A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

"arch") A series of arches supported by columns. architrave (It. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. but in essence the process is as follows. which is fused to the plate by heating. including Goya. arcade (Lat. arcus. There are several variants of the technique. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). design. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. The adjective is apsidal. the lowest part of the entablature). arkhitektonikos. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Also known as an exedra. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Lancet and Tudor.A semicircular projection. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. . In Greek and Roman literature. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. "architectural") Relating to structure. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the darker the tone).e. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. piers or pillars. the moulding around a window or door. Picasso. at the east end of a church behind the altar. and Rouault. architectonic (Gk. or organization. roofed with a half-dome. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The term applies also to a print made by this method. Degas. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.

beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. Dante's Vita nuova . Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. archivolto. "golden. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "begin. attributum.and the Comedy ." from Gk. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. archeiu. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. voltus." and Lat. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. dominate. In the case of martyrs. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.archivolt (Ital. attribute (Lat. aureole (Lat. "front arch. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. usually a saint. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. aureolus. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.

The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. 'Captivity'. the god of wine and fertility. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. baldachin. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). who had been residing in France since 1305. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The actual move was made in 1309. often anecdotal. paintings of everyday life. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. that of Cardano. applied to the physically . Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. in 1377. Later. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. or baldacchino (It. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Six pontificates later.

and abject filthy things. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. a visual metaphor for the number eight. or canopy. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Lebanon. pope between 432 and 440. beggars in rags.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Parma. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. AD 300). As eight follows the "complete" number. el Kantara.. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. a church. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Easter. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. or connected with.g. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Florence. and Epiphany. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. AD 273. banderole (It. . The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. such as those at Pisa. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. set beneath a domical ciborium. built by Sixtus III. Customarily." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Pentecost. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. seven. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. and Poitiers. France. Alg. Baalbek. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. the Temple of Venus. banderuola. Spalato [Split. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. or forecourt. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and Nocera in Italy. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Croatia]. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning.

a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Jules Dupré (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. southeast of Paris. were often omitted entirely. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1810-1865). or baptismal chapels. Rubens). usually facing east. however. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. In architecture. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. in the 1840s and 1850s. 1811-1889). Jean-François Millet (French. Also tunnel vault. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories.an allusion to entering the Christian life. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1807-1876). and increasingly elaborate decoration. Constant Troyon (French. Vermeer). the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. something of earlier symbolism survives. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. barocco. 1817-1878). stoa basilike. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. which is reserved for the clergy. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and thus a church. 1814-1875). Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Théodore Rousseau (French. baptisteries. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and (3) everyday realism. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. basilica (Gk.In the 10th century. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. achieved through scale. 1796-1875). Originally. in its usual location near the church door . "king's hall") a church building. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. . Baroque (Port.

is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. as is to be expected. and often sentimentality. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. 1650 in Spain. By association. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. like their Dutch counterparts. up until the mid-17th century. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). particularly porcelain. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Biscuit porcelain. domesticity. or which is to be left as it is. such as Waldmüller. Bodegónes. There were. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. bodegón Image. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Spanish still-lifes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. also incorrectly called bisque. which is either not yet glazed. especially Spanish. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. were referred to by their specific contents. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. however. It takes its name from its grainy texture. often with food and drink. such as those by Diego Velázquez.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The term was mainly used up to c. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. in which still-life predominates. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Book of Hours . the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists.

and the fact that it is easily workable . buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. bozzetto(Italian.both hot and cold . The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. made as a study for a larger picture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. days of the week. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. though these are more often called 'modelli'. durability. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts.an advantage over marble sculpture. but can also be used for painted sketches. a rapid sketch in oil. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. months. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. bozzetto Strictly speaking. See flying buttress. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. varying from silverish to a rich. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. Chantilly). By extension. . coppery red. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture.by a variety of processes. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. or seasons. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.

Based largely on Roman and Greek art. its forms highly stylized. box") In architecture. "a chest. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Among its most distinctive products were icons. camera obscura . Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. C cabinet A small. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). caisson (Fr. ceramics. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. and work in precious metals. private room where works of art. which was often allegorical. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. cameo Small relief made from gems. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. notable from Syria and Egypt. manuscript illuminations. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). casson. glass. mosaics. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. and Giotto. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Duccio. It also served to glorify the emperor. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure.

usually in a church. as an aid to drawing." and the earliest versions. by the 16th century. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. capital (Lat. usually with several branches or arms. candelabrum (It. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. sing. capitellum. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. usually built beside or attached to a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. dating to antiquity. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. only very rough effects will be obtainable. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. which was usually whitened. Niepce created photography. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. pl. other materials used are cotton. The Latin name means "dark chamber. candela. campanile Bell tower. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. candelabra. followed by smaller and even pocket models. "candle") A large. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. and jute. cantoria. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Portable versions were built. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy).) A gallery for singers or musicians. cantorie (It.Ancestor of the photographic camera. .-N. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. hemp. Structurally. usually decorated. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candlestick.

Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cardinalis. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartone. cartellini In a painting. cartouche . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St.both Italians and artists from other countries . Carmelites (Lat. pl.a humorous drawing or parody. monasteries containing separate hermitages. In fresco painting. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartellino. tapestry. the Carmelites were originally hermits. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. or fresco. cartoon (It. near Grenoble. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . the date of the painting. the endeavour to attain true humanity.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. At the height of the Middle Ages. or a motto. New Charterhouses. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". The order combines reclusive and community life. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. and humanism. details of the subject. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Carthusian Order (Lat. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).

putti (cupids). For reasons lost to time and tradition. The altar is placed at the east end. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. .An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written.) "castle". caryatid (Gk. and many other items of her dowry. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. where the throne of the bishop is placed. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. or arms of the cross. decorated with gilt gesso. or nave. These lead up to the north and south transepts. linen. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. they were also used in other countries. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. In the 15th century. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. They contained the bride's clothes.toward the setting sun. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. palace. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. castello (It. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. cassone (It. and swags of fruit and flowers. a cathedral always faces west . Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Paolo Uccello. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The main body. cathedral (cathedra. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Cascina. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese.

and Islamic literature. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. . and perspicere. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. central perspective (Lat. or birdlike characteristics. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. continually praise him. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. rather than intercessory functions. "in the centre". animal. Both the statement of St. landscapes. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. a throne bearer of the deity. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). centralis. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. a celestial winged being with human. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Relative to the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. champlevé (Fr. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Christian. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. in accordance with their distance from the observer. as celestial attendants of God.

chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. replacing tempera.chiaroscuro (It. North of the Alps. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "light dark") In painting. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. choros. choir (Gk. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Lastly. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Hans Burgkmair (1510). Since Carolingian times. reserved for the clergy to pray together. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. the Order of the Hospital of St. or for choral singing. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. When the contrast of light and dark is strong.

balustrades. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and the Churrigueresque column. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Sculpted clouds. gilded rays. an architect. became the most common motif. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). undulating lines. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and garlands. is as typically Churrigueresque. further enriching the style. reversed volutes. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style.intersect). roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. undulating cornices. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. a massing of carved angels. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Very few still exist in their original positions. The Transparente (completed 1732). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The Mexico cathedral (1718). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and repetition of pattern. ciborium . and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. stucco shells.

and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. They were forbidden to form a trade association. but self-employed. on July 22. ciompi. In reaction to this revolutionary . of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. The new government. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. including the ciompi. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the wool carder Michele di Lando. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. controlled by the minor guilds. craft of dyeing. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. etc. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. beaters. Quattrocento (1400s. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Without being members of a guild. combers. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Then. Members of the lower classes. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. as also were those in the associated. who were raised to the status of a guild.and post-medieval Italy.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. or achieve political representation. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. placing one of their members. Their economic condition worsened. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. High Renaissance). A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising.

writers.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. on which strings were plucked. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. editing and translating a wide range of texts. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). resembling a lyre. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. literature. the ciompi guild was abolished. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. In the 15th century Greek literature. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. and politics. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. scholars patiently finding. changed greatly from one period to the next. clair-obscur (Fr. cithara (Gk. the black contours usually with a special line plate. philosophy. with Italian scholars. .as in Italy these were dispensed with. however.episode. philosophy and art . except in cases where . Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.) An ancient musical instrument. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). Concepts of the classical. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.

were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. compline (Lat. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. pl. Green and red. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. literature or music. a work's underlying theme. concetti (It. those with refined tastes. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottiere. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. . when set side by side. [hora] completa. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. as well as from the Bible. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. pl. concetto. or "contract. arch or ceiling. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). terrorized the country. occasionally made of wood. sing. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. The name was derived from the condotta. Coffered ceilings. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. blue and orange. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. cognoscenti. intensify one another. condottieri (It. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. cognoscente (It. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day.

. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno.devastating Romagna. often called compagnie or. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Spanish. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. which spread in the 15th century. flagellant confraternities. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. disappeared. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. i. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. scuole. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. i. clergy. confraternities Confraternities. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases.e. By the end of the 14th century. Toward the end of the 15th century. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. convents of convertite. With no goal beyond personal gain. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. By the 16th century. or with the spiritual assistance of. in Venice. Martino). Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. often under the direction of. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and German--the condottieri. commonly called either Compagnia di S. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples.e. and Tuscany. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. in the service of Naples. Muzio's son. Francesco Sforza. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Umbria. Mark (1432). in the service of Perugia. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Carmagnola. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. primarily for syphilitics. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. who won control of Milan in 1450. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed.

congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the Florentine Neri. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contour. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. contour (Fr. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement.g. flat outlines. While the Doge ranked above the Council. notwithstanding their location. contours were initially regular. In medieval painting. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . 1514 in S. while the Venetian government. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.i. however. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the highest political decision-making body in Venice.e. in Florence. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. but sometimes had their own premises. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. e. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Later. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. e. founded c. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Confraternities. and refuges for maidens. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary.g. reformed prostitutes. Dorotea in Trastevere. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. contrapposto (It.

and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. declining moral standards. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. 1280). for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. The style spread as far as England. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. conventicle (Lat. whose names are inscribed on several works. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. 1100 and 1300. conventiculurn. did not achieve any lasting results. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Lat.weight on one leg. a bracket of stone. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. They are often ornamented. an engraving produced in this way. corbel In architecture. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. aes cyprium. . Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. cuprum. large cornice or other feature. Reform programs. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen.

he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Carthaginians. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. reedy sound. cupula. or "scourged. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. the most famous victim of crucifixion. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. D dado . An ancestor of the oboe. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the first Christian emperor. Seleucids. Death. a small dome. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Constantine the Great. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. There were various methods of performing the execution.e. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. particularly among the Persians. Jews. after being whipped. Usually." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. cupola (Lat. the condemned man. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. "small vat") In architecture. a semi-circular vault. Next. i.

