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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. arkhitektonikos. arcade (Lat. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. In Greek and Roman literature. the moulding around a window or door. design. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Degas.A semicircular projection. roofed with a half-dome.e. architectonic (Gk. There are several variants of the technique. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and Rouault. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. the lowest part of the entablature). or organization. piers or pillars. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). arcus. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. The term applies also to a print made by this method. architrave (It. Picasso. the darker the tone). . which is fused to the plate by heating. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Lancet and Tudor. The adjective is apsidal. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Also known as an exedra. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. including Goya. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. but in essence the process is as follows. "architectural") Relating to structure. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks).
archivolto.archivolt (Ital. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. In the case of martyrs. Dante's Vita nuova . It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. attribute (Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .and the Comedy . dominate. archeiu. voltus. aureolus. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. aureole (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). usually a saint. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person." and Lat. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "begin.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "golden." from Gk. "front arch. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat. attributum. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine.
which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Later. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. baldachin. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. that of Cardano. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. 'Captivity'. The actual move was made in 1309. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Six pontificates later.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. applied to the physically . Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. in 1377. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. the god of wine and fertility. paintings of everyday life. often anecdotal. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. or baldacchino (It. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). who had been residing in France since 1305.
pope between 432 and 440. a visual metaphor for the number eight. and Nocera in Italy. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Customarily. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Easter. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism.g. and abject filthy things. or forecourt. banderole (It. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Florence. a church.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. or connected with. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Baalbek. Parma. Alg. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Pentecost. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Spalato [Split. or canopy. and Epiphany. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. such as those at Pisa. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. . AD 273. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. beggars in rags. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. built by Sixtus III. seven. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. banderuola. Lebanon. As eight follows the "complete" number.. Croatia]. AD 300).. France. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. el Kantara. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. set beneath a domical ciborium. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. the Temple of Venus. and Poitiers. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms.
basilica (Gk. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Rubens). the dramatic use of light and shadow. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In architecture. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Jules Dupré (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. usually facing east. in the 1840s and 1850s. 1817-1878). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. in its usual location near the church door . and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches.In the 10th century. and thus a church. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and (3) everyday realism. Théodore Rousseau (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. which is reserved for the clergy. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1807-1876). were often omitted entirely. "king's hall") a church building. Baroque (Port. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Vermeer). . In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1810-1865). achieved through scale. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Also tunnel vault.an allusion to entering the Christian life. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1796-1875). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. barocco. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). southeast of Paris. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Jean-François Millet (French. stoa basilike. 1814-1875). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. baptisteries. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Originally. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. or baptismal chapels. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Constant Troyon (French. 1811-1889). however.
and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Biscuit porcelain. 1650 in Spain. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Book of Hours . The term was mainly used up to c. such as Waldmüller. Bodegónes. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. also incorrectly called bisque. however. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. like their Dutch counterparts. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. as is to be expected. There were. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. particularly porcelain. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. domesticity. It takes its name from its grainy texture. or which is to be left as it is. in which still-life predominates. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. bodegón Image. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. often with food and drink. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes. and often sentimentality. up until the mid-17th century. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. such as those by Diego Velázquez. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. especially Spanish. were referred to by their specific contents.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. which is either not yet glazed. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. By association.
an advantage over marble sculpture. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. durability. bozzetto Strictly speaking. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . Chantilly). months. made as a study for a larger picture.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.both hot and cold . but can also be used for painted sketches. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. By extension. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina.by a variety of processes. See flying buttress. and the fact that it is easily workable . varying from silverish to a rich. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. a rapid sketch in oil. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. coppery red. or seasons. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. bozzetto(Italian. though these are more often called 'modelli'. days of the week.
cameo Small relief made from gems. Among its most distinctive products were icons. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caisson (Fr. its forms highly stylized. casson. "a chest. Duccio. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium).Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. and work in precious metals. notable from Syria and Egypt. private room where works of art. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). and Giotto. which was often allegorical. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. camera obscura . a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. glass. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. manuscript illuminations. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. C cabinet A small. mosaics. ceramics. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. box") In architecture. It also served to glorify the emperor.
consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. "candle") A large. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The Latin name means "dark chamber. as an aid to drawing. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. candelabrum (It. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. and jute. dating to antiquity. Niepce created photography. only very rough effects will be obtainable. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. hemp. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. .Ancestor of the photographic camera. usually with several branches or arms. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). capital (Lat. Structurally. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. candlestick. followed by smaller and even pocket models." and the earliest versions. other materials used are cotton. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. which was usually whitened. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. by the 16th century. sing. usually built beside or attached to a church. capitellum. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.) A gallery for singers or musicians. Portable versions were built. usually in a church. pl. which isolates the fabric from the paint.-N. campanile Bell tower. candela. candelabra. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. both of which have richly carved marble panels. cantoria. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually decorated. cantorie (It.
a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. cartellini In a painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. New Charterhouses. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartone. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Carmelites (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. the Carmelites were originally hermits. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. the endeavour to attain true humanity. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartoon (It. or a motto. and humanism.both Italians and artists from other countries . near Grenoble. cartouche . Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. monasteries containing separate hermitages.a humorous drawing or parody. cartellino. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). details of the subject. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . or fresco. cardinalis. pl. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). In fresco painting. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. At the height of the Middle Ages. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". tapestry. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. the date of the painting.
this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. cassone (It. In the 15th century. They contained the bride's clothes. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. or arms of the cross. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. or nave. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and swags of fruit and flowers.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364.) "castle". . Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The main body. putti (cupids). a cathedral always faces west . Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. they were also used in other countries. palace. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.toward the setting sun. caryatid (Gk. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and many other items of her dowry. decorated with gilt gesso. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. linen. Cascina. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. The altar is placed at the east end. Paolo Uccello. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. castello (It. cathedral (cathedra. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. For reasons lost to time and tradition. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles.
Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. a throne bearer of the deity. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. landscapes. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Relative to the observer. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). central perspective (Lat. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. or birdlike characteristics. "in the centre". Both the statement of St. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. as celestial attendants of God. buildings and figures that are being depicted. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. rather than intercessory functions. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. continually praise him. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Christian. champlevé (Fr. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. centralis. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. animal. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. a celestial winged being with human. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. . Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. in accordance with their distance from the observer. and Islamic literature. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. and perspicere.
" In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. replacing tempera. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. the Order of the Hospital of St. choir (Gk. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. North of the Alps. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. Lastly. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. reserved for the clergy to pray together.chiaroscuro (It. or for choral singing. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars)." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. Since Carolingian times. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. choros. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. Hans Burgkmair (1510). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. "light dark") In painting. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field.
and garlands. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. stucco shells.intersect). Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. reversed volutes. undulating cornices. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. ciborium . and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. is as typically Churrigueresque. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. The Mexico cathedral (1718). gilded rays. The Transparente (completed 1732). a massing of carved angels. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Very few still exist in their original positions. further enriching the style. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. became the most common motif. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and the Churrigueresque column. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). balustrades. an architect. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. undulating lines. Sculpted clouds. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. and repetition of pattern. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé.
was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. or achieve political representation. Quattrocento (1400s. but self-employed. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted.and post-medieval Italy. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. The new government. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. placing one of their members. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. beaters. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Without being members of a guild. Then. who were raised to the status of a guild. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. High Renaissance). on July 22. the wool carder Michele di Lando. craft of dyeing. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Their economic condition worsened. etc. ciompi. Members of the lower classes. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. combers. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. In reaction to this revolutionary . Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. controlled by the minor guilds. as also were those in the associated. including the ciompi. They were forbidden to form a trade association. and the new government failed to implement all their demands.
and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. clair-obscur (Fr. cithara (Gk. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. Concepts of the classical. the black contours usually with a special line plate. changed greatly from one period to the next. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.episode. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. except in cases where . writers. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. literature. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate.as in Italy these were dispensed with.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. scholars patiently finding. editing and translating a wide range of texts. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. on which strings were plucked. . Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. and politics.) An ancient musical instrument. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. with Italian scholars. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. however. philosophy and art . philosophy. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the ciompi guild was abolished. In the 15th century Greek literature. resembling a lyre.
concetti (It. or "contract. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. when set side by side. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. arch or ceiling. intensify one another. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. compline (Lat. terrorized the country. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. literature or music. concetto. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. cognoscenti. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. condottieri (It. Coffered ceilings." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. condottiere. pl. the church service at which these prayers are said. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. those with refined tastes. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. occasionally made of wood. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. Green and red. [hora] completa. sing. blue and orange. cognoscente (It. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). . pl. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The name was derived from the condotta. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. a work's underlying theme. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. as well as from the Bible.
Francesco Sforza. and his rival Braccio da Montone. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. in the service of Naples. Umbria. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. By the end of the 14th century. Carmagnola. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Toward the end of the 15th century. who won control of Milan in 1450. i. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. clergy. disappeared. commonly called either Compagnia di S. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples.e. i. often under the direction of. scuole. flagellant confraternities. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour.devastating Romagna. or with the spiritual assistance of. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. confraternities Confraternities. convents of convertite. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. .e. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. in the service of Perugia. and German--the condottieri. in Venice. primarily for syphilitics. Spanish. which spread in the 15th century. By the 16th century. often called compagnie or. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. With no goal beyond personal gain. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Muzio's son. Martino). came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. and Tuscany. Mark (1432).
in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. contour.i. flat outlines. but sometimes had their own premises. which accompanied condemned prisoners. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love.e. the Florentine Neri. in Florence. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. founded c. In medieval painting. contrapposto (It. Dorotea in Trastevere. however.g. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. e. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contour (Fr. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Later.g. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Confraternities. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. e. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. and refuges for maidens. contours were initially regular. reformed prostitutes. notwithstanding their location. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. while the Venetian government. 1514 in S. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership).
The style spread as far as England. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. aes cyprium. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. 1100 and 1300. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. declining moral standards. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. cuprum. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. whose names are inscribed on several works. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Reform programs. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. . did not achieve any lasting results. Lat. corbel In architecture. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517).weight on one leg. a bracket of stone. They are often ornamented. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. large cornice or other feature. started the process of inner reform in the Church. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. conventicle (Lat. conventiculurn. an engraving produced in this way. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. 1280). Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which.
e. Constantine the Great. Seleucids. D dado . the first Christian emperor. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. cupula. An ancestor of the oboe. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Carthaginians. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the most famous victim of crucifixion. particularly among the Persians. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Death. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. or "scourged. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Jews. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Usually. Next. cupola (Lat. There were various methods of performing the execution. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. after being whipped. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. a semi-circular vault. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. i. reedy sound. a small dome. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. the condemned man. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. "small vat") In architecture. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook.
diptychum. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. an expressive use of nature. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. "drawing. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. diakonos. diptych (Lat. danse macabre The dance of death. decorated diffrently from the upper section. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Germany. deacon (Gk. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. diptychos.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. and Linz possessed common characteristics. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. e. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Deësis (Gk. but the concept behind an art work. usually in matching pairs. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never .g. Gk. The term stresses not the literal drawing. often an altarpiece. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. disegno (It. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. which was help to be the basis of all art. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Passau. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. design") In Renaissance art theory.
dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. distemper (Lat. also used it on canvas. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. "to mix. Ordo Praedictatorum. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. which runs on castors or wheels. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. though a few artists. donator. distemperare. dome in architecture. The studio easel. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. such as we still use today. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. formerly worn under armour. usually forming a ceiling or roof. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries.fully realize. is a heavy piece of furniture. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. a 19th-century invention. when painters took to working out of doors. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. donor (Lat. doublet A male garment. Dominicans (Lat. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. As disegno appeals to the intellect. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506).Thomas Aquinas.
"Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. It consists of the architrave. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschatology (Gk. entablature In classical architecture. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. eschaton. fresco. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Hence. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. epitaph (Gk. sometimes combining panel painting. the frieze. and logos. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. sculpture. in art. full face. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. and the cornice. ensemble (Fr. John (19. en face In portraiture. and architecture. a depiction of Jesus. bound and flogged. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. Ecce Homo (Lat. "word") . a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. "last". engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point.
which is called "delftware. which was famous for maiolica. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Contarini. Germany. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther." and charis. notably Cardinal Pole. Giovanni Morone. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. and of the last things. which is called "maiolica. Spain. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. . It developed in France in the early 16th century. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Saints Ambrose. and is named for Faenza. Vittoria Colonna. fields and livestock.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Augustine. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Jerome. eu. particularly ware made in France. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Carnesecchi and Ochino. celebrated with bread and wine. Equated with the Greek god Pan. 4500 BCE. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. and Scandinavia. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. farmers.death and resurrection. protector of shepherds." and that made in the Netherlands and England. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Eucharist (Gk. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. "good. which was developed in the Near East ca. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Italy. Marcantonio Flaminio.
representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. The colour of his horse is white. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. black and dun. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Only a small area can be painted in a day. drying to a slightly different tint. 2 .8). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. such as plague. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. that of the others red. frescos in Italy . Committed to charitable and missionary work. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. famine and death. Their attributes are the bow. relaxed. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. fluted of a column or pillar. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. a technique known as a secco fresco. and flowers suspended in a loop. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. war. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. can in time be seen. a swag. and these areas. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). leaves. sword and set of balances.festoni (It. fresco (It.
That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. In art from the classical period onwards. are genres of painting. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. genre In a broad sense. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. usually childish figure. Final details. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). for example. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The technique of buon fresco. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. where the atmosphere was too damp.Save in Venice. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. G Garter. covings and ceilings. landscape and portraiture. or true fresco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . Genius in classical Rome. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. a person's invisible tutelary god. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. the intonaco. or fresco secco. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art.
The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. how it differed from notoriety. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. and as spurring on men of action. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Maso di Banco. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Bernardo Daddi. Maria Gloriosa). Gobelins . Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. in portraits and on tombs. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. whether it must be connected with the public good. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. As such. as well as writers and artists.
a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. In other Italian cities. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum.French tapestry manufactory. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). golden section (Lat. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. and although it reopened in 1699. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. This ratio is approximately 8:13. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. still in existence today. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. who appointed Lebrun Director. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. thereafter it made only tapestries. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. . the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Paris. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Golden Fleece. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne.
Nevertheless. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. Denis. 1270. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. painting. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. The artistic. painting. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. from the 13th until the 17th century. In sculpture and in painting. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. In thinking of Nicola (d. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. c. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. that the effects are to be felt. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. Amiens. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Gothic Gothic. or the influence of one building. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In particular. 1200 and c. the superficial particularities of form. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. There is a transcendental quality. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. like the cultural and commercial. and lies much deeper than. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). .
the Netherlands. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. to silk. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. genius. and the great style. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). to white or tinted paper and card and.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Such tours often took a year or more. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Klee. if required. with sable. and Piranesi. starch. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. are but different appellations of the same thing'. and above all Italy. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. sometimes in the company of a tutor. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. . Honey. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and taste among the English. Dubuffet. It is thinned with water for applying. Canaletto. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. notably in the writings of Bellori. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. occasionally. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and Morris Graves. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. chiefly to France. without visible brush marks. Pannini. These qualities. the beau idéal of the French.and hog-hair brushes.
Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. usually gray. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the parties taking a multitude of local names. however. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. Although its palace was rebuilt c. through central Italy.e. internal factions in Florence went under other names. after this. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. c. drawing and the various forms of engraving. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. became an abiding feature of European politics. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. grisaille (Fr. 1216. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. From 1266 to 1268. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. In the context of the fine arts. In Florence. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. brother of Louis IX. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. including text as well as illustrations. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. gris. exclude drawing from this definition. to Provence and Paris. In another sense. and Waiblingen. however. Some writers. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. then as now. .
In Italy they go back a long way." from Fr. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. H hatching In a drawing. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. for example. héraut. In 16th century Venice. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. The guild also monitored standards of work. In some towns. such as Brescia and Vicenza. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. trades. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. surgeons. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. The guilds were not equal. or professions. as some did). In Florence. "herald") . The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. trade or profession (painters. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. [science] héraldique. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. In some cities. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and provided assistance to members in need. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. print or painting. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. heraldry (Fr. "[knowledge of] heraldry. goldsmiths. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. but in time they acquired other functions. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. notably Florence in the 14th century. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. Guilds were also patrons of art. and greater hostility between master and man. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence.
