A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

"chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arcade (Lat. roofed with a half-dome. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral.A semicircular projection. which is fused to the plate by heating. Degas. Also known as an exedra. or organization. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Picasso. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. the lowest part of the entablature). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. The term applies also to a print made by this method. arcus. "architectural") Relating to structure. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. design. including Goya.e. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and Rouault. piers or pillars. at the east end of a church behind the altar. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. The adjective is apsidal. but in essence the process is as follows. the moulding around a window or door. architectonic (Gk. . a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. architrave (It. the darker the tone). Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arkhitektonikos. In Greek and Roman literature. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Lancet and Tudor.

and the Comedy . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attributum. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "golden. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. archeiu. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "front arch. "begin. In the case of martyrs." from Gk. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. archivolto. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. attribute (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements.archivolt (Ital. aureole (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. dominate." and Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Ars Moriendi (Lat. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. aureolus. voltus. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. usually a saint.

often anecdotal. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. the god of wine and fertility. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. that of Cardano. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. who had been residing in France since 1305. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. baldachin. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The actual move was made in 1309. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. applied to the physically .while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Six pontificates later. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. 'Captivity'. in 1377. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). or baldacchino (It. Later. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. paintings of everyday life. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France.

and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Spalato [Split. Alg. built by Sixtus III. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. As eight follows the "complete" number. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. Easter. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent.g. seven. or forecourt. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. set beneath a domical ciborium. a church. . Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. and Poitiers. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. such as those at Pisa. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small.. and Nocera in Italy. Customarily. Parma. France. Pentecost. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Lebanon. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. or connected with.. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. or canopy. beggars in rags. AD 300). Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. el Kantara. the Temple of Venus. Croatia]. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. pope between 432 and 440. banderuola. a visual metaphor for the number eight. and Epiphany. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Florence. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. The baptismal font was usually octagonal." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Baalbek. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. banderole (It. AD 273. and abject filthy things.

In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. were often omitted entirely. "king's hall") a church building. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. basilica (Gk. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. 1814-1875). Baroque (Port. stoa basilike. 1810-1865). Originally. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Constant Troyon (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1807-1876). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. however. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1811-1889).an allusion to entering the Christian life. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. In architecture. Jean-François Millet (French. 1817-1878). which is reserved for the clergy. in the 1840s and 1850s. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Rubens). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. the dramatic use of light and shadow. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. or baptismal chapels. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Théodore Rousseau (French. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. . The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Jules Dupré (French.In the 10th century. Vermeer). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. achieved through scale. and thus a church. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. and (3) everyday realism. usually facing east. in its usual location near the church door . when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. southeast of Paris. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Also tunnel vault. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. baptisteries. 1796-1875). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. barocco.

Bodegónes. such as those by Diego Velázquez. which is either not yet glazed. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. bodegón Image. It takes its name from its grainy texture. as is to be expected. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). 1650 in Spain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. also incorrectly called bisque. domesticity. and often sentimentality. were referred to by their specific contents. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. There were. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. particularly porcelain. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. such as Waldmüller. in which still-life predominates. often with food and drink. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Spanish still-lifes. up until the mid-17th century. like their Dutch counterparts. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. or which is to be left as it is. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Biscuit porcelain. The term was mainly used up to c. especially Spanish. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Book of Hours . no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. however. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. By association.

sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. durability. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. though these are more often called 'modelli'. but can also be used for painted sketches. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. Chantilly).by a variety of processes. By extension.an advantage over marble sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. coppery red. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. varying from silverish to a rich. or seasons.both hot and cold . made as a study for a larger picture. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. months. See flying buttress. a rapid sketch in oil. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. . often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and the fact that it is easily workable .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. bozzetto(Italian. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bozzetto Strictly speaking. days of the week.

mosaics. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Among its most distinctive products were icons. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Duccio. casson. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. and work in precious metals. ceramics. private room where works of art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. camera obscura . Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. "a chest. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which was often allegorical. glass. caisson (Fr. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. box") In architecture. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. notable from Syria and Egypt. cameo Small relief made from gems. and Giotto. It also served to glorify the emperor.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. C cabinet A small. its forms highly stylized. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. manuscript illuminations. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.

capital (Lat. The Latin name means "dark chamber. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. and jute. hemp.Ancestor of the photographic camera. Niepce created photography. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. usually with several branches or arms. candlestick. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. usually decorated. as an aid to drawing. "candle") A large. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually built beside or attached to a church. . sing." and the earliest versions. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. usually in a church. which isolates the fabric from the paint. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. dating to antiquity. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. followed by smaller and even pocket models. cantoria. cantorie (It. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. campanile Bell tower. which was usually whitened. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. other materials used are cotton. pl. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J.-N. candelabrum (It. Structurally. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.) A gallery for singers or musicians. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. both of which have richly carved marble panels. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. only very rough effects will be obtainable. capitellum. candela. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candelabra. Portable versions were built. by the 16th century.

cartoon (It. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. The order combines reclusive and community life. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartone. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. or fresco. cardinalis. details of the subject. New Charterhouses. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. pl. or a motto. tapestry. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartellino. Carthusian Order (Lat. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance).who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. cartellini In a painting. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the date of the painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. At the height of the Middle Ages. and humanism. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the Carmelites were originally hermits. monasteries containing separate hermitages. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Carmelites (Lat.a humorous drawing or parody.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartouche . In fresco painting. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. the endeavour to attain true humanity. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". near Grenoble.

linen. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. castello (It.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. decorated with gilt gesso. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. palace. a cathedral always faces west . For reasons lost to time and tradition. and swags of fruit and flowers. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. they were also used in other countries. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. They contained the bride's clothes. . The altar is placed at the east end. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The main body. cathedral (cathedra. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. or arms of the cross. where the throne of the bishop is placed. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. putti (cupids).toward the setting sun. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures.) "castle". caryatid (Gk. Cascina. In the 15th century. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Paolo Uccello. or nave. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. cassone (It. and many other items of her dowry. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. These lead up to the north and south transepts.

Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. continually praise him. or birdlike characteristics. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Both the statement of St. "in the centre". buildings and figures that are being depicted. Christian. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. animal. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. . Relative to the observer. a celestial winged being with human. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. and Islamic literature. a throne bearer of the deity. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. as celestial attendants of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. central perspective (Lat. landscapes. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. in accordance with their distance from the observer. and perspicere. centralis. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. champlevé (Fr. rather than intercessory functions.

choros. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. or for choral singing. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. reserved for the clergy to pray together. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the Order of the Hospital of St. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choir (Gk. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept ." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men.chiaroscuro (It. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Lastly. replacing tempera. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. "light dark") In painting. Since Carolingian times. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. When the contrast of light and dark is strong." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. North of the Alps.

is as typically Churrigueresque. an architect. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. reversed volutes. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. gilded rays. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. undulating lines. and repetition of pattern. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The Transparente (completed 1732). stucco shells. The Mexico cathedral (1718). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64).intersect). Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. and garlands. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. became the most common motif. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. which was shaped like an inverted cone. further enriching the style. Sculpted clouds. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. a massing of carved angels. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. balustrades. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. ciborium . and the Churrigueresque column. Very few still exist in their original positions. undulating cornices. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758).

none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana.and post-medieval Italy. including the ciompi. ciompi. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. as also were those in the associated. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. controlled by the minor guilds. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. craft of dyeing. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Their economic condition worsened. on July 22. Members of the lower classes. who were raised to the status of a guild. placing one of their members. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. beaters. The new government. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. but self-employed. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. High Renaissance). popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Then. In reaction to this revolutionary . The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the wool carder Michele di Lando. Quattrocento (1400s. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. or achieve political representation. etc. combers. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Without being members of a guild. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. the lower classes forcibly took over the government.

philosophy. writers. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD.episode. except in cases where . where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cithara (Gk. on which strings were plucked. editing and translating a wide range of texts.) An ancient musical instrument. with Italian scholars. clair-obscur (Fr.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). . classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). scholars patiently finding. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. resembling a lyre. the ciompi guild was abolished.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. Concepts of the classical. and politics. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. however. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In the 15th century Greek literature. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. literature. the black contours usually with a special line plate. changed greatly from one period to the next. philosophy and art . In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.

"completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. . compline (Lat. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. terrorized the country. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. a work's underlying theme. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. those with refined tastes. when set side by side." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. condottieri (It. cognoscente (It. intensify one another. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. concetto. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). as well as from the Bible. Coffered ceilings. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. occasionally made of wood. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. sing. arch or ceiling. [hora] completa. condottiere. pl. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. concetti (It. cognoscenti. Green and red. or "contract. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. The name was derived from the condotta. blue and orange. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. literature or music. pl. the church service at which these prayers are said.

It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. commonly called either Compagnia di S. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. often under the direction of. Francesco Sforza.e. With no goal beyond personal gain. Carmagnola. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. scuole. disappeared. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Umbria. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. flagellant confraternities. in Venice. Mark (1432). Spanish. primarily for syphilitics. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. clergy. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. or with the spiritual assistance of. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. convents of convertite. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. . perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. By the end of the 14th century. i. in the service of Naples.e. who won control of Milan in 1450. Toward the end of the 15th century. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. i. and German--the condottieri. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. often called compagnie or. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. and Tuscany. in the service of Perugia. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Muzio's son. confraternities Confraternities. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Martino). Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished.devastating Romagna. and his rival Braccio da Montone. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. which spread in the 15th century. By the 16th century.

"Council of Ten") established in 1310. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contour (Fr. notwithstanding their location.i. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. reformed prostitutes. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. and refuges for maidens. contours were initially regular. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. founded c. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the Florentine Neri. while the Venetian government. e. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Confraternities. however. 1514 in S. Later. but sometimes had their own premises. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art.e. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contrapposto (It. contour. In medieval painting. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. e.g. Dorotea in Trastevere. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. While the Doge ranked above the Council. flat outlines. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies.g. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in Florence. which accompanied condemned prisoners.

large cornice or other feature. did not achieve any lasting results. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. They are often ornamented. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Reform programs. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. a bracket of stone. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. corbel In architecture. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Lat. The style spread as far as England. 1100 and 1300. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration.weight on one leg. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventicle (Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. cuprum. conventiculurn. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. aes cyprium. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. 1280). Copperplate engraving (late Lat. declining moral standards. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. . an engraving produced in this way. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. whose names are inscribed on several works.

" dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. after being whipped. the most famous victim of crucifixion. Seleucids. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Next. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Carthaginians. Usually. Constantine the Great. a semi-circular vault. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. or "scourged. D dado . An ancestor of the oboe. Death. the condemned man. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. cupula. "small vat") In architecture. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. i. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. reedy sound. Jews. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337.e. cupola (Lat. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. a small dome. the first Christian emperor. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. particularly among the Persians. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. There were various methods of performing the execution.

diptych (Lat. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Anglican and Orthodox churches. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Deësis (Gk. disegno (It. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "drawing. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. usually in matching pairs. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. The term stresses not the literal drawing. e. design") In Renaissance art theory. diakonos. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. and Linz possessed common characteristics. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Germany. which was help to be the basis of all art. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. diptychos. diptychum. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). a favorite late medieval picture subject. danse macabre The dance of death. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. an expressive use of nature. deacon (Gk. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Gk.g. but the concept behind an art work. often an altarpiece. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Passau.

though a few artists. also used it on canvas. As disegno appeals to the intellect. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.fully realize. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. is a heavy piece of furniture. distemperare. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. doublet A male garment. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Dominicans (Lat. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). donor (Lat. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. "to mix. when painters took to working out of doors. dome in architecture. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. donator. Ordo Praedictatorum. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The studio easel. formerly worn under armour.Thomas Aquinas. usually forming a ceiling or roof. distemper (Lat. a 19th-century invention. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. which runs on castors or wheels. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). such as we still use today. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church.

epitaph (Gk. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. bound and flogged. Ecce Homo (Lat. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. full face. en face In portraiture. and the cornice. and architecture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. the frieze. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. a depiction of Jesus. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. sculpture. and logos. "word") . which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. John (19. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Hence. "last".forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. It consists of the architrave. ensemble (Fr. in art. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. eschaton. eschatology (Gk. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. fresco. entablature In classical architecture. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. sometimes combining panel painting.

the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Spain. which is called "maiolica." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Germany. Eucharist (Gk. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. and of the last things. "good. which was famous for maiolica. 4500 BCE.death and resurrection. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. which was developed in the Near East ca. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Italy. celebrated with bread and wine. and Scandinavia. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine." and that made in the Netherlands and England. particularly ware made in France. notably Cardinal Pole. . Marcantonio Flaminio. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. fields and livestock. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Augustine. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. farmers. Giovanni Morone." and charis. which is called "delftware. and is named for Faenza. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. protector of shepherds. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Vittoria Colonna. eu. Saints Ambrose. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Contarini. Jerome. Equated with the Greek god Pan.

Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Their attributes are the bow. sword and set of balances. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Only a small area can be painted in a day. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. war. a swag. can in time be seen. and these areas. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. that of the others red. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. leaves. and flowers suspended in a loop. frescos in Italy . such as plague. a technique known as a secco fresco. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Committed to charitable and missionary work. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. black and dun. relaxed. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fluted of a column or pillar. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. The colour of his horse is white. drying to a slightly different tint. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. 2 . "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fresco (It. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image.festoni (It. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. famine and death.8).

the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. genre In a broad sense. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. for example. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.Save in Venice. or fresco secco. The technique of buon fresco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or true fresco. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. and to a lesser extent for tapestries.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . covings and ceilings. where the atmosphere was too damp. the intonaco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. In art from the classical period onwards. usually childish figure. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Genius in classical Rome. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. are genres of painting. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Final details. a person's invisible tutelary god. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. G Garter. landscape and portraiture.

while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Maso di Banco. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Gobelins . Bernardo Daddi. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. whether it must be connected with the public good. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. As such.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. in portraits and on tombs. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. as well as writers and artists. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. and as spurring on men of action. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Maria Gloriosa). Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. how it differed from notoriety. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi.

In other Italian cities. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. This ratio is approximately 8:13. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. who appointed Lebrun Director. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. still in existence today. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. . The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. thereafter it made only tapestries. and although it reopened in 1699. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Golden Fleece. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. golden section (Lat. Paris. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV.French tapestry manufactory. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). played an important role in Renaissance theories of art.

In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. or the influence of one building. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. like the cultural and commercial. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Gothic Gothic. In particular. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. In sculpture and in painting. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. from the 13th until the 17th century. In thinking of Nicola (d. that the effects are to be felt. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. c. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. There is a transcendental quality. The artistic. Nevertheless. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. Denis. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. and lies much deeper than. painting. Amiens. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. . and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. painting. 1200 and c. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. the superficial particularities of form. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. 1270.

Dubuffet. sometimes in the company of a tutor. to silk. without visible brush marks. Klee. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. . and the great style. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. It is thinned with water for applying. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. chiefly to France. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Canaletto. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. the Netherlands. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. if required. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and Piranesi. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). notably in the writings of Bellori. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and taste among the English. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. the beau idéal of the French. occasionally. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century.and hog-hair brushes. starch. and above all Italy. Honey. to white or tinted paper and card and. Pannini. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. with sable.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. These qualities. and Morris Graves. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Such tours often took a year or more. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. genius.

however. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. In another sense. 1216. gris. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. brother of Louis IX.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. became an abiding feature of European politics. From 1266 to 1268. then as now. to Provence and Paris. and Waiblingen. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. exclude drawing from this definition. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans.e. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. In Florence. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. c. In the context of the fine arts. after this. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. After the War of the Eight Saints. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. Although its palace was rebuilt c. which had recruited most of the merchant class. including text as well as illustrations. usually gray. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. grisaille (Fr. however. Some writers. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. . the parties taking a multitude of local names. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. through central Italy. internal factions in Florence went under other names.

guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In some towns. surgeons. "herald") . a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. heraldry (Fr. H hatching In a drawing. goldsmiths. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The guilds were not equal. In Italy they go back a long way. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. trade or profession (painters. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. héraut. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In 16th century Venice. [science] héraldique. trades. as some did). notably Florence in the 14th century. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In Florence. The guild also monitored standards of work." from Fr. Guilds were also patrons of art. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. but in time they acquired other functions. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and greater hostility between master and man. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. or professions. In some cities. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. print or painting. for example. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. and provided assistance to members in need. such as Brescia and Vicenza. "[knowledge of] heraldry.