and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . often an altarpiece. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Deësis (Gk. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Anglican and Orthodox churches. diakonos. danse macabre The dance of death. deacon (Gk. decorated diffrently from the upper section. design") In Renaissance art theory. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Germany. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. The term stresses not the literal drawing. disegno (It.g. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptychos. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. but the concept behind an art work. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. which was help to be the basis of all art. an expressive use of nature. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. "drawing. Gk. e. Passau. a favorite late medieval picture subject. diptych (Lat. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. usually in matching pairs. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. diptychum. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). and Linz possessed common characteristics. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world.

when painters took to working out of doors. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. donator. though a few artists. Dominicans (Lat. formerly worn under armour. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). donor (Lat. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. a 19th-century invention. distemper (Lat.Thomas Aquinas. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. "to mix. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. distemperare. doublet A male garment. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. is a heavy piece of furniture. dome in architecture. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. usually forming a ceiling or roof. As disegno appeals to the intellect. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. such as we still use today. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. also used it on canvas.fully realize. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . which runs on castors or wheels. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Ordo Praedictatorum. The studio easel. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety.

sculpture. a depiction of Jesus. and logos. entablature In classical architecture. fresco. Hence. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. epitaph (Gk. sometimes combining panel painting. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. eschaton. "last". John (19. the frieze. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. and the cornice. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. It consists of the architrave.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. in art. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. full face. and architecture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. en face In portraiture. ensemble (Fr. "word") . the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. eschatology (Gk. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. bound and flogged. Ecce Homo (Lat.

the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. and is named for Faenza. notably Cardinal Pole. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Jerome. Giovanni Morone. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Marcantonio Flaminio. which was developed in the Near East ca. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Carnesecchi and Ochino. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Italy. Vittoria Colonna. . was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Saints Ambrose. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church.death and resurrection." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Contarini. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. celebrated with bread and wine." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which is called "maiolica. Augustine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. eu." and charis. Spain. Germany. and Scandinavia. which was famous for maiolica. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. which is called "delftware. Eucharist (Gk. protector of shepherds. farmers. fields and livestock. 4500 BCE. "good. particularly ware made in France. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. and of the last things.

Only a small area can be painted in a day. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. 2 . Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. frescos in Italy . black and dun. The colour of his horse is white. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. famine and death. Their attributes are the bow. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. fresco (It. Committed to charitable and missionary work. that of the others red. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. can in time be seen. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. fluted of a column or pillar. and these areas. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.festoni (It. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. relaxed. such as plague. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and flowers suspended in a loop. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster.8). leaves. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. sword and set of balances. drying to a slightly different tint. war. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. a technique known as a secco fresco. a swag.

Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. Genius in classical Rome. are genres of painting. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. both in churches and in private and public palaces.Save in Venice. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. or fresco secco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. a person's invisible tutelary god. The technique of buon fresco. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. for example. landscape and portraiture. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. covings and ceilings. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing .) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. usually childish figure. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or true fresco. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. genre In a broad sense. G Garter. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Final details. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. In art from the classical period onwards.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. where the atmosphere was too damp. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the intonaco. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.

The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Maria Gloriosa). gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). whether it must be connected with the public good. Gobelins . as well as writers and artists. and as spurring on men of action. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. in portraits and on tombs. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Bernardo Daddi. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maso di Banco. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. As such.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. how it differed from notoriety. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi.

golden section (Lat. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Golden Fleece. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. and although it reopened in 1699. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. . Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. This ratio is approximately 8:13. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building.French tapestry manufactory. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. still in existence today. Paris. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). who appointed Lebrun Director. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). thereafter it made only tapestries. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. In other Italian cities. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum.

Nevertheless. Gothic Gothic. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. 1270. and lies much deeper than. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. that the effects are to be felt. or the influence of one building. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. the superficial particularities of form. like the cultural and commercial. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. In particular. In thinking of Nicola (d. . gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. painting. from the 13th until the 17th century. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. Amiens. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. There is a transcendental quality.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. painting. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. 1200 and c. c. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. Denis. The artistic. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. In sculpture and in painting.

Canaletto. Honey. Klee. are but different appellations of the same thing'. to silk. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). with sable. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. if required.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. to white or tinted paper and card and. and Piranesi. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. the beau idéal of the French. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Such tours often took a year or more. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. . It is thinned with water for applying. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. occasionally. the Netherlands. starch. These qualities. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Dubuffet. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. sometimes in the company of a tutor.and hog-hair brushes. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and above all Italy. without visible brush marks. and the great style. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. genius. chiefly to France. and taste among the English. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. notably in the writings of Bellori. and Morris Graves. Pannini.

after this.e. brother of Louis IX. After the War of the Eight Saints. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. usually gray. then as now. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. gris. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Although its palace was rebuilt c. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. From 1266 to 1268. In the context of the fine arts. however. In Florence. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. and Waiblingen. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. c. the parties taking a multitude of local names. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. 1216. which had recruited most of the merchant class. to Provence and Paris. grisaille (Fr. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. exclude drawing from this definition. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. In another sense. including text as well as illustrations. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. through central Italy. Some writers. drawing and the various forms of engraving. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. . the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. became an abiding feature of European politics.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. however.

surgeons. H hatching In a drawing. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. notably Florence in the 14th century. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. "herald") . [science] héraldique. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. trades. goldsmiths. héraut. heraldry (Fr. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In some cities. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. print or painting. In some towns. as some did). In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The guilds were not equal. Guilds were also patrons of art. and provided assistance to members in need. or professions. In 16th century Venice. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. but in time they acquired other functions. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute." from Fr. "[knowledge of] heraldry. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. In Florence.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In Italy they go back a long way. and greater hostility between master and man. The guild also monitored standards of work. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. trade or profession (painters. such as Brescia and Vicenza. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. for example. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters.

