A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
at the east end of a church behind the altar. and Rouault. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. the lowest part of the entablature). which is fused to the plate by heating. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. The term applies also to a print made by this method. architrave (It. piers or pillars. Degas. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "architectural") Relating to structure. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. arcade (Lat. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Also known as an exedra. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arkhitektonikos. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.A semicircular projection. the darker the tone). and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. including Goya. architectonic (Gk. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period).
. In Greek and Roman literature. Lancet and Tudor. or organization. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Picasso. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture.e. roofed with a half-dome. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the moulding around a window or door. arcus. but in essence the process is as follows. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. design. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. The adjective is apsidal.
aureole (Lat. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements.archivolt (Ital. archeiu. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. attributum. Dante's Vita nuova . dominate. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "front arch. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. aureolus. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).and the Comedy . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "golden. usually a saint. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Ars Moriendi (Lat. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. In the case of martyrs. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attribute (Lat. voltus." from Gk. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "begin. archivolto. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action:
." and Lat. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.
who had been residing in France since 1305. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22).while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. often anecdotal. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. in 1377. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. 'Captivity'. baldachin. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. applied to the physically
. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. or baldacchino (It. Six pontificates later. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. that of Cardano. paintings of everyday life. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The actual move was made in 1309. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. the god of wine and fertility. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Later. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics.
el Kantara. Pentecost. Customarily. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. and Epiphany. Florence. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. As eight follows the "complete" number." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. the Temple of Venus. pope between 432 and 440. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. built by Sixtus III. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. banderole (It. and Nocera in Italy. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Spalato [Split. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. AD 300). such as those at Pisa. or canopy. Lebanon. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. seven. Easter. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. banderuola. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Baalbek. a visual metaphor for the number eight.. and abject filthy things. set beneath a domical ciborium. Croatia]. France. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or forecourt.g. AD 273. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. beggars in rags. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Alg.. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. or connected with. Parma. a church. and Poitiers. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting.
Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1796-1875). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. stoa basilike. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. basilica (Gk. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. in its usual location near the church door . Originally. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. in the 1840s and 1850s. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1807-1876). Jean-François Millet (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). baptisteries. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1814-1875). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height.In the 10th century. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Rubens). the dramatic use of light and shadow. which is reserved for the clergy. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Vermeer). 1810-1865). and (3) everyday realism. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Also tunnel vault. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and thus a church. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Jules Dupré (French. however. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists.
. "king's hall") a church building. Théodore Rousseau (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. or baptismal chapels. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. 1817-1878). barocco. usually facing east. and increasingly elaborate decoration. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Constant Troyon (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. In architecture. 1811-1889). southeast of Paris. were often omitted entirely. achieved through scale. Baroque (Port. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. something of earlier symbolism survives.
Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. such as those by Diego Velázquez. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. particularly porcelain. especially Spanish. Biscuit porcelain. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. which is either not yet glazed. Bodegónes. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. also incorrectly called bisque. bodegón Image. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). By association. were referred to by their specific contents. The term was mainly used up to c. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. however. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. or which is to be left as it is. 1650 in Spain. like their Dutch counterparts. domesticity. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Book of Hours
. It takes its name from its grainy texture. often with food and drink. There were. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. as is to be expected. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. up until the mid-17th century. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. Spanish still-lifes. such as Waldmüller. and often sentimentality.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. in which still-life predominates.
or seasons. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. made as a study for a larger picture. bozzetto Strictly speaking. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. coppery red. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. See flying buttress. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts.both hot and cold . Chantilly). though these are more often called 'modelli'. and the fact that it is easily workable . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . a rapid sketch in oil. months.
.an advantage over marble sculpture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. varying from silverish to a rich.by a variety of processes. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. bozzetto(Italian. By extension. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. durability. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. days of the week. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. but can also be used for painted sketches. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.
notable from Syria and Egypt. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. cameo Small relief made from gems. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. and Giotto. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Duccio. its forms highly stylized. camera obscura
. private room where works of art. box") In architecture. and work in precious metals. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Among its most distinctive products were icons. mosaics. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. caisson (Fr. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. ceramics. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. casson. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium).Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. manuscript illuminations. glass. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. "a chest. which was often allegorical. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. It also served to glorify the emperor. C cabinet A small.
usually built beside or attached to a church. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace.) A gallery for singers or musicians. pl. capitellum. capital (Lat. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. sing. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. and jute. candelabra.
." and the earliest versions. other materials used are cotton. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. as an aid to drawing.Ancestor of the photographic camera. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. usually in a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. Structurally. usually decorated. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. by the 16th century. usually with several branches or arms. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. campanile Bell tower. cantoria. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. which was usually whitened. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. cantorie (It. dating to antiquity. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candelabrum (It. only very rough effects will be obtainable. Niepce created photography. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. which isolates the fabric from the paint. candlestick. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). followed by smaller and even pocket models. The Latin name means "dark chamber. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Portable versions were built. candela.-N. hemp. "candle") A large.
Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). tapestry. details of the subject. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. In fresco painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. and humanism. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartellini In a painting.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters .a humorous drawing or parody. or fresco. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the Carmelites were originally hermits. pl. cardinalis.both Italians and artists from other countries . the endeavour to attain true humanity. cartellino. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Carmelites (Lat. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). cartouche
. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartoon (It. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cartone. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. near Grenoble. At the height of the Middle Ages. or a motto. The order combines reclusive and community life. New Charterhouses. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. the date of the painting. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting.
this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. The main body. and swags of fruit and flowers. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. palace. For reasons lost to time and tradition. or nave. cassone (It. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. linen. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. They contained the bride's clothes. a cathedral always faces west . These lead up to the north and south transepts. In the 15th century. cathedral (cathedra. and many other items of her dowry. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. caryatid (Gk.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. where the throne of the bishop is placed. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. putti (cupids). Cascina. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Worked on at intervals 1504-06.) "castle". The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. castello (It. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Paolo Uccello. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). The altar is placed at the east end.
