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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
architectonic (Gk. and Rouault. Also known as an exedra. design. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. including Goya.A semicircular projection. architrave (It. the darker the tone). the lowest part of the entablature). a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Degas. which is fused to the plate by heating. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. piers or pillars. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. roofed with a half-dome.e. but in essence the process is as follows. In Greek and Roman literature. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. . Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. the moulding around a window or door. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arcus. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. at the east end of a church behind the altar. The adjective is apsidal. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Lancet and Tudor. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arcade (Lat. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Picasso. or organization. arkhitektonikos. There are several variants of the technique. The term applies also to a print made by this method. "architectural") Relating to structure. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.
archeiu.and the Comedy . attributum. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "golden. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). Dante's Vita nuova . Ars Moriendi (Lat. aureolus. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.archivolt (Ital. attribute (Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. usually a saint." and Lat. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. In the case of martyrs. dominate. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "front arch. archivolto. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. aureole (Lat. "begin. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. voltus. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person." from Gk. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom.
as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. in 1377. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. that of Cardano. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The actual move was made in 1309. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Six pontificates later. who had been residing in France since 1305. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. or baldacchino (It. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. baldachin. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. 'Captivity'. Later. the god of wine and fertility. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). made in Rome in the mid-17th century. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. applied to the physically . B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. often anecdotal.
or canopy. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Customarily. or connected with. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. and Epiphany. and Nocera in Italy. Florence. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. As eight follows the "complete" number. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. banderole (It. Alg. Spalato [Split. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome.. built by Sixtus III. Lebanon. the Temple of Venus. AD 300). whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. set beneath a domical ciborium. Easter. Croatia]. Pentecost. AD 273. Baalbek. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. seven. and Poitiers.g. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and abject filthy things. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous.. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. beggars in rags. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. a visual metaphor for the number eight. a church. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. France. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Parma. banderuola. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. el Kantara. . or forecourt. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. such as those at Pisa. pope between 432 and 440." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.
it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. were often omitted entirely. achieved through scale. Baroque (Port. . The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). southeast of Paris. 1810-1865). 1814-1875). stoa basilike. Vermeer). In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. 1796-1875). which is reserved for the clergy. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. 1817-1878). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. in the 1840s and 1850s. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. 1811-1889). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Originally. Jules Dupré (French. and thus a church. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Constant Troyon (French. 1807-1876). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. or baptismal chapels. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building.an allusion to entering the Christian life. "king's hall") a church building.In the 10th century. basilica (Gk. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. In architecture. Théodore Rousseau (French. Also tunnel vault. barocco. however. and increasingly elaborate decoration. and (3) everyday realism. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. baptisteries. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Jean-François Millet (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. in its usual location near the church door . Rubens). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. usually facing east.
like their Dutch counterparts. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. such as Waldmüller. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. however. often with food and drink. domesticity. The term was mainly used up to c.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. particularly porcelain. in which still-life predominates. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. or which is to be left as it is. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. By association. also incorrectly called bisque. Spanish still-lifes. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Bodegónes. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Book of Hours . Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. There were. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. up until the mid-17th century. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. as is to be expected. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). which is either not yet glazed. and often sentimentality. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). 1650 in Spain. bodegón Image. especially Spanish. were referred to by their specific contents. Biscuit porcelain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. biscuit Unglazed ceramic.
bozzetto Strictly speaking. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. or seasons. durability. varying from silverish to a rich. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.by a variety of processes. coppery red. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto(Italian.both hot and cold .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. but can also be used for painted sketches. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. By extension. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.an advantage over marble sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. Chantilly). and the fact that it is easily workable . though these are more often called 'modelli'. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. a rapid sketch in oil. days of the week. made as a study for a larger picture. months. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. See flying buttress.
box") In architecture. glass. notable from Syria and Egypt. which was often allegorical. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). mosaics. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Duccio. caisson (Fr. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. cameo Small relief made from gems. and work in precious metals. private room where works of art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. manuscript illuminations.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. casson. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. "a chest. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Among its most distinctive products were icons. camera obscura . It also served to glorify the emperor. C cabinet A small. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. ceramics. and Giotto. its forms highly stylized.
and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. Portable versions were built. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. candlestick. candelabrum (It. cantorie (It. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. hemp. cantoria. usually in a church. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. capital (Lat. "candle") A large. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. campanile Bell tower. ." and the earliest versions. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. sing. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. both of which have richly carved marble panels. by the 16th century. other materials used are cotton.Ancestor of the photographic camera. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). as an aid to drawing. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J.-N. usually built beside or attached to a church. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candela. capitellum. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. and jute. only very rough effects will be obtainable. dating to antiquity. Structurally. usually with several branches or arms. candelabra. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. pl. usually decorated. which was usually whitened.) A gallery for singers or musicians. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. which isolates the fabric from the paint. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Niepce created photography.
cardinalis. At the height of the Middle Ages. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). tapestry. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartellini In a painting. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartoon (It. or fresco. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Carthusian Order (Lat. or a motto. the endeavour to attain true humanity. New Charterhouses.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .a humorous drawing or parody. monasteries containing separate hermitages. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. near Grenoble. The order combines reclusive and community life. details of the subject. Fortitudo (Fortitude). this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. In fresco painting. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.both Italians and artists from other countries . In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. cartouche . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Carmelites (Lat. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . pl. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cartone. cartellino. and humanism. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the date of the painting.
cassone (It. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. The altar is placed at the east end. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. decorated with gilt gesso. cathedral (cathedra. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. In the 15th century. palace. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). castello (It. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. caryatid (Gk. For reasons lost to time and tradition. a cathedral always faces west . where the throne of the bishop is placed. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Cascina. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. or nave. or arms of the cross. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. linen. putti (cupids).toward the setting sun. and many other items of her dowry. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance.) "castle". they were also used in other countries. and swags of fruit and flowers. The main body. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Paolo Uccello. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. . They contained the bride's clothes.
continually praise him. centralis. or birdlike characteristics. a celestial winged being with human. animal. and Islamic literature. Relative to the observer. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. a throne bearer of the deity. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Christian. "in the centre". Both the statement of St. rather than intercessory functions. . in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. buildings and figures that are being depicted. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. in accordance with their distance from the observer. as celestial attendants of God.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. central perspective (Lat. landscapes. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. and perspicere. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. champlevé (Fr. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography.
"choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. or for choral singing. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Hans Burgkmair (1510). North of the Alps. replacing tempera. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Since Carolingian times. Lastly.chiaroscuro (It. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. choros. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. the Order of the Hospital of St. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. "light dark") In painting. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. reserved for the clergy to pray together. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. choir (Gk.
intersect). In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and repetition of pattern. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The Transparente (completed 1732). undulating lines. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. undulating cornices. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. gilded rays. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and the Churrigueresque column. stucco shells. a massing of carved angels. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. which was shaped like an inverted cone. balustrades. Very few still exist in their original positions. became the most common motif. further enriching the style. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. reversed volutes. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. an architect. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and garlands. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. ciborium . is as typically Churrigueresque. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Sculpted clouds. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross.
and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. but self-employed. etc. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. craft of dyeing.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Their economic condition worsened. They were forbidden to form a trade association. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. or achieve political representation. High Renaissance). the wool carder Michele di Lando. In reaction to this revolutionary . The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Members of the lower classes. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. ciompi. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July.and post-medieval Italy. placing one of their members. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. on July 22. combers. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. who were raised to the status of a guild. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. as also were those in the associated. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. The new government. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. including the ciompi. Without being members of a guild. controlled by the minor guilds. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Then. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. beaters. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Quattrocento (1400s.
on which strings were plucked.) An ancient musical instrument. . and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. the ciompi guild was abolished. philosophy and art . resembling a lyre. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. however. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). writers. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. In the 15th century Greek literature.episode. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. changed greatly from one period to the next. clair-obscur (Fr. with Italian scholars.as in Italy these were dispensed with. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the black contours usually with a special line plate. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. except in cases where . "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. literature. philosophy. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. and politics. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). scholars patiently finding. Concepts of the classical. cithara (Gk.
In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. pl. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. pl. condottieri (It. compline (Lat. cognoscenti. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. concetti (It. the church service at which these prayers are said. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. The name was derived from the condotta. blue and orange. condottiere. cognoscente (It. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. intensify one another. those with refined tastes. terrorized the country. concetto. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). a work's underlying theme. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. sing. or "contract. when set side by side.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. arch or ceiling. occasionally made of wood. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. as well as from the Bible. . Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. [hora] completa. Coffered ceilings. literature or music. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Green and red. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces.
Muzio's son. Mark (1432). commonly called either Compagnia di S. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. . Toward the end of the 15th century. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. By the 16th century. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. convents of convertite. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. and Tuscany. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. in the service of Naples. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. scuole.e. clergy. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Umbria. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. which spread in the 15th century. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Martino). (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. disappeared. confraternities Confraternities. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. By the end of the 14th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Carmagnola. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. or with the spiritual assistance of. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. and German--the condottieri. often called compagnie or. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Spanish.e. Francesco Sforza. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. With no goal beyond personal gain. often under the direction of. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. flagellant confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. i. primarily for syphilitics. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds.devastating Romagna. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. who won control of Milan in 1450. in Venice. in the service of Perugia. i.
"Council of Ten") established in 1310.g. but sometimes had their own premises. flat outlines. however. and refuges for maidens.g. Dorotea in Trastevere. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contour. which accompanied condemned prisoners. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. e. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). while the Venetian government. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. notwithstanding their location. 1514 in S. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the Florentine Neri. Later. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. e. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. While the Doge ranked above the Council. contours were initially regular. reformed prostitutes.i. contour (Fr. founded c. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. contrapposto (It. in Florence. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. In medieval painting. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Confraternities. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary.e.
With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. cuprum. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. corbel In architecture. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. started the process of inner reform in the Church. 1100 and 1300. whose names are inscribed on several works. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. conventiculurn.weight on one leg. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. 1280). for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. The style spread as far as England. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. conventicle (Lat. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. an engraving produced in this way. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. They are often ornamented. Lat. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. did not achieve any lasting results. Reform programs. . aes cyprium. a bracket of stone. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. large cornice or other feature. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. declining moral standards.
crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. after being whipped. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. cupula. "small vat") In architecture. a semi-circular vault. Usually. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Seleucids. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Constantine the Great. Death. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. or "scourged." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging.e. the first Christian emperor. particularly among the Persians. i. Jews. reedy sound. An ancestor of the oboe. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the condemned man. There were various methods of performing the execution. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. D dado . cupola (Lat. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Next. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Carthaginians. the most famous victim of crucifixion. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. a small dome.
often an altarpiece. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. a favorite late medieval picture subject. The term stresses not the literal drawing. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Deësis (Gk. Passau. Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. disegno (It.g. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. diptychum. diptych (Lat. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. design") In Renaissance art theory. deacon (Gk. an expressive use of nature. but the concept behind an art work. and Linz possessed common characteristics. decorated diffrently from the upper section. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. diakonos. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. diptychos. e. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "drawing. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Germany. which was help to be the basis of all art. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. danse macabre The dance of death. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. usually in matching pairs. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Anglican and Orthodox churches. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928).(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase.