At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. indeed. head of the 'carnal Church'. the followers of Juan de Valdes. the Waldensian. i. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. the Cathars were an anti-church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. while others merged with the Waldensians. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). The main impact of the . and regarded themselves as forming. they were condemned in 1184. However. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. with the rules governing their use. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. as Antichrist. By contrast. one great missionary community. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. together with brethren north of the Alps. d. normative for churchmen. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. from the start. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks.

Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. B. F. working from 1825 to 1875. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . and. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. George Inness. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Church. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). humanism (Lat. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. mainly in the south. Thomas Cole. Germany. and classical literature. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Kensett. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. American painters were studying in Rome. Durand. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. in his earlier work. Henry Inman. J. the emancipation of man from God took place. humanus. F. Jasper Cropsey. my spouse'. history (usually classical history). 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. At the same time.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. hortus conclusus (Lat. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. its subjects considered morally elevating. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. S. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. In humanism. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Morse. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Frederick E.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. For instance. the ability to create. or of other saints. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. investiture . the scourge that was used in the scourging. the veil of St. Veronica. In the second half of the 14th century. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. it denominates a kind of behaviour. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. originality. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. the hammer. the pincers. and they are also depicted on their own. with many further details added. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Human figures. The terms court style. etc. the rooster of Peter's denial. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). beautiful style. soft style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. invention. Donatallo. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Derived from classical rhetoric. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. there are representations of the bundle of rods. usually the donors of a work of art. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. and the ladder. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns.g. are also used in art literature. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. inventio (It.

Ignatius Loyola in 1534. who traveled in Italy and. although they are usually called Romanists. generally Dutch or Flemish. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Jerome's writings. and Jan Asselijn. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. bathed in a golden haze. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The Both brothers. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Both and Berchem. Upon his return to Holland. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. principally Dutch. Nicolaes Berchem. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. of Utrecht. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. . consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Andries and Jan Both. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes.

L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. liberal arts . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. especially one at which the Bible is read. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Legenda Aurea (Lat. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. the rite of communion is based on this. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. As their military role grew. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). John of Jerusalem . Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. encouraged by the Crusades.1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. lectern A reading stand or desk. Archbishop of Genoa. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.

lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. the quadrivium. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. often sublime. poetic atmosphere. Kensett (1816-1872). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Church (1826-1900). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. that could be used for public ceremonies. together with identifying attributes (e.grammar. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.g. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Maria Novella in Florence). astronomy and music. its roof supported by columns. John F. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. It is related to. commemorating a marriage. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. often standing in markets and town squares.g. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. loggia (It. a semicircular space.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. first the preparatory trivium . characterized by effects of light in landscapes. rhetoric and dialectic. and Frederick E. Pythagoras for arithmetic. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. lunette (Fr. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). painting or sculptural decoration. that may contain a window.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. through the use of aerial perspective. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. geometry. Tubal for music). then the basis of a philosophical training. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. . comprising arithmetic.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Martin J. Heade (1819-1904). "little moon") In architecture.

"almond") . maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). with white provided by the tin-glaze material.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. being written. antimony yellow. the goddess Cybele. originating in Italy in the 14th century. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. manganese purple. copper green. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. and iron red. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. 1855–65. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. for example. and accompaniments. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. mandorla (It. originally sung without accompaniment. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. magna mater (Lat. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Specifically. active mainly in Florence c. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. and portraits as well as landscapes. madrigal A part song. When white is used for painting. historical subjects. and however bright their lighting effects. but they painted genre scenes. usually for the lute. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. "great mother") A mother goddess. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. particularly such ware produced in Italy. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze.

and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. strong. bound. Bronzino. maniera. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. and literary texts. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. depending on the social class of the wearer. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. In Mannerist painting. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Developing out of the Renaissance. worn open. more strictly. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. complex and crowded compositions. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. the hand-written medieval book. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. "manner. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. the Codex manuscriptus. in a specific sense. illuminated initials and miniatures. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. often ornamented with decorative borders. Flanders. which was quarried at Mount . mantle An overcoat. and crowned with thorns. In architecture. sometimes harsh or discordant colors.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. It reached to the knee or foot. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Burgundy. El Greco and Tintoretto. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism (It. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Parmigianino. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. marked by flagellation. ecclesiastical. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion.

"pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. a different design on the reverse. "witness. proof") the sufferings. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. which were beginning to be reverently collected. medallion In architecture. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Without monetary value. martyrdom (Gk. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). marmi finti (It. the medal's purpose was commemorative. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. an inscription running round the rim. quarried at Massa. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. having finished his training. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. particularly by Michelangelo. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Like the finest Imperial coins. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). The pure white Carrara marble. sleek surface. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Carrara.Pentelicon in Attica. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. martyrion. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC.

sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The work of these men. Her head features on Minerva's shield. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. It was. 1452-1526/27). And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Ludwig von Siegen. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. 1640. In pure mezzotint. and of the many. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. for landscapes and portraits. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. When Perseus cuts off her head. of the person portrayed on the other side. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. 1467-688). even grain. often anonymous. as it were. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. . c. particularly. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. supposedly to petrify her enemies. This yields a soft effect in the print. no line drawing is employed. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. who reflected them. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. perhaps oddly. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 1425-1504). Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. 14601528). the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. c. Medusa In Greek mythology. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. A Dutch officer. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto.round the neck. the stress on individual character. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. The process is essentially extinct today. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. in England. a Gorgon.

executed on a very small scale. e. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. usually portraits. Parmigianino (d. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. saying") . a painting executed in a single color. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St.. often quite highly finished. miter A high. by Tiepolo and Rubens. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a branch of the Franciscan order. ink and paint. pointed headdress worn by bishops. motto (Ital. painting in gouache on vellum or card. monokhromatos. "word. still exist. Francis himself. "one color") Painted in a single color. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.g. monochrome (Gk. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. Many such small versions. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch.