. or arms of the cross. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. decorated with gilt gesso. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. they were also used in other countries.toward the setting sun. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed.
these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. landscapes. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. in accordance with their distance from the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. as celestial attendants of God. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. moral laxity in the clergy and so on).Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. central perspective (Lat. a throne bearer of the deity. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. or birdlike characteristics. centralis.
. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. rather than intercessory functions. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Both the statement of St. Christian. continually praise him. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. animal. a celestial winged being with human. and perspicere. and Islamic literature. "in the centre". Relative to the observer. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. champlevé (Fr. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.
When the contrast of light and dark is strong. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. North of the Alps. Lastly. the Order of the Hospital of St. choros." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. replacing tempera. Since Carolingian times.chiaroscuro (It. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. choir (Gk. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept
. "light dark") In painting. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. or for choral singing. reserved for the clergy to pray together. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service.
undulating cornices. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. further enriching the style. and repetition of pattern. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. became the most common motif. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. balustrades. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Sculpted clouds. reversed volutes. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. ciborium
. and garlands. a massing of carved angels. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The Transparente (completed 1732). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. undulating lines. an architect. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. is as typically Churrigueresque. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. stucco shells. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament.intersect). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. gilded rays. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Very few still exist in their original positions. and the Churrigueresque column.
On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. who were raised to the status of a guild. Members of the lower classes. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. In reaction to this revolutionary
. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Quattrocento (1400s. the wool carder Michele di Lando. Their economic condition worsened. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. High Renaissance). but self-employed. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. beaters. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. etc. placing one of their members. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. as also were those in the associated. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. The new government. or achieve political representation. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. combers. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. controlled by the minor guilds. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. on July 22. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Then. craft of dyeing. including the ciompi. Without being members of a guild. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. ciompi. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination.and post-medieval Italy. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. They were forbidden to form a trade association.
changed greatly from one period to the next. with Italian scholars. except in cases where . clair-obscur (Fr. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. however. writers. resembling a lyre. philosophy and art . where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. the ciompi guild was abolished. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. on which strings were plucked.as in Italy these were dispensed with.) An ancient musical instrument. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and politics.episode. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).
. literature. the black contours usually with a special line plate. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. In the 15th century Greek literature. scholars patiently finding. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity).together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. philosophy. Concepts of the classical. cithara (Gk. editing and translating a wide range of texts.
"those who know") Connoisseurs of art. arch or ceiling. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. pl. intensify one another. concetti (It. occasionally made of wood. condottieri (It. the church service at which these prayers are said. or "contract. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. cognoscenti. a work's underlying theme. compline (Lat. [hora] completa. those with refined tastes. concetto. cognoscente (It. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. blue and orange. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. sing. literature or music. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Green and red." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. pl.
. as well as from the Bible.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Coffered ceilings. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. The name was derived from the condotta. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). when set side by side. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. condottiere. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. terrorized the country.
(3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities.e. Francesco Sforza. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. confraternities Confraternities. or with the spiritual assistance of. With no goal beyond personal gain. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi.e. scuole. often under the direction of. often called compagnie or. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. convents of convertite. which spread in the 15th century. and German--the condottieri. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples.devastating Romagna. primarily for syphilitics. Martino). in the service of Perugia. clergy. flagellant confraternities. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. i. Carmagnola. Umbria. Toward the end of the 15th century. By the 16th century. in Venice. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Mark (1432). and Tuscany. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Spanish. in the service of Naples. By the end of the 14th century. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza.
. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. i. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. who won control of Milan in 1450. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Muzio's son. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. disappeared. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides.
the highest political decision-making body in Venice. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Confraternities. e. which accompanied condemned prisoners.e. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. In medieval painting. in Florence. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions.i. Later. notwithstanding their location. 1514 in S. contrapposto (It. while the Venetian government. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. e. reformed prostitutes. contours were initially regular. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the Florentine Neri. contour (Fr. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. however. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. but sometimes had their own premises.g. flat outlines. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. and refuges for maidens. founded c. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. While the Doge ranked above the Council. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte.g. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Dorotea in Trastevere. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their
. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contour.
who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. a bracket of stone. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. did not achieve any lasting results. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. 1280). Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517).weight on one leg. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer.
. conventiculurn. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. aes cyprium. conventicle (Lat. They are often ornamented. cuprum. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. declining moral standards. whose names are inscribed on several works. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. large cornice or other feature. Reform programs. an engraving produced in this way. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. 1100 and 1300. The style spread as far as England. corbel In architecture.
evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. i. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. or "scourged. the most famous victim of crucifixion. "small vat") In architecture. the condemned man. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. D dado
. There were various methods of performing the execution.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. cupula. Seleucids. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. cupola (Lat. a small dome. An ancestor of the oboe. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. particularly among the Persians. Constantine the Great. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Next. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. after being whipped. Usually. the first Christian emperor. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. a semi-circular vault. reedy sound. Carthaginians. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Death." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof.e. Jews.
It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. but the concept behind an art work. an expressive use of nature. a favorite late medieval picture subject. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. diakonos. Passau. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "drawing. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. The term stresses not the literal drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. diptych (Lat. Deësis (Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. decorated diffrently from the upper section. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never
. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. danse macabre The dance of death. Germany. and Linz possessed common characteristics. often an altarpiece. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. design") In Renaissance art theory. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Anglican and Orthodox churches. diptychos.g. deacon (Gk. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. disegno (It. e. usually in matching pairs. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Gk. diptychum. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world.
