A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

arkhitektonikos. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). The term applies also to a print made by this method. architrave (It. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Degas. "architectural") Relating to structure. Picasso. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. at the east end of a church behind the altar. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. roofed with a half-dome. . "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. Lancet and Tudor. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. which is fused to the plate by heating. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The adjective is apsidal. piers or pillars. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. or organization. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). the lowest part of the entablature). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture.A semicircular projection. but in essence the process is as follows. In Greek and Roman literature. arcus. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. arcade (Lat. the darker the tone).e. design. architectonic (Gk. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. and Rouault. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Also known as an exedra. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the moulding around a window or door. There are several variants of the technique. including Goya.

beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. archivolto." from Gk. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. attributum.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. attribute (Lat. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. voltus. "begin. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. usually a saint. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . archeiu. aureole (Lat. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.archivolt (Ital. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements.and the Comedy . In the case of martyrs. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "front arch. Dante's Vita nuova . "golden. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. dominate. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . Ars Moriendi (Lat. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages." and Lat. aureolus. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century.

All the popes elected at Avignon were French.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Six pontificates later. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. applied to the physically . who had been residing in France since 1305. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. paintings of everyday life. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Later. the god of wine and fertility. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. that of Cardano. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The actual move was made in 1309. in 1377. baldachin. 'Captivity'. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. often anecdotal. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. or baldacchino (It. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.

the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. such as those at Pisa. Croatia]. . so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. AD 300). Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). banderuola. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Spalato [Split. or connected with. Florence. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. a visual metaphor for the number eight. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. or canopy. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. banderole (It. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and Epiphany. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. set beneath a domical ciborium. and Nocera in Italy. AD 273. seven. and abject filthy things. or forecourt. and Poitiers.g. Lebanon. pope between 432 and 440. the Temple of Venus. Pentecost. Alg.. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Baalbek. As eight follows the "complete" number. built by Sixtus III.. beggars in rags. Parma. a church. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. el Kantara. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Customarily. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. France. Easter.

1811-1889). barocco. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750.an allusion to entering the Christian life. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. or baptismal chapels. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). the dramatic use of light and shadow. Originally. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. however. baptisteries. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Théodore Rousseau (French. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Baroque (Port. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. achieved through scale. . something of earlier symbolism survives. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1807-1876). usually facing east. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. "king's hall") a church building. Constant Troyon (French. basilica (Gk. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. 1796-1875). stoa basilike. which is reserved for the clergy. were often omitted entirely. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Also tunnel vault. southeast of Paris. and thus a church. Jules Dupré (French.In the 10th century. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In architecture. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Rubens). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. in the 1840s and 1850s. in its usual location near the church door . 1817-1878). and (3) everyday realism. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Jean-François Millet (French. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1810-1865). 1814-1875). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Vermeer).

Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). also incorrectly called bisque. however. particularly porcelain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. bodegón Image. The term was mainly used up to c. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. 1650 in Spain. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. up until the mid-17th century. domesticity. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. in which still-life predominates. Book of Hours . Bodegónes. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). or which is to be left as it is.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. especially Spanish. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. often with food and drink. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. such as those by Diego Velázquez. and often sentimentality. It takes its name from its grainy texture. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. There were. such as Waldmüller.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. were referred to by their specific contents. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes. which is either not yet glazed. as is to be expected. like their Dutch counterparts. Biscuit porcelain. By association. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes.

sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. varying from silverish to a rich. a rapid sketch in oil. . but can also be used for painted sketches. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. Chantilly). They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. bozzetto Strictly speaking. By extension. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. days of the week. coppery red. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work.both hot and cold . though these are more often called 'modelli'. durability. made as a study for a larger picture.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.an advantage over marble sculpture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. or seasons. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. months. bozzetto(Italian. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.by a variety of processes. See flying buttress. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . and the fact that it is easily workable . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.

a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. casson. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. ceramics. C cabinet A small. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. private room where works of art. camera obscura . mosaics. caisson (Fr. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). "a chest. It also served to glorify the emperor. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. glass. its forms highly stylized. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Duccio. and Giotto. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. which was often allegorical. manuscript illuminations. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. box") In architecture. notable from Syria and Egypt. and work in precious metals. cameo Small relief made from gems. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.

both of which have richly carved marble panels. dating to antiquity. other materials used are cotton. pl. campanile Bell tower. usually decorated. . The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. which was usually whitened. "candle") A large. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. and jute. candelabrum (It. Niepce created photography. capital (Lat. capitellum. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candlestick. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. followed by smaller and even pocket models. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. usually built beside or attached to a church. usually with several branches or arms. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports.-N. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. cantorie (It. which isolates the fabric from the paint. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. as an aid to drawing." and the earliest versions.) A gallery for singers or musicians. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. usually in a church. Structurally. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. hemp. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candelabra. by the 16th century. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. Portable versions were built. cantoria. The Latin name means "dark chamber. sing. candela. only very rough effects will be obtainable.

near Grenoble. In fresco painting. monasteries containing separate hermitages. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Carthusian Order (Lat. or a motto. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. pl. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Carmelites (Lat. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). the date of the painting. or fresco. cartoon (It. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters .who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. the Carmelites were originally hermits. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartellini In a painting. cardinalis. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. The order combines reclusive and community life. New Charterhouses. Fortitudo (Fortitude). At the height of the Middle Ages.a humorous drawing or parody. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. details of the subject. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). the endeavour to attain true humanity. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites.both Italians and artists from other countries . From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . cartone. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. and humanism. cartouche . tapestry. cartellino. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St.

and swags of fruit and flowers. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. they were also used in other countries. a cathedral always faces west . For reasons lost to time and tradition. They contained the bride's clothes. or arms of the cross. palace. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. The main body. decorated with gilt gesso. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. linen. cathedral (cathedra. caryatid (Gk. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. where the throne of the bishop is placed. or nave. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. The altar is placed at the east end. Paolo Uccello. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Cascina. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. In the 15th century.toward the setting sun. . the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.) "castle". and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. putti (cupids). and many other items of her dowry. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. cassone (It. castello (It. Worked on at intervals 1504-06.

