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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
e. which is fused to the plate by heating. "architectural") Relating to structure. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the darker the tone). The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Degas. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). piers or pillars. or organization. and Rouault. The term applies also to a print made by this method. arkhitektonikos. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. design. architectonic (Gk. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. architrave (It. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. the moulding around a window or door. Also known as an exedra. roofed with a half-dome. the lowest part of the entablature). The adjective is apsidal. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Lancet and Tudor. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. at the east end of a church behind the altar. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. . "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. but in essence the process is as follows. arcus. including Goya. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. There are several variants of the technique.A semicircular projection. arcade (Lat. Picasso. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. In Greek and Roman literature. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns.
Ars Moriendi (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.archivolt (Ital. archeiu. attributum. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum.and the Comedy . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. voltus. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. dominate. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "front arch. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: ." and Lat. aureolus. aureole (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. usually a saint. In the case of martyrs. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "golden. attribute (Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "begin. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli." from Gk. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. archivolto.
as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Later. in 1377. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. often anecdotal. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. or baldacchino (It. The actual move was made in 1309. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. the god of wine and fertility. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. paintings of everyday life. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. that of Cardano. 'Captivity'. applied to the physically . balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Six pontificates later. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. baldachin. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. who had been residing in France since 1305.
and abject filthy things. and Nocera in Italy. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent.. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Spalato [Split. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. or forecourt. AD 300). beggars in rags. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Parma. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Pentecost.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. France. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. seven. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. As eight follows the "complete" number. or connected with. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. the Temple of Venus. a church. banderuola. el Kantara. a visual metaphor for the number eight. such as those at Pisa. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Florence. Easter. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Baalbek.g. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. . set beneath a domical ciborium. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and Epiphany. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and Poitiers.. banderole (It. Croatia]. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. or canopy. Lebanon. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. AD 273. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Customarily. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. pope between 432 and 440. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. built by Sixtus III. Alg.
there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. barocco. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. in the 1840s and 1850s. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Baroque (Port. however. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. In architecture. or baptismal chapels. in its usual location near the church door . and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts.an allusion to entering the Christian life. which is reserved for the clergy. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1814-1875). "king's hall") a church building. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. basilica (Gk. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1807-1876). 1811-1889). usually facing east. Constant Troyon (French. 1796-1875). Rubens). baptisteries. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. and (3) everyday realism.In the 10th century. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Originally. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. 1817-1878). 1810-1865). achieved through scale. southeast of Paris. Vermeer). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. . In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. the dramatic use of light and shadow. stoa basilike. and thus a church. Jean-François Millet (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Théodore Rousseau (French. were often omitted entirely. Jules Dupré (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. Also tunnel vault. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant).
bodegón Image. such as those by Diego Velázquez. up until the mid-17th century. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. domesticity. which is either not yet glazed. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. The term was mainly used up to c. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. and often sentimentality. especially Spanish. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). often with food and drink.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. By association. or which is to be left as it is. like their Dutch counterparts. also incorrectly called bisque. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Bodegónes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). There were. Spanish still-lifes. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. such as Waldmüller. as is to be expected. were referred to by their specific contents. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Book of Hours . the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. in which still-life predominates. particularly porcelain. It takes its name from its grainy texture. however. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. 1650 in Spain. Biscuit porcelain.
varying from silverish to a rich. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . durability. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. but can also be used for painted sketches. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.an advantage over marble sculpture. days of the week. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. . bozzetto(Italian. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bozzetto Strictly speaking. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. See flying buttress. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. though these are more often called 'modelli'. and the fact that it is easily workable . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. By extension. Chantilly). illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. or seasons. coppery red. made as a study for a larger picture.both hot and cold . a rapid sketch in oil.by a variety of processes. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. months. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.
Among its most distinctive products were icons. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. its forms highly stylized. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. glass. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. "a chest. caisson (Fr. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which was often allegorical. casson. and Giotto. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. private room where works of art. mosaics. cameo Small relief made from gems. Duccio. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. ceramics. camera obscura . manuscript illuminations. It also served to glorify the emperor. box") In architecture. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. C cabinet A small. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. and work in precious metals. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. notable from Syria and Egypt. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another.
canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. "candle") A large. dating to antiquity. which isolates the fabric from the paint. and jute. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. candela. both of which have richly carved marble panels. other materials used are cotton. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantorie (It. campanile Bell tower. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means." and the earliest versions. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Structurally. only very rough effects will be obtainable. sing. candelabrum (It. usually built beside or attached to a church. which was usually whitened. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. . Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. cantoria. candelabra. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. capital (Lat. otherwise it will absorb too much paint.-N. usually in a church. by the 16th century. capitellum. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. hemp. usually with several branches or arms. Niepce created photography. The Latin name means "dark chamber. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candlestick. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy).Ancestor of the photographic camera.) A gallery for singers or musicians. Portable versions were built. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. pl. as an aid to drawing. usually decorated.
cartellini In a painting. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. In fresco painting. and humanism. or a motto. the date of the painting. cardinalis. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. the Carmelites were originally hermits. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. tapestry. Carthusian Order (Lat. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Carmelites (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance).a humorous drawing or parody. cartoon (It.both Italians and artists from other countries . At the height of the Middle Ages.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). pl. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartouche . cartone. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. cartellino. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). or fresco. near Grenoble. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. New Charterhouses. details of the subject. the endeavour to attain true humanity. monasteries containing separate hermitages. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism.
Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. In the 15th century. decorated with gilt gesso.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. they were also used in other countries. . Worked on at intervals 1504-06. These lead up to the north and south transepts. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. For reasons lost to time and tradition. caryatid (Gk. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).toward the setting sun. cathedral (cathedra. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. and swags of fruit and flowers. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. or nave. linen. palace. cassone (It. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The altar is placed at the east end. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. where the throne of the bishop is placed. or arms of the cross.) "castle". when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. They contained the bride's clothes. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. a cathedral always faces west . Paolo Uccello. The main body. castello (It. Cascina. and many other items of her dowry. putti (cupids).
An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Both the statement of St. a celestial winged being with human. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Relative to the observer. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. . buildings and figures that are being depicted. and Islamic literature. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. in accordance with their distance from the observer. central perspective (Lat. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. or birdlike characteristics. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). champlevé (Fr. as celestial attendants of God. and perspicere. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. continually praise him. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. centralis. "in the centre". cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. landscapes. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Christian. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. animal. rather than intercessory functions. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. a throne bearer of the deity.
The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. Since Carolingian times. the Order of the Hospital of St. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. "light dark") In painting. reserved for the clergy to pray together. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. choir (Gk.chiaroscuro (It. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. notably Lucas Cranach (1506)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. Hans Burgkmair (1510). replacing tempera. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . Lastly. choros. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. or for choral singing. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. North of the Alps. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights.
if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. further enriching the style. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Sculpted clouds. and repetition of pattern. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The Transparente (completed 1732). Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. a massing of carved angels. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. stucco shells.intersect). gilded rays. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. is as typically Churrigueresque. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. became the most common motif. ciborium . The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. reversed volutes. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. an architect. undulating cornices. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. balustrades. and the Churrigueresque column. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. undulating lines. Very few still exist in their original positions. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The Mexico cathedral (1718). In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and garlands. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect.
High Renaissance). or achieve political representation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the wool carder Michele di Lando. placing one of their members. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. on July 22. Quattrocento (1400s. who were raised to the status of a guild. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. ciompi. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. They were forbidden to form a trade association. In reaction to this revolutionary . was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. as also were those in the associated. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. but self-employed.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. etc. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. combers. beaters. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. craft of dyeing. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s.and post-medieval Italy. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. The new government. controlled by the minor guilds. Members of the lower classes. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Their economic condition worsened. Without being members of a guild. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Then. including the ciompi. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination.
scholars patiently finding. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. changed greatly from one period to the next. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.) An ancient musical instrument. cithara (Gk. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).episode. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.as in Italy these were dispensed with. the ciompi guild was abolished. philosophy and art . except in cases where . writers. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In the 15th century Greek literature. Concepts of the classical. with Italian scholars. however. . and politics.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. on which strings were plucked. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. literature. clair-obscur (Fr. philosophy. resembling a lyre. the black contours usually with a special line plate. editing and translating a wide range of texts. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.
Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. as well as from the Bible. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. The name was derived from the condotta. literature or music. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. blue and orange. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. condottiere. . The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. cognoscenti. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. compline (Lat. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Green and red. arch or ceiling. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. those with refined tastes.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. or "contract. intensify one another. the church service at which these prayers are said. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. terrorized the country. when set side by side. condottieri (It. cognoscente (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. occasionally made of wood. pl. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. pl. [hora] completa. sing. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Coffered ceilings. concetti (It." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. concetto. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. a work's underlying theme.
The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. flagellant confraternities. confraternities Confraternities. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Carmagnola. Spanish. and German--the condottieri. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Francesco Sforza. in the service of Perugia. primarily for syphilitics. which spread in the 15th century. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Mark (1432). Italians began to raise mercenary armies. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. commonly called either Compagnia di S. in Venice. and his rival Braccio da Montone. convents of convertite.devastating Romagna. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. and Tuscany. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. who won control of Milan in 1450. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Muzio's son. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. . Martino). (2) Confraternite del Rosario. scuole.e. often called compagnie or. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Toward the end of the 15th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. i. Umbria.e. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. i. or with the spiritual assistance of. in the service of Naples. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. With no goal beyond personal gain. clergy. often under the direction of. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. disappeared. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. By the 16th century. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. By the end of the 14th century.
and refuges for maidens. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. while the Venetian government.i. 1514 in S. contour. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Later.g. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention.g. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. founded c. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. notwithstanding their location. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. While the Doge ranked above the Council. the Florentine Neri. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). but sometimes had their own premises. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. Confraternities. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. contours were initially regular. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. contour (Fr. e. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis.e. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . contrapposto (It. in Florence. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. flat outlines. In medieval painting. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. reformed prostitutes. e. Dorotea in Trastevere. however.
who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. They are often ornamented. whose names are inscribed on several works. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. 1100 and 1300. conventiculurn. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. did not achieve any lasting results. large cornice or other feature. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. declining moral standards. . Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Reform programs. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. corbel In architecture. Lat. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. cuprum. an engraving produced in this way. a bracket of stone.weight on one leg. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. conventicle (Lat. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. 1280). In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. aes cyprium. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. started the process of inner reform in the Church. The style spread as far as England. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs.
particularly among the Persians. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. a small dome. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. a semi-circular vault." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Seleucids. Carthaginians. or "scourged. reedy sound. cupula. An ancestor of the oboe. the condemned man. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Constantine the Great. D dado . the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. the first Christian emperor. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. There were various methods of performing the execution. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Death. Usually. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Next. Jews. the most famous victim of crucifixion. after being whipped. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. "small vat") In architecture. i. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. cupola (Lat. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment.e.
