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. often under the direction of. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. in the service of Perugia. disappeared. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. i.devastating Romagna. commonly called either Compagnia di S. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. i. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. By the end of the 14th century. and German--the condottieri. Mark (1432). who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. scuole. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Carmagnola. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. and Tuscany. Umbria. convents of convertite. Spanish. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. . and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Muzio's son. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. With no goal beyond personal gain. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. who won control of Milan in 1450. in the service of Naples. flagellant confraternities. which spread in the 15th century. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans.e. in Venice. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. primarily for syphilitics. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Francesco Sforza. Toward the end of the 15th century. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity.

1514 in S. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. in Florence. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. reformed prostitutes. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contour. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. contour (Fr.g. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. but sometimes had their own premises. which accompanied condemned prisoners.e. Later. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Dorotea in Trastevere. founded c. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. While the Doge ranked above the Council. In medieval painting. and those which aided imprisoned debtors.i. the Florentine Neri. contrapposto (It. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. flat outlines. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Confraternities. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. notwithstanding their location. while the Venetian government. and refuges for maidens. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. however. e. contours were initially regular. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. e.g.

who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. 1100 and 1300. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. whose names are inscribed on several works. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. cuprum. The style spread as far as England. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. corbel In architecture. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. . They are often ornamented.weight on one leg. large cornice or other feature. Reform programs. 1280). in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Lat. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. a bracket of stone. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. conventiculurn. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. conventicle (Lat. an engraving produced in this way. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. aes cyprium. did not achieve any lasting results. declining moral standards. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso.

where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Death. i. the condemned man. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Constantine the Great. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. reedy sound. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. D dado . and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. or "scourged. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the first Christian emperor. cupola (Lat. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. a small dome. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. There were various methods of performing the execution. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. a semi-circular vault. cupula. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. "small vat") In architecture. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the most famous victim of crucifixion. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Jews. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Next. after being whipped. Usually.e. An ancestor of the oboe. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. particularly among the Persians. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Seleucids. Carthaginians.

since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Germany. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. often an altarpiece. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. diptychum. Deësis (Gk. decorated diffrently from the upper section. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. but the concept behind an art work. Gk. usually in matching pairs.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diakonos. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . which was help to be the basis of all art. e. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. disegno (It. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. and Linz possessed common characteristics. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. diptychos. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature.g. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. danse macabre The dance of death. design") In Renaissance art theory. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. deacon (Gk. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). "drawing. diptych (Lat. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Anglican and Orthodox churches. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. an expressive use of nature. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Passau.

and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). As disegno appeals to the intellect. also used it on canvas. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. donator. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. "to mix. distemperare. Dominicans (Lat. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. a 19th-century invention. formerly worn under armour. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. such as we still use today. when painters took to working out of doors. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Ordo Praedictatorum. doublet A male garment. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. dome in architecture. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. distemper (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. though a few artists. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. donor (Lat. The studio easel. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. is a heavy piece of furniture. which runs on castors or wheels. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC).Thomas Aquinas. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church.fully realize.

which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. It consists of the architrave. and architecture. bound and flogged. en face In portraiture. fresco. sculpture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. Hence. eschaton. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschatology (Gk. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. epitaph (Gk. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "last". and logos. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. in art. Ecce Homo (Lat. sometimes combining panel painting.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. ensemble (Fr. a depiction of Jesus. the frieze. John (19. "word") . "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. and the cornice. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. entablature In classical architecture. full face.

to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. and is named for Faenza. Marcantonio Flaminio. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. eu. Eucharist (Gk. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. farmers. Giovanni Morone. Carnesecchi and Ochino. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Contarini. and Scandinavia. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. particularly ware made in France. Germany. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. "good. which was famous for maiolica." and that made in the Netherlands and England. and of the last things.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. notably Cardinal Pole. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. fields and livestock. Saints Ambrose. Vittoria Colonna. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. celebrated with bread and wine. Italy. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. 4500 BCE. . Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. which is called "delftware. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Augustine." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle." and charis.death and resurrection. which is called "maiolica. Jerome. protector of shepherds. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. which was developed in the Near East ca. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Spain. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Equated with the Greek god Pan. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy.

it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. drying to a slightly different tint. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Only a small area can be painted in a day. and flowers suspended in a loop. that of the others red. black and dun. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. sword and set of balances. Their attributes are the bow. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. a swag. and these areas. war.8). relaxed. fresco (It. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. famine and death. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). frescos in Italy . fluted of a column or pillar. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. leaves. can in time be seen. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.festoni (It. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. such as plague. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. 2 . a technique known as a secco fresco. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. The colour of his horse is white.

