A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

the moulding around a window or door. "architectural") Relating to structure. piers or pillars. arkhitektonikos. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. architrave (It. which is fused to the plate by heating. and Rouault. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists.A semicircular projection. architectonic (Gk. Also known as an exedra. the lowest part of the entablature). design. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period).e. but in essence the process is as follows. roofed with a half-dome. Lancet and Tudor. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. or organization. Degas. arcade (Lat. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the darker the tone). A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. . "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. In Greek and Roman literature. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. including Goya. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. There are several variants of the technique. arcus. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Picasso. The adjective is apsidal. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. at the east end of a church behind the altar.

In the case of martyrs. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.and the Comedy . In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting." from Gk. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. aureolus. archivolto. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . aureole (Lat. "begin. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. voltus. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. "front arch. attributum.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. archeiu.archivolt (Ital. Dante's Vita nuova . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. Ars Moriendi (Lat. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "golden. dominate." and Lat. usually a saint. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. attribute (Lat. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.

Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The actual move was made in 1309. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. the god of wine and fertility. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. who had been residing in France since 1305. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Later. baldachin. 'Captivity'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. paintings of everyday life. Six pontificates later. that of Cardano. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. or baldacchino (It. applied to the physically . in 1377. often anecdotal. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby").

. and Nocera in Italy. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. built by Sixtus III. or canopy. . which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. banderole (It. set beneath a domical ciborium. such as those at Pisa. Lebanon. a baptistery was roofed with a dome.g. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Pentecost. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. AD 273." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Easter. and abject filthy things. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. the Temple of Venus. and Epiphany.. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Baalbek. seven. Customarily. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. el Kantara. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Alg. Parma. Croatia]. Spalato [Split. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. or connected with. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and Poitiers. or forecourt. pope between 432 and 440. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. As eight follows the "complete" number. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. France. AD 300). and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). banderuola. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Florence. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. a church. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. beggars in rags.

or baptismal chapels. Vermeer). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Jean-François Millet (French. Originally. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. something of earlier symbolism survives. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Théodore Rousseau (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Constant Troyon (French. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. barocco. which is reserved for the clergy. Jules Dupré (French. "king's hall") a church building. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Also tunnel vault. in its usual location near the church door . usually facing east. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. southeast of Paris. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Baroque (Port. 1811-1889). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). and thus a church. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. stoa basilike. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. . In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. In architecture. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1810-1865). 1796-1875). achieved through scale. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. 1817-1878).In the 10th century. Rubens). baptisteries. 1807-1876). 1814-1875). and increasingly elaborate decoration. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. in the 1840s and 1850s. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. were often omitted entirely. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. basilica (Gk. however. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. and (3) everyday realism.

Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. bodegón Image. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Biscuit porcelain. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. which is either not yet glazed. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. domesticity. Spanish still-lifes. The term was mainly used up to c. often with food and drink. and often sentimentality. particularly porcelain. however. or which is to be left as it is. 1650 in Spain. especially Spanish. Bodegónes. like their Dutch counterparts. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). also incorrectly called bisque. in which still-life predominates. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. such as Waldmüller.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. By association. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. up until the mid-17th century. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Book of Hours . were referred to by their specific contents. such as those by Diego Velázquez. It takes its name from its grainy texture. as is to be expected. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. There were. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.

and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. days of the week. or seasons. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. months. durability. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. See flying buttress. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.by a variety of processes. . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. coppery red. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.an advantage over marble sculpture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . though these are more often called 'modelli'. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. made as a study for a larger picture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto(Italian.both hot and cold . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. Chantilly). and the fact that it is easily workable . bozzetto Strictly speaking. but can also be used for painted sketches. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. By extension. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. varying from silverish to a rich. a rapid sketch in oil. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.

box") In architecture. "a chest. private room where works of art. and Giotto. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. manuscript illuminations. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. camera obscura . hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. C cabinet A small. Among its most distinctive products were icons. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. ceramics. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. glass. notable from Syria and Egypt. casson. its forms highly stylized. mosaics. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Duccio. caisson (Fr. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. It also served to glorify the emperor. and work in precious metals. which was often allegorical. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. cameo Small relief made from gems.

pl. hemp. usually in a church. The Latin name means "dark chamber. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. candela. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually decorated. . by the 16th century.) A gallery for singers or musicians. Portable versions were built.Ancestor of the photographic camera. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. candlestick. which isolates the fabric from the paint. campanile Bell tower." and the earliest versions. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. as an aid to drawing. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. capitellum. Structurally. sing. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Niepce created photography. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. only very rough effects will be obtainable. capital (Lat. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. which was usually whitened. cantorie (It. usually built beside or attached to a church.-N. cantoria. candelabrum (It. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. "candle") A large. and jute. other materials used are cotton. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candelabra. both of which have richly carved marble panels. dating to antiquity. usually with several branches or arms.

In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.both Italians and artists from other countries . At the height of the Middle Ages. tapestry. cartellino. Carthusian Order (Lat. the date of the painting. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. The order combines reclusive and community life. or a motto. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartone. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. New Charterhouses. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. pl. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cartoon (It. details of the subject. Carmelites (Lat. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters .a humorous drawing or parody. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. and humanism. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartouche . the endeavour to attain true humanity. or fresco. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cardinalis. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). monasteries containing separate hermitages. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. In fresco painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartellini In a painting. near Grenoble. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended.