Dominicans (Lat. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions.Thomas Aquinas. doublet A male garment. usually forming a ceiling or roof. such as we still use today. a 19th-century invention. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The studio easel. distemper (Lat. Ordo Praedictatorum. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. donator.fully realize. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. when painters took to working out of doors. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. donor (Lat. is a heavy piece of furniture. also used it on canvas. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). As disegno appeals to the intellect. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. formerly worn under armour. "to mix. which runs on castors or wheels. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. distemperare. dome in architecture. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). though a few artists.
and logos. bound and flogged. Ecce Homo (Lat. full face. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. en face In portraiture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. sculpture. and the cornice. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. the frieze. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. It consists of the architrave. and architecture. sometimes combining panel painting. "last". in art. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. "word") . a depiction of Jesus. epitaph (Gk. entablature In classical architecture. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. John (19. eschatology (Gk. Hence. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. fresco. eschaton. ensemble (Fr. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper.
Jerome. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. which was famous for maiolica. Marcantonio Flaminio. . he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and also to Giulia Gonzaga.death and resurrection. Augustine. and Scandinavia. which is called "maiolica. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. 4500 BCE. which is called "delftware. fields and livestock. farmers." and charis. which was developed in the Near East ca. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Equated with the Greek god Pan. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. eu. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. notably Cardinal Pole. and of the last things. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Spain. It developed in France in the early 16th century. particularly ware made in France.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Saints Ambrose." and that made in the Netherlands and England. celebrated with bread and wine. Vittoria Colonna. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Eucharist (Gk. Germany. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Contarini. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Giovanni Morone. protector of shepherds. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Italy. and is named for Faenza. "good.
carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. war. sword and set of balances. such as plague. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. black and dun. fluted of a column or pillar. The colour of his horse is white. Only a small area can be painted in a day. can in time be seen. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). famine and death. drying to a slightly different tint. a swag. and flowers suspended in a loop. Committed to charitable and missionary work. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image.8). and these areas. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. leaves. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. that of the others red. a technique known as a secco fresco. fresco (It. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Their attributes are the bow. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. 2 . In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. relaxed.festoni (It. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. frescos in Italy . well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting.
That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. genre In a broad sense. are genres of painting. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. Genius in classical Rome. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. In art from the classical period onwards. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. usually childish figure. both in churches and in private and public palaces. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. the intonaco.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. or fresco secco. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. G Garter. or true fresco. Final details. for example. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.Save in Venice. where the atmosphere was too damp. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. covings and ceilings. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. landscape and portraiture. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. The technique of buon fresco. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . a person's invisible tutelary god.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.
such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Maso di Banco. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Maria Gloriosa). glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. in portraits and on tombs. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Gobelins . The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. how it differed from notoriety. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. As such. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and as spurring on men of action. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Bernardo Daddi. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. whether it must be connected with the public good. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as well as writers and artists.
Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. and although it reopened in 1699. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Golden Fleece. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. who appointed Lebrun Director.French tapestry manufactory. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. thereafter it made only tapestries. In other Italian cities. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. still in existence today. Paris. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. . a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. This ratio is approximately 8:13. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. golden section (Lat. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century.
manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. 1270. . that the effects are to be felt. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. or the influence of one building. the superficial particularities of form. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. The artistic. painting. Nevertheless. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Amiens. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. There is a transcendental quality. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. from the 13th until the 17th century. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. 1200 and c.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. c. In thinking of Nicola (d. Denis. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. like the cultural and commercial. and lies much deeper than. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. painting. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In sculpture and in painting. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. In particular. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. Gothic Gothic.
. Klee. notably in the writings of Bellori.and hog-hair brushes. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. without visible brush marks. and Piranesi. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and taste among the English. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. starch. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. the beau idéal of the French. sometimes in the company of a tutor. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It is thinned with water for applying. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Pannini. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Honey.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. with sable. occasionally. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. to silk. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). chiefly to France. to white or tinted paper and card and. and the great style. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. the Netherlands. These qualities. Canaletto. Such tours often took a year or more. Dubuffet. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. genius. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and Morris Graves. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. if required. and above all Italy.
became an abiding feature of European politics. Although its palace was rebuilt c. grisaille (Fr. which had recruited most of the merchant class. after this. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics.e. c. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. internal factions in Florence went under other names. 1216. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. however. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. In another sense. brother of Louis IX. including text as well as illustrations. Some writers. In the context of the fine arts. In Florence. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. to Provence and Paris. . drawing and the various forms of engraving. and Waiblingen. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. however. gris. the parties taking a multitude of local names. through central Italy. exclude drawing from this definition. After the War of the Eight Saints. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. From 1266 to 1268. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. then as now. usually gray.
The guild also monitored standards of work. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. as some did). a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. such as Brescia and Vicenza. for example. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. and provided assistance to members in need. héraut. trades. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. or professions. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The guilds were not equal. print or painting. In 16th century Venice. surgeons. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. H hatching In a drawing. In Italy they go back a long way. Guilds were also patrons of art. In Florence. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In some towns. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and greater hostility between master and man. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. trade or profession (painters. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. "herald") . the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. heraldry (Fr. [science] héraldique. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. goldsmiths. but in time they acquired other functions. notably Florence in the 14th century. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft." from Fr. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In some cities.
Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). while others merged with the Waldensians. The main impact of the . founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. However. the Cathars were an anti-church. d. indeed.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. head of the 'carnal Church'. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. as Antichrist. normative for churchmen. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. with the rules governing their use. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. By contrast. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. together with brethren north of the Alps. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. the followers of Juan de Valdes. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. they were condemned in 1184.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. i. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. the Waldensian. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. one great missionary community. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. and regarded themselves as forming. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. from the start. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty.
Kensett. At the same time. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. humanism (Lat. George Inness.movement upon the laity was in southern France. and. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. B. in his earlier work. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Morse. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Henry Inman. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). F. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. humanus. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. hortus conclusus (Lat. mainly in the south. working from 1825 to 1875. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. In humanism. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. the emancipation of man from God took place. F. my spouse'. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. its subjects considered morally elevating. Jasper Cropsey. Frederick E. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. American painters were studying in Rome. Church. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Germany. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. history (usually classical history). Thomas Cole. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Durand. J. and classical literature. S.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
trecento rococo and lyrical style. the pincers. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. it denominates a kind of behaviour. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. The terms court style. and they are also depicted on their own. For instance. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. investiture . and the ladder. originality. invention. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). Derived from classical rhetoric. the rooster of Peter's denial. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. In the second half of the 14th century. beautiful style. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. the hammer. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. etc. the scourge that was used in the scourging. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Veronica.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. soft style. or of other saints. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. inventio (It. with many further details added. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. usually the donors of a work of art. Donatallo. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. are also used in art literature. the ability to create. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Human figures.g. the veil of St. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns.
Andries and Jan Both. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Italianizers Northern artists. generally Dutch or Flemish. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. bathed in a golden haze. who traveled in Italy and. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Upon his return to Holland. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. and Jan Asselijn. The Both brothers. . Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. although they are usually called Romanists. Both and Berchem. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. of Utrecht. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Jerome's writings. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Nicolaes Berchem. principally Dutch. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes.
encouraged by the Crusades. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. the rite of communion is based on this. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. As their military role grew. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. lectern A reading stand or desk. Legenda Aurea (Lat. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.1519).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Archbishop of Genoa. especially one at which the Bible is read. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). John of Jerusalem . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. liberal arts . Emperor Maximilian I (1459.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).
Kensett (1816-1872). poetic atmosphere.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns.grammar. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). John F. that could be used for public ceremonies. painting or sculptural decoration. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Martin J. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Heade (1819-1904). often standing in markets and town squares. Pythagoras for arithmetic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). its roof supported by columns. first the preparatory trivium . Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. . love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. a semicircular space. loggia (It. that may contain a window. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). rhetoric and dialectic. "little moon") In architecture. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. through the use of aerial perspective. and Frederick E.g. Maria Novella in Florence). often sublime. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. It is related to. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Tubal for music). Church (1826-1900). comprising arithmetic.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. geometry. astronomy and music. the quadrivium. lunette (Fr. then the basis of a philosophical training.g. together with identifying attributes (e. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. commemorating a marriage. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.
but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. copper green. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. Specifically. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. originating in Italy in the 14th century. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. originally sung without accompaniment. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. active mainly in Florence c. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. "great mother") A mother goddess. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. but they painted genre scenes. historical subjects. antimony yellow. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. "almond") . Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). manganese purple. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. the goddess Cybele. madrigal A part song. mandorla (It. usually for the lute. and however bright their lighting effects. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. and portraits as well as landscapes. magna mater (Lat. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. When white is used for painting. particularly such ware produced in Italy. and iron red. 1855–65. and accompaniments. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. being written. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. for example. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.
complex and crowded compositions. Developing out of the Renaissance. which was quarried at Mount . the hand-written medieval book. maniera. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. It reached to the knee or foot. Mannerism (It. often ornamented with decorative borders. Flanders. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. bound. ecclesiastical. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. illuminated initials and miniatures. In Mannerist painting. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Parmigianino. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. depending on the social class of the wearer. mantle An overcoat. marked by flagellation. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and literary texts. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. worn open. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. the Codex manuscriptus. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. in a specific sense. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. strong. In architecture. El Greco and Tintoretto. Burgundy. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. "manner. Bronzino. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. more strictly.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and crowned with thorns. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. sometimes harsh or discordant colors.
The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. "witness. Carrara. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. having finished his training. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. particularly by Michelangelo. a different design on the reverse. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings.Pentelicon in Attica. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . quarried at Massa. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Without monetary value. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. which were beginning to be reverently collected. sleek surface. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. The pure white Carrara marble. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. martyrion. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. the medal's purpose was commemorative. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Like the finest Imperial coins. marmi finti (It. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. martyrdom (Gk. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. an inscription running round the rim. medallion In architecture. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC.
Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. as it were. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Her head features on Minerva's shield. perhaps oddly. . sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. often anonymous. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. A Dutch officer. 1467-688). particularly. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. even grain. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. This yields a soft effect in the print. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. for landscapes and portraits. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. of the person portrayed on the other side. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. When Perseus cuts off her head. The process is essentially extinct today. who reflected them. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 1452-1526/27). Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. the stress on individual character. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. 1640. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Ludwig von Siegen. The work of these men. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence.round the neck. 1425-1504). c. a Gorgon. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Medusa In Greek mythology. 14601528). and of the many. It was. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). In pure mezzotint. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. in England. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. c. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. no line drawing is employed.