and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . the intonaco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . and to a lesser extent for tapestries. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. usually childish figure. where the atmosphere was too damp. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. In art from the classical period onwards.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The technique of buon fresco. or fresco secco. It was founded by Edward III in 1348.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. for example. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. G Garter. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. Genius in classical Rome. are genres of painting. a person's invisible tutelary god. landscape and portraiture. or true fresco. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy.Save in Venice. Final details. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. genre In a broad sense. covings and ceilings. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil).

gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. whether it must be connected with the public good. Maso di Banco. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Maria Gloriosa). The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Gobelins . as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). in portraits and on tombs. how it differed from notoriety. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. As such. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. and as spurring on men of action. as well as writers and artists. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Bernardo Daddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition.

For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. and although it reopened in 1699. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. thereafter it made only tapestries. Paris. golden section (Lat. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. . In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. still in existence today. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In other Italian cities. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Golden Fleece. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. This ratio is approximately 8:13. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class.French tapestry manufactory. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. who appointed Lebrun Director.

The artistic. Nevertheless. 1270. Amiens. In sculpture and in painting. Denis. painting. from the 13th until the 17th century. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1200 and c. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. and lies much deeper than. or the influence of one building. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. the superficial particularities of form. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. There is a transcendental quality.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. like the cultural and commercial. Gothic Gothic. In thinking of Nicola (d. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. In particular. . after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. painting. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. c. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. that the effects are to be felt. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ.

chiefly to France. and Morris Graves. Dubuffet. the Netherlands. starch. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. notably in the writings of Bellori. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Pannini. Honey. to silk. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. and Piranesi. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It is thinned with water for applying. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. without visible brush marks. are but different appellations of the same thing'. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. to white or tinted paper and card and. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Klee. Such tours often took a year or more. and above all Italy. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. These qualities. with sable. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Canaletto. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael.and hog-hair brushes. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. genius. and taste among the English. the beau idéal of the French. if required. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. . occasionally. and the great style. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771).

through central Italy. c. After the War of the Eight Saints. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. however. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. In another sense. From 1266 to 1268. . the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the parties taking a multitude of local names. gris. after this. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. including text as well as illustrations. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. In Florence. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Although its palace was rebuilt c. became an abiding feature of European politics. brother of Louis IX. 1216. usually gray.e. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. then as now. In the context of the fine arts. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Some writers. however. to Provence and Paris. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. internal factions in Florence went under other names. exclude drawing from this definition. drawing and the various forms of engraving.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. grisaille (Fr. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. and Waiblingen.

as some did). In some towns. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. In Italy they go back a long way. and greater hostility between master and man.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Guilds were also patrons of art. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In some cities. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. héraut. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. "herald") . [science] héraldique. In 16th century Venice. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. for example. such as Brescia and Vicenza. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. In Florence. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. notably Florence in the 14th century. or professions. trades. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. trade or profession (painters. but in time they acquired other functions. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The guild also monitored standards of work. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. print or painting. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. "[knowledge of] heraldry." from Fr. heraldry (Fr. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and provided assistance to members in need. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. H hatching In a drawing. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. The guilds were not equal. goldsmiths. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. surgeons.

only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. However. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. i. By contrast. and regarded themselves as forming. one great missionary community. the Cathars were an anti-church. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. together with brethren north of the Alps. as Antichrist. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. they were condemned in 1184. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. head of the 'carnal Church'. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. the followers of Juan de Valdes. the Waldensian. from the start. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. with the rules governing their use. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The main impact of the . Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. indeed. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. while others merged with the Waldensians. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. d. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. normative for churchmen. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church.

One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. American painters were studying in Rome. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Morse. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Church. J. and classical literature. the emancipation of man from God took place. its subjects considered morally elevating. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. mainly in the south. B. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. in his earlier work. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Kensett.movement upon the laity was in southern France. S. F. humanism (Lat. F. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Thomas Cole. my spouse'. working from 1825 to 1875. George Inness. Germany. At the same time. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Henry Inman. In humanism. Jasper Cropsey. history (usually classical history). hortus conclusus (Lat. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Durand. and. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Frederick E. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. humanus.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

are also used in art literature. the pincers. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). soft style. and the ladder. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Human figures. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the hammer. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. invention. Donatallo.g. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the scourge that was used in the scourging. the ability to create. In the second half of the 14th century. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. trecento rococo and lyrical style. For instance. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. with many further details added. there are representations of the bundle of rods. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Veronica. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. inventio (It. beautiful style. and they are also depicted on their own. Derived from classical rhetoric. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. usually the donors of a work of art. etc. or of other saints. originality. the rooster of Peter's denial. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. investiture . landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. The terms court style. the veil of St. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs.

Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Jerome's writings. generally Dutch or Flemish. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Andries and Jan Both. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. of Utrecht. and Jan Asselijn. The Both brothers. Both and Berchem. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Nicolaes Berchem. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Upon his return to Holland. although they are usually called Romanists. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. bathed in a golden haze. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Italianizers Northern artists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. who traveled in Italy and. principally Dutch. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. . Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes.

1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Archbishop of Genoa. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. As their military role grew. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. encouraged by the Crusades. the rite of communion is based on this. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. especially one at which the Bible is read. liberal arts .K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. lectern A reading stand or desk. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem .as the Friars of the Hospital of St.

a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. then the basis of a philosophical training. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal.grammar. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). its roof supported by columns. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.g. the quadrivium. . that may contain a window. a semicircular space. John F. first the preparatory trivium . painting or sculptural decoration. often standing in markets and town squares. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. rhetoric and dialectic. loggia (It. together with identifying attributes (e. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. lunette (Fr. Heade (1819-1904). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. geometry. astronomy and music. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. It is related to. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. commemorating a marriage. through the use of aerial perspective.g.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. often sublime. Maria Novella in Florence). poetic atmosphere. Tubal for music). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Kensett (1816-1872). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. comprising arithmetic. that could be used for public ceremonies.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Church (1826-1900). Martin J. Pythagoras for arithmetic.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. and Frederick E. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. "little moon") In architecture. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's).

maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. the goddess Cybele. manganese purple. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. and iron red. magna mater (Lat.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. "almond") . and accompaniments. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Specifically. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. for example. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. historical subjects. originating in Italy in the 14th century. antimony yellow. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. originally sung without accompaniment. particularly such ware produced in Italy. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. madrigal A part song. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. being written. "great mother") A mother goddess. but they painted genre scenes. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and portraits as well as landscapes. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. active mainly in Florence c. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. When white is used for painting. 1855–65. mandorla (It. copper green. and however bright their lighting effects. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). usually for the lute. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. They were influenced by the Barbizon School.

and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. bound. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. illuminated initials and miniatures. which was quarried at Mount . At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. the Codex manuscriptus. worn open. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and crowned with thorns. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Mannerism (It. Bronzino. and literary texts. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. maniera. Flanders. marked by flagellation. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Developing out of the Renaissance. El Greco and Tintoretto. strong. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. In Mannerist painting. depending on the social class of the wearer. in a specific sense. the hand-written medieval book. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Parmigianino. Burgundy. "manner. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. more strictly. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. ecclesiastical. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. In architecture. It reached to the knee or foot. often ornamented with decorative borders. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. mantle An overcoat. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. complex and crowded compositions.

The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. an inscription running round the rim. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. proof") the sufferings. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. sleek surface. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. a different design on the reverse. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. marmi finti (It. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. having finished his training. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Like the finest Imperial coins. medallion In architecture. which were beginning to be reverently collected. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Carrara. "witness. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . martyrion. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Without monetary value. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse.Pentelicon in Attica. particularly by Michelangelo. the medal's purpose was commemorative. quarried at Massa. martyrdom (Gk. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506).

Her head features on Minerva's shield. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. who reflected them. even grain. It was. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. c. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Medusa In Greek mythology. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. in England. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. no line drawing is employed. for landscapes and portraits. a Gorgon. When Perseus cuts off her head. 1452-1526/27). 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The process is essentially extinct today. supposedly to petrify her enemies. 1467-688). In pure mezzotint. as it were. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. 1640. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. the stress on individual character. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. This yields a soft effect in the print. perhaps oddly. particularly. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. and of the many.round the neck. . sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. The work of these men. 14601528). A Dutch officer. of the person portrayed on the other side. Ludwig von Siegen. often anonymous. c. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1425-1504).