They contained the bride's clothes. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. where the throne of the bishop is placed. they were also used in other countries. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. or nave. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. castello (It. putti (cupids). the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. palace.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The main body. . Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. linen. In the 15th century. The altar is placed at the east end. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Cascina. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. cathedral (cathedra. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and swags of fruit and flowers. and many other items of her dowry. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. For reasons lost to time and tradition. a cathedral always faces west . or arms of the cross. These lead up to the north and south transepts. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. caryatid (Gk. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).) "castle". decorated with gilt gesso. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese.toward the setting sun. Paolo Uccello. cassone (It.

cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Relative to the observer. as celestial attendants of God. . champlevé (Fr. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. buildings and figures that are being depicted. and Islamic literature. Christian. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. and perspicere. "in the centre". Both the statement of St. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. in accordance with their distance from the observer. centralis. landscapes. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. rather than intercessory functions. continually praise him. a celestial winged being with human.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. a throne bearer of the deity. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. central perspective (Lat. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). animal. or birdlike characteristics. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice.

usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). the Order of the Hospital of St. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. North of the Alps. "light dark") In painting. reserved for the clergy to pray together. replacing tempera. or for choral singing. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . notably Lucas Cranach (1506). Lastly." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition.chiaroscuro (It. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. choros. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. Hans Burgkmair (1510). encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. Since Carolingian times. choir (Gk. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights.

In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and garlands. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Sculpted clouds. is as typically Churrigueresque. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. ciborium . undulating cornices. undulating lines. a massing of carved angels. and repetition of pattern. The Mexico cathedral (1718). stucco shells. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. became the most common motif. balustrades.intersect). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. reversed volutes. an architect. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). further enriching the style. gilded rays. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Very few still exist in their original positions. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. The Transparente (completed 1732). Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and the Churrigueresque column.

as also were those in the associated. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. who were raised to the status of a guild. ciompi. The new government. beaters. craft of dyeing. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. etc. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Quattrocento (1400s. controlled by the minor guilds. on July 22.and post-medieval Italy. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Then. Members of the lower classes. placing one of their members. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. In reaction to this revolutionary . the wool carder Michele di Lando. but self-employed. including the ciompi. or achieve political representation. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Without being members of a guild. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Their economic condition worsened. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. combers. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. High Renaissance). the lower classes forcibly took over the government. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. They were forbidden to form a trade association. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.

cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. scholars patiently finding. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). however. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. clair-obscur (Fr. resembling a lyre.) An ancient musical instrument. Concepts of the classical. philosophy and art . classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. In the 15th century Greek literature.episode. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). editing and translating a wide range of texts. changed greatly from one period to the next. writers. literature. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. the ciompi guild was abolished. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. and politics.as in Italy these were dispensed with. the black contours usually with a special line plate. with Italian scholars. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. cithara (Gk. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. philosophy. . except in cases where . on which strings were plucked. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.

Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). cognoscente (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. or "contract. pl. Green and red. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. those with refined tastes. concetto. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. sing. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. the church service at which these prayers are said. when set side by side. Coffered ceilings. concetti (It. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. [hora] completa. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. condottieri (It. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. terrorized the country." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. The name was derived from the condotta. blue and orange. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. intensify one another. pl. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. . as well as from the Bible. condottiere. compline (Lat. cognoscenti. literature or music. occasionally made of wood. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. arch or ceiling. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. a work's underlying theme. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St.

and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. flagellant confraternities. often under the direction of. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. commonly called either Compagnia di S. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. which spread in the 15th century. Umbria. disappeared. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. i. With no goal beyond personal gain. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. primarily for syphilitics. Francesco Sforza. convents of convertite. Carmagnola. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. often called compagnie or. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Less fortunate was another great condottiere.e. Mark (1432). . came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. and his rival Braccio da Montone.devastating Romagna. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. and Tuscany. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Spanish. who won control of Milan in 1450. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. and German--the condottieri. Toward the end of the 15th century. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. or with the spiritual assistance of. in the service of Naples. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. in the service of Perugia. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Martino). The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. By the end of the 14th century. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. confraternities Confraternities. By the 16th century. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. scuole. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline.e. in Venice. i. Muzio's son. clergy. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity.

Dorotea in Trastevere. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contrapposto (It. contours were initially regular. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. In medieval painting. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. while the Venetian government. Confraternities. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. While the Doge ranked above the Council.g. e. flat outlines. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. contour (Fr. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. in Florence. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement.i. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . e. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. 1514 in S.g. and refuges for maidens. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. reformed prostitutes. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Later. which accompanied condemned prisoners. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. founded c. but sometimes had their own premises. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital.e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. notwithstanding their location. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. however. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). the Florentine Neri. contour. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate.

The style spread as far as England. corbel In architecture. large cornice or other feature. 1100 and 1300. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. aes cyprium. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. a bracket of stone. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. They are often ornamented. 1280). executed by imported Italian craftsmen. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. . Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s.weight on one leg. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. declining moral standards. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. cuprum. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Reform programs. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. whose names are inscribed on several works. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. did not achieve any lasting results. an engraving produced in this way. conventiculurn. conventicle (Lat. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Lat. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society.

Jews. or "scourged.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. cupola (Lat. the most famous victim of crucifixion. An ancestor of the oboe. cupula. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the condemned man." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment.e. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. particularly among the Persians. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. reedy sound. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Usually. a semi-circular vault. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. after being whipped. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. a small dome. There were various methods of performing the execution. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. i. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. D dado . "small vat") In architecture. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Seleucids. Death. Next. the first Christian emperor. Constantine the Great. Carthaginians. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.