In 1810 0verbeck. navis. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. often separated from it by pillars. It may have parallel aisles on each side. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles.from the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. . Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Nazarenes A group of young. but often insipid. and is intersected by the transept. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Berlin. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and Casino Massimo. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. 1817-29). was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. The invention of personal mottos. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and two other members moved to Rome. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. In general. 1816-17. naturalism (Fr. Pforr. Isidore. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. named after the patron saint of painting. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. nave (from Lat. Rome.

the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). but their ideas continued to be influential. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. niello (Lat. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.) .The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. the style of the Ancien Régime. moreover. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). usually golden. is as true as it is notorious. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Nymphaeum (Gk. "aureole") The disc or halo. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. nimbus (Lat. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Popes. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. were usually old when elected. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nigellus.

Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. obsequia. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. such as linseed. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. The earliest. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. inborn sin. the Doric order. and its greater tonal range. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. fluted column and a plain capital. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. or poppy. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). a small private chapel. and entablatures. capital. Greek goddesses of Nature. was the simplest. . The Corinthian order was the most ornate. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. with a sturdy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. orders of architecture In classical architecture. O obsequies (Lat. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. the three basic styles of design. its richness of colour. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a more elaborate base. "services. walnut. They are seen in the form of the columns. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities.

'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. like cities. with biforate windows. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). and. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). Palazzo Strozzi). tradition and social structure.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. P pala (Ital. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.g. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. designed as a . The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. palazzo (It. standing at the foot of the Cross. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and the main apartments above. the Cancelleria). while shops came to be thought undignified. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Usually pointed or rounded at the top.

and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and Palladio's in Vicenza. Palazzo Massimi). Following Oriental patterns. Movement of patrons and architects. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Papal incentives to build. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces.g. especially after the Sack of Rome. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. often built next to their titular churches. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. panel . Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. came to be applied all over Europe. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and large households. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. like Genoa. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. In Venice. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. behind a sober Florentine façade. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Other cities. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Rich. palmette. evolved influential types. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. like the colonnaded vestibule. e. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro).scholarly retreat. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. column-caps.g. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. cornices and abutments.

and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. cedar. and modern painters have also used plywood. the management of clerical dues and taxation. On a larger scale. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. fir. Then. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. To maintain their authority. secular rulers. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). including beech. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. and other synthetic materials as supports. the. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and the pressure and temptations . slate has occasionally been used as a support. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. In the 20th century cedar. as it were. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Having a circular plan. chestnut. fibre-board. however. A number of matters. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. Many other types were used. and walnut. or other rigid substance. and spanned by a single dome. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. so that they might have a voice at court. olive.Term in painting for a support of wood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. The third aspect was administrative. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. metal. mahogany. as distinct from canvas. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. teak.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. larch. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. and dark walnut are favourites. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. enforce law and order. or the incidence of taxation. to influence popes in their favour. linden. As successors to St Peter.

It was argued that such a council. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). There remained. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. however. at Avignon. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. however.that could be applied to them. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. possess an authority which. could supersede that of a pope. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. in the eyes of God. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. however.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. of individuals. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. which seems so inevitable. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. as such. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. So onerous. was long in doubt. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . As at Avignon. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. in spite of further absences from Rome. would. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). which met at Constance 1414-18. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church.as well. if it did no serious damage to the faith. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. By then. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. to be long delayed. from the point of view of its religious associations. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. To resolve the problem of divided authority. the most appropriate . The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Colonna and Caetani.

but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives.. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 400-300 BC). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. pastor. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Passion . nymphs. goat. However. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. to a world peopled by shepherds. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. the creation of a cultural capital. through lavish patronage of artists. it has also been used for painting. pastoral (Lat. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. and satyrs. in classical literature. scholars and men of letters. and with Zeuxis (c. and other animals. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). as well as a governmental one. Parrhasius (c. less frequently pig.

Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. which focus on the Suffering Christ.The events leading up to Good Friday. projecting either centrally or at both ends. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. and also the archbishop of Pisa. Meanwhile. pavilion (Lat. Francesco Salviati. papilio. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. ornamental building. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. 1478). the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. patricius. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. such as a garden summerhouse. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. pastiche (fr. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. 1478. Portrayals of the Passion. the crown of thorns. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. "butterfly. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. a small. wealthy citizen. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. a region in north-central Italy. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble.) or pasticcio (It. . hence tent") A lightly constructed. and so on. patrician (Lat. but not necessarily a direct copy. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.

"hanging. and facere. personification (Lat. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. concept or deity. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. dependent") One of a pair of related art works.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "nature". . often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). and gnomon. pendant (Fr. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "to see through. "person". physis. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. pergola (It. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). that settled the religious conflict in the German states. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. persona. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. perspective (Lat. in particular the face. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. physiognomy (Gk. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. or related elements within an art work. perspicere. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century.