"one color") Painted in a single color. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. usually portraits. monokhromatos. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. e. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. pointed headdress worn by bishops. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.g. "word. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. Parmigianino (d.. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. still exist. a branch of the Franciscan order. miter A high. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. often quite highly finished. executed on a very small scale. monochrome (Gk. saying") . a painting executed in a single color. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Francis himself. by Tiepolo and Rubens. motto (Ital. Many such small versions. painting in gouache on vellum or card. ink and paint.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings.

and two other members moved to Rome. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Pforr. and Casino Massimo. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. . and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. but often insipid. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. The invention of personal mottos. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible.from the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. 1816-17. In general. Berlin. In 1810 0verbeck. and is intersected by the transept. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. 1817-29). Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. often separated from it by pillars. Isidore. nave (from Lat. named after the patron saint of painting. navis. naturalism (Fr. Nazarenes A group of young. Rome.

) . is as true as it is notorious. nigellus. nimbus (Lat. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. "aureole") The disc or halo. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. usually golden. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). moreover.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. were usually old when elected. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Popes. Nymphaeum (Gk. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. niello (Lat. the style of the Ancien Régime. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. but their ideas continued to be influential.

It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. a more elaborate base. capital. "services. obsequia. such as linseed. orders of architecture In classical architecture. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. the three basic styles of design. and entablatures. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. the Doric order. and its greater tonal range. walnut. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. . Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a small private chapel. with a sturdy. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. The earliest. inborn sin. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. They are seen in the form of the columns. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. its richness of colour. Greek goddesses of Nature. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). or poppy. O obsequies (Lat.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. observances") Rites performed for the dead. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. fluted column and a plain capital. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. was the simplest.

designed as a . reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Palazzo Strozzi). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. tradition and social structure. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. while shops came to be thought undignified. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). and the main apartments above. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. with biforate windows.g. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà).Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. like cities. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. P pala (Ital. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. the Cancelleria). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. standing at the foot of the Cross. and. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. palazzo (It.

Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Following Oriental patterns. like Genoa. In Venice. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. e. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.scholarly retreat. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. came to be applied all over Europe. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and Palladio's in Vicenza. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". panel . It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Other cities.g. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. palmette. like the colonnaded vestibule. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Palazzo Massimi). and large households. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Rich. Papal incentives to build. cornices and abutments. column-caps. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Movement of patrons and architects. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e.g. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. especially after the Sack of Rome. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. often built next to their titular churches. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. behind a sober Florentine façade. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. evolved influential types.

and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. chestnut. the. enforce law and order. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. however. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. linden. as it were. and modern painters have also used plywood. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). slate has occasionally been used as a support. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. To maintain their authority. cedar. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and walnut. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. as distinct from canvas. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. A number of matters. metal. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and the pressure and temptations . the management of clerical dues and taxation. or other rigid substance. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. The third aspect was administrative. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and spanned by a single dome. Then. or the incidence of taxation. and other synthetic materials as supports. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. mahogany. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. On a larger scale. and dark walnut are favourites. olive. Having a circular plan. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. teak. so that they might have a voice at court. As successors to St Peter. In the 20th century cedar. to influence popes in their favour. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. including beech. Many other types were used.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. fir. larch.Term in painting for a support of wood. fibre-board. secular rulers.

On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. would. in the eyes of God. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. if it did no serious damage to the faith.that could be applied to them. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. however.as well. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). however. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. To resolve the problem of divided authority. There remained. So onerous. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. the most appropriate . despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). By then. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. possess an authority which. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). however. Colonna and Caetani. was long in doubt. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. It was argued that such a council. which seems so inevitable. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. as such. to be long delayed. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. As at Avignon. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. could supersede that of a pope. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. of individuals. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. from the point of view of its religious associations. at Avignon. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. which met at Constance 1414-18. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. in spite of further absences from Rome. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.

scholars and men of letters. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. goat. the creation of a cultural capital. 400-300 BC). However. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and with Zeuxis (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. pastoral (Lat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). through lavish patronage of artists. as well as a governmental one. in classical literature. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. pastor. and other animals.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and satyrs. Passion . not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. to a world peopled by shepherds. it has also been used for painting. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Parrhasius (c. nymphs. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). less frequently pig. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf..

a region in north-central Italy. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence.The events leading up to Good Friday. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. projecting either centrally or at both ends. a prominent section of a monumental façade. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. . "butterfly. patricius. papilio. hence tent") A lightly constructed. and also the archbishop of Pisa. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Francesco Salviati. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. the crown of thorns. wealthy citizen. ornamental building. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Portrayals of the Passion. and so on. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. pavilion (Lat. 1478). 1478. a small. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. such as a garden summerhouse. patrician (Lat. but not necessarily a direct copy. which focus on the Suffering Christ. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial.) or pasticcio (It. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. pastiche (fr.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Meanwhile. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi.

and facere. pendant (Fr. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. in particular the face. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. physis. and gnomon. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "nature". "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. physiognomy (Gk. "hanging. personification (Lat. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. concept or deity. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "to see through. .The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. pergola (It. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. perspective (Lat. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. persona. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). perspicere. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "person". Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. or related elements within an art work.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown.

Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Peter's. curious details. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. or resin to make paint. glue. pigmentum. proper to take a landscape from. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. affording a good subject for a landscape. usually above the ground floor. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape.) The main floor of a building.piano nobile (Ital. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigment (Lat. but may consist of a cluster of columns. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. containing the public rooms. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. exemplified. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. . remarkable for singularity. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Pietà (Lat. A pier is generally larger than a column. Rome. both real and painted. but full of variety. to be expressed in painting. for example. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).

it has a base. pilastrum. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. despite regional variations. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. in October 1347. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). It seems probable. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Rocco and Sebastian. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). for instance. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. moreover. In the 15th century. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. and thereafter all Europe. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. perhaps. It is often fluted. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. more sporadic outbreaks. a shaft. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. however. though in less widespread. since. outside Tuscany. plague Plague. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. During 1348 the Black Death. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . "pillar") A flat. it is difficult to find. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. also used in Spain's American colonies. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague.pilaster (Lat. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Thenceforward. For this reason. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. and capital. such as Florence and Genoa. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula.

like its successor. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The first phase.. Phaedrus. correct classical orders became frequent. are the masterworks of the second style. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. heraldic escutcheons. harmonious. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. or simply the Plateresque. Phaedo. The first phase. Diego evolved a purer. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). or appropriateness. utilized Mudejar ornament -. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. A student of Socrates. Theatetus and the Laws. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. and sinuous scrolls. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. i. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. In contrast with Aristotle. The second phase. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. which lasted only a few decades. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Philebus. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . the Symposium. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. placement. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase.e. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. more severe. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Timaeus. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. composition. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.

though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1472-c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. all of which he also translated into Latin. A new Latin translation. Unlike the case of Aristotle. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Rather unsystematic. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. partially. but not completely. including those of Plotinus. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Plotinus. replaced Ficino's. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. and he utilized many other writings. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and Agostino Steuco (c. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. the greatest of his ancient disciples. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . It was especially in a number of academies in France and .1577) becoming particularly popular. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Iamblichus. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved.in Plato's thought. systematized and added to what Plato had done. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. near Florence.

column. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. plinth (Gk. portico (Lat. Lat. polyptych (Gk. where a pectoral is used to close it. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . such as processions and consecrations. pluviale. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. poluptukhos.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. pointed arch In architecture. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. pluvial (Med. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. Frequently supports a pediment. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. as in classical architecture). Plato was read in the universities. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. plinthos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. porticus. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. or statue.

Campidoglio). Palazzo Farnese). Florence. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Venice). Colleoni. The realism of the clear. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. psychologically more complex. Siena.. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Maria Novella. decorating whole rooms. Mantua. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Desiderio da Settignano. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The 16th century portrait became generalized. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Cathedral) by Uccello. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Gattarnelata. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Group portraits.e. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. was revived in the 14th century. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. inessential. 1328. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. the Carracci. and the . Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. and only a decorative accessory to form. Florence (1486-90). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. National Gallery). Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London.sculptors such as Donatello. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The equestrian portrait. flattened image. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546.

Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Savonarola and Musso. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. minatory exhortations. bishops especially. was versed in classical and patristic . Correggio. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Charles Le Brun. bishop of Asti. who had as their ideal masters Titian." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). The sermons of Visdomini. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. several of whom became bishops." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. abrasive even. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. not least those of statesmen and prelates. The styles of S. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. are not florid in style. together with the Dominican Savonarola. and. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). As Poussin was a Frenchman. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. 1494). however. of the sermon as an art form.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. and Peter Paul Rubens. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishop of Chioggia. Fiamma's sermons. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Borromeo. from the secular clergy. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. primarily the mendicants. to discharge their preaching duties. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. by contrast with the mendicant preachers.