They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). together with brethren north of the Alps. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. However. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The main impact of the . with the rules governing their use. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. from the start. d.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. head of the 'carnal Church'. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. one great missionary community. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. By contrast. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. the Cathars were an anti-church. normative for churchmen. indeed. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. i. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. they were condemned in 1184. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. while others merged with the Waldensians. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. the followers of Juan de Valdes. the Waldensian. and regarded themselves as forming. as Antichrist.
movement upon the laity was in southern France. and. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. American painters were studying in Rome. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Durand. Jasper Cropsey. humanism (Lat. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Henry Inman. B. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and classical literature. its subjects considered morally elevating. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. S. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. hortus conclusus (Lat. history (usually classical history). Germany. George Inness. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. humanus. In humanism. the emancipation of man from God took place. in his earlier work. Kensett. working from 1825 to 1875. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Church. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. J. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. my spouse'. Thomas Cole. Frederick E. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Morse. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. F. At the same time. mainly in the south. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. F.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
inventio (It. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. and they are also depicted on their own. with many further details added. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Derived from classical rhetoric. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Human figures. the veil of St. Donatallo. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Veronica. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. trecento rococo and lyrical style. In the second half of the 14th century. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. it denominates a kind of behaviour.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. usually the donors of a work of art. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. there are representations of the bundle of rods. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the scourge that was used in the scourging.g. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. The terms court style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. the hammer. the pincers. investiture . etc. beautiful style. are also used in art literature. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. originality. or of other saints. the rooster of Peter's denial. the ability to create. soft style. and the ladder. invention. For instance. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck).
Italianizers Northern artists.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Both and Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. bathed in a golden haze. principally Dutch. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jesuits The Society of Jesus. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The Both brothers. who traveled in Italy and. generally Dutch or Flemish. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Andries and Jan Both. of Utrecht. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jerome's writings. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. . Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. although they are usually called Romanists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. and Jan Asselijn. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Upon his return to Holland. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters.
Emperor Maximilian I (1459. the rite of communion is based on this. especially one at which the Bible is read. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. encouraged by the Crusades. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. liberal arts .1519). Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). As their military role grew. lectern A reading stand or desk. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .as the Friars of the Hospital of St. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. John of Jerusalem . Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Archbishop of Genoa. Legenda Aurea (Lat. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.
g. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). John F. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. painting or sculptural decoration. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Tubal for music). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. and Frederick E. then the basis of a philosophical training. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. comprising arithmetic. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. astronomy and music. poetic atmosphere. commemorating a marriage. Kensett (1816-1872).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. through the use of aerial perspective. loggia (It. Martin J. "little moon") In architecture. that could be used for public ceremonies.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Heade (1819-1904). geometry. the quadrivium. lunette (Fr. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. . Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). a semicircular space.g. often sublime. its roof supported by columns. first the preparatory trivium . the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). that may contain a window. Church (1826-1900). often standing in markets and town squares. Maria Novella in Florence). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. rhetoric and dialectic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. It is related to. together with identifying attributes (e.grammar.
The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. usually for the lute. being written. and portraits as well as landscapes. particularly such ware produced in Italy. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). 1855–65. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. originally sung without accompaniment. originating in Italy in the 14th century. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. the goddess Cybele. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. madrigal A part song. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. When white is used for painting. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. for example. mandorla (It. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and iron red. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. "almond") . antimony yellow. but they painted genre scenes. active mainly in Florence c. magna mater (Lat. Specifically. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). They were influenced by the Barbizon School. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. and accompaniments. historical subjects. copper green. "great mother") A mother goddess. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). manganese purple. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. and however bright their lighting effects.
In architecture.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. El Greco and Tintoretto. illuminated initials and miniatures. Burgundy. In Mannerist painting. often ornamented with decorative borders. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. mantle An overcoat. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Bronzino. Parmigianino. "manner. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. It reached to the knee or foot. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Mannerism (It. Developing out of the Renaissance. complex and crowded compositions. the Codex manuscriptus. and crowned with thorns. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. depending on the social class of the wearer. marked by flagellation. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. in a specific sense. bound. worn open. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. strong. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. which was quarried at Mount . Flanders. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. and literary texts. ecclesiastical. maniera. the hand-written medieval book. more strictly.
and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. a different design on the reverse. "witness. the medal's purpose was commemorative. marmi finti (It. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. quarried at Massa. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. an inscription running round the rim. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Like the finest Imperial coins. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. The pure white Carrara marble. sleek surface. Carrara. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). martyrdom (Gk. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. martyrion. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. medallion In architecture. proof") the sufferings. having finished his training. Without monetary value. which were beginning to be reverently collected. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. particularly by Michelangelo.Pentelicon in Attica.
Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. c. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. supposedly to petrify her enemies. of the person portrayed on the other side. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. 1467-688). perhaps oddly. 1452-1526/27). Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. It was. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. . is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 14601528). is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Medusa In Greek mythology. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. a Gorgon. 1640. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. The work of these men. particularly. 1425-1504). even grain. This yields a soft effect in the print. Her head features on Minerva's shield. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. and of the many. When Perseus cuts off her head. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). for landscapes and portraits. A Dutch officer. Ludwig von Siegen. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. as it were. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career.round the neck. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. the stress on individual character. who reflected them. In pure mezzotint. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. often anonymous. The process is essentially extinct today. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. no line drawing is employed. in England.
a painting executed in a single color. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. motto (Ital. still exist. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Many such small versions.. by Tiepolo and Rubens. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Parmigianino (d. executed on a very small scale. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. "word. saying") . modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. pointed headdress worn by bishops. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. a branch of the Franciscan order. "one color") Painted in a single color. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Francis himself. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. miter A high. e. monokhromatos. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. monochrome (Gk. ink and paint. usually portraits. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. often quite highly finished.g. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.
and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. In 1810 0verbeck. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Berlin. named after the patron saint of painting. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and Casino Massimo. Isidore. . They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. often separated from it by pillars. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. 1817-29).from the Middle Ages. nave (from Lat. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. The invention of personal mottos. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. naturalism (Fr. 1816-17. Pforr. Nazarenes A group of young. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. navis. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and is intersected by the transept. Rome. and two other members moved to Rome. In general. but often insipid. It may have parallel aisles on each side.