One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. containing the public rooms. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. exemplified. to be expressed in painting. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). or resin to make paint. Rome. for example. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. pigment (Lat. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. pigmentum. striking the imagination with the force of painting.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. glue. remarkable for singularity. but full of variety. A pier is generally larger than a column. proper to take a landscape from.piano nobile (Ital. . Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Pietà (Lat. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. curious details. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. but may consist of a cluster of columns. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Peter's. both real and painted. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire.) The main floor of a building. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. affording a good subject for a landscape. usually above the ground floor. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity.

it has a base. despite regional variations. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Rocco and Sebastian.pilaster (Lat. outside Tuscany. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). such as Florence and Genoa. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. and capital. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . moreover. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. and thereafter all Europe. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. For this reason. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. plague Plague. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. a shaft. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. It is often fluted. pilastrum. perhaps. however. for instance. It seems probable. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. During 1348 the Black Death. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. in October 1347. In the 15th century. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. also used in Spain's American colonies. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. "pillar") A flat. since. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. more sporadic outbreaks. Thenceforward. it is difficult to find. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. though in less widespread.

The first phase. A student of Socrates. the Renaissance-Plateresque.e. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I.. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. In contrast with Aristotle. and sinuous scrolls. or simply the Plateresque. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Diego evolved a purer. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. more severe. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Phaedo. which lasted only a few decades. or appropriateness. heraldic escutcheons. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. the Symposium.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). correct classical orders became frequent. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. composition. i. Timaeus. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. are the masterworks of the second style. Theatetus and the Laws. The second phase. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. harmonious. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. The first phase. Philebus. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. and unified style using massive geometric forms. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. placement. utilized Mudejar ornament -. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. like its successor. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Phaedrus. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Thus empirical science does not have a central role .

1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and Agostino Steuco (c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. 1472-c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. including those of Plotinus. and he utilized many other writings. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'.1577) becoming particularly popular. and the Chaldaic Oracles. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople.in Plato's thought. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Rather unsystematic. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. A new Latin translation. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. partially. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Plotinus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. replaced Ficino's. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. all of which he also translated into Latin. but not completely. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. near Florence. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Iamblichus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts.

or statue. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pluviale. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. poluptukhos. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. pluvial (Med. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . plinth (Gk. pointed arch In architecture. where a pectoral is used to close it. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. portico (Lat. as in classical architecture). such as processions and consecrations. Plato was read in the universities. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. polyptych (Gk. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. column. porticus. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. Lat. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. plinthos. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints.

and only a decorative accessory to form. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. flattened image. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i.. Group portraits. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. The realism of the clear. Palazzo Farnese). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Campidoglio). Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. psychologically more complex. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Colleoni. Mantua. Venice). Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Gattarnelata. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The equestrian portrait. was revived in the 14th century. Cathedral) by Uccello.e. inessential. the Carracci. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. National Gallery). Siena. Florence (1486-90). Maria Novella. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Desiderio da Settignano. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. 1328. and the . whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. decorating whole rooms. Florence.sculptors such as Donatello.

bishop of Chioggia. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. bishops especially. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. and Peter Paul Rubens. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. several of whom became bishops. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. from the secular clergy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Borromeo. Charles Le Brun. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. who had as their ideal masters Titian. The styles of S. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. abrasive even. not least those of statesmen and prelates. The sermons of Visdomini. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Fiamma's sermons. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. together with the Dominican Savonarola. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. of the sermon as an art form. to discharge their preaching duties. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). 1494). Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Savonarola and Musso. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. minatory exhortations. bishop of Asti. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). but 16th century ones were more cautious here. are not florid in style. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. primarily the mendicants.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. and. however. Correggio. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. was versed in classical and patristic .

had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. and so forth. Naples). tapestries. The New Testament references in these would. prefiguration Typology . among them Holman Hunt. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).g. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Louis of Toulouse (1317. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). predella (It.rhetoric. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. though often relatively very wide . disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Because of the small size of predelle . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . however. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Millais and Rossetti. the temptations of Adam and Christ.

again indicative of the purpose they served. the quadrature. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. sculpture and architecture. Prix de Rome A scholarship. which uses the square . "evenness") in painting. 3. the Canon of Proportion. these highly finished drawings. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. intended as complete works of art in themselves. and Houdon among sculptors. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. profil perdu (Fr. 2.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Girardon. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Fragonard. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. proportio. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The following are important: 1. the golden section. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. notably David. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. proportion (Lat.

in whose celebrated ceiling in S. 4. a fifth = 2:3. a fourth = 3:4. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Ignazio. putto (It. It was common in Roman art. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Unlike Pozzo. for example). many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putti sing. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. harmonic proportions. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. . "boys") Plump naked little boys. one half the length of the other). most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. provenance The origins of an art work. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. triangulation. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Rome. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. and 5.

the great orders of monks. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. basso rilievo). Brunelleschi. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. relic (Lat. e. or some item connected with a saint. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Lat. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. in which figures are almost detached from their background. refectory (Med. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). relevare.g. canons regular. with the Anglican Church developing in England. also known as the Realist school. friars and nuns. Donatello. In 16th century Europe. Among the . in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the object of particular veneration. Botticelli. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relicquiae. or the Jesuits. hermits. and high relief (alto rilievo). Fra Angelico and others. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. relief (Lat. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). in which figures are seen half round. in particular works by Masaccio. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission.Quattrocento (It. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order.

they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. various groups were fused in the latter body. Padua. who had no overall organization originally.contemplative orders. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. and the generally moderate Observants. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. and their more institutionalized brethren. At the same time. the most notable being S. The Silvestrines. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. After the repression of the Spirituals. 1012. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. was the congregation of S. The Benedictines. Maria di Fregonaia. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. In 1517. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Venice (1404). they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Bernardino of Siena. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Founded by St Romuald c. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. presided over by chapters general. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. That of S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Mantua. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Conventuals. which was to become the main Italian one. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. S. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. The same bull . their resources being in the hands of trustees. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Benedetto. Giorgio in Alga. Salvatore. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. although technically of secular canons. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. however. Bologna (1419). i. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Giustina. the Conventuals. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. it became the Cassinese congregation. In 1504. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.e. the great patriarch of Venice. Lucca.