Dominicans (Lat. distemperare.Thomas Aquinas. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. such as we still use today. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly
. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Ordo Praedictatorum. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. a 19th-century invention. donator. when painters took to working out of doors. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. formerly worn under armour. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC).fully realize. is a heavy piece of furniture. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. dome in architecture. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). also used it on canvas. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. As disegno appeals to the intellect. distemper (Lat. usually forming a ceiling or roof. which runs on castors or wheels. donor (Lat. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. doublet A male garment. though a few artists. "to mix. The studio easel.
in art. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. and architecture. eschatology (Gk. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. full face. entablature In classical architecture. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. John (19.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. fresco. a depiction of Jesus. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. en face In portraiture. Ecce Homo (Lat. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. sculpture. the frieze. epitaph (Gk. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. "word")
. and logos. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. It consists of the architrave. eschaton. ensemble (Fr. and the cornice. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. sometimes combining panel painting. "last". Hence. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. bound and flogged. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds.
Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. It developed in France in the early 16th century." and charis. which was developed in the Near East ca. 4500 BCE. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. and Scandinavia. which is called "maiolica. farmers. "good. Marcantonio Flaminio. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and is named for Faenza. which was famous for maiolica. Germany. protector of shepherds. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Italy. Jerome. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. and of the last things. notably Cardinal Pole.death and resurrection. particularly ware made in France.
. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Augustine. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Saints Ambrose.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Eucharist (Gk. Vittoria Colonna. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. celebrated with bread and wine. Giovanni Morone. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. eu. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Spain. which is called "delftware. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Contarini." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. fields and livestock." and that made in the Netherlands and England.
Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Their attributes are the bow. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. sword and set of balances. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Only a small area can be painted in a day. drying to a slightly different tint. and flowers suspended in a loop. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. famine and death.8). Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. fresco (It. 2 . usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. and these areas. fluted of a column or pillar. that of the others red. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. a technique known as a secco fresco. relaxed. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. frescos in Italy
. a swag. war. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. such as plague. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. black and dun. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Committed to charitable and missionary work. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. The colour of his horse is white. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. leaves. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically.festoni (It. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). can in time be seen.
That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. or true fresco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . G Garter.Save in Venice. landscape and portraiture. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. or fresco secco. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. The technique of buon fresco. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. are genres of painting. where the atmosphere was too damp. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. Final details. usually childish figure. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. genre In a broad sense. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. covings and ceilings. the intonaco. both in churches and in private and public palaces. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. In art from the classical period onwards. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Genius in classical Rome. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. a person's invisible tutelary god. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with
. for example. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged.
The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. how it differed from notoriety. Maso di Banco. in portraits and on tombs. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and as spurring on men of action. Maria Gloriosa). (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. whether it must be connected with the public good. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Gobelins
. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Bernardo Daddi. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. As such. as well as writers and artists.
who appointed Lebrun Director. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). still in existence today. thereafter it made only tapestries. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.French tapestry manufactory. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Paris. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts.
. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. golden section (Lat. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In other Italian cities. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. and although it reopened in 1699. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. This ratio is approximately 8:13. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. Golden Fleece. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church.
whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In thinking of Nicola (d. Amiens. from the 13th until the 17th century. or the influence of one building. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). that the effects are to be felt. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. painting. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture.
. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Gothic Gothic. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. 1200 and c. Nevertheless. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. the superficial particularities of form. There is a transcendental quality. and lies much deeper than. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In sculpture and in painting. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. c. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. Denis. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1270. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In particular. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The artistic. like the cultural and commercial. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. painting.
Honey. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. chiefly to France. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Klee. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Canaletto.and hog-hair brushes.
. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Such tours often took a year or more. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. genius. and taste among the English. Pannini. to white or tinted paper and card and. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. without visible brush marks. with sable. and Piranesi. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. to silk. the Netherlands. These qualities. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. the beau idéal of the French. and the great style. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. and Morris Graves. It is thinned with water for applying. if required. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. occasionally. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. are but different appellations of the same thing'. starch. Dubuffet. sometimes in the company of a tutor. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and above all Italy. notably in the writings of Bellori. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent.
underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. grisaille (Fr. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. gris. Although its palace was rebuilt c. which had recruited most of the merchant class. brother of Louis IX. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In another sense. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. then as now. including text as well as illustrations.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. however. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. exclude drawing from this definition. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. after this. however. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. usually gray. 1216. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. internal factions in Florence went under other names. From 1266 to 1268. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. c. the parties taking a multitude of local names. In Florence. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. through central Italy. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Some writers. drawing and the various forms of engraving. and Waiblingen.e. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. In the context of the fine arts. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing.
. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. After the War of the Eight Saints. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. became an abiding feature of European politics. to Provence and Paris.