usually in matching pairs. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world.g. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. and Linz possessed common characteristics. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. an expressive use of nature. Germany. design") In Renaissance art theory. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. deacon (Gk. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. diptychos. danse macabre The dance of death. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. disegno (It. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. but the concept behind an art work. decorated diffrently from the upper section. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diptychum. diptych (Lat. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. which was help to be the basis of all art. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). The term stresses not the literal drawing. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. often an altarpiece. Passau. e. Gk. Deësis (Gk. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. a favorite late medieval picture subject. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Anglican and Orthodox churches. "drawing. diakonos. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.
distemper (Lat. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. doublet A male garment. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. a 19th-century invention. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Ordo Praedictatorum. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages.Thomas Aquinas. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. distemperare. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The studio easel. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC).fully realize. formerly worn under armour. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Dominicans (Lat. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. also used it on canvas. such as we still use today. donator. donor (Lat. which runs on castors or wheels. when painters took to working out of doors. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. dome in architecture. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. is a heavy piece of furniture. "to mix. though a few artists. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). As disegno appeals to the intellect. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety.
a depiction of Jesus. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. entablature In classical architecture. eschaton. full face. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "word") . John (19. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. the frieze. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. fresco. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. and the cornice. It consists of the architrave. Ecce Homo (Lat. in art. and architecture. bound and flogged. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. Hence. eschatology (Gk. sometimes combining panel painting. en face In portraiture. sculpture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. "last". epitaph (Gk. and logos. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. ensemble (Fr.
which was famous for maiolica. Giovanni Morone. Spain. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. particularly ware made in France. which is called "maiolica. Eucharist (Gk. and of the last things. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Augustine. Vittoria Colonna. protector of shepherds. Contarini. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware.death and resurrection.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Italy. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. which is called "delftware. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns." and charis. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. . It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. which was developed in the Near East ca." and that made in the Netherlands and England. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. and Scandinavia. farmers. "good. 4500 BCE. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. and is named for Faenza. Equated with the Greek god Pan. eu. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. notably Cardinal Pole. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. celebrated with bread and wine. fields and livestock. Saints Ambrose. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Jerome. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Marcantonio Flaminio. Germany. and also to Giulia Gonzaga.
a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. a technique known as a secco fresco. fluted of a column or pillar. Only a small area can be painted in a day. famine and death. 2 .festoni (It. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. that of the others red. a swag. can in time be seen. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Committed to charitable and missionary work. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. fresco (It. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. and flowers suspended in a loop. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting.8). sword and set of balances. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. frescos in Italy . The colour of his horse is white. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. leaves. black and dun. drying to a slightly different tint. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Their attributes are the bow. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. war. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. and these areas. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. such as plague. relaxed.
the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. where the atmosphere was too damp. or true fresco. a person's invisible tutelary god. Final details.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. covings and ceilings. the intonaco. Genius in classical Rome. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. genre In a broad sense. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . and to a lesser extent for tapestries. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. usually childish figure. In art from the classical period onwards. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or fresco secco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.Save in Venice. G Garter. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. landscape and portraiture. are genres of painting. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. both in churches and in private and public palaces. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. for example. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The technique of buon fresco.
while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Gobelins . The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. whether it must be connected with the public good. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). how it differed from notoriety. Bernardo Daddi. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. in portraits and on tombs. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and as spurring on men of action. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Maria Gloriosa). As such. Maso di Banco. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. as well as writers and artists. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The nature of true gloria was much discussed.
In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In other Italian cities. thereafter it made only tapestries. and although it reopened in 1699. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities.French tapestry manufactory. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). golden section (Lat. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. who appointed Lebrun Director. Golden Fleece. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Paris. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. This ratio is approximately 8:13. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. still in existence today. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. . a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV.
manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. 1200 and c. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. Amiens. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. that the effects are to be felt. There is a transcendental quality. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. In thinking of Nicola (d. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. the superficial particularities of form. 1270. In particular. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. and lies much deeper than. . which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). The artistic. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. from the 13th until the 17th century. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Gothic Gothic. or the influence of one building. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. c. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. Denis. like the cultural and commercial. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. painting.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. painting. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. In sculpture and in painting. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. Nevertheless.
His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. are but different appellations of the same thing'. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Dubuffet. to white or tinted paper and card and. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Such tours often took a year or more. notably in the writings of Bellori. and above all Italy. the beau idéal of the French. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. occasionally. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. the Netherlands. starch. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. .gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. with sable. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Canaletto. to silk. chiefly to France. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Honey. Klee. without visible brush marks. and taste among the English. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. genius. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). if required. and Piranesi. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. It is thinned with water for applying. and the great style. Pannini. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. and Morris Graves. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. These qualities.and hog-hair brushes. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent.
with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. including text as well as illustrations. brother of Louis IX. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. In another sense. In the context of the fine arts. after this. exclude drawing from this definition. to Provence and Paris. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. usually gray. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Although its palace was rebuilt c. then as now. drawing and the various forms of engraving. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. 1216. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. In Florence. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. through central Italy. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century.e. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. After the War of the Eight Saints. Some writers. and Waiblingen. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. . the parties taking a multitude of local names. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. became an abiding feature of European politics. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. however. however. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. internal factions in Florence went under other names. c. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. grisaille (Fr. gris. From 1266 to 1268. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines.
héraut. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. heraldry (Fr. surgeons. trades. [science] héraldique." from Fr. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. notably Florence in the 14th century. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. In Italy they go back a long way. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and greater hostility between master and man. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. In Florence. such as Brescia and Vicenza. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In some cities. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. H hatching In a drawing. Guilds were also patrons of art. trade or profession (painters. and provided assistance to members in need. as some did). Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In some towns. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. goldsmiths. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. The guild also monitored standards of work. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. "herald") . for example. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In 16th century Venice. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. but in time they acquired other functions. "[knowledge of] heraldry. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guilds were not equal. or professions. print or painting.