Germany. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptych (Lat. Gk. diptychum. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. which was help to be the basis of all art. usually in matching pairs. diakonos. Deësis (Gk.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. an expressive use of nature. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never .g. Passau. disegno (It. Anglican and Orthodox churches. often an altarpiece. diptychos. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. e. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. danse macabre The dance of death. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. but the concept behind an art work. "drawing. a favorite late medieval picture subject. design") In Renaissance art theory. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. The term stresses not the literal drawing. and Linz possessed common characteristics. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. deacon (Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term.

and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. donator. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. "to mix. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. usually forming a ceiling or roof. is a heavy piece of furniture. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Dominicans (Lat. doublet A male garment. dome in architecture. though a few artists. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. As disegno appeals to the intellect. such as we still use today.Thomas Aquinas. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. also used it on canvas. The studio easel. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. which runs on castors or wheels. when painters took to working out of doors. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. distemperare. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. formerly worn under armour. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Ordo Praedictatorum. distemper (Lat.fully realize. a 19th-century invention. donor (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour).

and the cornice. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. sculpture. in art. ensemble (Fr. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. "last". the frieze. and architecture. Ecce Homo (Lat. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. epitaph (Gk. bound and flogged. "word") . a depiction of Jesus. en face In portraiture. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. Hence. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. and logos. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. It consists of the architrave. fresco. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. full face. John (19. entablature In classical architecture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. sometimes combining panel painting. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. eschaton. eschatology (Gk. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work.

4500 BCE. Spain. . Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Eucharist (Gk. Augustine. fields and livestock. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. convinced of the inefficacy of human works.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. protector of shepherds. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which is called "maiolica. Giovanni Morone. Contarini. which was famous for maiolica. and also to Giulia Gonzaga." and charis. "good. celebrated with bread and wine. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and is named for Faenza. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Vittoria Colonna." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Saints Ambrose. and Scandinavia. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Italy. eu. and of the last things. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Germany. which is called "delftware. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Marcantonio Flaminio. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. farmers. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Jerome. which was developed in the Near East ca." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Carnesecchi and Ochino. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. particularly ware made in France. notably Cardinal Pole. Equated with the Greek god Pan. It developed in France in the early 16th century.death and resurrection. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.

The colour of his horse is white. such as plague. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. 2 . can in time be seen. frescos in Italy . fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Only a small area can be painted in a day. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. fresco (It. Their attributes are the bow. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. a swag. fluted of a column or pillar. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. relaxed. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo.festoni (It. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). war. that of the others red. Committed to charitable and missionary work. and these areas. black and dun.8). famine and death. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. leaves. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. and flowers suspended in a loop. sword and set of balances. drying to a slightly different tint. a technique known as a secco fresco. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting.

a person's invisible tutelary god. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. landscape and portraiture. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. In art from the classical period onwards. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. where the atmosphere was too damp. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. G Garter. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. Final details. both in churches and in private and public palaces. or true fresco. The technique of buon fresco.Save in Venice. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. genre In a broad sense. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . covings and ceilings.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. are genres of painting. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. for example. or fresco secco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Genius in classical Rome. the intonaco. usually childish figure.

as well as writers and artists. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Maria Gloriosa). who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Bernardo Daddi. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. As such. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Maso di Banco. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. in portraits and on tombs. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. and as spurring on men of action. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. how it differed from notoriety. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Gobelins . (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. whether it must be connected with the public good. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse.

and although it reopened in 1699. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. golden section (Lat. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. This ratio is approximately 8:13. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. still in existence today. who appointed Lebrun Director. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. . In other Italian cities. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture.French tapestry manufactory. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. Golden Fleece. Paris. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. thereafter it made only tapestries.

In sculpture and in painting. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. There is a transcendental quality. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Amiens. like the cultural and commercial. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. c. painting. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. painting. Nevertheless. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Denis. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In thinking of Nicola (d. 1270. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. the superficial particularities of form. In particular. that the effects are to be felt. Gothic Gothic. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. . or the influence of one building. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. The artistic. 1200 and c. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. from the 13th until the 17th century. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and lies much deeper than. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ.

known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. the Netherlands. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). chiefly to France. Klee. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. and Morris Graves. with sable. the beau idéal of the French. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. and the great style. and above all Italy. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. genius. and Piranesi. occasionally. Such tours often took a year or more.and hog-hair brushes. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. starch. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and taste among the English. These qualities. to silk. Pannini. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. if required. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. It is thinned with water for applying. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. to white or tinted paper and card and. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Dubuffet. . Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. without visible brush marks. notably in the writings of Bellori. sometimes in the company of a tutor. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Honey. Canaletto. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault.

The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. brother of Louis IX. after this. internal factions in Florence went under other names. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. From 1266 to 1268. drawing and the various forms of engraving. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Although its palace was rebuilt c. 1216. c. In another sense. . gris. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. to Provence and Paris. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. exclude drawing from this definition. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. which had recruited most of the merchant class. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. and Waiblingen.e. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. including text as well as illustrations. Some writers. grisaille (Fr. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. In the context of the fine arts. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. After the War of the Eight Saints. through central Italy. usually gray. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. In Florence.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. however. became an abiding feature of European politics. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. then as now. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. the parties taking a multitude of local names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. however. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans.