the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Michele in Isola. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. founded in 1535 by S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Angela Merici. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. The first. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Filippo Neri. a historical period. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Venice. Gerolamo Aemiliani. S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. also. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. however. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the Theatines. Gaetano da Thiene. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. founded by S.

the historical reality of antiquity. life. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. was so vast and potent. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. however. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. which had begun early in the 14th century. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came).century. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of an energetic revival of interest in. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. and his own as potentially one of light. too long forgotten glories. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. of scholarship. and competition with. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. For long. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. even Amoralism. increasingly. because its core of energy. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. of 'darkness'. as well as political. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. All-Roundness. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of arts. however. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. of letters. Thereafter. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). 1875-86). .

in the more limited sense. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. sometimes. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. candlesticks. and mass media. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. etc. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. consist merely of a painting. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. There was an early. Cathedral of SaintBavon. though sometimes of metal. the previous record . subjective reason a term to be used with caution. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. mobilized nationalism.erased. and is decorated with paintings. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. however. retables can be detached and. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). etc. gratefully.) was the term chosen. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. The challenges are to be accepted. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. later still to Genoa. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. (3) There is not a true. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. It is for this additional. statues. letters. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. and other liturgical objects. of industrialization. Though thus challenged. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. congruence between. let alone a uniform.with all its shabbiness . Ghent). especially in the High Gothic period. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.

and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. the first style to achieve such international currency. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Rococo A style of design. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Italy. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. "relief") In painting. . its mood lighthearted and witry. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. and 'Romanesque'. in several countries .of St Mark in Venice. the St. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.France.in the 11th century. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. literally. Originally commissioned in 976. is a typical product. Louis XV furniture. richly decorated with organic forms. With the development of freestanding altars. however. Spain . retables have become extinct. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. As the name suggests. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Romanesque art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). More usually. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. and architecture dominating the 18th century. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Germany. rocaille (French. like 'Gothic'. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. rilievo (It. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. painting. almost simultaneously.

such as red ochre. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. van Heemskerk. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. In addition.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. they maintained. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Pannini and Mengs. B. The aim of painting. stylized design representing an open rose. the development of nationalistic pride. Rome. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. M. Q. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). ruddle Any red-earth pigment. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Massys and M. . Mabuse. Claude. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. van Orley. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Piranesi.

and anointing of the sick. penance. but others were the work of well-known figures. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. glance and movement . supported by lay confraternities. In the . Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. There were no limits on time. matrimony. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Clement escaped into Castel S. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and impoverished. Eastern independent. from the Old and New Testaments. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). multiple sets used in succession. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Subjects were nominally sacred. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. and Protestant churches.greatly increased. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Written primarily in ottava rima. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. when it finally left the city it had devastated. and Lorenzo de' Medici. local saints.expressed through gesture. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Orthodox. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. holy orders. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Sacra Conversazione (It. confirmation. gutted. pious legend and hagiography. Many compositions were anonymous. the Eucharist. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy.

though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. the sun of righteousness. which in the Gospel According to John. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit." which are called sacramentals. The theology of the Orthodox Church. chapter 13. The classical Protestant churches (i. sacraments. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Bentivoglio. as an excuse to revolt. baptism and the Eucharist. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. notably from Florence and in Germany. Lutheran. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. make such strict distinctions.e.e. the Rocca Paolina. was buried under a new fortress. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.) Hall. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. Immediately following baptism. Hence. They were still seeking aid. The chief focus of discontent. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. large room. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology.early church the number of sacraments varied. was not maintained as a sacrament. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.i." sala (Ital. the Orthodox Church does not. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. and then face east. Salt War. in principle. strictly speaking. and sacraments. Anglican. as in the Church of the Brethren. the symbolic direction of Christ. Saracens . foot washing. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. used for drawing. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Thus. replaces the Lord's Supper. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Candidates first face west. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. that the price of salt should be increased. It is still practiced on special occasions..

The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. human-like woodland deities with the ears. whose writings. Little known in the Middle Ages. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.c. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . The publication of Latin (1562. are lost. sarcophagus.c. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). pl. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 210 AD). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. made of stone. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. legs and horns of a goat. 45 BC). 270 BC). sarcophagi (Gk. 360 . the Arabs or Muslims. 160 . Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. wood or terracotta. satyr In Greek mythology. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. and many others.During the Middle Ages. the god of wine. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus.

Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. while devout Christians agonized. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. for. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. As a result. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on one side. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. being Frenchmen. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. was called Bamboccio. while England. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who recognized the Roman pope. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. In northern Italy. on the other. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Schism. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome.for example Pieter van Laer. Charles III of Durazzo (d. scholasticism . flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Alexander V. Louis I (d. from time to time both he and his opponents. than their medieval predecessors.they had individual Bentnames . having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. most of whom. the Florentines. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. one of the early leaders. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. However. in June 1409. 1386) and his son Ladislas. with France and her allies Aragon. and. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. but with little effect. who had the support of the Avignon pope. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope.