They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. However. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. head of the 'carnal Church'. the Waldensian. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. with the rules governing their use. they were condemned in 1184. the followers of Juan de Valdes. as Antichrist. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. d. and regarded themselves as forming. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. from the start. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. indeed. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. By contrast. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. together with brethren north of the Alps.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. one great missionary community. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. the Cathars were an anti-church. normative for churchmen. while others merged with the Waldensians. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The main impact of the . i. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement.
absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. B. Germany. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. history (usually classical history).movement upon the laity was in southern France. Morse. F. At the same time. S. hortus conclusus (Lat. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Durand. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. and classical literature. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. the emancipation of man from God took place. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Henry Inman. working from 1825 to 1875. J. Frederick E. Church. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. in his earlier work. mainly in the south. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. my spouse'. and. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. F. George Inness. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. In humanism. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. humanus. American painters were studying in Rome. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). its subjects considered morally elevating. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Thomas Cole. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Jasper Cropsey. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. humanism (Lat. Kensett.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
there are representations of the bundle of rods. and the ladder. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. inventio (It. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. the ability to create. usually the donors of a work of art. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. it denominates a kind of behaviour. originality. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the scourge that was used in the scourging. or of other saints. Judas' thirty pieces of silver.g. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the rooster of Peter's denial. the hammer. etc. and they are also depicted on their own. are also used in art literature. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. soft style. Veronica.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the veil of St. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Derived from classical rhetoric. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. invention. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. The terms court style. beautiful style. trecento rococo and lyrical style. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. investiture . with many further details added. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Human figures. Donatallo. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. the pincers. In the second half of the 14th century. For instance. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.
Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. bathed in a golden haze. Nicolaes Berchem. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Andries and Jan Both. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. generally Dutch or Flemish. and Jan Asselijn. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Upon his return to Holland. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. although they are usually called Romanists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. principally Dutch. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. of Utrecht. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Both and Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Jerome's writings. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The Both brothers. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. . Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. who traveled in Italy and.
John of Jerusalem . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.1519). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Legenda Aurea (Lat. liberal arts . Archbishop of Genoa. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. the rite of communion is based on this. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. encouraged by the Crusades. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. lectern A reading stand or desk.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. As their military role grew.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. especially one at which the Bible is read. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.
"little moon") In architecture. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. and Frederick E. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. John F. its roof supported by columns. often sublime.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.g. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. geometry. commemorating a marriage. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Maria Novella in Florence). Kensett (1816-1872).grammar. rhetoric and dialectic. that may contain a window. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. painting or sculptural decoration. the quadrivium. together with identifying attributes (e. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Church (1826-1900). first the preparatory trivium . astronomy and music. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Tubal for music). Martin J. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. It is related to. often standing in markets and town squares. .g. comprising arithmetic. through the use of aerial perspective.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. then the basis of a philosophical training. Heade (1819-1904).) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. poetic atmosphere. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. loggia (It. Pythagoras for arithmetic. a semicircular space. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. lunette (Fr. that could be used for public ceremonies.
The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. originally sung without accompaniment. the goddess Cybele. "almond") . antimony yellow. copper green. "great mother") A mother goddess. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). but they painted genre scenes. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). being written. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. and however bright their lighting effects. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. When white is used for painting. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. and portraits as well as landscapes. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. manganese purple. particularly such ware produced in Italy. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. magna mater (Lat. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. mandorla (It. historical subjects. and iron red. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. madrigal A part song. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. originating in Italy in the 14th century. usually for the lute. for example. Specifically. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and accompaniments. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. active mainly in Florence c. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. 1855–65. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground.
the hand-written medieval book. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Parmigianino. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. strong. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Flanders. more strictly.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. ecclesiastical. It reached to the knee or foot. In architecture. marked by flagellation. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. and literary texts. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. worn open. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. often ornamented with decorative borders. the Codex manuscriptus. maniera. Developing out of the Renaissance. which was quarried at Mount . complex and crowded compositions. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. El Greco and Tintoretto. bound. mantle An overcoat. In Mannerist painting. in a specific sense. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Burgundy. depending on the social class of the wearer. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and crowned with thorns. Mannerism (It. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. illuminated initials and miniatures. Bronzino. "manner.
having finished his training. sleek surface. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). which were beginning to be reverently collected. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. The pure white Carrara marble. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Like the finest Imperial coins. particularly by Michelangelo. a different design on the reverse. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. "witness. Without monetary value. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Carrara. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. martyrdom (Gk. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. marmi finti (It.Pentelicon in Attica. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. martyrion. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). an inscription running round the rim. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. the medal's purpose was commemorative. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. quarried at Massa. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. medallion In architecture.
Medusa In Greek mythology. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. as it were. The process is essentially extinct today. Her head features on Minerva's shield. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. a Gorgon. When Perseus cuts off her head. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. often anonymous. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. even grain. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. . 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. 1467-688). Ludwig von Siegen. c. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. of the person portrayed on the other side. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. 1425-1504). in England. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. and of the many. 1452-1526/27). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. It was. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. the stress on individual character. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. 14601528). c. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. particularly. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. 1640. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence.round the neck. supposedly to petrify her enemies. A Dutch officer. who reflected them. In pure mezzotint. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. perhaps oddly. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. This yields a soft effect in the print. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. The work of these men. no line drawing is employed. for landscapes and portraits.