These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. By contrast. the Cathars were an anti-church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. from the start. i. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. normative for churchmen. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. as Antichrist. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. with the rules governing their use. d. However. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. together with brethren north of the Alps. they were condemned in 1184. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. head of the 'carnal Church'. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. one great missionary community. and regarded themselves as forming. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. the Waldensian. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. while others merged with the Waldensians. indeed. the followers of Juan de Valdes.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. The main impact of the . divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s.

The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). B. hortus conclusus (Lat. Morse. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. my spouse'. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. At the same time. humanus. Church. S. George Inness. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. J. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Henry Inman. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. mainly in the south. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Frederick E. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. working from 1825 to 1875. in his earlier work. Thomas Cole. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. and classical literature. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Germany. Kensett. American painters were studying in Rome. Jasper Cropsey. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. F. F. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. humanism (Lat. its subjects considered morally elevating. Durand. In humanism. and. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. history (usually classical history). and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point.movement upon the laity was in southern France. the emancipation of man from God took place. The 19th-century romantic movements of England.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

and they are also depicted on their own. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. etc. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the scourge that was used in the scourging. the ability to create.g. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Derived from classical rhetoric. soft style. investiture . the hammer. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. originality. In the second half of the 14th century. are also used in art literature. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. usually the donors of a work of art. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Human figures. For instance. or of other saints. inventio (It. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. invention. and the ladder. Veronica. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. The terms court style. trecento rococo and lyrical style. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. the rooster of Peter's denial. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the veil of St. beautiful style. Donatallo. with many further details added. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the pincers. it denominates a kind of behaviour.

Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Both and Berchem. Jerome's writings. Andries and Jan Both. generally Dutch or Flemish. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. and Jan Asselijn.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The Both brothers. who traveled in Italy and. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Nicolaes Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Upon his return to Holland. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. of Utrecht. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. . principally Dutch. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Italianizers Northern artists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. although they are usually called Romanists. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh.

Legenda Aurea (Lat. liberal arts . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. John of Jerusalem . especially one at which the Bible is read. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. lectern A reading stand or desk. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).1519).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Archbishop of Genoa.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. the rite of communion is based on this. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. encouraged by the Crusades. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).

together with identifying attributes (e. painting or sculptural decoration. It is related to. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Pythagoras for arithmetic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. its roof supported by columns. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. that may contain a window. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. geometry. Church (1826-1900). Martin J. a semicircular space. often sublime. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). lunette (Fr. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900).g. commemorating a marriage. Tubal for music). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. . Kensett (1816-1872). first the preparatory trivium . poetic atmosphere. through the use of aerial perspective.grammar. often standing in markets and town squares. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. the quadrivium. that could be used for public ceremonies. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Maria Novella in Florence). comprising arithmetic. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. rhetoric and dialectic. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. loggia (It.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. and Frederick E. "little moon") In architecture. then the basis of a philosophical training. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. John F. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Heade (1819-1904). astronomy and music.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.g.

The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. madrigal A part song. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. and portraits as well as landscapes. manganese purple. copper green. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). Specifically. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. 1855–65. "almond") . The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. being written. originating in Italy in the 14th century. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. particularly such ware produced in Italy. magna mater (Lat. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and accompaniments. antimony yellow. usually for the lute. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originally sung without accompaniment. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. historical subjects. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. mandorla (It. and however bright their lighting effects. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. but they painted genre scenes. active mainly in Florence c. the goddess Cybele. and iron red. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. "great mother") A mother goddess. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. When white is used for painting. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. for example.

and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. In architecture. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. "manner. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. mantle An overcoat. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Mannerism (It. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. which was quarried at Mount . the hand-written medieval book. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and crowned with thorns. maniera.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Bronzino. more strictly. depending on the social class of the wearer. bound. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Flanders. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. often ornamented with decorative borders. It reached to the knee or foot. Burgundy. the Codex manuscriptus. illuminated initials and miniatures. Developing out of the Renaissance. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. in a specific sense. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. marked by flagellation. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Parmigianino. worn open. ecclesiastical. In Mannerist painting. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. and literary texts. strong. El Greco and Tintoretto. complex and crowded compositions. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo.

Like the finest Imperial coins. a different design on the reverse. particularly by Michelangelo. an inscription running round the rim. having finished his training. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). the medal's purpose was commemorative. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. martyrdom (Gk. which were beginning to be reverently collected. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. sleek surface. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. medallion In architecture. proof") the sufferings. The pure white Carrara marble.Pentelicon in Attica. "witness. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. martyrion. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. marmi finti (It. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Without monetary value. quarried at Massa. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field.

The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. the stress on individual character. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. It was. supposedly to petrify her enemies. In pure mezzotint. even grain. of the person portrayed on the other side. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. This yields a soft effect in the print. in England. The work of these men. Her head features on Minerva's shield. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. 1425-1504). 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless.round the neck. 1467-688). no line drawing is employed. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. who reflected them. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. and of the many. particularly. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. as it were. A Dutch officer. often anonymous. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. c. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. for landscapes and portraits. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. When Perseus cuts off her head. Ludwig von Siegen. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. . a Gorgon. 14601528). The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Medusa In Greek mythology. perhaps oddly. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. c. 1452-1526/27). Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1640. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. The process is essentially extinct today. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career.

though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Parmigianino (d. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. a branch of the Franciscan order. ink and paint. a painting executed in a single color. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. miter A high. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. monokhromatos. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. Francis himself. by Tiepolo and Rubens. painting in gouache on vellum or card. often quite highly finished. Many such small versions. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.g. "one color") Painted in a single color. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. "word. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.. e. executed on a very small scale. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. motto (Ital. still exist. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. usually portraits. monochrome (Gk. pointed headdress worn by bishops. saying") .miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.

nave (from Lat. named after the patron saint of painting. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and Casino Massimo. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. . Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. In general. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. navis. Nazarenes A group of young. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. 1816-17. Pforr. 1817-29). Berlin. In 1810 0verbeck. The invention of personal mottos. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. often separated from it by pillars. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and is intersected by the transept. Rome.from the Middle Ages. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and two other members moved to Rome. naturalism (Fr. Isidore. It may have parallel aisles on each side. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. but often insipid. and their work is clear and prettily coloured.