The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In Italy they go back a long way. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. or professions.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. such as Brescia and Vicenza. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. "[knowledge of] heraldry. trades. as some did). Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In some towns. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. but in time they acquired other functions. In 16th century Venice. goldsmiths. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. trade or profession (painters. and provided assistance to members in need. "herald")
. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Guilds were also patrons of art. In Florence. In some cities. and greater hostility between master and man. print or painting. for example. The guild also monitored standards of work. héraut. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. notably Florence in the 14th century. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. heraldry (Fr. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers." from Fr. The guilds were not equal. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. H hatching In a drawing. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. [science] héraldique. surgeons.
as Antichrist. together with brethren north of the Alps. indeed. i. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. the followers of Juan de Valdes. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. they were condemned in 1184. one great missionary community. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. However. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. By contrast. from the start. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. normative for churchmen. d. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The main impact of the
. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. with the rules governing their use. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. and regarded themselves as forming. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. the Cathars were an anti-church. head of the 'carnal Church'. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. the Waldensian. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. while others merged with the Waldensians.
humanus. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Jasper Cropsey. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). in his earlier work. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Kensett. Germany. my spouse'. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. the emancipation of man from God took place. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. working from 1825 to 1875. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. In humanism. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Frederick E. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. American painters were studying in Rome. hortus conclusus (Lat. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. B. Church. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. F. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Durand. mainly in the south. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school.movement upon the laity was in southern France. George Inness. Henry Inman. Thomas Cole. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. J. humanism (Lat. F. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery
. Morse. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. At the same time. its subjects considered morally elevating. history (usually classical history). the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. and classical literature. and. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. S.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
etc. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. and the ladder. the scourge that was used in the scourging. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. beautiful style. soft style. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. usually the donors of a work of art. the hammer. the veil of St. For instance. Donatallo. invention. the rooster of Peter's denial. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Human figures. and they are also depicted on their own. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the pincers. Veronica. with many further details added. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. trecento rococo and lyrical style. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. it denominates a kind of behaviour. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. In the second half of the 14th century. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). The terms court style. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. there are representations of the bundle of rods. are also used in art literature. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. investiture
. the ability to create. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.g. inventio (It. Derived from classical rhetoric. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. originality. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. or of other saints.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge.
Both and Berchem. although they are usually called Romanists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. who traveled in Italy and. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. bathed in a golden haze. Upon his return to Holland. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Ignatius Loyola in 1534. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Italianizers Northern artists. Jerome's writings. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn.
. and Jan Asselijn. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Andries and Jan Both. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. of Utrecht. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. generally Dutch or Flemish. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Nicolaes Berchem.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. principally Dutch. The Both brothers.
to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. lectern A reading stand or desk. Legenda Aurea (Lat. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. encouraged by the Crusades. liberal arts
. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. John of Jerusalem . the rite of communion is based on this. especially one at which the Bible is read. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. Archbishop of Genoa. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.1519).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.
and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Church (1826-1900). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). its roof supported by columns. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. often sublime. Maria Novella in Florence).grammar. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Heade (1819-1904). astronomy and music. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. loggia (It. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Kensett (1816-1872). rhetoric and dialectic. first the preparatory trivium . a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e.g. Martin J. comprising arithmetic. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.g. through the use of aerial perspective. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. often standing in markets and town squares. that may contain a window. It is related to. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. painting or sculptural decoration. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. together with identifying attributes (e. Tubal for music). then the basis of a philosophical training. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. and Frederick E. a semicircular space.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. the quadrivium. "little moon") In architecture. geometry. poetic atmosphere. that could be used for public ceremonies. Pythagoras for arithmetic.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.
. lunette (Fr. John F. commemorating a marriage. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).
but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). mandorla (It. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. historical subjects. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. for example. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. particularly such ware produced in Italy. active mainly in Florence c. antimony yellow. being written. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. and iron red. but they painted genre scenes. magna mater (Lat. "great mother") A mother goddess. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. the goddess Cybele. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. manganese purple. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and portraits as well as landscapes. and accompaniments. and however bright their lighting effects. Specifically. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. 1855–65.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. originating in Italy in the 14th century. originally sung without accompaniment. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. usually for the lute. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. copper green. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. "almond")
. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. madrigal A part song. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). When white is used for painting.
Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Mannerism (It.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. worn open. the Codex manuscriptus. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. "manner. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Bronzino. marked by flagellation. bound. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. In architecture. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. depending on the social class of the wearer. illuminated initials and miniatures. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. more strictly. complex and crowded compositions. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. often ornamented with decorative borders. Parmigianino. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. It reached to the knee or foot. maniera. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. the hand-written medieval book. and literary texts. strong. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Developing out of the Renaissance. mantle An overcoat. and crowned with thorns. in a specific sense. Flanders. which was quarried at Mount
. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. In Mannerist painting. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Burgundy. ecclesiastical. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. El Greco and Tintoretto.
Carrara. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. particularly by Michelangelo. quarried at Massa. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. the medal's purpose was commemorative. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). proof") the sufferings. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. "witness. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Like the finest Imperial coins. Without monetary value. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. martyrdom (Gk. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. a different design on the reverse. The pure white Carrara marble.Pentelicon in Attica. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medallion In architecture. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. martyrion. marmi finti (It. having finished his training. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn
. an inscription running round the rim. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. which were beginning to be reverently collected. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. sleek surface. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross.
the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. no line drawing is employed. Medusa In Greek mythology. a Gorgon. 1425-1504). 1452-1526/27).
. Ludwig von Siegen. The work of these men. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. often anonymous. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. of the person portrayed on the other side. who reflected them. even grain. c. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. the stress on individual character. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. and of the many. c. for landscapes and portraits. perhaps oddly. Her head features on Minerva's shield. particularly. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa.round the neck. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. In pure mezzotint. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. as it were. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. supposedly to petrify her enemies. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. It was. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. 14601528). The process is essentially extinct today. 1467-688). A Dutch officer. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. in England. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. When Perseus cuts off her head. 1640. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. This yields a soft effect in the print. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello.