1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. motto (Ital. e. saying") . The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Francis himself. pointed headdress worn by bishops. executed on a very small scale. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. by Tiepolo and Rubens. ink and paint. "one color") Painted in a single color. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. a painting executed in a single color. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. usually portraits.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. a branch of the Franciscan order. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. monokhromatos. often quite highly finished. miter A high. Parmigianino (d. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. painting in gouache on vellum or card.. "word. Many such small versions.g. still exist. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. monochrome (Gk.
and their work is clear and prettily coloured. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. 1817-29). but often insipid. naturalism (Fr. Isidore. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. navis. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and Casino Massimo. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. often separated from it by pillars. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. named after the patron saint of painting. In general. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. 1816-17. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Nazarenes A group of young. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Rome. The invention of personal mottos. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. . Berlin. and two other members moved to Rome. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and is intersected by the transept. Pforr. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches.from the Middle Ages. nave (from Lat. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. It may have parallel aisles on each side. In 1810 0verbeck.
usually golden.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. "aureole") The disc or halo. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Popes. nigellus. is as true as it is notorious. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. moreover. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. niello (Lat. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. were usually old when elected. nimbus (Lat. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. the style of the Ancien Régime. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). but their ideas continued to be influential. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Nymphaeum (Gk. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty.) .
was the simplest. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. observances") Rites performed for the dead. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. such as linseed. obsequia. the three basic styles of design. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. "services. the Doric order. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). fluted column and a plain capital. Greek goddesses of Nature. with a sturdy. a small private chapel. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The earliest. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. They are seen in the form of the columns. . The Ionic order had a slenderer column. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. and entablatures. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. inborn sin. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. capital. or poppy. walnut. orders of architecture In classical architecture. O obsequies (Lat. and its greater tonal range. a more elaborate base. its richness of colour. prayer and preaching being central to their mission.
who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. standing at the foot of the Cross. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and the main apartments above. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. and. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. with biforate windows. palazzo (It. tradition and social structure. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Palazzo Strozzi). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. the Cancelleria). watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. designed as a . Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. like cities. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà).1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. while shops came to be thought undignified. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.g. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. P pala (Ital.
A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. behind a sober Florentine façade. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia.scholarly retreat. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. In Venice. cornices and abutments. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. and large households. panel . tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. column-caps. came to be applied all over Europe. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. like Genoa. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). e. Papal incentives to build. Following Oriental patterns. Other cities. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. like the colonnaded vestibule.g. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and Palladio's in Vicenza. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). originally evolved in response to specific conditions. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Rich. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. palmette. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Palazzo Massimi). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. especially after the Sack of Rome. Movement of patrons and architects.g. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. evolved influential types. often built next to their titular churches.
cedar. On a larger scale. chestnut. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. To maintain their authority. The third aspect was administrative. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and dark walnut are favourites. secular rulers. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Having a circular plan. linden. enforce law and order.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. As successors to St Peter. and other synthetic materials as supports. the. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. however. or other rigid substance. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. as it were. as distinct from canvas. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. or the incidence of taxation. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. to influence popes in their favour. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). teak. slate has occasionally been used as a support. A number of matters. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. Many other types were used. fibre-board. including beech. and spanned by a single dome. larch. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and modern painters have also used plywood. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. so that they might have a voice at court. mahogany. and the pressure and temptations . and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. metal. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. olive. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. fir. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. Then. and walnut.Term in painting for a support of wood. the management of clerical dues and taxation. In the 20th century cedar.
the most appropriate . possess an authority which. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67).base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. So onerous. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. could supersede that of a pope. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss).as well. was long in doubt. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. of individuals. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. in the eyes of God. There remained. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State.that could be applied to them. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. however. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. as such. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. which met at Constance 1414-18. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. It was argued that such a council. which seems so inevitable. from the point of view of its religious associations. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. to be long delayed. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. if it did no serious damage to the faith. To resolve the problem of divided authority. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. at Avignon. would. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). As at Avignon. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). however. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. By then. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . however. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. Colonna and Caetani. in spite of further absences from Rome.
it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. as well as a governmental one. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. nymphs. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age.. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and with Zeuxis (c. pastoral (Lat. to a world peopled by shepherds. through lavish patronage of artists. However. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and satyrs. Parrhasius (c. Passion . goat. the creation of a cultural capital. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and other animals. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. scholars and men of letters. it has also been used for painting. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. in classical literature. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. 400-300 BC). but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. pastor. less frequently pig. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. 425 BC) and Apelles (c.
ornamental building. and so on. .) or pasticcio (It. which focus on the Suffering Christ. a region in north-central Italy. a small. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Portrayals of the Passion. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. such as a garden summerhouse. wealthy citizen. patricius. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. hence tent") A lightly constructed. "butterfly. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Meanwhile. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. 1478). the crown of thorns. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. and also the archbishop of Pisa. 1478. Francesco Salviati. a prominent section of a monumental façade. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. but not necessarily a direct copy. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. projecting either centrally or at both ends.The events leading up to Good Friday. pastiche (fr. pavilion (Lat. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. papilio. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. patrician (Lat.