To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. moreover. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.) . It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. niello (Lat. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nigellus. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. usually golden. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. nimbus (Lat.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. "aureole") The disc or halo. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). is as true as it is notorious. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. but their ideas continued to be influential. Popes. the style of the Ancien Régime. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. were usually old when elected. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Nymphaeum (Gk. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768).
The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). Greek goddesses of Nature. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. the three basic styles of design. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. such as linseed. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. walnut. its richness of colour. inborn sin. with a sturdy. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. capital. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. or poppy. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a small private chapel. observances") Rites performed for the dead. fluted column and a plain capital. the Doric order. O obsequies (Lat. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. orders of architecture In classical architecture. and entablatures.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. was the simplest. They are seen in the form of the columns. and its greater tonal range. The earliest. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. obsequia. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. a more elaborate base. . "services. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach.
reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. P pala (Ital. and. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. while shops came to be thought undignified. like cities. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and the main apartments above. the Cancelleria). palazzo (It. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). designed as a . "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. with biforate windows. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. standing at the foot of the Cross. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.g. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. Palazzo Strozzi). tradition and social structure. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition).
tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. especially after the Sack of Rome. panel . adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). e. like Genoa. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. behind a sober Florentine façade. came to be applied all over Europe. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. evolved influential types. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Palazzo Massimi). column-caps. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. palmette. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Rich. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Following Oriental patterns. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Other cities. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. and Palladio's in Vicenza. In Venice. cornices and abutments. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Movement of patrons and architects. often built next to their titular churches. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro).scholarly retreat. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Papal incentives to build. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. like the colonnaded vestibule. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves.g. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces.g. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and large households.
Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. As successors to St Peter. and modern painters have also used plywood. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and spanned by a single dome. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. chestnut. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. Many other types were used. slate has occasionally been used as a support. linden. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Having a circular plan. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. In the 20th century cedar. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. To maintain their authority. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. or other rigid substance.Term in painting for a support of wood. mahogany. fir. olive. On a larger scale. as it were. or the incidence of taxation. and other synthetic materials as supports. teak. fibre-board. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. however. A number of matters. and the pressure and temptations . Then. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. secular rulers. cedar. as distinct from canvas. and dark walnut are favourites. the. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. the management of clerical dues and taxation. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. so that they might have a voice at court. larch. metal.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. enforce law and order. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. including beech. to influence popes in their favour. and walnut. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. The third aspect was administrative. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome.
The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. Colonna and Caetani. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. however. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. which seems so inevitable. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. as such. the most appropriate . criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. if it did no serious damage to the faith. in spite of further absences from Rome. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy.that could be applied to them. however. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. was long in doubt. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. at Avignon. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. which met at Constance 1414-18. would. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. There remained. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. of individuals.as well. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). in the eyes of God. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. As at Avignon. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). To resolve the problem of divided authority. from the point of view of its religious associations. So onerous.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. to be long delayed. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. It was argued that such a council. however. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . could supersede that of a pope. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. By then. possess an authority which. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.
It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. pastoral (Lat. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Parrhasius (c. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life.. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. in classical literature. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. goat. to a world peopled by shepherds. Passion . However. nymphs. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). as well as a governmental one. less frequently pig. and with Zeuxis (c. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. the creation of a cultural capital. 400-300 BC). but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and satyrs. and other animals. it has also been used for painting. through lavish patronage of artists. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). pastor. scholars and men of letters.
Francesco Salviati. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. "butterfly. a small. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. projecting either centrally or at both ends. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. 1478. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. papilio. patrician (Lat.) or pasticcio (It.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. and also the archbishop of Pisa. patricius. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. which focus on the Suffering Christ. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. ornamental building. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pavilion (Lat. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. wealthy citizen. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Portrayals of the Passion. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. the crown of thorns. 1478). . and so on.The events leading up to Good Friday. a prominent section of a monumental façade. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Meanwhile. pastiche (fr. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. but not necessarily a direct copy. such as a garden summerhouse. a region in north-central Italy.
or related elements within an art work. concept or deity. "person". Peace of Augsburg A treaty. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. persona. pergola (It. and gnomon. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. physiognomy (Gk. pendant (Fr. physis. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "nature". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "to see through. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. personification (Lat. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. and facere. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "hanging. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). perspective (Lat. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. perspicere. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. . in particular the face. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person.
that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. usually above the ground floor. pigmentum. . and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it.) The main floor of a building. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. but full of variety. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. remarkable for singularity. or resin to make paint. Peter's.piano nobile (Ital. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. both real and painted. Pietà (Lat. for example. proper to take a landscape from. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. A pier is generally larger than a column. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. glue. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. to be expressed in painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. but may consist of a cluster of columns. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Rome. exemplified. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). containing the public rooms. striking the imagination with the force of painting. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. pigment (Lat. affording a good subject for a landscape. curious details.
Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. in October 1347. it is difficult to find. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Thenceforward. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. It seems probable. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. "pillar") A flat. plague Plague.pilaster (Lat. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. moreover. also used in Spain's American colonies. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. For this reason. the burning of 'infected' clothing. During 1348 the Black Death. a shaft. such as Florence and Genoa. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. however. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. and capital. perhaps. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. In the 15th century. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. despite regional variations. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. since. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. pilastrum. more sporadic outbreaks. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Rocco and Sebastian. it has a base. for instance. and thereafter all Europe. It is often fluted. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. outside Tuscany. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. though in less widespread. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work.
and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. or simply the Plateresque. correct classical orders became frequent. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Phaedo. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The first phase. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53).. or appropriateness. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Renaissance-Plateresque. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. i. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. A student of Socrates. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. heraldic escutcheons. composition. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Philebus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. placement. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. In contrast with Aristotle. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns.e. Phaedrus. Diego evolved a purer. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Timaeus. more severe. which lasted only a few decades. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. harmonious. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. and sinuous scrolls. are the masterworks of the second style. The second phase. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. like its successor. the Symposium.
all of which he also translated into Latin. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. including those of Plotinus. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. the greatest of his ancient disciples. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. A new Latin translation. and he utilized many other writings. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and the Chaldaic Oracles. but not completely. Rather unsystematic. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. near Florence. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Plotinus. systematized and added to what Plato had done. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Iamblichus. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. replaced Ficino's. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and Agostino Steuco (c. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism.in Plato's thought. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484).1577) becoming particularly popular. partially. 1472-c.
polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. such as processions and consecrations. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Plato was read in the universities. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. polyptych (Gk. as in classical architecture). pluvial (Med. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. porticus. where a pectoral is used to close it. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. Lat. column. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Frequently supports a pediment. plinth (Gk. or statue. pluviale. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. portico (Lat. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pointed arch In architecture. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. plinthos. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. poluptukhos.
The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. and only a decorative accessory to form.sculptors such as Donatello. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Florence. Gattarnelata. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Desiderio da Settignano. Florence (1486-90). The equestrian portrait. The 16th century portrait became generalized. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. decorating whole rooms. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. National Gallery). 1328. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Mantua. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. was revived in the 14th century. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Palazzo Farnese). Siena. The realism of the clear.. flattened image. Cathedral) by Uccello. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Colleoni. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. psychologically more complex. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Venice). Maria Novella. Group portraits. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. the Carracci.e. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. inessential. Campidoglio). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. and the . based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome.
but 16th century ones were more cautious here.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Fiamma's sermons. Savonarola and Musso. and Peter Paul Rubens. to discharge their preaching duties. however. Borromeo. from the secular clergy. bishop of Asti. The sermons of Visdomini. together with the Dominican Savonarola. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Correggio." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. several of whom became bishops. primarily the mendicants. and. was versed in classical and patristic . not least those of statesmen and prelates. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). abrasive even. The styles of S. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. 1494). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. who had as their ideal masters Titian. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. bishop of Chioggia. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. of the sermon as an art form. are not florid in style. minatory exhortations. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Charles Le Brun. bishops especially. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. As Poussin was a Frenchman. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94).
however. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Millais and Rossetti. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. tapestries. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.g. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.rhetoric. Naples). the temptations of Adam and Christ. among them Holman Hunt. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. though often relatively very wide . Louis of Toulouse (1317. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Because of the small size of predelle . and so forth. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. The New Testament references in these would.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . prefiguration Typology . predella (It. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala).
Fragonard. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. intended as complete works of art in themselves.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. Girardon. The following are important: 1. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. again indicative of the purpose they served. proportio. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. 3. which uses the square . these highly finished drawings. "evenness") in painting. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. profil perdu (Fr. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. the golden section. 2. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. sculpture and architecture. proportion (Lat. the Canon of Proportion. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. and Houdon among sculptors. the quadrature. notably David. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. projecting shelf on which to kneel. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). Prix de Rome A scholarship. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10).
provenance The origins of an art work. "boys") Plump naked little boys. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. It was common in Roman art. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. harmonic proportions. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest.as a unit of measurement. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Rome. Ignazio. putti sing. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. . a fourth = 3:4. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. for example). Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. triangulation. 4. and 5. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. Unlike Pozzo. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. putto (It. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. one half the length of the other). the steward or treasurer of a church. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. a fifth = 2:3.
Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. relicquiae. Donatello. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. refectory (Med. "remains") a part of the body of a saint.g. relief (Lat. also known as the Realist school. relevare. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). in which figures are seen half round. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background.Quattrocento (It. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Botticelli. basso rilievo). or some item connected with a saint. Fra Angelico and others. Brunelleschi. with the Anglican Church developing in England. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. friars and nuns. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. or the Jesuits. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Lat. In 16th century Europe. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Among the . refectorium) Monastic dining hall. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. the object of particular veneration. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in particular works by Masaccio. the great orders of monks. relic (Lat. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. and high relief (alto rilievo). or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. canons regular. e. hermits. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century.