"word. motto (Ital. usually portraits. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. "one color") Painted in a single color. ink and paint.g. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. executed on a very small scale. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Francis himself. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. a painting executed in a single color. painting in gouache on vellum or card. monokhromatos. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Many such small versions. a branch of the Franciscan order.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings.. monochrome (Gk. still exist. saying") . mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. often quite highly finished. Parmigianino (d. e. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. miter A high. pointed headdress worn by bishops.
nave (from Lat. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and Casino Massimo. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and two other members moved to Rome. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. It may have parallel aisles on each side. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. In general. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. often separated from it by pillars. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Rome. Nazarenes A group of young. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. naturalism (Fr. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. . and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Isidore. Berlin. but often insipid.from the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. named after the patron saint of painting. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Pforr. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. The invention of personal mottos. and is intersected by the transept. 1816-17. navis. In 1810 0verbeck. 1817-29). a saying usually associated with a visual symbol.
and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). niello (Lat. moreover. nigellus. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. is as true as it is notorious. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). were usually old when elected. usually golden.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. nimbus (Lat. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. but their ideas continued to be influential. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Nymphaeum (Gk. Popes. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. "aureole") The disc or halo.) . the style of the Ancien Régime. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.
Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. such as linseed. its richness of colour. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. and its greater tonal range. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. orders of architecture In classical architecture. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The earliest. fluted column and a plain capital. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. "services. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). a small private chapel. They are seen in the form of the columns. and entablatures. obsequia. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. walnut. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). O obsequies (Lat. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. the three basic styles of design. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. or poppy. the Doric order. Greek goddesses of Nature. observances") Rites performed for the dead. was the simplest. inborn sin. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. with a sturdy. a more elaborate base. . capital.
standing at the foot of the Cross. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. palazzo (It. P pala (Ital. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. like cities. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. and the main apartments above. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. tradition and social structure. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. with biforate windows. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.g. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Palazzo Strozzi). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. the Cancelleria). On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). designed as a . while shops came to be thought undignified. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.
and Palladio's in Vicenza. evolved influential types. Movement of patrons and architects. especially after the Sack of Rome. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. came to be applied all over Europe.scholarly retreat. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. often built next to their titular churches. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. column-caps. Papal incentives to build. cornices and abutments. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Palazzo Massimi). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. behind a sober Florentine façade. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Following Oriental patterns. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. and large households. like the colonnaded vestibule. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. like Genoa. Other cities. Rich. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). In Venice.g. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. panel . palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". e. palmette. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e.g. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements.
so that they might have a voice at court. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects.Term in painting for a support of wood. and spanned by a single dome. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Many other types were used. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. as distinct from canvas. or the incidence of taxation. On a larger scale. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. cedar. and modern painters have also used plywood. and the pressure and temptations . panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. enforce law and order. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. larch. the. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. teak. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. Then. as it were. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. A number of matters. mahogany. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. The third aspect was administrative. fir. Having a circular plan. or other rigid substance. In the 20th century cedar. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. metal. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and walnut. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. including beech. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. and dark walnut are favourites. linden. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. olive.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. As successors to St Peter. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. chestnut. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. to influence popes in their favour. secular rulers. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). wooden panels were the standard support in painting. however. and other synthetic materials as supports. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. To maintain their authority. fibre-board. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war.
as such. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. if it did no serious damage to the faith. however. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. of individuals. the most appropriate . in spite of further absences from Rome. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). which seems so inevitable. As at Avignon.as well. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. to be long delayed. which met at Constance 1414-18. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. possess an authority which. By then. however. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. was long in doubt. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'.that could be applied to them. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. at Avignon. Colonna and Caetani. in the eyes of God. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. It was argued that such a council. from the point of view of its religious associations. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. could supersede that of a pope. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . There remained. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. would. To resolve the problem of divided authority. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. So onerous.
and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. However. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. less frequently pig. 400-300 BC). the creation of a cultural capital. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. as well as a governmental one. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. to a world peopled by shepherds. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. and other animals. and with Zeuxis (c.. in classical literature. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. it has also been used for painting. Parrhasius (c. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. nymphs. scholars and men of letters. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and satyrs. pastor. through lavish patronage of artists. pastoral (Lat. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Passion . goat. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.
a region in north-central Italy.The events leading up to Good Friday. wealthy citizen. 1478). A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. which focus on the Suffering Christ. Francesco Salviati. pastiche (fr.) or pasticcio (It. and so on. Meanwhile. ornamental building. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. a prominent section of a monumental façade. .) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. a small. patrician (Lat. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. patricius. pavilion (Lat. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. the crown of thorns. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Portrayals of the Passion. hence tent") A lightly constructed. projecting either centrally or at both ends. but not necessarily a direct copy. and also the archbishop of Pisa. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. papilio. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. "butterfly. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. 1478. such as a garden summerhouse.
pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. and facere. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. and gnomon. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. physis. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "to see through. "hanging. "nature". The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. physiognomy (Gk. persona.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. . though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. perspective (Lat. pergola (It. perspicere. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. or related elements within an art work. "person". Peace of Augsburg A treaty. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concept or deity. personification (Lat. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. pendant (Fr. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). in particular the face.
to be expressed in painting. Pietà (Lat. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). pigmentum. . pigment (Lat. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. but may consist of a cluster of columns. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. curious details. glue. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. for example. striking the imagination with the force of painting. containing the public rooms. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Rome. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. A pier is generally larger than a column. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. affording a good subject for a landscape.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period.piano nobile (Ital. usually above the ground floor. remarkable for singularity. exemplified. but full of variety. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Peter's. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. or resin to make paint. proper to take a landscape from. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. both real and painted. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane.) The main floor of a building. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands.