"to see through. "hanging. personification (Lat. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. persona. perspicere. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. physiognomy (Gk. "nature". They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. or related elements within an art work. pergola (It. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. concept or deity. in particular the face. . "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and facere. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. pendant (Fr. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "person". often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. perspective (Lat. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. physis. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and gnomon.
exemplified. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. but may consist of a cluster of columns. usually above the ground floor. remarkable for singularity. affording a good subject for a landscape. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. . Pietà (Lat. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigment (Lat. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. for example. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye.) The main floor of a building. Peter's. glue. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. but full of variety. pigmentum. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. curious details. Rome. containing the public rooms. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. both real and painted. to be expressed in painting. A pier is generally larger than a column. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. proper to take a landscape from. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. or resin to make paint. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands.piano nobile (Ital. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil.
and thereafter all Europe. It is often fluted. In the 15th century. perhaps. plague Plague. the burning of 'infected' clothing. however. pilastrum. a shaft. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. During 1348 the Black Death. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. "pillar") A flat. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). despite regional variations. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. it is difficult to find. moreover. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. though in less widespread. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron.pilaster (Lat. in October 1347. It seems probable. it has a base. since. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. and capital. Rocco and Sebastian. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. for instance. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. such as Florence and Genoa. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . outside Tuscany. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. For this reason. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Thenceforward. more sporadic outbreaks. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. also used in Spain's American colonies.
Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. heraldic escutcheons. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. the Renaissance-Plateresque.. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. or simply the Plateresque. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. placement. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. like its successor. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedrus. correct classical orders became frequent. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Philebus. The first phase. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. and sinuous scrolls.e. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Timaeus. The first phase. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The second phase. In contrast with Aristotle. A student of Socrates. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Diego evolved a purer. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. which lasted only a few decades. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. more severe. are the masterworks of the second style. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. the Symposium. i. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. or appropriateness. harmonious. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Phaedo. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Theatetus and the Laws. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. composition.
near Florence. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. partially. and the Chaldaic Oracles. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. the greatest of his ancient disciples. but not completely. Rather unsystematic. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Unlike the case of Aristotle. including those of Plotinus. A new Latin translation. Plotinus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). and Agostino Steuco (c. all of which he also translated into Latin. and he utilized many other writings. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Iamblichus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 1472-c. replaced Ficino's. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. systematized and added to what Plato had done.in Plato's thought.1577) becoming particularly popular. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists.
but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . plinth (Gk. where a pectoral is used to close it. Lat. plinthos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Plato was read in the universities. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pluvial (Med. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. Frequently supports a pediment.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. such as processions and consecrations. column. portico (Lat. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. poluptukhos. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. pluviale. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. polyptych (Gk. porticus. as in classical architecture). or statue. pointed arch In architecture. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings.
whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. The realism of the clear. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. was revived in the 14th century. Florence (1486-90). Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino.e. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S.. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. 1328. Cathedral) by Uccello. Group portraits. Campidoglio). Maria Novella. Mantua. Colleoni. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. psychologically more complex. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The equestrian portrait. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Florence. flattened image. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Desiderio da Settignano. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. National Gallery). the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Gattarnelata. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Siena. Palazzo Farnese). and only a decorative accessory to form. decorating whole rooms. and the . include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. the Carracci. inessential. Venice). The 16th century portrait became generalized.sculptors such as Donatello.
Borromeo. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. minatory exhortations.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Fiamma's sermons. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). are not florid in style. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Charles Le Brun. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. to discharge their preaching duties. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishop of Asti. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. primarily the mendicants. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). however. bishops especially." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. abrasive even. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. was versed in classical and patristic . the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73)." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. not least those of statesmen and prelates. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. from the secular clergy. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The sermons of Visdomini. Correggio. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. and. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. and Peter Paul Rubens. several of whom became bishops. The styles of S. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. of the sermon as an art form. 1494). by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. bishop of Chioggia. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Savonarola and Musso.
they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. however. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Because of the small size of predelle . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.rhetoric. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. The New Testament references in these would. predella (It.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . though often relatively very wide . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. tapestries. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Millais and Rossetti. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.g. Naples). Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. among them Holman Hunt. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. the temptations of Adam and Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. prefiguration Typology .they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. and so forth.
the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). projecting shelf on which to kneel. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The following are important: 1.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. sculpture and architecture. Girardon. Fragonard. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Prix de Rome A scholarship. these highly finished drawings. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. 2. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. which uses the square . The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. "evenness") in painting. 3. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. notably David. the golden section. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. the Canon of Proportion. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. profil perdu (Fr. and Houdon among sculptors. proportio. proportion (Lat. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. the quadrature. again indicative of the purpose they served.
an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. It was common in Roman art. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Unlike Pozzo.as a unit of measurement. a fifth = 2:3. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. triangulation. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Ignazio. harmonic proportions. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. provenance The origins of an art work. a fourth = 3:4. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Rome. "boys") Plump naked little boys. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. the steward or treasurer of a church. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. putti sing. 4. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. one half the length of the other). and 5. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). . putto (It. for example).
basso rilievo).Quattrocento (It. In 16th century Europe. or some item connected with a saint. the object of particular veneration. Brunelleschi. with the Anglican Church developing in England. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. relevare. Fra Angelico and others. Donatello. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. in particular works by Masaccio. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Lat. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. in which figures are almost detached from their background. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. hermits. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in which figures are seen half round. friars and nuns. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). A congregation may be either a subsection of an order.g. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Botticelli. relief (Lat. also known as the Realist school. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. relic (Lat. or the Jesuits. e. refectory (Med. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. the great orders of monks. Among the . relicquiae. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). canons regular. and high relief (alto rilievo).
Giustina. i. and their more institutionalized brethren. and the generally moderate Observants. Founded by St Romuald c. was the congregation of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The same bull . although technically of secular canons. various groups were fused in the latter body. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Salvatore. The Silvestrines. In 1504. it became the Cassinese congregation. Bologna (1419). they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. the Conventuals. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. who had no overall organization originally. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Benedictines. Benedetto. That of S. S. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. In 1517. The Conventuals. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. which was to become the main Italian one. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Lucca. Bernardino of Siena. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. 1012. the most notable being S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the great patriarch of Venice. After the repression of the Spirituals. Giorgio in Alga. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Maria di Fregonaia. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Mantua. Padua. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. however. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations.contemplative orders. Venice (1404).e. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. At the same time. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. presided over by chapters general. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo.
founded by S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The first. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. however. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Gaetano da Thiene. Michele in Isola. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Venice. Filippo Neri. the Theatines. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. also. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. S. a historical period. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. however. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Angela Merici. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Gerolamo Aemiliani. founded in 1535 by S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S.