The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. landscapes. a throne bearer of the deity. and Islamic literature. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. a celestial winged being with human. Both the statement of St. as celestial attendants of God. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. "in the centre". cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. central perspective (Lat. Christian. in accordance with their distance from the observer. continually praise him. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. rather than intercessory functions. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Relative to the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. and perspicere. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. centralis. champlevé (Fr. . or birdlike characteristics. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. animal.

" Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "light dark") In painting. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Since Carolingian times. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. Lastly. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. or for choral singing. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. replacing tempera. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. the Order of the Hospital of St. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Hans Burgkmair (1510). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges.chiaroscuro (It. choir (Gk. choros. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. reserved for the clergy to pray together. North of the Alps. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades.

gilded rays. balustrades. reversed volutes. Very few still exist in their original positions. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The Mexico cathedral (1718). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. undulating lines. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. ciborium . an architect. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. further enriching the style. and the Churrigueresque column. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. became the most common motif. a massing of carved angels.intersect). and garlands. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. The Transparente (completed 1732). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. undulating cornices. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. stucco shells. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Sculpted clouds. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and repetition of pattern. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. is as typically Churrigueresque. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. which was shaped like an inverted cone.

popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. the wool carder Michele di Lando. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. on July 22. High Renaissance). Then. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. or achieve political representation. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Quattrocento (1400s. In reaction to this revolutionary . in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. They were forbidden to form a trade association. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. as also were those in the associated.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. etc. including the ciompi. Their economic condition worsened.and post-medieval Italy. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. The new government. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. placing one of their members. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. ciompi. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. but self-employed. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. who were raised to the status of a guild. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. craft of dyeing. Without being members of a guild. controlled by the minor guilds. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. beaters. combers. Members of the lower classes. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June.

classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). the ciompi guild was abolished. . literature.as in Italy these were dispensed with. resembling a lyre. with Italian scholars.episode. changed greatly from one period to the next. editing and translating a wide range of texts. the black contours usually with a special line plate. and politics. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. scholars patiently finding.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.) An ancient musical instrument. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). In the 15th century Greek literature. on which strings were plucked. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. however. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. except in cases where . Concepts of the classical. writers. cithara (Gk. philosophy. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. philosophy and art . clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. clair-obscur (Fr.

were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. a work's underlying theme. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. . [hora] completa. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Coffered ceilings. literature or music. sing. intensify one another. cognoscente (It. condottieri (It. when set side by side. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. or "contract. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. arch or ceiling. concetti (It. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Green and red." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. concetto. pl. pl. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. condottiere. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. compline (Lat. as well as from the Bible. cognoscenti. terrorized the country. those with refined tastes. The name was derived from the condotta. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. the church service at which these prayers are said. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. blue and orange.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. occasionally made of wood.

one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Muzio's son. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. or with the spiritual assistance of. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri.e. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Francesco Sforza. Umbria. Spanish. Toward the end of the 15th century. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. scuole. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. who won control of Milan in 1450. primarily for syphilitics. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. disappeared. and German--the condottieri. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Martino). clergy. i.e. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. and Tuscany. By the 16th century. Carmagnola. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. which spread in the 15th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. commonly called either Compagnia di S. i. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Mark (1432). often under the direction of. . With no goal beyond personal gain. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. in Venice. confraternities Confraternities. often called compagnie or. flagellant confraternities. convents of convertite. in the service of Perugia.devastating Romagna. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. in the service of Naples. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. By the end of the 14th century. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S.

in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Dorotea in Trastevere. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the Florentine Neri. contour. notwithstanding their location. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . In medieval painting. 1514 in S. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. which accompanied condemned prisoners. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. while the Venetian government. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. in Florence. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Later. contrapposto (It. reformed prostitutes. contours were initially regular. contour (Fr. flat outlines.g. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership).i. founded c. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy.g. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. e. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the Venetian parliament of noblemen.e. and refuges for maidens. however. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. e. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Confraternities. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. but sometimes had their own premises.

In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. an engraving produced in this way. . Reform programs. 1100 and 1300. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. aes cyprium. declining moral standards. The style spread as far as England. 1280). but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. conventiculurn. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. conventicle (Lat. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. started the process of inner reform in the Church. did not achieve any lasting results. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. large cornice or other feature. Lat. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. whose names are inscribed on several works. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. They are often ornamented. Copperplate engraving (late Lat.weight on one leg. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. cuprum. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). a bracket of stone. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. corbel In architecture. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch.

An ancestor of the oboe. reedy sound. There were various methods of performing the execution. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the condemned man. particularly among the Persians. cupola (Lat. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. or "scourged. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Carthaginians. D dado . Death. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life.e. Jews. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. a semi-circular vault. i. Next. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. cupula. "small vat") In architecture. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Seleucids. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the most famous victim of crucifixion. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. the first Christian emperor. after being whipped. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Usually." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. a small dome.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Constantine the Great. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime.

Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Germany. Deësis (Gk. design") In Renaissance art theory. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Gk. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. disegno (It. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety.g. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Passau. and Linz possessed common characteristics. but the concept behind an art work. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Anglican and Orthodox churches. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. an expressive use of nature. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "drawing. diptych (Lat.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. diptychos. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . The term stresses not the literal drawing. e. diakonos. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. often an altarpiece. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. which was help to be the basis of all art. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. deacon (Gk. decorated diffrently from the upper section. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. a favorite late medieval picture subject. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diptychum. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. danse macabre The dance of death. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. usually in matching pairs. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room.

which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. also used it on canvas. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. when painters took to working out of doors. formerly worn under armour. Ordo Praedictatorum. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . donor (Lat. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. usually forming a ceiling or roof. is a heavy piece of furniture. distemper (Lat. distemperare. which runs on castors or wheels. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Dominicans (Lat.Thomas Aquinas. such as we still use today. The studio easel. though a few artists. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. "to mix. a 19th-century invention. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC).fully realize. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. dome in architecture. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). As disegno appeals to the intellect. donator. doublet A male garment.

the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. the frieze. full face. and logos. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. en face In portraiture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. ensemble (Fr. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "word") . sometimes combining panel painting. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. John (19. epitaph (Gk. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. sculpture. It consists of the architrave. and the cornice. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. bound and flogged. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. a depiction of Jesus. "last". The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschaton. in art. and architecture. Hence. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. fresco. entablature In classical architecture. eschatology (Gk. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. Ecce Homo (Lat.

Saints Ambrose. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. celebrated with bread and wine. and of the last things. Marcantonio Flaminio. Augustine. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Italy. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. eu. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. "good. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. which was famous for maiolica." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Jerome." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Carnesecchi and Ochino. particularly ware made in France. and also to Giulia Gonzaga." and charis.death and resurrection. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Spain. and Scandinavia. Eucharist (Gk. Contarini. which is called "delftware. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Giovanni Morone. notably Cardinal Pole. and is named for Faenza. Vittoria Colonna. Germany. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. which was developed in the Near East ca. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. fields and livestock. farmers. which is called "maiolica. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. 4500 BCE. protector of shepherds. . Equated with the Greek god Pan.

Committed to charitable and missionary work. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fluted of a column or pillar. and flowers suspended in a loop. fresco (It. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. such as plague. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Only a small area can be painted in a day. The colour of his horse is white. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo.festoni (It. and these areas. a swag. sword and set of balances. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Their attributes are the bow. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. famine and death. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. 2 . relaxed. black and dun. can in time be seen. drying to a slightly different tint. a technique known as a secco fresco. war. that of the others red. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). leaves. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.8). Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. frescos in Italy .

the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. the intonaco. both in churches and in private and public palaces. usually childish figure. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Final details. for example. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or fresco secco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or true fresco. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. Genius in classical Rome. In art from the classical period onwards. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. where the atmosphere was too damp. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. G Garter.Save in Venice. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. a person's invisible tutelary god. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. landscape and portraiture. are genres of painting. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. genre In a broad sense. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. and to a lesser extent for tapestries.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. The technique of buon fresco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. covings and ceilings. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.

Maria Gloriosa). and as spurring on men of action. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. whether it must be connected with the public good. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. in portraits and on tombs. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Maso di Banco. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Bernardo Daddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Gobelins . as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. As such. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. how it differed from notoriety. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as well as writers and artists. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition.

Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. thereafter it made only tapestries. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Paris. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. This ratio is approximately 8:13. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture.French tapestry manufactory. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. golden section (Lat. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Golden Fleece. . In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. and although it reopened in 1699. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. who appointed Lebrun Director. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. still in existence today. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In other Italian cities. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building.

is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. from the 13th until the 17th century. Amiens. like the cultural and commercial. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. The artistic. 1270. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. In sculpture and in painting. the superficial particularities of form. There is a transcendental quality. Nevertheless. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. In thinking of Nicola (d. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. or the influence of one building. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. . The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. c. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. painting. 1200 and c. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. painting. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Denis. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and lies much deeper than. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. Gothic Gothic. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. that the effects are to be felt. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. In particular.

His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and the great style. notably in the writings of Bellori. occasionally. Honey. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. genius. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and taste among the English. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Such tours often took a year or more. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. without visible brush marks. Klee. to white or tinted paper and card and. and above all Italy. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. . the beau idéal of the French. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. These qualities. are but different appellations of the same thing'. to silk. and Piranesi. Dubuffet. and Morris Graves. starch. chiefly to France. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It is thinned with water for applying. Canaletto. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. the Netherlands.and hog-hair brushes. Pannini. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. with sable. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. sometimes in the company of a tutor. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. if required.

the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. grisaille (Fr. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In Florence. however. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. which had recruited most of the merchant class. however. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire.e. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. after this. brother of Louis IX. then as now. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. usually gray. gris. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. and Waiblingen. internal factions in Florence went under other names.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. exclude drawing from this definition. . Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. In the context of the fine arts. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Some writers. to Provence and Paris. Although its palace was rebuilt c. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the parties taking a multitude of local names. through central Italy. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. became an abiding feature of European politics. including text as well as illustrations. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. From 1266 to 1268. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. c. In another sense. 1216. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers.