This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. nigellus. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. "aureole") The disc or halo. is as true as it is notorious. but their ideas continued to be influential. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Nymphaeum (Gk. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. niello (Lat. moreover. nimbus (Lat. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. usually golden. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. the style of the Ancien Régime.) . confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. were usually old when elected. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Popes. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s.

oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. or poppy. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. a small private chapel. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. its richness of colour. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and entablatures. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. fluted column and a plain capital. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. O obsequies (Lat. the three basic styles of design. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. The earliest. orders of architecture In classical architecture. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. with a sturdy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. walnut. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). They are seen in the form of the columns. . and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. the Doric order. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. was the simplest. obsequia. capital. such as linseed. and its greater tonal range. a more elaborate base. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. Greek goddesses of Nature. inborn sin. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. "services.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs.

with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. like cities. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. palazzo (It. tradition and social structure. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and the main apartments above. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. standing at the foot of the Cross. with biforate windows. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. P pala (Ital. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. the Cancelleria). Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.g. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. while shops came to be thought undignified. and. Palazzo Strozzi). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. designed as a . Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. Usually pointed or rounded at the top.

In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. like the colonnaded vestibule. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). like Genoa. cornices and abutments. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere).scholarly retreat. Movement of patrons and architects. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona.g. and Palladio's in Vicenza. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. e. panel . and large households. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Papal incentives to build.g. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. behind a sober Florentine façade. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. often built next to their titular churches. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. palmette. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. evolved influential types. Rich. Following Oriental patterns. column-caps. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Other cities. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Palazzo Massimi). defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. In Venice. especially after the Sack of Rome. came to be applied all over Europe. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm".

the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. The third aspect was administrative. the. Many other types were used. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. to influence popes in their favour. On a larger scale. and modern painters have also used plywood. as distinct from canvas. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. fibre-board. Having a circular plan. or other rigid substance. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. as it were. the management of clerical dues and taxation. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. so that they might have a voice at court. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. mahogany. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and walnut. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. To maintain their authority. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. slate has occasionally been used as a support. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century.Term in painting for a support of wood. chestnut. linden. As successors to St Peter. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. teak. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and dark walnut are favourites. or the incidence of taxation. however. and spanned by a single dome. Then. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. enforce law and order. cedar. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and other synthetic materials as supports. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. including beech.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. fir. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. A number of matters. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. secular rulers. and the pressure and temptations . metal. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. olive. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. larch. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. In the 20th century cedar. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other.

Colonna and Caetani. from the point of view of its religious associations. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. As at Avignon. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. the most appropriate . who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. as such. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual.that could be applied to them. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. possess an authority which. It was argued that such a council.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it.as well. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. to be long delayed. at Avignon. By then. in the eyes of God. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. was long in doubt. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). however. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. would. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. So onerous. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. if it did no serious damage to the faith. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . considered perfectly suitable for the role played . There remained. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. however. of individuals. in spite of further absences from Rome. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. could supersede that of a pope. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. which seems so inevitable. To resolve the problem of divided authority. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. however. which met at Constance 1414-18.

through lavish patronage of artists. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. as well as a governmental one. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. goat. less frequently pig. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). and other animals. scholars and men of letters. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Parrhasius (c. and with Zeuxis (c. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). the creation of a cultural capital. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and satyrs. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. pastoral (Lat. to a world peopled by shepherds. 400-300 BC). nymphs. in classical literature. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. pastor. However. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. it has also been used for painting. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century.. Passion .

who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and also the archbishop of Pisa. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. Portrayals of the Passion. projecting either centrally or at both ends. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. . Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. such as a garden summerhouse. Francesco Salviati. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. patricius. a region in north-central Italy. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. pavilion (Lat. hence tent") A lightly constructed. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pastiche (fr. 1478. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. which focus on the Suffering Christ. the crown of thorns. but not necessarily a direct copy. ornamental building. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. a small.) or pasticcio (It. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. 1478). Meanwhile. and so on. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. "butterfly. patrician (Lat. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence.The events leading up to Good Friday. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. papilio. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. wealthy citizen.

Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. physis. "nature". often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. persona. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. that settled the religious conflict in the German states.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. or related elements within an art work. perspective (Lat. "hanging. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. in particular the face. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and gnomon. personification (Lat. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. pergola (It. .The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. perspicere. and facere. "to see through. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "person". "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. pendant (Fr. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. physiognomy (Gk. concept or deity. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers.

the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. both real and painted.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. striking the imagination with the force of painting. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Peter's. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Pietà (Lat. Rome. remarkable for singularity. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. glue. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. pigment (Lat. proper to take a landscape from.) The main floor of a building. curious details. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. usually above the ground floor. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. A pier is generally larger than a column. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. exemplified. or resin to make paint. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. to be expressed in painting. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). containing the public rooms. for example.piano nobile (Ital. affording a good subject for a landscape. but full of variety. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. . pigmentum. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.

transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. outside Tuscany. a shaft. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. During 1348 the Black Death. moreover. It seems probable. however. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). though in less widespread. "pillar") A flat. it has a base. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. It is often fluted. Rocco and Sebastian. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. more sporadic outbreaks. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. plague Plague. for instance. In the 15th century. it is difficult to find. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. and capital. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). in October 1347. since. pilastrum. despite regional variations. Thenceforward. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. perhaps. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being.pilaster (Lat. also used in Spain's American colonies. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. such as Florence and Genoa. and thereafter all Europe. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. For this reason. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy.

are the masterworks of the second style. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. A student of Socrates. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and unified style using massive geometric forms. or simply the Plateresque. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The first phase. harmonious. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. heraldic escutcheons. or appropriateness. and sinuous scrolls. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. which lasted only a few decades.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation.e. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. more severe. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Phaedo. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. the Symposium. In contrast with Aristotle. placement. utilized Mudejar ornament -. The second phase. Diego evolved a purer. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Philebus. the Renaissance-Plateresque. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). correct classical orders became frequent. The first phase. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . lasted from about 1525 to 1560. like its successor. Phaedrus. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. i. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Theatetus and the Laws. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. composition.. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Timaeus.

Unlike the case of Aristotle. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'.in Plato's thought. partially. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. near Florence. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. replaced Ficino's. but not completely. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato.1577) becoming particularly popular. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. all of which he also translated into Latin. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and Agostino Steuco (c. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. and he utilized many other writings. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Plotinus. 1472-c. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. and the Chaldaic Oracles. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. systematized and added to what Plato had done. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. including those of Plotinus. Rather unsystematic. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Iamblichus. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century.

"folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. poluptukhos. Lat. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. pointed arch In architecture. plinthos. porticus. polyptych (Gk. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. pluvial (Med. plinth (Gk. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. portico (Lat. column. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. such as processions and consecrations. Frequently supports a pediment. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. or statue. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. pluviale. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Plato was read in the universities. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. where a pectoral is used to close it. as in classical architecture).

include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Florence. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Mantua. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo Farnese). Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. decorating whole rooms. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. inessential. psychologically more complex. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Venice). the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. 1328. Group portraits. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Campidoglio). Desiderio da Settignano. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. the Carracci. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello..e. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. and the . Florence (1486-90). A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Gattarnelata. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Colleoni. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The realism of the clear. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The equestrian portrait. was revived in the 14th century. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Maria Novella. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. and only a decorative accessory to form. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Siena.sculptors such as Donatello. Cathedral) by Uccello. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. National Gallery). Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. flattened image. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S.

Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. primarily the mendicants." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. was versed in classical and patristic . by contrast with the mendicant preachers. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Savonarola and Musso. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Borromeo. bishop of Asti. from the secular clergy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. bishops especially. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. bishop of Chioggia. several of whom became bishops. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. The styles of S. abrasive even. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. The sermons of Visdomini. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. are not florid in style. minatory exhortations. 1494). and. Charles Le Brun. As Poussin was a Frenchman. who had as their ideal masters Titian. to discharge their preaching duties. Fiamma's sermons. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. together with the Dominican Savonarola. however. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). not least those of statesmen and prelates. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. and Peter Paul Rubens. of the sermon as an art form. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Correggio. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration.

among them Holman Hunt.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. though often relatively very wide . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. presbytery (or choir) (Gk.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Naples). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . predella (It. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. however. Louis of Toulouse (1317. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. and so forth. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Millais and Rossetti. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. tapestries. Because of the small size of predelle .rhetoric. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.g. The New Testament references in these would. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. prefiguration Typology . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.

founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). sculpture and architecture.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. proportio. Fragonard. the golden section. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. proportion (Lat. these highly finished drawings. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. "evenness") in painting. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The following are important: 1. Girardon. intended as complete works of art in themselves. Prix de Rome A scholarship. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the Canon of Proportion. 3. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. which uses the square . The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. profil perdu (Fr. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. again indicative of the purpose they served. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. the quadrature. 2. and Houdon among sculptors. notably David. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few.

quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. a fourth = 3:4. one half the length of the other). putti sing. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. putto (It. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. . a fifth = 2:3. Ignazio. Rome. for example). the steward or treasurer of a church. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. Unlike Pozzo. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. It was common in Roman art. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century.as a unit of measurement. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. harmonic proportions. 4. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. triangulation. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. provenance The origins of an art work. and 5. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. "boys") Plump naked little boys.

in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Among the . The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. also known as the Realist school. relevare. Donatello. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). and high relief (alto rilievo).Quattrocento (It. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. e. or the Jesuits. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. friars and nuns. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. the great orders of monks. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the object of particular veneration. relief (Lat. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. relic (Lat. canons regular. Botticelli. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relicquiae. in which figures are seen half round. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. basso rilievo). the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. hermits. refectory (Med. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R").g. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Lat. Fra Angelico and others. in particular works by Masaccio. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Brunelleschi. or some item connected with a saint. In 16th century Europe.

The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Giorgio in Alga. Founded by St Romuald c. Maria di Fregonaia. and their more institutionalized brethren. 1012. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Padua. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. the great patriarch of Venice. In 1504. S. which was to become the main Italian one. The Silvestrines. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. At the same time. That of S. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. In 1517. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. i. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Venice (1404). the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. various groups were fused in the latter body. who had no overall organization originally. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo.contemplative orders. however. Benedetto. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Conventuals. The same bull . although technically of secular canons. Lucca. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Mantua. it became the Cassinese congregation. presided over by chapters general. Bologna (1419). He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. and the generally moderate Observants. Giustina. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. After the repression of the Spirituals. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. was the congregation of S.e. Salvatore. the Conventuals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the most notable being S. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Benedictines. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Bernardino of Siena.