The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. and greater hostility between master and man. and provided assistance to members in need. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In 16th century Venice. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In some cities. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. In Florence. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. héraut. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. trade or profession (painters. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The guild also monitored standards of work. notably Florence in the 14th century. [science] héraldique. surgeons. trades. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. such as Brescia and Vicenza. but in time they acquired other functions. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. H hatching In a drawing." from Fr. or professions. The guilds were not equal. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. heraldry (Fr. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. "[knowledge of] heraldry. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In Italy they go back a long way. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. for example. "herald") .guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. goldsmiths. In some towns. print or painting. Guilds were also patrons of art. as some did).

one great missionary community. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. head of the 'carnal Church'. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. i. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. together with brethren north of the Alps. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. By contrast. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The main impact of the . Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. with the rules governing their use. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. the Cathars were an anti-church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. they were condemned in 1184. as Antichrist. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. and regarded themselves as forming.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. However. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. indeed. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. normative for churchmen. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. d. from the start. while others merged with the Waldensians. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. the followers of Juan de Valdes. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. the Waldensian. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s.

Morse. F. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. American painters were studying in Rome. working from 1825 to 1875. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Jasper Cropsey. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Durand. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. history (usually classical history). Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. humanus. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Church. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. hortus conclusus (Lat. Frederick E. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Thomas Cole. Henry Inman. In humanism. in his earlier work. J. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. humanism (Lat. F. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Kensett. and. At the same time. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. B. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. the emancipation of man from God took place. its subjects considered morally elevating. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Germany. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. George Inness. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. and classical literature. my spouse'. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. mainly in the south. S. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century.movement upon the laity was in southern France. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life).

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. usually the donors of a work of art. the rooster of Peter's denial. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. the scourge that was used in the scourging. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the pincers. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. and they are also depicted on their own. are also used in art literature. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the hammer. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. the ability to create. originality. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. and the ladder. trecento rococo and lyrical style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Donatallo. For instance. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Veronica. or of other saints. In the second half of the 14th century. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. it denominates a kind of behaviour. The terms court style. investiture . intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. beautiful style. the veil of St. soft style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. inventio (It. with many further details added. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Derived from classical rhetoric. Human figures.g. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. invention. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. etc.

Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Upon his return to Holland. of Utrecht. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. bathed in a golden haze. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. generally Dutch or Flemish.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. The Both brothers. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Both and Berchem. although they are usually called Romanists. and Jan Asselijn. Andries and Jan Both. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). principally Dutch. who traveled in Italy and. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Nicolaes Berchem. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jerome's writings. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. . Italianizers Northern artists. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there.

Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . As their military role grew. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. liberal arts . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.1519). the rite of communion is based on this. encouraged by the Crusades. Archbishop of Genoa. lectern A reading stand or desk. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Legenda Aurea (Lat. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). John of Jerusalem . especially one at which the Bible is read. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards.

lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. poetic atmosphere. Pythagoras for arithmetic. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.g.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Tubal for music). lunette (Fr.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. the quadrivium. that could be used for public ceremonies. Maria Novella in Florence). painting or sculptural decoration. John F. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. comprising arithmetic. loggia (It. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. astronomy and music. It is related to. Church (1826-1900). Martin J. commemorating a marriage. Heade (1819-1904). . through the use of aerial perspective. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's).g. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. often standing in markets and town squares. a semicircular space. geometry. often sublime. together with identifying attributes (e. then the basis of a philosophical training. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900).grammar. first the preparatory trivium . "little moon") In architecture. and Frederick E. its roof supported by columns. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. that may contain a window. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. rhetoric and dialectic. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Kensett (1816-1872).

being written. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. originating in Italy in the 14th century. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. magna mater (Lat. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. for example. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. but they painted genre scenes. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. and however bright their lighting effects. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. manganese purple. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. originally sung without accompaniment. When white is used for painting. usually for the lute. and iron red. "almond") .M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and portraits as well as landscapes. copper green. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. active mainly in Florence c. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). 1855–65. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. the goddess Cybele. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. "great mother") A mother goddess. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. historical subjects. madrigal A part song. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. particularly such ware produced in Italy. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. mandorla (It. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. and accompaniments. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. antimony yellow. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. Specifically. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists.

and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. bound. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. the Codex manuscriptus. Flanders. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Burgundy. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. strong. Developing out of the Renaissance. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. more strictly. and crowned with thorns. mantle An overcoat. often ornamented with decorative borders. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. El Greco and Tintoretto. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. ecclesiastical. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. which was quarried at Mount . depending on the social class of the wearer. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. complex and crowded compositions. Mannerism (It. In architecture. Parmigianino. marked by flagellation. In Mannerist painting. and literary texts. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. "manner. the hand-written medieval book. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. maniera. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. worn open.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. illuminated initials and miniatures. Bronzino. It reached to the knee or foot. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. in a specific sense. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity.

"witness. martyrdom (Gk.Pentelicon in Attica. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. an inscription running round the rim. particularly by Michelangelo. the medal's purpose was commemorative. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. quarried at Massa. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Carrara. The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. having finished his training. sleek surface. Without monetary value. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). a different design on the reverse. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. which were beginning to be reverently collected. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. marmi finti (It. Like the finest Imperial coins. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. martyrion. proof") the sufferings. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. medallion In architecture. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater).

and of the many. perhaps oddly. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. who reflected them. In pure mezzotint. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. in England. a Gorgon. supposedly to petrify her enemies. the stress on individual character.round the neck. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. A Dutch officer. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. no line drawing is employed. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. The work of these men. It was. particularly. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. c. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. When Perseus cuts off her head. as it were. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). of the person portrayed on the other side. 1452-1526/27). . for landscapes and portraits. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. c. 1640. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. This yields a soft effect in the print. 14601528). Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Ludwig von Siegen. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. The process is essentially extinct today. often anonymous. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 1425-1504). Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Medusa In Greek mythology. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 1467-688). even grain.

executed on a very small scale. painting in gouache on vellum or card. miter A high. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. usually portraits. often quite highly finished.g. ink and paint. saying") . 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. pointed headdress worn by bishops. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. e. a painting executed in a single color. monokhromatos.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. monochrome (Gk. motto (Ital. "one color") Painted in a single color. Parmigianino (d. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. "word. a branch of the Franciscan order. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. still exist. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Many such small versions. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. Francis himself.

Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. 1816-17. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. It may have parallel aisles on each side. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. often separated from it by pillars. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Pforr. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. . Rome. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and two other members moved to Rome. Berlin. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. navis. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. The invention of personal mottos. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. In general. named after the patron saint of painting. and Casino Massimo. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. 1817-29). as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. but often insipid. In 1810 0verbeck.from the Middle Ages. Nazarenes A group of young. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. naturalism (Fr. and is intersected by the transept. Isidore. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. nave (from Lat. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period.

confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Popes.) . the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. but their ideas continued to be influential. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. nigellus.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. moreover. is as true as it is notorious. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. niello (Lat. were usually old when elected. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nimbus (Lat. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). the style of the Ancien Régime. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. "aureole") The disc or halo. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. usually golden. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Nymphaeum (Gk. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power.

inborn sin.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. O obsequies (Lat. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. They are seen in the form of the columns. and entablatures. the Doric order. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. "services. its richness of colour. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. the three basic styles of design. such as linseed. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. The earliest. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). a more elaborate base. or poppy. capital. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. and its greater tonal range. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). with a sturdy. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. observances") Rites performed for the dead. fluted column and a plain capital. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. orders of architecture In classical architecture. walnut. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. a small private chapel. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. obsequia. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. . Greek goddesses of Nature. was the simplest.

On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. with biforate windows. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. the Cancelleria). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. palazzo (It. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. standing at the foot of the Cross. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. tradition and social structure.g. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. while shops came to be thought undignified.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). Palazzo Strozzi). 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. designed as a . "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and the main apartments above. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. P pala (Ital. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. like cities. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.

often built next to their titular churches. column-caps. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Rich. evolved influential types. like the colonnaded vestibule. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. panel . like Genoa. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Palazzo Massimi). originally evolved in response to specific conditions. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and Palladio's in Vicenza. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). cornices and abutments. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. palmette. Following Oriental patterns. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. came to be applied all over Europe. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. In Venice. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. behind a sober Florentine façade. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Papal incentives to build. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and large households. Movement of patrons and architects.scholarly retreat. e. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Other cities. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings.g.g. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. especially after the Sack of Rome. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds.

slate has occasionally been used as a support. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. to influence popes in their favour. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. or other rigid substance. As successors to St Peter. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. enforce law and order. linden. as it were. fibre-board. In the 20th century cedar.Term in painting for a support of wood. cedar. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. panel painting Painting on wooden panels.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. chestnut. and spanned by a single dome. Then. and dark walnut are favourites. secular rulers. so that they might have a voice at court. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. olive. To maintain their authority. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and modern painters have also used plywood. teak. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. The third aspect was administrative. metal. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). as distinct from canvas. mahogany. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and other synthetic materials as supports. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. the. the management of clerical dues and taxation. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. including beech. On a larger scale. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. larch. and walnut. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. however. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. A number of matters. Having a circular plan. or the incidence of taxation. and the pressure and temptations . fir. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Many other types were used. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith.

The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Colonna and Caetani. however. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. if it did no serious damage to the faith. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. in the eyes of God. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. the most appropriate . The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. To resolve the problem of divided authority. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). possess an authority which. at Avignon. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. however. would. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. It was argued that such a council. As at Avignon. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. could supersede that of a pope. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). from the point of view of its religious associations. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. in spite of further absences from Rome. of individuals. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. By then. There remained. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. which met at Constance 1414-18. however. was long in doubt. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. to be long delayed. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. as such. which seems so inevitable. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.as well.that could be applied to them. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. So onerous. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss).

The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. goat.. it has also been used for painting. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 400-300 BC). Parrhasius (c. the creation of a cultural capital. and with Zeuxis (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. as well as a governmental one. pastor. to a world peopled by shepherds. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Passion . 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and other animals. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. nymphs. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. less frequently pig. in classical literature. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. pastoral (Lat. through lavish patronage of artists. and satyrs. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. However. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). scholars and men of letters.

from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. hence tent") A lightly constructed. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pavilion (Lat. wealthy citizen. and so on. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize.The events leading up to Good Friday. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. a small. pastiche (fr. "butterfly. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. . beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. which focus on the Suffering Christ. Meanwhile. ornamental building. and also the archbishop of Pisa. 1478).) or pasticcio (It. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. such as a garden summerhouse. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. projecting either centrally or at both ends. the crown of thorns. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. patricius. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. 1478. Portrayals of the Passion. patrician (Lat. a region in north-central Italy. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. but not necessarily a direct copy. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Francesco Salviati. papilio. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss.

Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "to see through. personification (Lat. pendant (Fr. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. perspective (Lat. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. or related elements within an art work. perspicere. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "hanging. "person". "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. in particular the face. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. and gnomon. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concept or deity.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. physiognomy (Gk. persona. pergola (It. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. "nature". physis. . often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. and facere. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers.

picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). pigmentum.piano nobile (Ital. proper to take a landscape from. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. A pier is generally larger than a column. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Rome. but may consist of a cluster of columns. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. containing the public rooms. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Peter's. but full of variety. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigment (Lat. to be expressed in painting. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Pietà (Lat. glue. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. striking the imagination with the force of painting.) The main floor of a building. . Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. affording a good subject for a landscape. curious details. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. or resin to make paint. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. remarkable for singularity. usually above the ground floor. exemplified. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. both real and painted. for example.

and thereafter all Europe. it is difficult to find.pilaster (Lat. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). pilastrum. the burning of 'infected' clothing. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. despite regional variations. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). it has a base. and capital. though in less widespread. Rocco and Sebastian. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . a shaft. "pillar") A flat. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. During 1348 the Black Death. moreover. For this reason. since. however. perhaps. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. It is often fluted. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. also used in Spain's American colonies. for instance. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. outside Tuscany. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. such as Florence and Genoa. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Thenceforward. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. in October 1347. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. In the 15th century. It seems probable. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. plague Plague. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. more sporadic outbreaks. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century.