[science] héraldique. In some cities. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. such as Brescia and Vicenza. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. "[knowledge of] heraldry. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. but in time they acquired other functions. for example. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. or professions. The guilds were not equal. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. The guild also monitored standards of work. trades. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. surgeons. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In some towns. "herald") . they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In Florence." from Fr. Guilds were also patrons of art. notably Florence in the 14th century. héraut. and provided assistance to members in need. In Italy they go back a long way. heraldry (Fr. In 16th century Venice. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. goldsmiths. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. and greater hostility between master and man. as some did). trade or profession (painters. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. H hatching In a drawing. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. print or painting. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts.

d. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. indeed. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. i. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. as Antichrist. The main impact of the . One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. together with brethren north of the Alps. normative for churchmen. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. one great missionary community. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. with the rules governing their use. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. from the start. the Cathars were an anti-church. while others merged with the Waldensians. head of the 'carnal Church'. they were condemned in 1184. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. the Waldensian. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. However. and regarded themselves as forming. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. the followers of Juan de Valdes. By contrast.

movement upon the laity was in southern France. Henry Inman. Kensett. my spouse'. George Inness. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. the emancipation of man from God took place. in his earlier work. At the same time. Morse. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. history (usually classical history). his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. hortus conclusus (Lat. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. its subjects considered morally elevating. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Church. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and classical literature. J. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. American painters were studying in Rome. F. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Durand. Germany. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. F. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. mainly in the south. In humanism. and. working from 1825 to 1875. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. B. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Frederick E. humanus. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. S. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Thomas Cole. humanism (Lat. Jasper Cropsey.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. invention. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. and the ladder. soft style. For instance. the hammer. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Human figures. beautiful style. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. the pincers. the ability to create. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the veil of St. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it.g. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the scourge that was used in the scourging. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. inventio (It. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. originality. with many further details added. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. trecento rococo and lyrical style. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Derived from classical rhetoric. usually the donors of a work of art. and they are also depicted on their own. the rooster of Peter's denial. or of other saints. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. are also used in art literature. In the second half of the 14th century. there are representations of the bundle of rods. etc. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. The terms court style. investiture . Donatallo.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. it denominates a kind of behaviour. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Veronica.

incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. although they are usually called Romanists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Upon his return to Holland. Nicolaes Berchem. . Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Both and Berchem. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. generally Dutch or Flemish. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. bathed in a golden haze. Jerome's writings. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Italianizers Northern artists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who traveled in Italy and. Andries and Jan Both. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. principally Dutch. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. of Utrecht. The Both brothers. and Jan Asselijn. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh.

Archbishop of Genoa. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. liberal arts . L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).1519).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem . Emperor Maximilian I (1459. lectern A reading stand or desk. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. especially one at which the Bible is read. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). the rite of communion is based on this. encouraged by the Crusades.

Church (1826-1900).g. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. a semicircular space. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. then the basis of a philosophical training. and Frederick E. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Pythagoras for arithmetic. loggia (It. comprising arithmetic. often standing in markets and town squares. through the use of aerial perspective. lunette (Fr. geometry. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). poetic atmosphere. Tubal for music). John F.g. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. together with identifying attributes (e. Kensett (1816-1872). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). often sublime. painting or sculptural decoration. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. that could be used for public ceremonies.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. . that may contain a window. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. first the preparatory trivium . Martin J. Maria Novella in Florence). rhetoric and dialectic. commemorating a marriage. It is related to. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. astronomy and music.grammar. Heade (1819-1904). "little moon") In architecture. the quadrivium.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. its roof supported by columns.

maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. and accompaniments. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. manganese purple. active mainly in Florence c. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). mandorla (It. and however bright their lighting effects. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. historical subjects. for example. Specifically. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. particularly such ware produced in Italy. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. but they painted genre scenes. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. being written. the goddess Cybele. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. antimony yellow. magna mater (Lat. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. usually for the lute. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. 1855–65. copper green. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. and portraits as well as landscapes. "great mother") A mother goddess. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. and iron red. originally sung without accompaniment. "almond") . It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). When white is used for painting.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. originating in Italy in the 14th century. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. madrigal A part song.

marked by flagellation. Flanders. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Burgundy. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. ecclesiastical. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. often ornamented with decorative borders. more strictly. illuminated initials and miniatures. Developing out of the Renaissance. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. In Mannerist painting. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. maniera. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. bound. complex and crowded compositions. El Greco and Tintoretto. Mannerism (It. worn open. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. In architecture. depending on the social class of the wearer. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Parmigianino. "manner. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. the Codex manuscriptus. strong. in a specific sense. the hand-written medieval book. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. which was quarried at Mount . and crowned with thorns.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. It reached to the knee or foot. and literary texts. Bronzino. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. mantle An overcoat. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin.

who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. an inscription running round the rim. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Without monetary value. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. medallion In architecture. the medal's purpose was commemorative. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . and was much favoured in the Renaissance. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. sleek surface. quarried at Massa. martyrion. martyrdom (Gk. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Like the finest Imperial coins. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). proof") the sufferings. The pure white Carrara marble. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. particularly by Michelangelo. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. a different design on the reverse. marmi finti (It. having finished his training. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead).Pentelicon in Attica. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. "witness. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Carrara. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. which were beginning to be reverently collected.

is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. When Perseus cuts off her head. the stress on individual character. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. This yields a soft effect in the print. In pure mezzotint. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. It was. The work of these men. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. often anonymous. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. 1467-688). c. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. for landscapes and portraits. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d.round the neck. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. of the person portrayed on the other side. who reflected them. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. a Gorgon. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. 14601528). Medusa In Greek mythology. and of the many. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. A Dutch officer. particularly. in England. no line drawing is employed. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. 1640. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. as it were. 1452-1526/27). even grain. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. c. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. The process is essentially extinct today. 1425-1504). . mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Ludwig von Siegen. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Her head features on Minerva's shield. perhaps oddly. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century.