1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. miter A high. Parmigianino (d.g. "word.. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. monochrome (Gk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. by Tiepolo and Rubens. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. a branch of the Franciscan order. pointed headdress worn by bishops. a painting executed in a single color. Francis himself. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. often quite highly finished. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. saying")
. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Many such small versions. e. still exist. monokhromatos. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. motto (Ital. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. usually portraits. ink and paint. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. executed on a very small scale. "one color") Painted in a single color. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.
modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Rome. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and is intersected by the transept. and Casino Massimo. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. 1816-17. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. but often insipid. Nazarenes A group of young. naturalism (Fr. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Isidore. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. In 1810 0verbeck.
. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. named after the patron saint of painting. It may have parallel aisles on each side. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. In general.from the Middle Ages. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. often separated from it by pillars. The invention of personal mottos. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Pforr. 1817-29). and two other members moved to Rome. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. nave (from Lat. Berlin. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. navis. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder).
The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Nymphaeum (Gk. the style of the Ancien Régime. nimbus (Lat. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Popes. niello (Lat.)
. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. were usually old when elected. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. is as true as it is notorious. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. nigellus. moreover. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. usually golden. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. "aureole") The disc or halo. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. but their ideas continued to be influential. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay.
having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). or poppy. and its greater tonal range. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. Greek goddesses of Nature. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. observances") Rites performed for the dead. fluted column and a plain capital. obsequia. a small private chapel. O obsequies (Lat. They are seen in the form of the columns. "services. capital. the Doric order. its richness of colour. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. was the simplest. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. such as linseed. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. with a sturdy. The earliest. inborn sin. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail.
. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. orders of architecture In classical architecture. and entablatures.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. a more elaborate base. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. the three basic styles of design. walnut. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach.
1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion.g. with biforate windows. and. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. standing at the foot of the Cross. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. designed as a
. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and the main apartments above. like cities. palazzo (It. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. the Cancelleria). tradition and social structure. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. while shops came to be thought undignified. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. P pala (Ital. Palazzo Strozzi). Alberti described the palace as a city in little. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate.
lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. evolved influential types.g.g. and Palladio's in Vicenza. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. like the colonnaded vestibule. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. cornices and abutments. In Venice. behind a sober Florentine façade. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. palmette. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). and large households. Other cities. like Genoa. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. came to be applied all over Europe. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. e. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Following Oriental patterns. Palazzo Massimi). the architectural pace was set by the papal court. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. panel
. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Movement of patrons and architects. column-caps. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. especially after the Sack of Rome.scholarly retreat. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Papal incentives to build. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Rich. often built next to their titular churches. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments.
This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and dark walnut are favourites. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). cedar. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. larch. In the 20th century cedar. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. linden. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. as distinct from canvas. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. secular rulers. to influence popes in their favour. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. or other rigid substance. The third aspect was administrative. teak. As successors to St Peter. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the. as it were. mahogany. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. however. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and modern painters have also used plywood. and other synthetic materials as supports. and walnut. Many other types were used. could lead to conflict with secular authorities.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Then. To maintain their authority. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. A number of matters. or the incidence of taxation. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. Having a circular plan. including beech. enforce law and order. fir. metal. On a larger scale. and spanned by a single dome. fibre-board. and the pressure and temptations
. slate has occasionally been used as a support. olive. the management of clerical dues and taxation.Term in painting for a support of wood. chestnut. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. so that they might have a voice at court. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa.
and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. was long in doubt. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. from the point of view of its religious associations. as such. the acceptance of the city as the most practical .that could be applied to them. It was argued that such a council. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. There remained. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. Colonna and Caetani. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. however. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. of individuals. if it did no serious damage to the faith. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. would. at Avignon. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. possess an authority which. which seems so inevitable.as well. in spite of further absences from Rome.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. the most appropriate . criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. which met at Constance 1414-18. however. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). however. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. in the eyes of God. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. As at Avignon. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. By then. To resolve the problem of divided authority. to be long delayed. So onerous. could supersede that of a pope. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. considered perfectly suitable for the role played
The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and other animals. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Passion
. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). pastoral (Lat. in classical literature. 400-300 BC). Parrhasius (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. as well as a governmental one. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. through lavish patronage of artists. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. it has also been used for painting. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. less frequently pig. nymphs. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. goat. to a world peopled by shepherds. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. pastor. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and with Zeuxis (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and satyrs.. scholars and men of letters. the creation of a cultural capital. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. However.
The events leading up to Good Friday. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. ornamental building. but not necessarily a direct copy. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. pavilion (Lat. patricius. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. 1478. and so on. "butterfly. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. such as a garden summerhouse. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. projecting either centrally or at both ends. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. and also the archbishop of Pisa. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Francesco Salviati. pastiche (fr. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. a prominent section of a monumental façade. 1478). Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. wealthy citizen. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. papilio. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Portrayals of the Passion. the crown of thorns. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. which focus on the Suffering Christ. a region in north-central Italy. Meanwhile. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. a small. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.
. patrician (Lat. hence tent") A lightly constructed.) or pasticcio (It. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.
that settled the religious conflict in the German states.
. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. or related elements within an art work. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "person". perspective (Lat. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "nature". pergola (It. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. concept or deity.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. pendant (Fr. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. perspicere. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. personification (Lat. and facere. and gnomon. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. persona. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "to see through. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. physis. in particular the face. physiognomy (Gk. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "hanging. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective).
. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. proper to take a landscape from. Peter's. glue. affording a good subject for a landscape. exemplified. to be expressed in painting. both real and painted. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. remarkable for singularity. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it.) The main floor of a building.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigment (Lat. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). pigmentum. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Rome. Pietà (Lat. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St.piano nobile (Ital. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. but full of variety. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. or resin to make paint. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. A pier is generally larger than a column. containing the public rooms. usually above the ground floor. for example. curious details. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil.
which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. and capital. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). outside Tuscany. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. it has a base. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. despite regional variations. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. pilastrum. a shaft. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. since. It is often fluted. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Rocco and Sebastian. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the
. "pillar") A flat. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. also used in Spain's American colonies. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. though in less widespread.pilaster (Lat. in October 1347. however. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. the burning of 'infected' clothing. It seems probable. moreover. such as Florence and Genoa. In the 15th century. Thenceforward. and thereafter all Europe. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. plague Plague. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. During 1348 the Black Death. more sporadic outbreaks. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. it is difficult to find. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. perhaps. For this reason. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. for instance. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts.
Phaedrus. and unified style using massive geometric forms. The first phase. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. The second phase. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. i. or simply the Plateresque. or appropriateness. utilized Mudejar ornament -. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The first phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. are the masterworks of the second style. harmonious. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings.e. A student of Socrates. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. heraldic escutcheons. Philebus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. In contrast with Aristotle. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. more severe. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Timaeus. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Thus empirical science does not have a central role
. the Renaissance-Plateresque. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Phaedo. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). placement. which lasted only a few decades. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. correct classical orders became frequent. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. like its successor. and sinuous scrolls. Diego evolved a purer. the Symposium. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial.. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. composition.
Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. but not completely. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and
. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. the greatest of his ancient disciples. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. near Florence. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Plotinus. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. including those of Plotinus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. systematized and added to what Plato had done.1577) becoming particularly popular. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world.in Plato's thought. replaced Ficino's. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. all of which he also translated into Latin. A new Latin translation. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Iamblichus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and the Chaldaic Oracles. 1472-c. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Rather unsystematic. partially. and he utilized many other writings. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. and Agostino Steuco (c.
Plato was read in the universities. pointed arch In architecture. portico (Lat. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. pluvial (Med. such as processions and consecrations. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Lat. plinthos. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by
. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Frequently supports a pediment. plinth (Gk. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. porticus. as in classical architecture). poluptukhos. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. column. pluviale. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. or statue. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. where a pectoral is used to close it. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. polyptych (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance.
the Carracci. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Group portraits. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. 1328. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Siena. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. flattened image. was revived in the 14th century. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. psychologically more complex. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Campidoglio). such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Colleoni. Palazzo Farnese). and only a decorative accessory to form. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. inessential. Maria Novella.. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. The equestrian portrait.e. Gattarnelata. Desiderio da Settignano.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Mantua. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. The realism of the clear. Florence (1486-90). and the
. Venice). National Gallery). Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Florence. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. decorating whole rooms. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Cathedral) by Uccello. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.
there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Fiamma's sermons. Correggio. primarily the mendicants. from the secular clergy. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. 1494). and. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. not least those of statesmen and prelates. however." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). and Peter Paul Rubens. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. several of whom became bishops. As Poussin was a Frenchman. bishop of Asti." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. are not florid in style. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Borromeo. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). bishop of Chioggia. The styles of S. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. who had as their ideal masters Titian. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Charles Le Brun. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. bishops especially.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. abrasive even. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. minatory exhortations. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). of the sermon as an art form. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The sermons of Visdomini. Savonarola and Musso. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). to discharge their preaching duties. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. was versed in classical and patristic
Naples). Such a polyptych consists of a principal.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. however. and so forth. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. tapestries. The New Testament references in these would. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. presbyterion "Council of Elders")
. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. among them Holman Hunt. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. prefiguration Typology . stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Millais and Rossetti. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).g. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Because of the small size of predelle . Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Louis of Toulouse (1317. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. predella (It. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. though often relatively very wide .rhetoric. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.
The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. projecting shelf on which to kneel. these highly finished drawings. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. profil perdu (Fr. the golden section. again indicative of the purpose they served. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. Fragonard. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the Canon of Proportion. which uses the square
. The following are important: 1. Girardon. the quadrature. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. proportion (Lat. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and Houdon among sculptors. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). intended as complete works of art in themselves. sculpture and architecture. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. "evenness") in painting. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. notably David. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 2. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. proportio. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. 3. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body.
architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. a fifth = 2:3. harmonic proportions. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. 4.
. provenance The origins of an art work. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. Unlike Pozzo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Rome. for example). It was common in Roman art. "boys") Plump naked little boys. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. a fourth = 3:4. and 5. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Ignazio. the steward or treasurer of a church. one half the length of the other). an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. putto (It. triangulation.as a unit of measurement. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. putti sing. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries.
or the Jesuits. relicquiae. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R").Quattrocento (It. hermits. with the Anglican Church developing in England. canons regular. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Donatello. Fra Angelico and others. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. and high relief (alto rilievo). Botticelli. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. e. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. or some item connected with a saint. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. basso rilievo). the great orders of monks. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relief (Lat. Brunelleschi. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relic (Lat. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in particular works by Masaccio. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). in which figures are seen half round. refectory (Med. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. relevare. also known as the Realist school. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. In 16th century Europe. the object of particular veneration. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Lat. Among the
. friars and nuns.g.
and the generally moderate Observants. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Giustina. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Giorgio in Alga. presided over by chapters general. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. their resources being in the hands of trustees. After the repression of the Spirituals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. however.contemplative orders. Venice (1404). In 1504. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. 1012. The same bull
. Bologna (1419). The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. was the congregation of S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Founded by St Romuald c. the Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. At the same time. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. The Silvestrines. Bernardino of Siena. and their more institutionalized brethren. The Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. it became the Cassinese congregation. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. That of S. Maria di Fregonaia. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Benedictines. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations.e. Mantua. Salvatore. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Padua. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. although technically of secular canons. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. who had no overall organization originally. the great patriarch of Venice. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. which was to become the main Italian one. In 1517. Lucca. S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. i. Benedetto. the most notable being S. various groups were fused in the latter body. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries.
founded by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Angela Merici. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. founded in 1535 by S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. the Theatines. Michele in Isola. also. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th
. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Gerolamo Aemiliani. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. a historical period. Filippo Neri. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Gaetano da Thiene. S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. however. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Venice. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. The first. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship.
increasingly. was so vast and potent. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. which had begun early in the 14th century. however. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. as well as political.century. the historical reality of antiquity. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. life. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of 'darkness'. and his own as potentially one of light. too long forgotten glories.
. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). because its core of energy. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Thereafter. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. of scholarship. of arts. 1875-86). of an energetic revival of interest in. however. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. even Amoralism. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. All-Roundness. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. of letters. For long. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. and competition with. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep.
Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica
. in the more limited sense. however. and other liturgical objects. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. etc. let alone a uniform. and is decorated with paintings. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). mobilized nationalism. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. The challenges are to be accepted. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. (3) There is not a true.erased. candlesticks. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. later still to Genoa. of industrialization. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. though sometimes of metal.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). There was an early. the previous record . letters. consist merely of a painting. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. congruence between. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Though thus challenged. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.) was the term chosen. especially in the High Gothic period. sometimes. statues. and mass media. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. etc.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start.with all its shabbiness . Ghent). (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. retables can be detached and. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. gratefully. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. It is for this additional.
has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. is a typical product. Germany. With the development of freestanding altars. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. More usually.
. Originally commissioned in 976. however. like 'Gothic'.of St Mark in Venice. rilievo (It. retables have become extinct. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Louis XV furniture. painting. its mood lighthearted and witry. the St. richly decorated with organic forms. Rococo A style of design. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. in several countries . Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. the first style to achieve such international currency. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Spain . As the name suggests. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). "relief") In painting. and 'Romanesque'. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Italy.France. Romanesque art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.in the 11th century. rocaille (French. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. and architecture dominating the 18th century. literally. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. almost simultaneously.
Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The aim of painting. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. van Heemskerk. they maintained. usually as a result of a visit to Italy.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. stylized design representing an open rose. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rome. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Claude. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Mabuse. Pannini and Mengs. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. such as red ochre. M. B. the development of nationalistic pride.
. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. van Orley. Piranesi. Q. Massys and M. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. In addition. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries.
whose Rappresentazione dei SS. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Written primarily in ottava rima. and Protestant churches. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Clement escaped into Castel S. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Eastern independent. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Sacra Conversazione (It. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. In the
. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. gutted. local saints. confirmation. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints.expressed through gesture. when it finally left the city it had devastated. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. but others were the work of well-known figures. holy orders. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. and impoverished. and anointing of the sick. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. supported by lay confraternities. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. glance and movement . or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable.greatly increased. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. matrimony. There were no limits on time. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Subjects were nominally sacred. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Lorenzo de' Medici. multiple sets used in succession. pious legend and hagiography. Orthodox. the Eucharist. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Many compositions were anonymous. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. from the Old and New Testaments. penance. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents.
make such strict distinctions. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Immediately following baptism.early church the number of sacraments varied.e. that the price of salt should be increased. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. and sacraments. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .) Hall. replaces the Lord's Supper. was not maintained as a sacrament. chapter 13. baptism and the Eucharist. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.. used for drawing. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Thus. the Bentivoglio. Candidates first face west. the sun of righteousness. foot washing. in principle. the symbolic direction of Christ. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. the Rocca Paolina. Saracens
. Lutheran." sala (Ital. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. It is still practiced on special occasions. large room. Salt War. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the Orthodox Church does not. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The classical Protestant churches (i. Anglican. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. sacraments. and then face east. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. strictly speaking. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it." which are called sacramentals.. was buried under a new fortress. as in the Church of the Brethren. They were still seeking aid. The chief focus of discontent. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. notably from Florence and in Germany.e. as an excuse to revolt. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. which in the Gospel According to John. Hence. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.i.
sarcophagus. human-like woodland deities with the ears. The publication of Latin (1562. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. whose writings. legs and horns of a goat. are lost. 360 . Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. and many others. the Arabs or Muslims. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c.c. 270 BC). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. 210 AD). sarcophagi (Gk. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Little known in the Middle Ages.During the Middle Ages. wood or terracotta. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition.c. 45 BC). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. satyr In Greek mythology. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 160 . Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and
. pl. the god of wine. made of stone. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).
1384) and Louis II of Anjou. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. with France and her allies Aragon. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. for. who had the support of the Avignon pope. was called Bamboccio. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. on one side. and. 1386) and his son Ladislas. from time to time both he and his opponents. one of the early leaders. the Florentines. Alexander V. on the other. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. being Frenchmen. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. As a result. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. scholasticism
. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. who recognized the Roman pope. but with little effect. Louis I (d. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. while England. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals.for example Pieter van Laer. in June 1409. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. than their medieval predecessors. Schism. Charles III of Durazzo (d. most of whom.they had individual Bentnames . Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. while devout Christians agonized. In northern Italy. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. However.
in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. textual scholarship. Medieval scholars. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Padua. if lime-water was used. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. the plaster had to be damped before painting. Christian. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. notably Aquinas. as it is easier to add details in this way. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). It was because the central concerns of humanism . and theology. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries.The term is ambivalent. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. (See also: fresco.)
. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.were different from those of medieval. because the secco technique is much less permanent. moreover. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. on one side. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Often called the burning ones. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. history and rhetoric . university-based study. that scholasticism was left. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. as it were. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. As such. None the less. Serenissima (Ital. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. and Islamic literature. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire).moral philosophy. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.
in use since the Middle Ages.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "prophetess") In antiquity. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Servite (Lat. Med. "the most serene republic of Venice").Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. in the period of classical antiquity. which were all identical in thickness. sibyls (Gk. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. and the delicate.. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sfumato A technique. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. term. sinopia
. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Lat. Signoria (It. the number gradually rose to ten. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sibylla. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. at the same time. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. there was only one Sibyl. usually presided over by individual families. brass. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. In Christian legend. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. They first appear in alpine monasteries. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Originally. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. women who could prophesy.
Stanze (Ital.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. in other words. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.'Beautiful Madonnas'. stigma (Gk. "mark. soffit (Lat. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. Ital. especially in the flow of drapery. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. as the name implies. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter.) Wooden ceiling decoration. pronounced as French. sing. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. sotto in sù (It. brand. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Francis of Assisi. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. It is very closely related to International Gothic.. stigmata. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. staffage This word. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. and.
notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. with that for the Picturesque. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. whose verses actually fabrications . In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. pl. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. both external and internal. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). stucco A type of light. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. supremacy
.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Indeed. John Milton. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studiolo. In a looser sense. The vogue for the Sublime. studioli (It.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement.
and. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. The subject is underexplored. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . or cartoons. But the Italians did not make them. temperare. his own headquarters. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.
. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. both for panel painting and fresco. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. i. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. was being decorated with frescoes. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). into Italy. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. chiefly from Flanders. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. These were imported. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. and in literature. doubtless. Salviati and Allori. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.Historically. tempera (Lat. then being replaced by oil paint. 1407). and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Tempera colors are bright and translucent.e. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. London.
The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. and later to subdivide gable ends. model. in the architecture of ancient Rome. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face.terracotta (It. topiary (Gk. triumphal arch. and sculptures. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tondi (It. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topos. theme or motif. "a commonplace") In literature.e. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. vessels. figure of speech. and other surfaces. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. walls. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). topoi (Gk. tondo. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. "fields. quarter face. pl. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. in art. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. widely used form. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. topia. and profile. i. terraferma (Ital. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Trajan's Column
.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. patriarchs and prophets. usually an altarpiece. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. added to the glamour of the triumph. tryptychos. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. behind it. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. triptych (Gk. the wars by which they were won . time and eternity.' Before it go the apostles. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. the military triumph became sublimated.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. "threefold") A painting in three sections.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Trinity (Lat. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. as it were. Disseminated soon after his death. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Battista Sforza. Early triptychs were often portable. a car so brave'. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. after 'a countless number of virgins. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Meanwhile.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. beside it the army of martyrs. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). or wings. fame. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. trinitas. into a number of less controversial forms. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the Son and the Holy Spirit. "threefold") in Christianity. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. chastity. death. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. of virtues and of the arts. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. of both sexes'.
marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In medieval architecture. through various naturalistic devices. it is usually decorated with carvings. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Dating from classical times. enclosed by an arch. first recorded in 1232. often decorated with sculptures. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tusche A thick. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Tudor An obscure Welsh family.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tympanum (Lat. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. viscous black ink. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. It incorporates Renaissance features. typology
. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "drum") In classical architecture. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre.
each had access to his paintings. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. lanterns. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. killer of Holofernes. The numerous candles. where they were most accessible. were popular with them also. Judith. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New.g. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). knew his former patrons. such as five works devoted to the senses. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.A system of classification. slayer of Goliath. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).) The Renaissance "universal man". and David.Dirck van Baburen (c. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . U uomo universale (It. In Christian thought. especially his half-length figural groups. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Their subjects are frequently religious ones. e. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor.
. 1610). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. 1590-1624). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.
Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. and even flowers (which will soon fade). V vanishing point In perspective. often gold. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. carriages.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Also varietas (Lat. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. hour-glasses and clocks. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. the groin vault. and the rib vault. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. snuff boxes and other objects. vanitas (Lat. Vespers (Lat. vesper. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. mixed in. Parisian craftsmen. overturned vessels. it was used to decorate furniture. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. a work's richness of subject matter. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. guttering candles. There are a wide range of forms.). It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. "evening")
. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. varietà (It.
Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Prudence. Fortitude. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. "not exposed to winds". as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Gluttony. and Justice. 'Assume a virtue. Vestibule (Lat. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. actual or latent. if you have it not'. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vita. Envy. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. "life")
. in which the word signifies efficacy. Hope. Anger.Prayers said in the evening. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Charity. Temperance. vimperga Of German origin. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. virtù could be used. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vestibulum. pl. The seven Virtues were: Faith. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. the church service at which these prayers are said. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. vite (Lat. In ancient Roman dwellings. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Lust. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Covetousness. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. and Sloth. for example. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'.
and of Ferrara. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. 1482-84). scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Sculptors and Architects"). or recovery from illness has been made. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. protection from harm. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. Marcus (1st cent. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559.An account of someone's life and work. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. usually when a prayer for good fortune. a biography. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. 1478-80. they were from the 18th century
.g. published in 1550 and 1568. 1472. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and appalled recognition of. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. in fact. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. those of Volterera. Vitruvius Pollio. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. The wars from 1494 do.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. It was intended to have a variety of functions. based on stylization of various animal forms. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. woodcut A print made from a wood block. usually restorers. pompous on the floor above. a philosophy of life. "Western work of art". Westwerk German word. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor.Weltanschauung (Gr.
. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. "world view") A comprehensive world view. during its subsequent history. usually linear. treasury or a place where justice was administered. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. gallery. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design.