Phaedrus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens.. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. the Symposium. correct classical orders became frequent. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. are the masterworks of the second style. Timaeus. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Philebus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Theatetus and the Laws. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Renaissance-Plateresque. The first phase. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . more severe. or simply the Plateresque. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. and sinuous scrolls. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Phaedo. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. heraldic escutcheons. utilized Mudejar ornament -. or appropriateness. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. composition. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. A student of Socrates. placement. Diego evolved a purer.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation.e. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. which lasted only a few decades. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The first phase. The second phase. In contrast with Aristotle. like its successor. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. i. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). harmonious. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. and unified style using massive geometric forms. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.

and he utilized many other writings. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. all of which he also translated into Latin. near Florence. but not completely. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Rather unsystematic. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries.1577) becoming particularly popular. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. A new Latin translation. including those of Plotinus. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 1472-c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion.in Plato's thought. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Unlike the case of Aristotle. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. the greatest of his ancient disciples. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. replaced Ficino's. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Plotinus. and Agostino Steuco (c. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . partially. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. systematized and added to what Plato had done. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Iamblichus.

polyptych (Gk. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. pluviale. such as processions and consecrations.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. plinth (Gk. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. column. pointed arch In architecture. Frequently supports a pediment. where a pectoral is used to close it. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pluvial (Med. as in classical architecture). plinthos. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . portico (Lat. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. porticus. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. Plato was read in the universities. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. or statue. Lat. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. poluptukhos.

was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. and the .. The equestrian portrait. Florence.sculptors such as Donatello. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Desiderio da Settignano. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Gattarnelata. flattened image. Venice). Florence (1486-90). Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The realism of the clear. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. and only a decorative accessory to form. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. was revived in the 14th century. Siena. Mantua. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Group portraits. Palazzo Farnese). National Gallery). 1328. Campidoglio). Maria Novella. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. psychologically more complex. inessential. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Colleoni. the Carracci. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. decorating whole rooms. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives.e. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Cathedral) by Uccello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli.

and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. from the secular clergy. are not florid in style. 1494). sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Charles Le Brun. of the sermon as an art form. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. abrasive even. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Borromeo. The styles of S." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Fiamma's sermons. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. however. was versed in classical and patristic . sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. bishops especially. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. minatory exhortations. bishop of Chioggia. As Poussin was a Frenchman. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. several of whom became bishops. The sermons of Visdomini. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. not least those of statesmen and prelates. primarily the mendicants. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. who had as their ideal masters Titian. bishop of Asti. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. and. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Savonarola and Musso. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Correggio. and Peter Paul Rubens. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). to discharge their preaching duties. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory.

central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. tapestries. among them Holman Hunt. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The New Testament references in these would.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Millais and Rossetti. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. prefiguration Typology . and so forth. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. though often relatively very wide .the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . however. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.g. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Naples).rhetoric. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Because of the small size of predelle . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. predella (It.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. the temptations of Adam and Christ.

"lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Prix de Rome A scholarship. notably David. intended as complete works of art in themselves. and Houdon among sculptors. the quadrature. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. The following are important: 1. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the golden section. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. sculpture and architecture. the Canon of Proportion. 2. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. profil perdu (Fr. proportion (Lat. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. "evenness") in painting. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. proportio. these highly finished drawings. 3. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. projecting shelf on which to kneel. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. again indicative of the purpose they served. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Fragonard. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Girardon. which uses the square . The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors.

putto (It. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Ignazio. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century.as a unit of measurement. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. one half the length of the other). "boys") Plump naked little boys. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. a fifth = 2:3. for example). a fourth = 3:4. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. 4. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. the steward or treasurer of a church. . The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. harmonic proportions. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. It was common in Roman art. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. putti sing. and 5. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Rome. triangulation. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. provenance The origins of an art work. Unlike Pozzo.

Fra Angelico and others. refectory (Med. in which figures are almost detached from their background. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. relic (Lat. the great orders of monks. also known as the Realist school. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. hermits. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). relicquiae. Lat. relief (Lat. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists.g. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. basso rilievo).Quattrocento (It. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. or the Jesuits. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Among the . Botticelli. in particular works by Masaccio. e. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Donatello. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relevare. Brunelleschi. and high relief (alto rilievo). with the Anglican Church developing in England. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. the object of particular veneration. or some item connected with a saint. canons regular. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. In 16th century Europe. in which figures are seen half round. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. friars and nuns.