The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. however. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.rhetoric. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. prefiguration Typology .g. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. predella (It. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Millais and Rossetti.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). the temptations of Adam and Christ. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Naples). among them Holman Hunt. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. tapestries. and so forth. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. though often relatively very wide . Because of the small size of predelle . Louis of Toulouse (1317. The New Testament references in these would.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. presbyterion "Council of Elders") .the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.

projecting shelf on which to kneel. these highly finished drawings. the quadrature. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. which uses the square . the Canon of Proportion. sculpture and architecture. profil perdu (Fr. notably David. proportio. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Fragonard. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. 3. and Houdon among sculptors. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the golden section. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The following are important: 1. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. "evenness") in painting. proportion (Lat. 2. Girardon. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. Prix de Rome A scholarship. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. again indicative of the purpose they served.

The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. Unlike Pozzo. one half the length of the other). for example). Ignazio. a fifth = 2:3. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations.as a unit of measurement. . provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. It was common in Roman art. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. provenance The origins of an art work. 4. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. and 5. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. harmonic proportions. putti sing. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Rome. the steward or treasurer of a church. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. a fourth = 3:4. putto (It. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. triangulation. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). "boys") Plump naked little boys.

or the Jesuits. the great orders of monks. or some item connected with a saint. e. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. basso rilievo). Botticelli. Among the . Brunelleschi. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. and high relief (alto rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Donatello. also known as the Realist school. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. refectory (Med. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). the object of particular veneration. Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relic (Lat. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in which figures are seen half round. in which figures are almost detached from their background. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art.Quattrocento (It. friars and nuns. In 16th century Europe. hermits. relicquiae. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "remains") a part of the body of a saint.g. relief (Lat. relevare. canons regular. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in particular works by Masaccio. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Fra Angelico and others. with the Anglican Church developing in England.

there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. presided over by chapters general. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Conventuals. however. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Giustina. After the repression of the Spirituals. which was to become the main Italian one. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Padua. The Benedictines. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. In 1504. Lucca. although technically of secular canons. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Benedetto. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. it became the Cassinese congregation. Founded by St Romuald c. The Silvestrines. continued to hold the order's great basilicas.contemplative orders. At the same time. Mantua. Bologna (1419). developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. and their more institutionalized brethren. 1012. their resources being in the hands of trustees. was the congregation of S. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Giorgio in Alga. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Maria di Fregonaia. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. the Conventuals. That of S. and the generally moderate Observants. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Salvatore. various groups were fused in the latter body. Bernardino of Siena. i. The same bull .e. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. S. who had no overall organization originally. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. In 1517. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. the most notable being S. Venice (1404). the great patriarch of Venice. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery.

Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. founded by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. S. Angela Merici. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Michele in Isola. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. the Theatines. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. however. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Gerolamo Aemiliani. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. a historical period. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. however. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Filippo Neri. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. founded in 1535 by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. The first. also. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Gaetano da Thiene. Venice.

as well as political. and his own as potentially one of light. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and competition with. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Thereafter. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). however. For long. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. 1875-86). The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long.century. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. the historical reality of antiquity. of arts. All-Roundness. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of scholarship. of an energetic revival of interest in. too long forgotten glories. increasingly. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of 'darkness'. even Amoralism. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). was so vast and potent. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. life. which had begun early in the 14th century. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. of letters. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. however. because its core of energy. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. . Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that.

the previous record .with all its shabbiness . as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Cathedral of SaintBavon. (3) There is not a true. and is decorated with paintings. of industrialization. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal.) was the term chosen. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. consist merely of a painting. There was an early. and mass media. congruence between. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. however. let alone a uniform. It is for this additional. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. especially in the High Gothic period. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Ghent). mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). later still to Genoa. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. sometimes.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. though sometimes of metal. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. The challenges are to be accepted. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. and other liturgical objects.erased. retables can be detached and. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Though thus challenged. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. candlesticks. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. gratefully. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. in the more limited sense. etc. etc. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. letters. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. mobilized nationalism.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. statues. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points.

With the development of freestanding altars. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Originally commissioned in 976. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. painting. and 'Romanesque'. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Italy. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism.France. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). More usually. is a typical product. in several countries . as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Romanesque art. almost simultaneously. Spain . the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Louis XV furniture. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. the St.of St Mark in Venice. rocaille (French. "relief") In painting. retables have become extinct. rilievo (It. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. and architecture dominating the 18th century. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. the first style to achieve such international currency. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200.in the 11th century. Rococo A style of design. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. its mood lighthearted and witry. however. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. richly decorated with organic forms. . that it stands out from its background fully rounded. like 'Gothic'. Germany. literally. As the name suggests.

Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. the development of nationalistic pride. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. they maintained. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. stylized design representing an open rose. van Heemskerk. . Rome. van Orley. Pannini and Mengs. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Claude. such as red ochre. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Piranesi. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. B. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Massys and M. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Mabuse. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. The aim of painting. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. In addition. Q. M.

the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526).S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. pious legend and hagiography. Sacra Conversazione (It. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. and Lorenzo de' Medici. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. There were no limits on time. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.greatly increased. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. multiple sets used in succession. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. In the . whose Rappresentazione dei SS. and impoverished.expressed through gesture. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Many compositions were anonymous. glance and movement . The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Eastern independent. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Written primarily in ottava rima. confirmation. gutted. Clement escaped into Castel S. from the Old and New Testaments. the Eucharist. when it finally left the city it had devastated. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. matrimony. penance. local saints. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). but others were the work of well-known figures. holy orders. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). supported by lay confraternities. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. and Protestant churches. Subjects were nominally sacred. and anointing of the sick. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Orthodox. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).

" sala (Ital. in principle. Anglican. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. make such strict distinctions. that the price of salt should be increased. which in the Gospel According to John. the Orthodox Church does not. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. and sacraments. Candidates first face west. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. was buried under a new fortress.. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. notably from Florence and in Germany. used for drawing. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Bentivoglio.e. They were still seeking aid.early church the number of sacraments varied. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. was not maintained as a sacrament. It is still practiced on special occasions. large room. The classical Protestant churches (i. chapter 13.i. Lutheran. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. as an excuse to revolt. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.e. and then face east. Hence. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the symbolic direction of Christ. foot washing. replaces the Lord's Supper. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Thus." which are called sacramentals. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. the sun of righteousness. as in the Church of the Brethren. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. The chief focus of discontent. strictly speaking.. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.) Hall. the Rocca Paolina. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Immediately following baptism. Saracens . baptism and the Eucharist. Salt War. sacraments. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.

The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. satyr In Greek mythology. sarcophagus. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). whose writings. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Little known in the Middle Ages.c. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. the god of wine. made of stone. legs and horns of a goat. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 45 BC). 270 BC). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. 210 AD). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. and many others. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Arabs or Muslims. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). sarcophagi (Gk. 360 . along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. The publication of Latin (1562. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.During the Middle Ages. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. pl. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. are lost. wood or terracotta. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.c. 160 . Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and .

The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). from time to time both he and his opponents. 1386) and his son Ladislas. for. most of whom. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Schism. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. with France and her allies Aragon.for example Pieter van Laer. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place.they had individual Bentnames . while England. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. was called Bamboccio. Alexander V. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. and. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. while devout Christians agonized. the Florentines. Louis I (d. who recognized the Roman pope. However. being Frenchmen. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. in June 1409. but with little effect. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). one of the early leaders. scholasticism . thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. who had the support of the Avignon pope. As a result. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. on the other. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. on one side. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. In northern Italy. than their medieval predecessors.

as it is easier to add details in this way.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). on one side. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.) . and theology. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. the plaster had to be damped before painting. textual scholarship. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. (See also: fresco. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. that scholasticism was left.moral philosophy. if lime-water was used. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. university-based study. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. as it were. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. history and rhetoric . Padua. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.were different from those of medieval. As such. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). moreover. Medieval scholars. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. and Islamic literature. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. It was because the central concerns of humanism . It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. None the less. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. because the secco technique is much less permanent. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Serenissima (Ital. notably Aquinas. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Often called the burning ones. Christian.The term is ambivalent.

which were all identical in thickness. term.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. and the delicate. Sibyls foretold the Birth. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Med. in use since the Middle Ages. usually presided over by individual families. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Originally. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibyls (Gk. sibylla. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. there was only one Sibyl. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. brass. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. In Christian legend. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. "prophetess") In antiquity.. "the most serene republic of Venice"). sinopia . The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. in the period of classical antiquity. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Signoria (It. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. They first appear in alpine monasteries. sfumato A technique. at the same time. Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. the number gradually rose to ten. Servite (Lat. women who could prophesy. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages.

(2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. It is very closely related to International Gothic. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Francis of Assisi. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. especially in the flow of drapery. as the name implies. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. staffage This word. in other words. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.'Beautiful Madonnas'. brand.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. "mark. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. soffit (Lat. and. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.) Wooden ceiling decoration. sotto in sù (It. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sing. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. stigmata. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil).. pronounced as French. stigma (Gk. Stanze (Ital. . Ital.