For long. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). culture was linked to personality and behaviour. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. . 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. which had begun early in the 14th century. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of an energetic revival of interest in. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). and his own as potentially one of light.century. as well as political. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. the historical reality of antiquity. even Amoralism. 1875-86). because its core of energy. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. of arts. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. All-Roundness. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of scholarship. of letters. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. was so vast and potent. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. life. increasingly. of 'darkness'. and competition with. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. too long forgotten glories. however. Thereafter. however. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride.
etc. and other liturgical objects. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. mobilized nationalism. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. consist merely of a painting. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts.) was the term chosen. though sometimes of metal. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.erased. statues. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Ghent). repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. gratefully. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. candlesticks. It is for this additional. especially in the High Gothic period. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. retables can be detached and. etc.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. let alone a uniform. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. There was an early. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. congruence between. (3) There is not a true. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. The challenges are to be accepted. and mass media. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. letters. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. later still to Genoa.with all its shabbiness . Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . in the more limited sense. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. the previous record . Though thus challenged. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. sometimes. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Cathedral of SaintBavon. of industrialization. and is decorated with paintings. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. however.
that it stands out from its background fully rounded.of St Mark in Venice. and architecture dominating the 18th century. in several countries . the first style to achieve such international currency. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). the St. rilievo (It. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. . and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Italy. With the development of freestanding altars. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. and 'Romanesque'. literally. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Spain . it indicates a derivation from Roman art. richly decorated with organic forms. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. As the name suggests. "relief") In painting. Rococo A style of design. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. its mood lighthearted and witry. painting. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Germany. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. More usually. however.in the 11th century.France. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. rocaille (French. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. retables have become extinct. almost simultaneously. Louis XV furniture. Romanesque art. like 'Gothic'. Originally commissioned in 976. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. is a typical product.
In addition. Mabuse. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. B. Piranesi. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Heemskerk. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The aim of painting. stylized design representing an open rose. Q. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Orley. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. the development of nationalistic pride. Massys and M. such as red ochre. Claude. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. they maintained. . M. Rome. Pannini and Mengs. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting.
Written primarily in ottava rima. holy orders. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. gutted. Sacra Conversazione (It. In the . but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. multiple sets used in succession. local saints. matrimony. Subjects were nominally sacred. and Protestant churches. from the Old and New Testaments. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and anointing of the sick. pious legend and hagiography. confirmation. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. penance. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. but others were the work of well-known figures. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). There were no limits on time. and impoverished. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Orthodox. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Clement escaped into Castel S. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Eastern independent. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and Lorenzo de' Medici. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Many compositions were anonymous. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. the Eucharist. when it finally left the city it had devastated. supported by lay confraternities. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. glance and movement .greatly increased.expressed through gesture. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy.
Lutheran. which in the Gospel According to John. make such strict distinctions. The chief focus of discontent. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.) Hall. as an excuse to revolt. was not maintained as a sacrament. The theology of the Orthodox Church. The classical Protestant churches (i. Thus. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the Bentivoglio. replaces the Lord's Supper. as in the Church of the Brethren. Salt War. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. the Rocca Paolina. It is still practiced on special occasions. Immediately following baptism. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. large room. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. the Orthodox Church does not. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions.. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. that the price of salt should be increased. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Candidates first face west. the symbolic direction of Christ. and then face east. Anglican. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. They were still seeking aid. was buried under a new fortress." which are called sacramentals.i. strictly speaking.. notably from Florence and in Germany. and sacraments." sala (Ital.early church the number of sacraments varied. in principle. chapter 13.e. Hence. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. used for drawing. sacraments. foot washing. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.e. Saracens . under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. the sun of righteousness. baptism and the Eucharist.
made of stone. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. wood or terracotta. sarcophagus. the Arabs or Muslims. whose writings. Little known in the Middle Ages. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition.c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. 360 . Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 210 AD). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. human-like woodland deities with the ears. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 160 .c. and many others. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. 45 BC). pl. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the god of wine. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 270 BC).During the Middle Ages. are lost. sarcophagi (Gk. satyr In Greek mythology. legs and horns of a goat. The publication of Latin (1562. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available.
This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. but with little effect. being Frenchmen. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support.for example Pieter van Laer. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. was called Bamboccio. who had the support of the Avignon pope. than their medieval predecessors. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). However. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. most of whom. one of the early leaders. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Schism. in June 1409. the Florentines. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources.they had individual Bentnames . In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. while England. Louis I (d. In northern Italy. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. with France and her allies Aragon. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. from time to time both he and his opponents. 1386) and his son Ladislas. As a result. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who recognized the Roman pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. for. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. and. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Alexander V. on the other. on one side. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. while devout Christians agonized. scholasticism . were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages.
Padua. that scholasticism was left. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. university-based study. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Serenissima (Ital.The term is ambivalent. textual scholarship. None the less. as it is easier to add details in this way. Christian. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Medieval scholars. history and rhetoric . and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. moreover. It was because the central concerns of humanism . the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. as it were. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia).) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. and Islamic literature. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. notably Aquinas. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. Often called the burning ones. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water.moral philosophy. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. As such. if lime-water was used. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. the plaster had to be damped before painting. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy.) . with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. on one side. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.were different from those of medieval. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). (See also: fresco. because the secco technique is much less permanent. and theology. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest.