Giorgio in Alga. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The same bull . the great issue of contention being the strict observance. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. it became the Cassinese congregation. and their more institutionalized brethren. the most notable being S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. who had no overall organization originally. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Conventuals.contemplative orders. The Silvestrines. although technically of secular canons. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. which was to become the main Italian one. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Venice (1404). After the repression of the Spirituals. Giustina. Mantua. Salvatore. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Bologna (1419). The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. 1012. the great patriarch of Venice. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. presided over by chapters general. At the same time. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. and the generally moderate Observants. Bernardino of Siena. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Benedetto. In 1517. the Conventuals. i. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. That of S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. In 1504. Padua. The Benedictines. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. however. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. various groups were fused in the latter body. S. Founded by St Romuald c.e. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Maria di Fregonaia. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. was the congregation of S. Lucca. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order.

the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Gaetano da Thiene. the Theatines. Filippo Neri. founded in 1535 by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. a historical period. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Michele in Isola. The first. however. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. founded by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Angela Merici. S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. however. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. also. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Venice. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work.

For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). life. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of 'darkness'. even Amoralism. however. of scholarship. which had begun early in the 14th century. and competition with. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. was so vast and potent. the historical reality of antiquity. of letters. increasingly. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. For long. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. 1875-86). 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. and his own as potentially one of light.century. because its core of energy. however. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. All-Roundness. . as well as political. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. of an energetic revival of interest in. too long forgotten glories. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. Thereafter. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of arts. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it.

The challenges are to be accepted. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. etc. letters. (3) There is not a true. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. mobilized nationalism. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. and mass media. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.erased.) was the term chosen. and is decorated with paintings. Cathedral of SaintBavon. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. etc. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. of industrialization.with all its shabbiness . though sometimes of metal. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Though thus challenged.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. retables can be detached and. especially in the High Gothic period. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). in the more limited sense. let alone a uniform. There was an early. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. candlesticks. however. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. congruence between. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Ghent). sometimes. and other liturgical objects. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. gratefully. later still to Genoa. consist merely of a painting. statues. the previous record . It is for this additional. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.

It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. like 'Gothic'. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Spain .France. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Originally commissioned in 976.in the 11th century. . the first style to achieve such international currency. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. the St. painting. in several countries . it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. As the name suggests. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Romanesque art. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. and architecture dominating the 18th century. rocaille (French. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. More usually. Louis XV furniture. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. however.of St Mark in Venice. and 'Romanesque'. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Rococo A style of design. almost simultaneously. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. is a typical product. Germany. With the development of freestanding altars. its mood lighthearted and witry. retables have become extinct. Italy. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. "relief") In painting. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. literally. rilievo (It. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. richly decorated with organic forms.

making it the centre of the High Renaissance. van Heemskerk. Massys and M. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. they maintained. In addition. Mabuse. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Piranesi. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). the development of nationalistic pride. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Pannini and Mengs. van Orley. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The aim of painting. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. such as red ochre. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Claude. Q. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. B. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. M. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. . Rome. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. stylized design representing an open rose.

expressed through gesture. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). local saints. penance. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May.greatly increased. holy orders. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. Written primarily in ottava rima. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. from the Old and New Testaments. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. There were no limits on time. but others were the work of well-known figures. glance and movement . matrimony. Sacra Conversazione (It. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Clement escaped into Castel S.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. multiple sets used in succession. Orthodox. and anointing of the sick. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Many compositions were anonymous. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. supported by lay confraternities. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. and impoverished. pious legend and hagiography. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Subjects were nominally sacred. gutted. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and Lorenzo de' Medici. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). In the . confirmation. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). the Eucharist. and Protestant churches. Eastern independent. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .

The classical Protestant churches (i. the symbolic direction of Christ." which are called sacramentals.) Hall. used for drawing. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. notably from Florence and in Germany. that the price of salt should be increased. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. was not maintained as a sacrament. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Hence. and sacraments. They were still seeking aid. the sun of righteousness. and then face east. Anglican. Immediately following baptism. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan.. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. as in the Church of the Brethren.early church the number of sacraments varied. Lutheran. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church..e. was buried under a new fortress. the Bentivoglio. The theology of the Orthodox Church. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Candidates first face west. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries." sala (Ital. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the Orthodox Church does not. which in the Gospel According to John. large room. The chief focus of discontent. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. Saracens . chapter 13. sacraments.e. baptism and the Eucharist. strictly speaking. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Thus. Salt War. make such strict distinctions. in principle.i. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. as an excuse to revolt. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. It is still practiced on special occasions. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. the Rocca Paolina. foot washing. replaces the Lord's Supper.

Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). The publication of Latin (1562. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. satyr In Greek mythology. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). made of stone. legs and horns of a goat. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Little known in the Middle Ages. human-like woodland deities with the ears. sarcophagi (Gk. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism.c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 270 BC). and many others. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. the Arabs or Muslims. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. the god of wine. pl. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell.c.During the Middle Ages. 45 BC). 160 . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 210 AD). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. wood or terracotta. whose writings. sarcophagus. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. are lost. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 360 . "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb.

causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. from time to time both he and his opponents. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. but with little effect. for. However. Louis I (d. while England. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. on one side. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. in June 1409. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. scholasticism . In northern Italy. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou.they had individual Bentnames . while devout Christians agonized. who recognized the Roman pope. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Charles III of Durazzo (d. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. 1386) and his son Ladislas. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals.for example Pieter van Laer. As a result. the Florentines. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. on the other. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. was called Bamboccio. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). being Frenchmen. most of whom. who had the support of the Avignon pope. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. and. one of the early leaders. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. than their medieval predecessors. with France and her allies Aragon. Alexander V. Schism. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness.