Giorgio in Alga. After the repression of the Spirituals. Salvatore. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. although technically of secular canons. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Benedetto. was the congregation of S. and the generally moderate Observants.contemplative orders. the most notable being S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. In 1517. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. however. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. and their more institutionalized brethren. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. various groups were fused in the latter body. Bernardino of Siena. Venice (1404). developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The same bull . 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. At the same time. Lorenzo Giustiniani. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. who had no overall organization originally.e. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. The Conventuals. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. That of S. Giustina. which was to become the main Italian one. The Silvestrines. presided over by chapters general. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Founded by St Romuald c. the great patriarch of Venice. Mantua. The Benedictines. it became the Cassinese congregation. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Lucca. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. their resources being in the hands of trustees. S. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Maria di Fregonaia. Padua. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. the Conventuals. In 1504. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Bologna (1419). 1012. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. i. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S.
who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. however. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. the Theatines. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Gaetano da Thiene. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. however. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Gerolamo Aemiliani. also. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded by S. founded in 1535 by S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The first. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Michele in Isola. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Angela Merici. a historical period. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Venice. Filippo Neri. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order.
man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of arts. even Amoralism. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. of an energetic revival of interest in. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. All-Roundness. For long. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. however. increasingly. life. of letters. the historical reality of antiquity. and competition with. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. of scholarship. because its core of energy. Thereafter. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. . 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. too long forgotten glories. however. as well as political. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. which had begun early in the 14th century. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of 'darkness'. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. was so vast and potent. and his own as potentially one of light.century. 1875-86). Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent.
especially in the High Gothic period. the previous record . as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. retables can be detached and. subjective reason a term to be used with caution.) was the term chosen. etc. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . and other liturgical objects. It is for this additional. however. let alone a uniform. later still to Genoa. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. There was an early. gratefully. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. though sometimes of metal. and is decorated with paintings. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. sometimes. The panel is usually made of wood or stone.with all its shabbiness .) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (3) There is not a true. etc. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. consist merely of a painting. The challenges are to be accepted. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. statues. congruence between.erased. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. and mass media. mobilized nationalism. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. candlesticks. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. of industrialization. letters.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Though thus challenged. in the more limited sense. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Ghent). 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.
it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.in the 11th century. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). is a typical product. Italy. "relief") In painting. the St. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. and 'Romanesque'. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Germany. rilievo (It. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Spain . Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. With the development of freestanding altars. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. More usually. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period.of St Mark in Venice. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. however. As the name suggests. the first style to achieve such international currency. Rococo A style of design. . Romanesque art. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale.France. retables have become extinct. Originally commissioned in 976. rocaille (French. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. richly decorated with organic forms. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. its mood lighthearted and witry. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. painting. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Louis XV furniture. almost simultaneously. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). like 'Gothic'. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. literally. in several countries .
making it the centre of the High Renaissance. M. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. van Orley. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. In addition. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. The aim of painting. van Heemskerk. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Q. stylized design representing an open rose. Mabuse. Rome. B. Claude. Massys and M. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. such as red ochre. Piranesi. . they maintained. Pannini and Mengs. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular.
The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. supported by lay confraternities. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault.expressed through gesture. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and Lorenzo de' Medici. from the Old and New Testaments. and Protestant churches. but others were the work of well-known figures. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Sacra Conversazione (It. multiple sets used in succession. pious legend and hagiography. Written primarily in ottava rima. glance and movement . There were no limits on time. holy orders. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). In the . whose Rappresentazione dei SS. and impoverished. gutted. Eastern independent. Subjects were nominally sacred. matrimony. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. when it finally left the city it had devastated. confirmation. the Eucharist. Orthodox.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. local saints. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Clement escaped into Castel S. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Many compositions were anonymous. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and anointing of the sick.greatly increased. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. penance. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control.
sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. large room.. the sun of righteousness. as in the Church of the Brethren. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The chief focus of discontent.e. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. in principle. was not maintained as a sacrament. make such strict distinctions. Immediately following baptism. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The classical Protestant churches (i. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. as an excuse to revolt.i. sacraments. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Saracens . the Rocca Paolina. Hence. It is still practiced on special occasions. Thus.e. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. foot washing. was buried under a new fortress. strictly speaking. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. chapter 13. the Orthodox Church does not. and then face east." sala (Ital. notably from Florence and in Germany. Anglican. that the price of salt should be increased.) Hall. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. used for drawing. the Bentivoglio." which are called sacramentals. the symbolic direction of Christ. Candidates first face west. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. baptism and the Eucharist. The theology of the Orthodox Church. replaces the Lord's Supper. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Lutheran. which in the Gospel According to John. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Salt War. and sacraments. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. They were still seeking aid. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.early church the number of sacraments varied.
and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. satyr In Greek mythology.During the Middle Ages. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. legs and horns of a goat. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. pl. wood or terracotta. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. the god of wine. 45 BC). The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and many others. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). human-like woodland deities with the ears. the Arabs or Muslims. 270 BC). sarcophagus. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. sarcophagi (Gk. The publication of Latin (1562. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 210 AD). 160 . Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. whose writings. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.c.c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . made of stone. are lost. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 360 . particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Little known in the Middle Ages. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.
for. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. one of the early leaders. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. than their medieval predecessors. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. scholasticism . the Florentines. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Schism. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). As a result. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. on the other. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. and. Louis I (d. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on one side.they had individual Bentnames . while devout Christians agonized.for example Pieter van Laer. Alexander V. in June 1409. In northern Italy. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. most of whom. was called Bamboccio. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. who had the support of the Avignon pope. while England. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. with France and her allies Aragon. However. Charles III of Durazzo (d. 1386) and his son Ladislas. but with little effect. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who recognized the Roman pope. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. from time to time both he and his opponents. being Frenchmen.
secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. and Islamic literature. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). as it were. as it is easier to add details in this way. textual scholarship. university-based study. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. moreover. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers.moral philosophy. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. None the less.The term is ambivalent. rather than wet plaster as in fresco.were different from those of medieval. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. if lime-water was used. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. notably Aquinas. history and rhetoric . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. that scholasticism was left. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. the plaster had to be damped before painting. As such. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Medieval scholars.) . and theology. (See also: fresco. Christian. Often called the burning ones. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Padua. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. Serenissima (Ital. on one side. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.
silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. in use since the Middle Ages. sinopia . Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Lat. They first appear in alpine monasteries. in the period of classical antiquity.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. the number gradually rose to ten. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. In Christian legend. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. "the most serene republic of Venice"). there was only one Sibyl.. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. usually presided over by individual families. "prophetess") In antiquity. Originally. sibyls (Gk. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. women who could prophesy. and the delicate. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. term. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sfumato A technique. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. which were all identical in thickness. Signoria (It. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sibylla. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. brass. Med. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. at the same time. Servite (Lat.
and by a sweet and playful sentiment. stigma (Gk. as the name implies. pronounced as French.'Beautiful Madonnas'. "mark. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. . Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.) Wooden ceiling decoration. soffit (Lat. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . staffage This word. stigmata. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. It is very closely related to International Gothic. sing. brand.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. and. Francis of Assisi.. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. in other words. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. Ital. sotto in sù (It. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. especially in the flow of drapery. Stanze (Ital. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.
Indeed. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. In a looser sense. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. The vogue for the Sublime. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). whose verses actually fabrications . Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. both external and internal. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. supremacy . studioli (It. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. stucco A type of light. with that for the Picturesque. studiolo.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. John Milton. pl.
and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. his own headquarters. and in literature. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). The subject is underexplored. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. into Italy. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. tempera (Lat. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). i. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. temperare. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c.and. was being decorated with frescoes.e. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. These were imported. both for panel painting and fresco. or cartoons. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. 1407). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. chiefly from Flanders. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. But the Italians did not make them. then being replaced by oil paint. . T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Salviati and Allori.Historically. London. doubtless. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .
e. figure of speech. i. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "fields. pl. and later to subdivide gable ends. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. triumphal arch. topiary (Gk. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and sculptures. topos. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. widely used form. walls. and profile.terracotta (It. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. and other surfaces. tondo. "a commonplace") In literature. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. vessels. Trajan's Column . quarter face. tondi (It. theme or motif. topia. topoi (Gk. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. in art. in the architecture of ancient Rome. pl. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. terraferma (Ital. model. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.
they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Disseminated soon after his death. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. as it were. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. after 'a countless number of virgins. . Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Battista Sforza. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. usually an altarpiece. "threefold") A painting in three sections. behind it. or wings. death. patriarchs and prophets.' Before it go the apostles. tryptychos. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. trinitas. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. time and eternity. Early triptychs were often portable. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Meanwhile. chastity. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. triptych (Gk. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. of both sexes'. of virtues and of the arts. added to the glamour of the triumph. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. the military triumph became sublimated. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. fame. the wars by which they were won . only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. beside it the army of martyrs. a car so brave'. Trinity (Lat. into a number of less controversial forms. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. the Son and the Holy Spirit. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. "threefold") in Christianity. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. loot and prisoners was given sparingly.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.
they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. It incorporates Renaissance features. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. enclosed by an arch. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. tromp l'oeil (Fr. viscous black ink. it is usually decorated with carvings. In medieval architecture. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). typology . tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tympanum (Lat. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. "drum") In classical architecture. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tusche A thick. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. through various naturalistic devices. often decorated with sculptures. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Dating from classical times.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. first recorded in 1232.
Judith. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. e. U uomo universale (It. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and David. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. especially his half-length figural groups. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). lanterns. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).) The Renaissance "universal man". where they were most accessible. The numerous candles. slayer of Goliath.A system of classification. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. were popular with them also. each had access to his paintings. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio.g. . Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). 1610). In Christian thought. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. knew his former patrons. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. killer of Holofernes. 1590-1624). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. such as five works devoted to the senses. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.Dirck van Baburen (c.
"variety") In Renaissance art theory. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. a work's richness of subject matter. There are a wide range of forms. the groin vault. Vespers (Lat.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time.). and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. it was used to decorate furniture. Also varietas (Lat. "evening") . varietà (It. Parisian craftsmen. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. vanitas (Lat. and the rib vault. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. mixed in. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. V vanishing point In perspective. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade). often gold. vesper. overturned vessels. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. hour-glasses and clocks. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. guttering candles. snuff boxes and other objects. carriages.
Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. In ancient Roman dwellings. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. for example. in which the word signifies efficacy. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Charity. Vestibule (Lat. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. the church service at which these prayers are said. Covetousness. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Temperance. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices.Prayers said in the evening. Lust. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Fortitude. Anger. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Prudence. vita. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Hope. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Gluttony. vite (Lat. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. "not exposed to winds". Envy. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. pl. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. The seven Virtues were: Faith. "life") . and Justice. vestibulum. and Sloth. actual or latent. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. vimperga Of German origin. virtù could be used. if you have it not'. 'Assume a virtue.
and the occasional wars thereafter (e. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. 1482-84). provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. a biography. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. or recovery from illness has been made.g. The wars from 1494 do. and appalled recognition of. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. those of Volterera. in fact. Vitruvius Pollio. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. Sculptors and Architects"). and of Ferrara. protection from harm. they were from the 18th century . published in 1550 and 1568. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. usually when a prayer for good fortune. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. Marcus (1st cent. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. 1478-80. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1472.An account of someone's life and work.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
It was intended to have a variety of functions. "Western work of art". usually linear. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. Westwerk German word. pompous on the floor above. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. during its subsequent history. usually restorers. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. a philosophy of life. woodcut A print made from a wood block. . While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design.Weltanschauung (Gr. "world view") A comprehensive world view. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. gallery.
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