pilastrum. During 1348 the Black Death. a shaft. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. such as Florence and Genoa. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Thenceforward. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. also used in Spain's American colonies. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. perhaps. It is often fluted. despite regional variations. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. and capital. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. more sporadic outbreaks. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. and thereafter all Europe. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. plague Plague. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. moreover.pilaster (Lat. it is difficult to find. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. since. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. however. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. "pillar") A flat. it has a base. Rocco and Sebastian. outside Tuscany. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. For this reason. for instance. in October 1347. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. the burning of 'infected' clothing. though in less widespread. It seems probable. In the 15th century.
the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Theatetus and the Laws. In contrast with Aristotle. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Timaeus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Phaedo. like its successor. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. and sinuous scrolls. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. which lasted only a few decades. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. composition. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). The second phase. more severe. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. The first phase. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. are the masterworks of the second style. A student of Socrates. harmonious. placement. and unified style using massive geometric forms. The first phase. or simply the Plateresque. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Philebus. or appropriateness.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. heraldic escutcheons. utilized Mudejar ornament -. the Symposium. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form.e. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Diego evolved a purer.. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Phaedrus. i. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. correct classical orders became frequent. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.
in Plato's thought. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. near Florence. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. the greatest of his ancient disciples. all of which he also translated into Latin. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Rather unsystematic. Plotinus. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. and Agostino Steuco (c. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. and he utilized many other writings. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1472-c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French.1577) becoming particularly popular. systematized and added to what Plato had done. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. A new Latin translation. including those of Plotinus. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. replaced Ficino's. partially. and the Chaldaic Oracles. but not completely. Iamblichus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'.
Lat. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. where a pectoral is used to close it. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. portico (Lat. plinthos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. pluviale. or statue. pluvial (Med. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . such as processions and consecrations. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. plinth (Gk. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. column. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. as in classical architecture). "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. porticus. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. pointed arch In architecture. Plato was read in the universities. polyptych (Gk. poluptukhos.
directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Siena. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Cathedral) by Uccello. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Florence. Palazzo Farnese). Colleoni. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground.e. 1328. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Group portraits. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Mantua. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Florence (1486-90). Desiderio da Settignano. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. inessential. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. National Gallery). decorating whole rooms.. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. and the . Venice). based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The realism of the clear. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Gattarnelata. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Maria Novella. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. was revived in the 14th century. the Carracci. Campidoglio). such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. and only a decorative accessory to form. The 16th century portrait became generalized. psychologically more complex.sculptors such as Donatello. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The equestrian portrait. flattened image.
his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. are not florid in style. bishop of Asti. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). but 16th century ones were more cautious here. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. bishop of Chioggia. of the sermon as an art form. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. primarily the mendicants. several of whom became bishops. was versed in classical and patristic . the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). however. and Peter Paul Rubens. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Savonarola and Musso. abrasive even. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. and. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. not least those of statesmen and prelates. from the secular clergy. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Borromeo.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Fiamma's sermons. 1494). and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). star preachers journeyed all over Italy. bishops especially. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Correggio. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. The sermons of Visdomini." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. to discharge their preaching duties. Charles Le Brun. minatory exhortations. The styles of S. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. who had as their ideal masters Titian.
stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Because of the small size of predelle . The New Testament references in these would. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. predella (It. Millais and Rossetti. prefiguration Typology . Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). though often relatively very wide .rhetoric. and so forth. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. tapestries. among them Holman Hunt. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. however. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Naples).g. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.
They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). projecting shelf on which to kneel. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. again indicative of the purpose they served. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Girardon. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. proportion (Lat. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The following are important: 1. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. "evenness") in painting. which uses the square . notably David. these highly finished drawings. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. intended as complete works of art in themselves. Prix de Rome A scholarship. and Houdon among sculptors. the Canon of Proportion. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. the golden section. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. 3. proportio. profil perdu (Fr. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. 2. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. the quadrature. sculpture and architecture. Fragonard.
The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Ignazio. Rome. for example). was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. one half the length of the other). 4. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. triangulation. and 5. provenance The origins of an art work. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. It was common in Roman art. . provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. a fifth = 2:3. "boys") Plump naked little boys. putto (It. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). a fourth = 3:4. putti sing. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. harmonic proportions. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Unlike Pozzo. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings.
relief (Lat. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). or some item connected with a saint. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. the great orders of monks. Among the . Brunelleschi. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Fra Angelico and others. in which figures are seen half round. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. In 16th century Europe. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. relevare. canons regular. in which figures are almost detached from their background. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Lat. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. hermits.g. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. the object of particular veneration. Donatello. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. and high relief (alto rilievo). in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. friars and nuns. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. basso rilievo). refectory (Med. relic (Lat. also known as the Realist school.Quattrocento (It. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. relicquiae. e. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. with the Anglican Church developing in England. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. in particular works by Masaccio. Botticelli. or the Jesuits. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order.