monokhromatos. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. "one color") Painted in a single color. Francis himself. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Many such small versions.g. "word. Parmigianino (d. motto (Ital. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. saying") . pointed headdress worn by bishops. often quite highly finished. still exist. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. miter A high. e. ink and paint. executed on a very small scale. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. painting in gouache on vellum or card. usually portraits. a painting executed in a single color. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.. monochrome (Gk. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. a branch of the Franciscan order. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.

and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and is intersected by the transept. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. In 1810 0verbeck. often separated from it by pillars. named after the patron saint of painting. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. nave (from Lat. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Pforr. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Nazarenes A group of young. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In general. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. navis. Berlin. naturalism (Fr.from the Middle Ages. The invention of personal mottos. but often insipid. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Isidore. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and two other members moved to Rome. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. . 1817-29). Rome. and Casino Massimo. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. 1816-17. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms.

that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Popes. moreover. but their ideas continued to be influential. were usually old when elected. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. nimbus (Lat. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "aureole") The disc or halo. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).) . niello (Lat. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. usually golden. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. the style of the Ancien Régime. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Nymphaeum (Gk. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). nigellus. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). is as true as it is notorious. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.

the Doric order. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. with a sturdy. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. The earliest. orders of architecture In classical architecture. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). obsequia. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. and its greater tonal range. and entablatures. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. walnut. such as linseed. O obsequies (Lat. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). a more elaborate base. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. . Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. was the simplest. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. observances") Rites performed for the dead. Greek goddesses of Nature. the three basic styles of design. capital.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. fluted column and a plain capital. inborn sin. or poppy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. They are seen in the form of the columns. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. "services. its richness of colour. a small private chapel.

In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. designed as a . watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. and the main apartments above. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). Alberti described the palace as a city in little. palazzo (It. with biforate windows. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. P pala (Ital. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. the Cancelleria).1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. while shops came to be thought undignified. like cities. Palazzo Strozzi). tradition and social structure. standing at the foot of the Cross.g. and. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type.

and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified.g. Movement of patrons and architects. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. e. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Other cities. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and Palladio's in Vicenza. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Rich. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. cornices and abutments. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. evolved influential types. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Following Oriental patterns. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Palazzo Massimi).scholarly retreat. Papal incentives to build. and large households. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. palmette. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona.g. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. behind a sober Florentine façade. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. like Genoa. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. especially after the Sack of Rome. panel . like the colonnaded vestibule. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. often built next to their titular churches. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. column-caps. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. In Venice. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. came to be applied all over Europe. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.

fir. olive. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. The third aspect was administrative. To maintain their authority. and the pressure and temptations . the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. to influence popes in their favour. As successors to St Peter. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and dark walnut are favourites. the management of clerical dues and taxation. On a larger scale. as distinct from canvas. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. In the 20th century cedar. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. or other rigid substance. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. the. as it were. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. mahogany. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. chestnut. and modern painters have also used plywood. Many other types were used. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. or the incidence of taxation. so that they might have a voice at court. slate has occasionally been used as a support. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. secular rulers. Then. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). including beech. enforce law and order. Having a circular plan. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood.Term in painting for a support of wood. and walnut. and spanned by a single dome. cedar. teak. however. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. fibre-board.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and other synthetic materials as supports. larch. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. linden. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. metal. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. A number of matters.

as such. To resolve the problem of divided authority. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. in the eyes of God. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. possess an authority which. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. however. Colonna and Caetani. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. at Avignon. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. in spite of further absences from Rome. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. to be long delayed. which seems so inevitable.as well. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. however. It was argued that such a council. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. would. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . In this spirit Huss was tried and executed.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. could supersede that of a pope. As at Avignon. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. By then. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). was long in doubt. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. of individuals. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. the most appropriate . fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals.that could be applied to them. There remained. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. if it did no serious damage to the faith. from the point of view of its religious associations. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). however. which met at Constance 1414-18. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. So onerous.

Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. less frequently pig. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). goat. the creation of a cultural capital. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Passion . 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. and satyrs. 400-300 BC). hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. nymphs. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. pastor. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. through lavish patronage of artists. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. scholars and men of letters. and with Zeuxis (c. and other animals. Parrhasius (c. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. it has also been used for painting. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. as well as a governmental one. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. to a world peopled by shepherds. However. in classical literature.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism.. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. pastoral (Lat.

Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. pavilion (Lat. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. 1478. which focus on the Suffering Christ. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements.) or pasticcio (It. a prominent section of a monumental façade. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. projecting either centrally or at both ends. a small. pastiche (fr. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Meanwhile. but not necessarily a direct copy. wealthy citizen. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Portrayals of the Passion. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. papilio. and also the archbishop of Pisa. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. a region in north-central Italy. . Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. 1478). But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. patricius. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. such as a garden summerhouse.The events leading up to Good Friday. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. patrician (Lat. and so on. "butterfly. the crown of thorns. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. ornamental building. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. Francesco Salviati. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear.

pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and facere. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. physis. "nature". physiognomy (Gk. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). persona. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. perspective (Lat. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. personification (Lat. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. in particular the face. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and gnomon. or related elements within an art work. "to see through. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. perspicere. pergola (It. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. pendant (Fr. . and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "person". in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "hanging. concept or deity.

but may consist of a cluster of columns. exemplified. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. for example. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).) The main floor of a building. glue. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. or resin to make paint. usually above the ground floor. pigment (Lat.piano nobile (Ital. Peter's. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. affording a good subject for a landscape. remarkable for singularity. but full of variety. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. . the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. proper to take a landscape from. both real and painted. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. curious details. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Rome. striking the imagination with the force of painting. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. pigmentum. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. A pier is generally larger than a column. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Pietà (Lat. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. containing the public rooms. to be expressed in painting.

plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. plague Plague. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . pilastrum. Thenceforward. During 1348 the Black Death. Rocco and Sebastian. moreover. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. perhaps. for instance. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. since. "pillar") A flat. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. also used in Spain's American colonies. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. It is often fluted. such as Florence and Genoa. though in less widespread. despite regional variations. and capital. a shaft. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. In the 15th century. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. it has a base.pilaster (Lat. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. more sporadic outbreaks. For this reason. however. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. it is difficult to find. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. the burning of 'infected' clothing. in October 1347. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. It seems probable. and thereafter all Europe. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. outside Tuscany. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries.

composition. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. are the masterworks of the second style. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Timaeus. harmonious. The first phase. In contrast with Aristotle. The first phase. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases.e. or simply the Plateresque. which lasted only a few decades. the Symposium. more severe. or appropriateness. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. placement. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Theatetus and the Laws. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Phaedrus. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. heraldic escutcheons. i. Philebus. A student of Socrates. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. and unified style using massive geometric forms. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Diego evolved a purer. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. utilized Mudejar ornament -.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Phaedo. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. and sinuous scrolls. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . the Renaissance-Plateresque. correct classical orders became frequent. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The second phase. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). like its successor. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style)..

Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. A new Latin translation. all of which he also translated into Latin. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. and the Chaldaic Oracles. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. including those of Plotinus. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . for example with Symphorian Champier (c. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. the greatest of his ancient disciples. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Rather unsystematic. replaced Ficino's. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Iamblichus.1577) becoming particularly popular. Plotinus. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. and Agostino Steuco (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. and he utilized many other writings. partially. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. but not completely. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. near Florence. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. 1472-c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484).in Plato's thought. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. systematized and added to what Plato had done. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Unlike the case of Aristotle. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'.

plinthos. polyptych (Gk. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. such as processions and consecrations. plinth (Gk. pluviale. porticus. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. or statue. Frequently supports a pediment. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . portico (Lat. where a pectoral is used to close it. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. column. poluptukhos. as in classical architecture). Plato was read in the universities. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pluvial (Med. pointed arch In architecture.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Lat. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar.

A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The realism of the clear. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. National Gallery). Group portraits. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Campidoglio). painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Florence. Mantua. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Cathedral) by Uccello. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. and the . inessential. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Colleoni. Palazzo Farnese). whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places.e. Venice). Florence (1486-90). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Maria Novella. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Gattarnelata. and only a decorative accessory to form.. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546.sculptors such as Donatello. Desiderio da Settignano. psychologically more complex. 1328. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. the Carracci. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. flattened image. Siena. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. was revived in the 14th century. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. decorating whole rooms. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. The equestrian portrait.

to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. As Poussin was a Frenchman. bishop of Chioggia. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). The sermons of Visdomini. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. minatory exhortations. Savonarola and Musso. and Peter Paul Rubens. abrasive even. The styles of S. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). who had as their ideal masters Titian. Fiamma's sermons. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Correggio." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). not least those of statesmen and prelates. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. from the secular clergy. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. was versed in classical and patristic . primarily the mendicants. of the sermon as an art form. and. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). by contrast with the mendicant preachers. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. however. Charles Le Brun. bishops especially. several of whom became bishops. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. are not florid in style. bishop of Asti. Borromeo. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. 1494). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists.

Naples).they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Because of the small size of predelle . These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The New Testament references in these would. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. predella (It.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. however. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. though often relatively very wide . prefiguration Typology . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. among them Holman Hunt. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Millais and Rossetti. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. and so forth. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. tapestries.rhetoric. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.g. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.

and Houdon among sculptors. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). proportion (Lat. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Fragonard. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. which uses the square . the golden section. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the quadrature. profil perdu (Fr. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. these highly finished drawings. proportio. "evenness") in painting. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. notably David. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. Prix de Rome A scholarship. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. the Canon of Proportion. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. again indicative of the purpose they served. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. sculpture and architecture. 2. Girardon. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. 3. The following are important: 1. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10).The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy.

for example). "boys") Plump naked little boys. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. triangulation. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. one half the length of the other). Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. in whose celebrated ceiling in S.as a unit of measurement. putto (It. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. . Unlike Pozzo. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. the steward or treasurer of a church. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. putti sing. a fifth = 2:3. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). harmonic proportions. provenance The origins of an art work. It was common in Roman art. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. and 5. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Rome. Ignazio. 4. a fourth = 3:4. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.

Donatello. relevare. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. In 16th century Europe. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Botticelli. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). also known as the Realist school. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. friars and nuns. canons regular. or the Jesuits. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Fra Angelico and others.g. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. the object of particular veneration. refectory (Med. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the . the great orders of monks. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or some item connected with a saint. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. with the Anglican Church developing in England. and high relief (alto rilievo). hermits. relief (Lat.Quattrocento (It. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. relicquiae. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in which figures are seen half round. Lat. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. e. relic (Lat. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. basso rilievo). Brunelleschi. in particular works by Masaccio.

the great patriarch of Venice. and their more institutionalized brethren. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Giorgio in Alga. The Silvestrines. Venice (1404). originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. 1012. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. the most notable being S. At the same time. Padua. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Benedictines. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.e. presided over by chapters general. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. which was to become the main Italian one. and the generally moderate Observants. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. i. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. however. Lucca. Benedetto. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals.contemplative orders. the Conventuals. although technically of secular canons. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. S. Maria di Fregonaia. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. After the repression of the Spirituals. That of S. Founded by St Romuald c. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Bologna (1419). The Conventuals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. In 1517. Giustina. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Salvatore. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Bernardino of Siena. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Lorenzo Giustiniani. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The same bull . He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. In 1504. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. who had no overall organization originally. was the congregation of S. various groups were fused in the latter body. their resources being in the hands of trustees. it became the Cassinese congregation. Mantua.

Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Michele in Isola. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Filippo Neri. a historical period. The first. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. also. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Angela Merici. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. founded by S. however. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Gaetano da Thiene. S. founded in 1535 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Gerolamo Aemiliani. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. however. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Theatines. Venice.

1875-86). Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it.century. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. was so vast and potent. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). because its core of energy. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. even Amoralism. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. the historical reality of antiquity. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. as well as political. which had begun early in the 14th century. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. increasingly. however. of arts. . of an energetic revival of interest in. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. For long. Thereafter. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. and his own as potentially one of light. of letters. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. and competition with. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. All-Roundness. of scholarship. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. life. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. too long forgotten glories. however. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of 'darkness'.

Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .erased. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. etc. and is decorated with paintings. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. It is for this additional. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). let alone a uniform. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. statues. congruence between. Cathedral of SaintBavon. consist merely of a painting. There was an early. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. especially in the High Gothic period.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Ghent). mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). (3) There is not a true. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. the previous record . gratefully. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. and other liturgical objects.) was the term chosen. though sometimes of metal. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. of industrialization. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. letters. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. however. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. Though thus challenged. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. in the more limited sense. sometimes. candlesticks. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. retables can be detached and.with all its shabbiness . or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. etc. and mass media. later still to Genoa. The challenges are to be accepted. mobilized nationalism. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start.

the impression that an object is three-dimensional. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. like 'Gothic'. painting. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture.of St Mark in Venice. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Originally commissioned in 976. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. richly decorated with organic forms. Italy. is a typical product.in the 11th century. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. almost simultaneously. the first style to achieve such international currency. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. the St. and architecture dominating the 18th century. however. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.France. retables have become extinct. rocaille (French. Louis XV furniture. Romanesque art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. As the name suggests. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. More usually. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Germany. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. its mood lighthearted and witry. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. literally. in several countries . Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). "relief") In painting. Spain . With the development of freestanding altars. rilievo (It. . Rococo A style of design. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. and 'Romanesque'. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale.

. Massys and M. M. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. such as red ochre. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Mabuse. van Orley. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Heemskerk. Piranesi. Pannini and Mengs. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the development of nationalistic pride. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. The aim of painting. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). B. Rome. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. they maintained. In addition. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Claude. stylized design representing an open rose. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Q. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism.

sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). from the Old and New Testaments. Written primarily in ottava rima. supported by lay confraternities. Sacra Conversazione (It. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. confirmation. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. local saints. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. holy orders. Subjects were nominally sacred. gutted. Orthodox. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. penance. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). There were no limits on time. but others were the work of well-known figures. and anointing of the sick. and impoverished. multiple sets used in succession. glance and movement . among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Many compositions were anonymous.expressed through gesture. Eastern independent. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and Protestant churches. matrimony. In the . when it finally left the city it had devastated. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Clement escaped into Castel S. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. the Eucharist. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted.greatly increased. pious legend and hagiography.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable.

baptism and the Eucharist.i. and then face east. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. foot washing. Saracens . The chief focus of discontent. chapter 13. They were still seeking aid. as an excuse to revolt. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. strictly speaking. the sun of righteousness. replaces the Lord's Supper. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. as in the Church of the Brethren. make such strict distinctions. and sacraments. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Candidates first face west. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. large room. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. It is still practiced on special occasions. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology.early church the number of sacraments varied." which are called sacramentals. Anglican. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.) Hall. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. was not maintained as a sacrament. sacraments. that the price of salt should be increased. which in the Gospel According to John. Immediately following baptism. Thus. the symbolic direction of Christ. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. The classical Protestant churches (i. Hence. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Lutheran.. the Orthodox Church does not. The theology of the Orthodox Church.e. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. was buried under a new fortress. used for drawing. in principle. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.e. notably from Florence and in Germany. the Rocca Paolina. Salt War. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries." sala (Ital. the Bentivoglio.

the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. pl. made of stone. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 45 BC). the god of wine. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. satyr In Greek mythology. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. The publication of Latin (1562. are lost. wood or terracotta. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. whose writings. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the Arabs or Muslims. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 270 BC). sarcophagus. 360 . the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. legs and horns of a goat. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb.c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . 210 AD). human-like woodland deities with the ears. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). sarcophagi (Gk.During the Middle Ages. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Little known in the Middle Ages. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.c. and many others. 160 .

on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. Alexander V. for. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. one of the early leaders. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. in June 1409.for example Pieter van Laer. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. 1386) and his son Ladislas. As a result. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Florentines. was called Bamboccio. Louis I (d. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). from time to time both he and his opponents. on the other. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. In northern Italy. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Charles III of Durazzo (d. However. than their medieval predecessors. while devout Christians agonized. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. with France and her allies Aragon. but with little effect. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402.they had individual Bentnames . on one side. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. scholasticism . It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who recognized the Roman pope. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. most of whom. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. being Frenchmen. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Schism. while England. who had the support of the Avignon pope. and.