Indeed. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. stucco A type of light. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. studioli (It. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). In a looser sense. The vogue for the Sublime. whose verses actually fabrications . The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. with that for the Picturesque. John Milton. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). pl. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. supremacy . By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. studiolo. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. both external and internal. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate).

the supremacy of the English king over the English Church.e. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. into Italy. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua.and. London. tempera (Lat. . Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . chiefly from Flanders. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. These were imported. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. i. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. But the Italians did not make them. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling.Historically. both for panel painting and fresco. then being replaced by oil paint. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. Salviati and Allori. was being decorated with frescoes. The subject is underexplored. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. his own headquarters. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. or cartoons. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. 1407). T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. and in literature. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. temperare. doubtless.

and profile. topia. i. terraferma (Ital. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. topos. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. topiary (Gk. quarter face. in art. and sculptures. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tondo. model. "fields. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. walls. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. and other surfaces. vessels. triumphal arch. theme or motif. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. pl. in the architecture of ancient Rome. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "a commonplace") In literature. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. and later to subdivide gable ends.terracotta (It. widely used form. Trajan's Column . they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. pl. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. tondi (It. topoi (Gk. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. figure of speech.e.

Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. beside it the army of martyrs. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. added to the glamour of the triumph. triptych (Gk. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. "threefold") A painting in three sections. tryptychos. into a number of less controversial forms. Meanwhile. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. after 'a countless number of virgins. Trinity (Lat. trinitas. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. the wars by which they were won . decorated marriage chests and other paintings. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. as it were. "threefold") in Christianity. chastity. Early triptychs were often portable. Battista Sforza. the Son and the Holy Spirit. patriarchs and prophets. fame. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. or wings. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one.' Before it go the apostles. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. of both sexes'. Disseminated soon after his death. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. a car so brave'. usually an altarpiece. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. time and eternity. death. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. . The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. the military triumph became sublimated. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. behind it.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. of virtues and of the arts.

It incorporates Renaissance features. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). "deceives the eye") A type of painting which.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. typology . In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. it is usually decorated with carvings. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. first recorded in 1232. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tromp l'oeil (Fr. through various naturalistic devices. tympanum (Lat. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. often decorated with sculptures. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. enclosed by an arch. "drum") In classical architecture. viscous black ink. tusche A thick. Dating from classical times. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys.

The numerous candles. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. .) The Renaissance "universal man". lanterns. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Judith. such as five works devoted to the senses. e. U uomo universale (It. In Christian thought. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.Dirck van Baburen (c. where they were most accessible. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).A system of classification. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . slayer of Goliath. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. knew his former patrons. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. each had access to his paintings. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. 1610). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). were popular with them also. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. 1590-1624).g. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and David. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). killer of Holofernes. especially his half-length figural groups.

). "evening") . The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. and the rib vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade). Vespers (Lat. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. V vanishing point In perspective. There are a wide range of forms. vanitas (Lat. mixed in.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Parisian craftsmen. varietà (It. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. hour-glasses and clocks. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. snuff boxes and other objects. overturned vessels. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. guttering candles. carriages. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. the groin vault. Also varietas (Lat. a work's richness of subject matter. often gold. it was used to decorate furniture. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vesper. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death.

Fortitude. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). 'Assume a virtue. vite (Lat. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. actual or latent. Prudence. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. if you have it not'. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. In ancient Roman dwellings. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross.Prayers said in the evening. Anger. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Hope. vimperga Of German origin. Charity. Covetousness. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Vestibule (Lat. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. virtù could be used. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. "not exposed to winds". Envy. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Lust. Temperance. vestibulum. The seven Virtues were: Faith. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. in which the word signifies efficacy. "life") . a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vita. and Sloth. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. and Justice. for example. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Gluttony.

fall into a different category from those that preceded them. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. Vitruvius Pollio.An account of someone's life and work. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. 1482-84). and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. a biography. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. published in 1550 and 1568. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. in fact. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. protection from harm. those of Volterera. Sculptors and Architects"). Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and appalled recognition of. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. or recovery from illness has been made. 1478-80. Marcus (1st cent. they were from the 18th century . whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables.g. and of Ferrara. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. usually when a prayer for good fortune. The wars from 1494 do. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1472.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

It was intended to have a variety of functions. . "Western work of art". pompous on the floor above. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. usually restorers. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. gallery. during its subsequent history. woodcut A print made from a wood block. based on stylization of various animal forms. a philosophy of life. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. Westwerk German word. treasury or a place where justice was administered. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed.Weltanschauung (Gr. usually linear. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. "world view") A comprehensive world view.

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