In 1517. Salvatore. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. the most notable being S. 1012. Venice (1404). A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. That of S. Mantua. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Lucca. In 1504. At the same time. various groups were fused in the latter body. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Lorenzo Giustiniani. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Benedetto. Bernardino of Siena. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Bologna (1419). it became the Cassinese congregation. The Benedictines. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Giorgio in Alga. was the congregation of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. and their more institutionalized brethren. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Founded by St Romuald c. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. and the generally moderate Observants. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. although technically of secular canons. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the Conventuals. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the great patriarch of Venice. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The Conventuals. Giustina. i. After the repression of the Spirituals. The same bull .contemplative orders. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. however. which was to become the main Italian one. Maria di Fregonaia. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. S. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. presided over by chapters general. The Silvestrines.e. Padua. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. who had no overall organization originally. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars.
however. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Gerolamo Aemiliani. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The first. founded in 1535 by S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. however. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Michele in Isola. Gaetano da Thiene. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. founded by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the Theatines. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Filippo Neri. Angela Merici. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Venice. also. a historical period. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism.
increasingly. . For long. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. however. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). because its core of energy. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. was so vast and potent. and competition with. life. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. and his own as potentially one of light. Thereafter. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. the historical reality of antiquity. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. which had begun early in the 14th century. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. too long forgotten glories. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. of an energetic revival of interest in. even Amoralism. however. of arts. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). All-Roundness. 1875-86). For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. of scholarship. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. as well as political.century. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. of letters. of 'darkness'. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept.
statues.with all its shabbiness . Though thus challenged. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. in the more limited sense. candlesticks. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. letters. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. etc. let alone a uniform. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. however. though sometimes of metal. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Ghent). (3) There is not a true. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. especially in the High Gothic period. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. congruence between. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. It is for this additional. and is decorated with paintings. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). the previous record . It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. and other liturgical objects. There was an early. etc.erased. of industrialization. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. The challenges are to be accepted. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. gratefully. mobilized nationalism. and mass media. consist merely of a painting. The panel is usually made of wood or stone.) was the term chosen. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. sometimes. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Cathedral of SaintBavon. later still to Genoa. retables can be detached and.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism.
The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. literally. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. is a typical product. Italy. painting. the first style to achieve such international currency. almost simultaneously. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. like 'Gothic'. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. in several countries . Germany. Originally commissioned in 976. With the development of freestanding altars. rilievo (It. Louis XV furniture. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. the St. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Rococo A style of design. Spain . reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction.France. rocaille (French. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. . Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. "relief") In painting. retables have become extinct. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. richly decorated with organic forms. More usually. however. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. and architecture dominating the 18th century.in the 11th century. As the name suggests.of St Mark in Venice. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. and 'Romanesque'. its mood lighthearted and witry. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Romanesque art.
the development of nationalistic pride. such as red ochre. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. van Orley. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Pannini and Mengs. Massys and M. B. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. they maintained.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. M. van Heemskerk. stylized design representing an open rose. Rome. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. In addition. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Claude. Piranesi. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. The aim of painting. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Mabuse. . Q. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution.
gutted. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. There were no limits on time. Eastern independent.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Written primarily in ottava rima. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . penance. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. from the Old and New Testaments. and Protestant churches. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature.expressed through gesture. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Subjects were nominally sacred. holy orders. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. local saints. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. and impoverished. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. and Lorenzo de' Medici. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Many compositions were anonymous. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Sacra Conversazione (It. matrimony. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. but others were the work of well-known figures. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. glance and movement . and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Clement escaped into Castel S. the Eucharist. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. confirmation. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. pious legend and hagiography. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and anointing of the sick. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Orthodox. In the .greatly increased. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. multiple sets used in succession. supported by lay confraternities.
The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. baptism and the Eucharist. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Salt War. Hence. Saracens . Immediately following baptism. The classical Protestant churches (i. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. foot washing. The chief focus of discontent. Thus. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Anglican.early church the number of sacraments varied. large room. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. used for drawing. and sacraments. Lutheran. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. in principle. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.e. sacraments.i... and then face east. notably from Florence and in Germany. was buried under a new fortress. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. chapter 13. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . The theology of the Orthodox Church. which in the Gospel According to John. the sun of righteousness." sala (Ital. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. the symbolic direction of Christ. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. as in the Church of the Brethren. strictly speaking. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. They were still seeking aid. Candidates first face west. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. as an excuse to revolt. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. was not maintained as a sacrament. make such strict distinctions. the Bentivoglio. the Orthodox Church does not. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan.e. the Rocca Paolina. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. that the price of salt should be increased.) Hall. replaces the Lord's Supper." which are called sacramentals. It is still practiced on special occasions.
The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. are lost. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 160 . 210 AD).c. sarcophagi (Gk. and many others. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. the Arabs or Muslims. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. human-like woodland deities with the ears. sarcophagus. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). pl. 45 BC). Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). The publication of Latin (1562. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . 360 .c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. made of stone. legs and horns of a goat. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. whose writings. Little known in the Middle Ages. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. the god of wine.During the Middle Ages. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 270 BC). satyr In Greek mythology. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. wood or terracotta. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus.
who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Schism. and. while England. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. most of whom. in June 1409. In northern Italy. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Alexander V. Louis I (d. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). with France and her allies Aragon. but with little effect. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. while devout Christians agonized. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. scholasticism . As a result. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. who had the support of the Avignon pope. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. However.they had individual Bentnames . were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. on one side. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Florentines. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. for. than their medieval predecessors. who recognized the Roman pope. on the other. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. 1386) and his son Ladislas.for example Pieter van Laer. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). was called Bamboccio. one of the early leaders. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. being Frenchmen. from time to time both he and his opponents.
In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. notably Aquinas. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.The term is ambivalent. Serenissima (Ital. and theology. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.were different from those of medieval. Padua. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. Christian. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. because the secco technique is much less permanent. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. the plaster had to be damped before painting. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). as it is easier to add details in this way. It was because the central concerns of humanism . university-based study. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. such passages have frequently flaked off with time.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. None the less.moral philosophy. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. history and rhetoric . Often called the burning ones. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. Medieval scholars. moreover. if lime-water was used. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. (See also: fresco. As such. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. that scholasticism was left. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. on one side. textual scholarship. as it were.) . scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. and Islamic literature.