As such. Padua. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. Christian. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. and Islamic literature. and theology. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. that scholasticism was left. Serenissima (Ital. Often called the burning ones. moreover. as it is easier to add details in this way. history and rhetoric . university-based study. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. the plaster had to be damped before painting. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. if lime-water was used. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). None the less. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. notably Aquinas.) . as it were.were different from those of medieval.moral philosophy. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.The term is ambivalent. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. on one side. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. textual scholarship. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. (See also: fresco. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Medieval scholars. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. because the secco technique is much less permanent. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God.

which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. sfumato A technique. sinopia . Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Med. Signoria (It. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. at the same time. term. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. and the delicate. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. the number gradually rose to ten. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. "prophetess") In antiquity. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. which were all identical in thickness. Originally. Lat. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sibyls (Gk. Servite (Lat. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. "the most serene republic of Venice"). made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in use since the Middle Ages. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. usually presided over by individual families.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. women who could prophesy. They first appear in alpine monasteries. brass. Sibyls foretold the Birth. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. there was only one Sibyl. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. In Christian legend. in the period of classical antiquity. sibylla.

stigma (Gk. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.'Beautiful Madonnas'. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Stanze (Ital. staffage This word. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. "mark. It is very closely related to International Gothic.) Wooden ceiling decoration. pronounced as French. sing. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. brand. Ital. . sotto in sù (It. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. soffit (Lat. stigmata. Francis of Assisi. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). in other words. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. and. as the name implies. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. especially in the flow of drapery.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear.

sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). with that for the Picturesque. studiolo. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. In a looser sense. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Indeed. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). John Milton. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. both external and internal. whose verses actually fabrications . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. stucco A type of light. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The vogue for the Sublime. pl. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. studioli (It.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. supremacy .

London. i. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. his own headquarters. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries.and. chiefly from Flanders. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.e. tempera (Lat. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). temperare. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. then being replaced by oil paint. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Salviati and Allori. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. But the Italians did not make them. was being decorated with frescoes. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. These were imported. or cartoons. into Italy. and in literature. both for panel painting and fresco. 1407). doubtless. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. . To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. The subject is underexplored. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.Historically. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael.

It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. vessels. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. topos. and profile. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. topia. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. tondi (It. pl. walls. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. model. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. theme or motif. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topiary (Gk. i. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. in the architecture of ancient Rome. tondo. in art. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.e. "a commonplace") In literature. topoi (Gk. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. widely used form. Trajan's Column . and later to subdivide gable ends.terracotta (It. figure of speech. triumphal arch. "fields. quarter face. and other surfaces. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. and sculptures. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. terraferma (Ital. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure.

the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. added to the glamour of the triumph. behind it. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Meanwhile.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.' Before it go the apostles. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. tryptychos. Disseminated soon after his death. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. triptych (Gk. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. . of virtues and of the arts. the military triumph became sublimated. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. "threefold") in Christianity. into a number of less controversial forms. trinitas. the wars by which they were won . Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Early triptychs were often portable. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). "threefold") A painting in three sections. death. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. the Son and the Holy Spirit. patriarchs and prophets. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. fame. Battista Sforza. time and eternity. as it were. chastity.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. beside it the army of martyrs. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. after 'a countless number of virgins. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Trinity (Lat. a car so brave'. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. usually an altarpiece. of both sexes'. or wings. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.

tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. In medieval architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. It incorporates Renaissance features. tusche A thick. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. "drum") In classical architecture. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. enclosed by an arch. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. typology . it is usually decorated with carvings. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. often decorated with sculptures. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tromp l'oeil (Fr. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. through various naturalistic devices. viscous black ink. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tympanum (Lat. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. first recorded in 1232. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Dating from classical times.

U uomo universale (It.Dirck van Baburen (c. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). slayer of Goliath. e.) The Renaissance "universal man". and David. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. especially his half-length figural groups.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. 1610). such as five works devoted to the senses. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. each had access to his paintings. . were popular with them also. killer of Holofernes. lanterns.A system of classification. The numerous candles. knew his former patrons. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. 1590-1624). In Christian thought. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Judith. where they were most accessible. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.g.

Parisian craftsmen. V vanishing point In perspective. vesper. often gold. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. it was used to decorate furniture. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. guttering candles. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. vanitas (Lat. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death.).Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Also varietas (Lat. snuff boxes and other objects. hour-glasses and clocks. "evening") . with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. carriages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. overturned vessels. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. There are a wide range of forms. Vespers (Lat. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the groin vault. a work's richness of subject matter. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the rib vault. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. varietà (It. mixed in. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified.

Covetousness. In ancient Roman dwellings. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. "not exposed to winds". "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. "life") . Charity. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. in which the word signifies efficacy. Fortitude. and Justice. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. if you have it not'. actual or latent. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. and Sloth. Vestibule (Lat. Hope. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Anger. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Gluttony. vita. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. the church service at which these prayers are said. virtù could be used. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. pl. vite (Lat. Envy. 'Assume a virtue. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart.Prayers said in the evening. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. vimperga Of German origin. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Temperance. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Lust. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). for example. Prudence. vestibulum. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross.

in fact.g. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. those of Volterera. or recovery from illness has been made. 1472. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. and appalled recognition of. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. usually when a prayer for good fortune. The wars from 1494 do. Vitruvius Pollio. published in 1550 and 1568. protection from harm. Marcus (1st cent. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1478-80. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. and of Ferrara. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. Sculptors and Architects"). fall into a different category from those that preceded them. they were from the 18th century . And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise.An account of someone's life and work. a biography. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. 1482-84).

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. woodcut A print made from a wood block.Weltanschauung (Gr. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. during its subsequent history. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. based on stylization of various animal forms. gallery. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. usually linear. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. pompous on the floor above. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Westwerk German word. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. It was intended to have a variety of functions. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. treasury or a place where justice was administered. a philosophy of life. usually restorers. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. . "Western work of art". "world view") A comprehensive world view.

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