The term is ambivalent. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). Serenissima (Ital. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). as it is easier to add details in this way. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Often called the burning ones. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. and Islamic literature.moral philosophy. textual scholarship. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. moreover. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. history and rhetoric . Medieval scholars. notably Aquinas. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. university-based study.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.) . Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. if lime-water was used. (See also: fresco. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. that scholasticism was left. on one side. As such. because the secco technique is much less permanent. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.were different from those of medieval. Padua. as it were. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. None the less. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Christian. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. and theology. the plaster had to be damped before painting. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. It was because the central concerns of humanism .

light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. sfumato A technique. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sibyls (Gk. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. and the delicate. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. "prophetess") In antiquity. brass. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. term. Med. there was only one Sibyl. in the period of classical antiquity.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. "the most serene republic of Venice"). "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. They first appear in alpine monasteries. at the same time. which were all identical in thickness.. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. the number gradually rose to ten. In Christian legend. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sinopia . sibylla. women who could prophesy. Signoria (It. Servite (Lat. usually presided over by individual families. in use since the Middle Ages. Originally. Lat. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Sibyls foretold the Birth. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century.

especially in the flow of drapery.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . soffit (Lat. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.) Wooden ceiling decoration. stigma (Gk. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. Stanze (Ital. It is very closely related to International Gothic. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. as the name implies.. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Ital. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. sing. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). stigmata. and. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. brand. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. Francis of Assisi. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "mark. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. in other words. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint.'Beautiful Madonnas'. pronounced as French. . sotto in sù (It. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. staffage This word. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.

Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). supremacy . In a looser sense. studioli (It. John Milton. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. both external and internal. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Indeed.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. stucco A type of light. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). studiolo. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. whose verses actually fabrications . Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. The vogue for the Sublime. pl. with that for the Picturesque. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta.

T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now.and. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. i. But the Italians did not make them. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. tempera (Lat. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling.Historically. was being decorated with frescoes. and in literature. his own headquarters. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). doubtless. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. 1407). The subject is underexplored. then being replaced by oil paint. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . temperare. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. into Italy. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. chiefly from Flanders. both for panel painting and fresco. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being.e. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. . Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Salviati and Allori. These were imported. or cartoons.

in the architecture of ancient Rome. tondo. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topos. terraferma (Ital. tondi (It. Trajan's Column . Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity.e. theme or motif. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. model. pl. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. and later to subdivide gable ends. figure of speech. walls. pl. triumphal arch. widely used form. vessels.terracotta (It. in art. and other surfaces. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "fields. topoi (Gk. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. and sculptures. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. and profile. topiary (Gk. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "a commonplace") In literature. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. i. quarter face. topia.

death. beside it the army of martyrs.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. the military triumph became sublimated. Meanwhile. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. "threefold") in Christianity. Early triptychs were often portable. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. the Son and the Holy Spirit. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. a car so brave'.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). fame. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. "threefold") A painting in three sections. as it were. after 'a countless number of virgins. of both sexes'. Trinity (Lat. trinitas. the wars by which they were won . The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Disseminated soon after his death. . Battista Sforza. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. usually an altarpiece. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. of virtues and of the arts. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. tryptychos. triptych (Gk. chastity. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. or wings. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. behind it.' Before it go the apostles. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. time and eternity. added to the glamour of the triumph. patriarchs and prophets. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. into a number of less controversial forms.

marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). typology . Dating from classical times. through various naturalistic devices. it is usually decorated with carvings. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. "drum") In classical architecture.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. It incorporates Renaissance features. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tympanum (Lat. tromp l'oeil (Fr. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. first recorded in 1232. In medieval architecture. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. viscous black ink. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tusche A thick. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. often decorated with sculptures. enclosed by an arch.

In Christian thought. The numerous candles. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . U uomo universale (It. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. where they were most accessible.g. 1610). each had access to his paintings. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .) The Renaissance "universal man". and David. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. killer of Holofernes. Judith. 1590-1624). . and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. e. especially his half-length figural groups. were popular with them also. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.A system of classification. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. lanterns. such as five works devoted to the senses. slayer of Goliath.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.Dirck van Baburen (c. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. knew his former patrons. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.

the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. hour-glasses and clocks. "evening") . often gold. Vespers (Lat.). and the rib vault. the groin vault. There are a wide range of forms. Also varietas (Lat. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. "variety") In Renaissance art theory.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. V vanishing point In perspective. vanitas (Lat. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vesper. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. carriages. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. a work's richness of subject matter. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. varietà (It. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. guttering candles. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. overturned vessels. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. mixed in. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. Parisian craftsmen. it was used to decorate furniture. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. snuff boxes and other objects.

'Assume a virtue. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. vestibulum. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vita.Prayers said in the evening. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. and Justice. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Charity. Covetousness. Fortitude. virtù could be used. and Sloth. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. In ancient Roman dwellings. "not exposed to winds". to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Hope. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Envy. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Vestibule (Lat. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The seven Virtues were: Faith. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. vimperga Of German origin. "life") . in which the word signifies efficacy. Gluttony. Lust. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Temperance. Prudence. Anger. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. vite (Lat. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. actual or latent. for example. if you have it not'. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother.

or recovery from illness has been made. The wars from 1494 do. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. 1482-84). a biography. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Marcus (1st cent. and appalled recognition of. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty.An account of someone's life and work. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. 1478-80.g. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. published in 1550 and 1568. 1472. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. they were from the 18th century . came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and of Ferrara. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. protection from harm. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Vitruvius Pollio. in fact. usually when a prayer for good fortune. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Sculptors and Architects"). whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. those of Volterera. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

based on stylization of various animal forms. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. pompous on the floor above.Weltanschauung (Gr. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. . usually linear. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Westwerk German word. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. "Western work of art". a philosophy of life. gallery. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. woodcut A print made from a wood block. It was intended to have a variety of functions. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. "world view") A comprehensive world view. treasury or a place where justice was administered. during its subsequent history. usually restorers.

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