Filippo Neri. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. however. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. The first. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. a historical period. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the Theatines. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. founded in 1535 by S. Venice.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. however. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. also. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. founded by S. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Gaetano da Thiene. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Angela Merici. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Michele in Isola.

and competition with. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. because its core of energy. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. . All-Roundness. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. as well as political. 1875-86). which had begun early in the 14th century. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. the historical reality of antiquity. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth.century. For long. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. life. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. was so vast and potent. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of arts. however. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. increasingly. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. of letters. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. of scholarship. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. too long forgotten glories. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. even Amoralism. and his own as potentially one of light. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Thereafter. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. of 'darkness'. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. of an energetic revival of interest in. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. however.

Though thus challenged. It is for this additional. The challenges are to be accepted. Ghent). (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. etc. etc. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. however.with all its shabbiness . Cathedral of SaintBavon. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. mobilized nationalism. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. sometimes. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.) was the term chosen. let alone a uniform. congruence between. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. and mass media. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. (3) There is not a true. and is decorated with paintings. in the more limited sense. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . consist merely of a painting.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). later still to Genoa. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. the previous record . 'culture' and 'history' during the period. statues. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). of industrialization. though sometimes of metal. and other liturgical objects. letters. gratefully. There was an early. candlesticks.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. retables can be detached and. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.erased. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. especially in the High Gothic period. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject.

The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. rilievo (It. Italy. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. in several countries . rocaille (French. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. its mood lighthearted and witry. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). is a typical product. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. like 'Gothic'. the first style to achieve such international currency. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Romanesque art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Rococo A style of design. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. . Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. "relief") In painting. and architecture dominating the 18th century. As the name suggests.in the 11th century. and 'Romanesque'. retables have become extinct. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Germany. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. almost simultaneously. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. the St.of St Mark in Venice. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Originally commissioned in 976.France. Spain . With the development of freestanding altars. painting. Louis XV furniture. however. literally. richly decorated with organic forms. More usually.

is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Massys and M. . The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. The aim of painting. they maintained. B. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. van Heemskerk. Pannini and Mengs. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. stylized design representing an open rose. In addition. Mabuse. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. M. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Piranesi. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. van Orley. Q. the development of nationalistic pride. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. such as red ochre. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Claude. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Rome. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution.

matrimony. Eastern independent. glance and movement . hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and anointing of the sick. supported by lay confraternities. from the Old and New Testaments. but others were the work of well-known figures. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. gutted. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Clement escaped into Castel S. the Eucharist. confirmation. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.expressed through gesture. Many compositions were anonymous. Orthodox. holy orders. when it finally left the city it had devastated. and Protestant churches. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. and impoverished. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. local saints. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Sacra Conversazione (It. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). pious legend and hagiography. In the . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista.greatly increased. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. multiple sets used in succession. and Lorenzo de' Medici. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Subjects were nominally sacred. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Written primarily in ottava rima. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. There were no limits on time. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). penance. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents.

sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.) Hall. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.e. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. which in the Gospel According to John. sacraments. Saracens . chapter 13. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the Rocca Paolina. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. used for drawing." which are called sacramentals.. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. was buried under a new fortress. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. the Orthodox Church does not. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. notably from Florence and in Germany. the Bentivoglio. foot washing. was not maintained as a sacrament. strictly speaking. as in the Church of the Brethren. the sun of righteousness. Hence. the symbolic direction of Christ.. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.e. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. in principle. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. The chief focus of discontent. They were still seeking aid. Thus. make such strict distinctions. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Salt War.early church the number of sacraments varied. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Anglican. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.i. replaces the Lord's Supper. Candidates first face west. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. baptism and the Eucharist. Immediately following baptism. The classical Protestant churches (i. large room. that the price of salt should be increased. and sacraments. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it." sala (Ital. The theology of the Orthodox Church. as an excuse to revolt. It is still practiced on special occasions. Lutheran. and then face east.

210 AD). wood or terracotta. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. and many others. 360 . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.c. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. sarcophagus. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Little known in the Middle Ages.During the Middle Ages. 45 BC). 270 BC). Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. made of stone. whose writings. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. pl. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). human-like woodland deities with the ears. 160 . Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. the god of wine. satyr In Greek mythology.c. The publication of Latin (1562. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. legs and horns of a goat. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. sarcophagi (Gk. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the Arabs or Muslims. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. are lost. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).

on one side. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. but with little effect. Louis I (d. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Schism. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. 1386) and his son Ladislas. in June 1409. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.for example Pieter van Laer. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. was called Bamboccio. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Alexander V. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. while England. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. and. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. for. most of whom. who recognized the Roman pope. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). while devout Christians agonized. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. In northern Italy. on the other. being Frenchmen. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. from time to time both he and his opponents. scholasticism . As a result.they had individual Bentnames . thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). However. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. the Florentines. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. than their medieval predecessors. with France and her allies Aragon. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. one of the early leaders.

moral philosophy. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. (See also: fresco. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia).were different from those of medieval. and Islamic literature. textual scholarship. as it were. Serenissima (Ital. notably Aquinas. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. and theology. that scholasticism was left. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. the plaster had to be damped before painting. as it is easier to add details in this way. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Medieval scholars. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. university-based study. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Padua. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. history and rhetoric . As such. if lime-water was used. It was because the central concerns of humanism . the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). rather than wet plaster as in fresco. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. Christian. moreover. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy.) . it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). None the less. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.The term is ambivalent. on one side. Often called the burning ones. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God.