As such. notably Aquinas. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. Often called the burning ones.) . as it were. history and rhetoric . textual scholarship. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Padua. Medieval scholars. the plaster had to be damped before painting. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. because the secco technique is much less permanent. university-based study. Serenissima (Ital. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought.were different from those of medieval. moreover. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. that scholasticism was left. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. as it is easier to add details in this way. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. and Islamic literature. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. None the less. Christian.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.moral philosophy. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. on one side.The term is ambivalent. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. (See also: fresco. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. and theology. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. It was because the central concerns of humanism . if lime-water was used. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.

sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. brass. Sibyls foretold the Birth. and the delicate. sinopia . sibylla. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Servite (Lat. In Christian legend. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. in the period of classical antiquity. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Lat. "prophetess") In antiquity. sfumato A technique. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. an expression of Venetian self-confidence.. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. usually presided over by individual families. Signoria (It. the number gradually rose to ten. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Originally. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Med. at the same time. sibyls (Gk. women who could prophesy. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. They first appear in alpine monasteries. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. in use since the Middle Ages. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. term. there was only one Sibyl. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. which were all identical in thickness. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12.

hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries.. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. soffit (Lat. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. and. in other words. Francis of Assisi. staffage This word. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. Stanze (Ital. "mark. stigma (Gk. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. especially in the flow of drapery. Ital.) Wooden ceiling decoration. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.'Beautiful Madonnas'. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. brand. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. stigmata. sing. pronounced as French. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. as the name implies. It is very closely related to International Gothic. sotto in sù (It. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. . the red chalk used to make such a drawing. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.

Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. both external and internal. The vogue for the Sublime. John Milton. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. whose verses actually fabrications . stucco A type of light. supremacy . but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studioli (It. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. with that for the Picturesque.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). studiolo. In a looser sense. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. pl. Indeed.

then being replaced by oil paint. Salviati and Allori. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. and in literature. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. 1407). Tempera colors are bright and translucent. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. or cartoons.Historically. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael.and. was being decorated with frescoes. London. temperare. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.e. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. both for panel painting and fresco. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The subject is underexplored. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). . many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. doubtless. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. into Italy. his own headquarters. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. But the Italians did not make them. i. These were imported. chiefly from Flanders. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tempera (Lat.

in the architecture of ancient Rome. in art. tondo. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. topiary (Gk. and later to subdivide gable ends. quarter face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "a commonplace") In literature. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. and profile. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child.e. widely used form. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. theme or motif. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. i. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. figure of speech. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. and other surfaces. triumphal arch. and sculptures. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. tondi (It. terraferma (Ital. walls. topia. pl. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. pl. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topoi (Gk. vessels. Trajan's Column . topos. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). model.terracotta (It. "fields.

The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Battista Sforza. patriarchs and prophets. the Son and the Holy Spirit. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. beside it the army of martyrs. of both sexes'.' Before it go the apostles. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. tryptychos. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. triptych (Gk. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. behind it. as it were. Disseminated soon after his death. or wings. death. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. a car so brave'. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Trinity (Lat. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. fame. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. added to the glamour of the triumph. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. . chastity. Early triptychs were often portable. after 'a countless number of virgins. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . trinitas. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. time and eternity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. into a number of less controversial forms. the wars by which they were won . Meanwhile.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. of virtues and of the arts. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. usually an altarpiece. the military triumph became sublimated. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. "threefold") in Christianity.

the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It incorporates Renaissance features. Dating from classical times. often decorated with sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). through various naturalistic devices. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. tympanum (Lat. first recorded in 1232. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tusche A thick. tromp l'oeil (Fr. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. In medieval architecture. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. enclosed by an arch. typology . marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. it is usually decorated with carvings. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. "drum") In classical architecture. viscous black ink.

such as five works devoted to the senses. The numerous candles. lanterns. . where they were most accessible. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. especially his half-length figural groups. knew his former patrons. each had access to his paintings. U uomo universale (It.Dirck van Baburen (c. and David. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). slayer of Goliath. e. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.A system of classification. In Christian thought. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).g. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. 1590-1624). were popular with them also. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.) The Renaissance "universal man". and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. killer of Holofernes. 1610). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Judith. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.

the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. vanitas (Lat. a work's richness of subject matter. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. the groin vault. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. often gold. guttering candles. mixed in. it was used to decorate furniture. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. hour-glasses and clocks. varietà (It. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. overturned vessels. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.). Parisian craftsmen. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. snuff boxes and other objects. and even flowers (which will soon fade). "evening") . and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. There are a wide range of forms. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. V vanishing point In perspective. vesper. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Vespers (Lat. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. Also varietas (Lat. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and the rib vault. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls.

and Sloth. in which the word signifies efficacy. Temperance. Charity. vimperga Of German origin. vestibulum. vita. 'Assume a virtue. Lust. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. vite (Lat. actual or latent. the church service at which these prayers are said. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. and Justice. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. "not exposed to winds". Anger. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The seven Virtues were: Faith.Prayers said in the evening. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. "life") . Prudence. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. for example. Gluttony. Hope. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. In ancient Roman dwellings. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Fortitude. virtù could be used. Vestibule (Lat. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Covetousness. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. if you have it not'. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. pl. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Envy. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'.

An account of someone's life and work. those of Volterera. 1472. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Vitruvius Pollio. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. published in 1550 and 1568. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. Marcus (1st cent.g. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. or recovery from illness has been made. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. in fact. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1478-80. a biography. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. they were from the 18th century . Sculptors and Architects"). and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1482-84). 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. and of Ferrara. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. usually when a prayer for good fortune. and appalled recognition of. protection from harm. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. The wars from 1494 do.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

"Western work of art". usually linear. Westwerk German word. "world view") A comprehensive world view. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. pompous on the floor above. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. It was intended to have a variety of functions. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. a philosophy of life. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. . usually restorers. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. woodcut A print made from a wood block. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.Weltanschauung (Gr. based on stylization of various animal forms. during its subsequent history. treasury or a place where justice was administered. gallery.

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