In Christian legend. and the delicate. "the most serene republic of Venice"). brass.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. the number gradually rose to ten. They first appear in alpine monasteries. in the period of classical antiquity. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. usually presided over by individual families. just as the male prophets of the Bible did.. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sfumato A technique. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. which were all identical in thickness. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. at the same time. Originally. Lat. term. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in use since the Middle Ages. "prophetess") In antiquity. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Signoria (It. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sibyls (Gk. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. there was only one Sibyl.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Servite (Lat. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. sinopia . sibylla. women who could prophesy. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Med.
Stanze (Ital. . especially in the flow of drapery. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. brand. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. It is very closely related to International Gothic. and. Ital. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. sing. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. sotto in sù (It. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.. staffage This word. soffit (Lat. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. "mark. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. stigmata. stigma (Gk.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. pronounced as French. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. the red chalk used to make such a drawing.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Francis of Assisi.) Wooden ceiling decoration. as the name implies. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. in other words.
In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. John Milton. whose verses actually fabrications . usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. stucco A type of light. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In a looser sense. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. pl. supremacy . Indeed. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The vogue for the Sublime. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. studioli (It.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. studiolo. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. with that for the Picturesque. both external and internal.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.
doubtless. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . was being decorated with frescoes. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. 1407). temperare. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns.and. or cartoons. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. chiefly from Flanders. London. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). The subject is underexplored. and in literature. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. But the Italians did not make them. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them.Historically. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). into Italy. tempera (Lat. then being replaced by oil paint. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. both for panel painting and fresco. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. i. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence.e. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. his own headquarters. These were imported. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. Salviati and Allori. . Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being.
and profile. "fields. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. quarter face. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. walls. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. topia. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. i. vessels. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. figure of speech. tondi (It. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. theme or motif. Trajan's Column . topoi (Gk. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. model.terracotta (It. terraferma (Ital. topiary (Gk. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tondo. and sculptures. in the architecture of ancient Rome. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. triumphal arch.e. pl. and later to subdivide gable ends. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. topos. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. and other surfaces. widely used form. in art. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "a commonplace") In literature.
after 'a countless number of virgins. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. "threefold") in Christianity.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph.' Before it go the apostles. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. of virtues and of the arts.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. chastity. Early triptychs were often portable. . beside it the army of martyrs. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. tryptychos. Trinity (Lat. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. a car so brave'. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. into a number of less controversial forms. death. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Meanwhile. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. patriarchs and prophets. the military triumph became sublimated. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Battista Sforza. usually an altarpiece. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). behind it. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . added to the glamour of the triumph. or wings. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. of both sexes'. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. fame. Disseminated soon after his death. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. triptych (Gk. time and eternity. trinitas. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. the wars by which they were won . Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. as it were.
In medieval architecture. often decorated with sculptures. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. enclosed by an arch. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. "drum") In classical architecture. it is usually decorated with carvings. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. typology . tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. It incorporates Renaissance features. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. through various naturalistic devices. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. viscous black ink. first recorded in 1232. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tusche A thick. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tympanum (Lat. Dating from classical times. tromp l'oeil (Fr. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which.
Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . killer of Holofernes. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.Dirck van Baburen (c. U uomo universale (It. . but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). where they were most accessible. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. especially his half-length figural groups. slayer of Goliath.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. such as five works devoted to the senses. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Judith. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). were popular with them also. 1590-1624). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. knew his former patrons. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). e. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. each had access to his paintings. and David. 1610). a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.A system of classification. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. lanterns. The numerous candles.) The Renaissance "universal man". and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).g. In Christian thought.
hour-glasses and clocks. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. snuff boxes and other objects. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. often gold.). and even flowers (which will soon fade).Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vesper. overturned vessels. it was used to decorate furniture. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. mixed in. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. V vanishing point In perspective. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. "evening") . There are a wide range of forms. Vespers (Lat. Parisian craftsmen. vanitas (Lat. the groin vault. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. varietà (It. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. a work's richness of subject matter. carriages. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. guttering candles. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the rib vault. Also varietas (Lat.
in which the word signifies efficacy. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. 'Assume a virtue. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. the church service at which these prayers are said. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. vite (Lat. pl. Lust. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. and Sloth. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'.Prayers said in the evening. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Gluttony. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Vestibule (Lat. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. vestibulum. virtù could be used. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. for example. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. and Justice. Covetousness. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. "life") . Charity. "not exposed to winds". 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). In ancient Roman dwellings. actual or latent. Envy. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vita. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Temperance. Fortitude. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Prudence. vimperga Of German origin. if you have it not'. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Anger. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Hope.
W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. usually when a prayer for good fortune. 1478-80. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Vitruvius Pollio. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and appalled recognition of. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. protection from harm. those of Volterera. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. published in 1550 and 1568. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. and of Ferrara. The wars from 1494 do. or recovery from illness has been made. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. a biography. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance.g. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. in fact. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1482-84). they were from the 18th century .An account of someone's life and work. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Marcus (1st cent. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Sculptors and Architects"). 1472. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. fall into a different category from those that preceded them.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
pompous on the floor above. treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually restorers. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. based on stylization of various animal forms. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. gallery. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. usually linear. It was intended to have a variety of functions. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print.Weltanschauung (Gr. Westwerk German word. . during its subsequent history. woodcut A print made from a wood block. "Western work of art". X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. "world view") A comprehensive world view. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. a philosophy of life. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design.
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