Originally. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. sfumato A technique. at the same time.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. in the period of classical antiquity. the number gradually rose to ten. Lat. "the most serene republic of Venice"). in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. "prophetess") In antiquity. They first appear in alpine monasteries. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. term. Signoria (It. In Christian legend. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Sibyls foretold the Birth. which were all identical in thickness. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. usually presided over by individual families.. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. there was only one Sibyl. Med. and the delicate. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in use since the Middle Ages. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sinopia .Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. brass. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. sibylla. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Servite (Lat. women who could prophesy. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sibyls (Gk.

stigma (Gk. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). "mark. It is very closely related to International Gothic. Stanze (Ital. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.) Wooden ceiling decoration. as the name implies. soffit (Lat. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Francis of Assisi. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. brand. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.'Beautiful Madonnas'. pronounced as French. sotto in sù (It. Ital.. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. sing.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. and. . stigmata. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. staffage This word. in other words. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. especially in the flow of drapery. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.

Indeed. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. pl. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. supremacy .stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. studiolo. studioli (It. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. John Milton. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. both external and internal. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). with that for the Picturesque. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. In a looser sense. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. stucco A type of light. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The vogue for the Sublime. whose verses actually fabrications .

Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. Salviati and Allori. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling.Historically. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. then being replaced by oil paint. These were imported. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. i. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). temperare. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. doubtless. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. into Italy. But the Italians did not make them. 1407). though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. London. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. chiefly from Flanders. was being decorated with frescoes. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545.e. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). his own headquarters. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. The subject is underexplored. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. . were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. tempera (Lat.and. both for panel painting and fresco. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. or cartoons. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. and in literature. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .

"round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. and profile. terraferma (Ital. i. topos. triumphal arch. and sculptures. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. in art. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. and other surfaces. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. pl. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. tondo. figure of speech. topia. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tondi (It. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "fields. model. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). pl. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topiary (Gk. vessels. Trajan's Column . a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "a commonplace") In literature. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. quarter face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. widely used form. walls. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and later to subdivide gable ends. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows.e. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. theme or motif. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. topoi (Gk.terracotta (It.

Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Early triptychs were often portable. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. . behind it. after 'a countless number of virgins. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. or wings. beside it the army of martyrs. the wars by which they were won . "threefold") in Christianity. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. the military triumph became sublimated. into a number of less controversial forms. a car so brave'. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. usually an altarpiece. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. of both sexes'. Meanwhile. fame. death. trinitas.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. time and eternity. of virtues and of the arts. tryptychos. the Son and the Holy Spirit. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Disseminated soon after his death. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Battista Sforza.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. "threefold") A painting in three sections. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). as it were. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . triptych (Gk. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Trinity (Lat. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. added to the glamour of the triumph. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. patriarchs and prophets.' Before it go the apostles. chastity. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.

often decorated with sculptures. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. typology . Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. through various naturalistic devices.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tusche A thick. In medieval architecture. "drum") In classical architecture. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Dating from classical times. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. It incorporates Renaissance features. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. enclosed by an arch. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). first recorded in 1232. tympanum (Lat. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. viscous black ink. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. it is usually decorated with carvings. tromp l'oeil (Fr. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative.

g. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. U uomo universale (It. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. . lanterns. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).A system of classification. slayer of Goliath. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. killer of Holofernes. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New.Dirck van Baburen (c. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. were popular with them also.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Judith.) The Renaissance "universal man". Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. 1610). each had access to his paintings. and David. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. such as five works devoted to the senses. where they were most accessible. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). 1590-1624). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. The numerous candles. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . knew his former patrons. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). e. especially his half-length figural groups. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. In Christian thought.

painting at both the Dutch and English courts. snuff boxes and other objects. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. hour-glasses and clocks. "evening") . Also varietas (Lat. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. it was used to decorate furniture. V vanishing point In perspective. often gold. and even flowers (which will soon fade).Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Parisian craftsmen. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. overturned vessels. guttering candles. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. Vespers (Lat. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. vanitas (Lat. carriages. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. a work's richness of subject matter. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. the groin vault. and the rib vault. varietà (It.). vesper. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. There are a wide range of forms. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. mixed in.

the church service at which these prayers are said. and Justice. vite (Lat. vita. for example. Anger. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. In ancient Roman dwellings. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Covetousness. pl. "life") . 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Temperance. actual or latent. Prudence. in which the word signifies efficacy. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. virtù could be used. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The seven Virtues were: Faith. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. 'Assume a virtue. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Envy. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha.Prayers said in the evening. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. vestibulum. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. vimperga Of German origin. Hope. and Sloth. "not exposed to winds". Vestibule (Lat. Lust. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Fortitude. Gluttony. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. if you have it not'. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Charity.

An account of someone's life and work. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. The wars from 1494 do. Marcus (1st cent. 1482-84). usually when a prayer for good fortune. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. protection from harm. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. in fact. Sculptors and Architects"). or recovery from illness has been made. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. published in 1550 and 1568. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. they were from the 18th century . the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. 1472.g. 1478-80. a biography. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. and of Ferrara. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and appalled recognition of. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Vitruvius Pollio. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. those of Volterera.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. usually restorers.Weltanschauung (Gr. "Western work of art". during its subsequent history. "world view") A comprehensive world view. . pompous on the floor above. treasury or a place where justice was administered. a philosophy of life. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms. Westwerk German word. It was intended to have a variety of functions. usually linear. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. woodcut A print made from a wood block. gallery. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting.

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