Originally. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. usually presided over by individual families. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Lat. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. sfumato A technique. "prophetess") In antiquity. in use since the Middle Ages. brass. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. and the delicate. term. there was only one Sibyl. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.. sibylla. which were all identical in thickness. Signoria (It. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Servite (Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Med. sibyls (Gk. "the most serene republic of Venice"). women who could prophesy. sinopia . which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. the number gradually rose to ten. in the period of classical antiquity. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Sibyls foretold the Birth. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. at the same time. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. In Christian legend.
. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. stigmata. "mark. staffage This word. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. and. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. especially in the flow of drapery. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. stigma (Gk. sing. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . in other words. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). pronounced as French.) Wooden ceiling decoration. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. as the name implies. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. Stanze (Ital. It is very closely related to International Gothic. sotto in sù (It. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.'Beautiful Madonnas'. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Ital.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. brand. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. soffit (Lat. Francis of Assisi.
usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Indeed. both external and internal.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. with that for the Picturesque. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studiolo. In a looser sense. supremacy . notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. John Milton. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. stucco A type of light. pl. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). studioli (It. The vogue for the Sublime. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. whose verses actually fabrications .
graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. . were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. London. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. But the Italians did not make them. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. both for panel painting and fresco. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. temperare. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. Tempera colors are bright and translucent.e. and in literature. Salviati and Allori.Historically. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. tempera (Lat. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.and. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. chiefly from Flanders. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . then being replaced by oil paint. These were imported. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). The subject is underexplored. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. 1407). those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. his own headquarters. doubtless. or cartoons. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. into Italy. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. was being decorated with frescoes. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. i.
and profile. vessels.terracotta (It. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. tondi (It. and sculptures. topos. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. quarter face. triumphal arch. Trajan's Column . In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "fields. pl. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). tondo. in art. "a commonplace") In literature. widely used form. topiary (Gk. model. pl. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. and later to subdivide gable ends. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. and other surfaces. topoi (Gk. walls. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. terraferma (Ital. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. topia. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.e. figure of speech. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. theme or motif. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. i. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. in the architecture of ancient Rome.
come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. death. Disseminated soon after his death. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . or wings.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. the wars by which they were won . and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). tryptychos. trinitas. of virtues and of the arts. time and eternity. . the military triumph became sublimated. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. beside it the army of martyrs.' Before it go the apostles. patriarchs and prophets. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. chastity. triptych (Gk.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Battista Sforza. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. added to the glamour of the triumph. fame. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. usually an altarpiece. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. behind it. after 'a countless number of virgins. a car so brave'. of both sexes'. "threefold") A painting in three sections.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. as it were. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. into a number of less controversial forms. Meanwhile. "threefold") in Christianity. Early triptychs were often portable. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. the Son and the Holy Spirit. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Trinity (Lat. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.
"drum") In classical architecture. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. often decorated with sculptures. Dating from classical times. viscous black ink. through various naturalistic devices. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tromp l'oeil (Fr. In medieval architecture. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. first recorded in 1232. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. it is usually decorated with carvings. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tympanum (Lat. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. enclosed by an arch. It incorporates Renaissance features. typology . "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). tusche A thick. Tudor An obscure Welsh family.
the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. slayer of Goliath. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and David. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. such as five works devoted to the senses. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).A system of classification. The numerous candles. 1590-1624). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Judith. . each had access to his paintings.) The Renaissance "universal man". especially his half-length figural groups. e. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. knew his former patrons. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. U uomo universale (It. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. were popular with them also. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).Dirck van Baburen (c. In Christian thought. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. where they were most accessible.g. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1610). killer of Holofernes. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Their subjects are frequently religious ones. lanterns.
the groin vault. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. carriages. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. "evening") . consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. a work's richness of subject matter. V vanishing point In perspective. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. hour-glasses and clocks. snuff boxes and other objects. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Vespers (Lat. vesper. it was used to decorate furniture. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. mixed in. overturned vessels. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. often gold. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Also varietas (Lat. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and the rib vault. guttering candles. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque.). vanitas (Lat. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Parisian craftsmen. varietà (It. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. There are a wide range of forms. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.
Charity. Covetousness. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows.Prayers said in the evening. vite (Lat. Prudence. for example. vimperga Of German origin. and Sloth. Fortitude. 'Assume a virtue. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Temperance. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. in which the word signifies efficacy. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. the church service at which these prayers are said. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. virtù could be used. Envy. pl. Hope. Lust. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Anger. vestibulum. In ancient Roman dwellings. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. actual or latent. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. and Justice. "life") . Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. "not exposed to winds". Gluttony. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. vita. if you have it not'. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Vestibule (Lat.
Marcus (1st cent. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Vitruvius Pollio. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. 1478-80. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. protection from harm. 1472. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. and appalled recognition of. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Sculptors and Architects"). or recovery from illness has been made. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. fall into a different category from those that preceded them.An account of someone's life and work. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. in fact. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. 1482-84). those of Volterera.g. and of Ferrara. usually when a prayer for good fortune. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. published in 1550 and 1568. The wars from 1494 do. they were from the 18th century . the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. a biography. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
during its subsequent history. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. It was intended to have a variety of functions. pompous on the floor above. . Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. woodcut A print made from a wood block.Weltanschauung (Gr. usually restorers. gallery. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. usually linear. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. a philosophy of life. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. treasury or a place where justice was administered. "world view") A comprehensive world view. Westwerk German word. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. "Western work of art". They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. based on stylization of various animal forms. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist.
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