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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. design. or organization. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. but in essence the process is as follows. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. The adjective is apsidal. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). architectonic (Gk. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "architectural") Relating to structure. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns.A semicircular projection. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arkhitektonikos. Degas. roofed with a half-dome.e. at the east end of a church behind the altar. piers or pillars. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). the darker the tone). architrave (It. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arcade (Lat. The term applies also to a print made by this method. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. arcus. which is fused to the plate by heating. and Rouault. Also known as an exedra. There are several variants of the technique. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Picasso. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. . Lancet and Tudor. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the moulding around a window or door. the lowest part of the entablature). including Goya. In Greek and Roman literature.
In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.and the Comedy . drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. In the case of martyrs. dominate. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "front arch. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. attribute (Lat. aureole (Lat." and Lat. voltus. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. attributum. "golden. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. archivolto.archivolt (Ital. archeiu. usually a saint. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "begin. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. aureolus. Dante's Vita nuova .are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat." from Gk. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.
in 1377. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. baldachin. 'Captivity'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. or baldacchino (It. the god of wine and fertility. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. often anecdotal. paintings of everyday life. Later. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. that of Cardano. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. applied to the physically . Bambocciati Group of relatively small. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. who had been residing in France since 1305. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The actual move was made in 1309.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Six pontificates later. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples.
Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. or connected with. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Pentecost. Baalbek. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. and Epiphany. or canopy. Croatia]. Lebanon. set beneath a domical ciborium. a church. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Alg. or forecourt. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. banderole (It. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Parma. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. As eight follows the "complete" number. beggars in rags. such as those at Pisa. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. el Kantara. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. France. Easter. the Temple of Venus. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Florence. AD 300). and abject filthy things. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels.. built by Sixtus III. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. and Nocera in Italy. banderuola.g.. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. seven. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. AD 273. . Spalato [Split. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. and Poitiers. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Customarily. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. pope between 432 and 440.
Baroque (Port. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. 1796-1875). Jean-François Millet (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. baptisteries. 1810-1865). basilica (Gk. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and thus a church. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. in the 1840s and 1850s. Rubens). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. were often omitted entirely. however. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. usually facing east. Originally. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Vermeer). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. 1811-1889). in its usual location near the church door . southeast of Paris. Jules Dupré (French. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Constant Troyon (French. 1817-1878). Also tunnel vault. and (3) everyday realism. the dramatic use of light and shadow. something of earlier symbolism survives. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. stoa basilike. Théodore Rousseau (French. In architecture. . 1814-1875). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. which is reserved for the clergy. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. achieved through scale. 1807-1876). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and increasingly elaborate decoration. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.an allusion to entering the Christian life. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. "king's hall") a church building. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. barocco. or baptismal chapels.In the 10th century.
in which still-life predominates. Bodegónes. and often sentimentality. which is either not yet glazed. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Biscuit porcelain. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. also incorrectly called bisque. as is to be expected. 1650 in Spain. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. like their Dutch counterparts. There were. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. The term was mainly used up to c.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. however. particularly porcelain. or which is to be left as it is. especially Spanish. bodegón Image. By association. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes. such as those by Diego Velázquez.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Book of Hours . who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. up until the mid-17th century. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. such as Waldmüller. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. domesticity. It takes its name from its grainy texture. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. often with food and drink. were referred to by their specific contents. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.
a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. or seasons. By extension. made as a study for a larger picture. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. Chantilly). varying from silverish to a rich. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. but can also be used for painted sketches. See flying buttress. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. days of the week. bozzetto Strictly speaking.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.both hot and cold . containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. though these are more often called 'modelli'. a rapid sketch in oil. . The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. months. durability. and the fact that it is easily workable . coppery red.by a variety of processes.an advantage over marble sculpture. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. bozzetto(Italian. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.
cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. and Giotto. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. caisson (Fr. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. cameo Small relief made from gems. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which was often allegorical. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. ceramics. manuscript illuminations.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. private room where works of art. Duccio. It also served to glorify the emperor. Among its most distinctive products were icons. mosaics. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. C cabinet A small. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). casson. notable from Syria and Egypt. "a chest. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. and work in precious metals. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. box") In architecture. camera obscura . glass. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. its forms highly stylized.
other materials used are cotton. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. dating to antiquity. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. otherwise it will absorb too much paint.) A gallery for singers or musicians. usually built beside or attached to a church. capitellum. both of which have richly carved marble panels. which isolates the fabric from the paint. by the 16th century. followed by smaller and even pocket models. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. candlestick. cantoria. only very rough effects will be obtainable. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. sing. "candle") A large. . as an aid to drawing. The Latin name means "dark chamber. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.-N. cantorie (It. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. candela. Structurally. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. usually with several branches or arms. usually decorated. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candelabrum (It. usually in a church. which was usually whitened." and the earliest versions. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. Niepce created photography. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting.Ancestor of the photographic camera. and jute. Portable versions were built. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. pl. capital (Lat. campanile Bell tower. candelabra. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. hemp. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral.
cartouche . or a motto.a humorous drawing or parody.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Carthusian Order (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. or fresco. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the date of the painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. details of the subject. near Grenoble. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . At the height of the Middle Ages. cartoon (It. cartellino. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In fresco painting. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartellini In a painting. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). cardinalis. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). and humanism. pl. New Charterhouses.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . tapestry. Carmelites (Lat.both Italians and artists from other countries . "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartone.
Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.) "castle". a cathedral always faces west . palace. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Cascina. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. . and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. where the throne of the bishop is placed. castello (It. and many other items of her dowry. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. For reasons lost to time and tradition.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. In the 15th century. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. caryatid (Gk. and swags of fruit and flowers.toward the setting sun. or arms of the cross. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. These lead up to the north and south transepts. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. The altar is placed at the east end. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. decorated with gilt gesso. They contained the bride's clothes. linen. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. they were also used in other countries. putti (cupids). battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. or nave. cassone (It. Paolo Uccello. cathedral (cathedra. The main body.
and perspicere. central perspective (Lat. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. a celestial winged being with human. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. and Islamic literature. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. continually praise him. Both the statement of St. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. animal. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. rather than intercessory functions. as celestial attendants of God. "in the centre". Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Relative to the observer. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Christian. champlevé (Fr. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. or birdlike characteristics. centralis. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. a throne bearer of the deity. buildings and figures that are being depicted.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. . landscapes. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.
The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. choir (Gk. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. or for choral singing. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. Lastly. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. replacing tempera. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. the Order of the Hospital of St. Since Carolingian times. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights.chiaroscuro (It. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. reserved for the clergy to pray together. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. "light dark") In painting." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. choros. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. North of the Alps.
if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. is as typically Churrigueresque. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). a massing of carved angels. Very few still exist in their original positions. and garlands. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Sculpted clouds. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. reversed volutes. further enriching the style. The Transparente (completed 1732).intersect). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. undulating lines. ciborium . became the most common motif. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. balustrades. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. The Mexico cathedral (1718). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and the Churrigueresque column. gilded rays. undulating cornices. stucco shells. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and repetition of pattern. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. an architect.
In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Their economic condition worsened. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. combers. including the ciompi. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods.and post-medieval Italy. or achieve political representation. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. They were forbidden to form a trade association. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Without being members of a guild. controlled by the minor guilds. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. the wool carder Michele di Lando. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. High Renaissance). the lower classes forcibly took over the government. craft of dyeing. The new government. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. beaters. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. as also were those in the associated. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. but self-employed. ciompi. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. In reaction to this revolutionary . on July 22. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. who were raised to the status of a guild. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Members of the lower classes. placing one of their members. Quattrocento (1400s. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Then. etc. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted.
scholars patiently finding.) An ancient musical instrument. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. In the 15th century Greek literature.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and politics.episode. except in cases where . on which strings were plucked. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). philosophy and art . . editing and translating a wide range of texts. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. changed greatly from one period to the next. the ciompi guild was abolished. however. philosophy. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. with Italian scholars.as in Italy these were dispensed with. writers. literature. clair-obscur (Fr. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. Concepts of the classical. the black contours usually with a special line plate. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. resembling a lyre. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cithara (Gk.
as well as from the Bible. concetti (It. blue and orange. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. the church service at which these prayers are said. arch or ceiling. concetto. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. pl. a work's underlying theme. sing. or "contract. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. terrorized the country. Green and red. pl. condottiere. occasionally made of wood. [hora] completa. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. compline (Lat. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. cognoscente (It. condottieri (It. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. cognoscenti. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. literature or music. intensify one another. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. . The name was derived from the condotta. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. those with refined tastes. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. Coffered ceilings. when set side by side.
e. which spread in the 15th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Umbria. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. . the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. primarily for syphilitics. in the service of Naples. and Tuscany. Francesco Sforza. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. With no goal beyond personal gain. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. often called compagnie or. Muzio's son. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Spanish. or with the spiritual assistance of. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Toward the end of the 15th century. convents of convertite. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. scuole. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. in the service of Perugia. and German--the condottieri. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. flagellant confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Martino). often under the direction of. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. and his rival Braccio da Montone. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. clergy. i. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. disappeared. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Mark (1432). these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds.e. By the 16th century. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Carmagnola. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. confraternities Confraternities. in Venice. commonly called either Compagnia di S. By the end of the 14th century. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans.devastating Romagna. i. who won control of Milan in 1450. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy.
the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. e. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. notwithstanding their location. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. e. contour. reformed prostitutes. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. In medieval painting. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. founded c. Later. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte.i. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contrapposto (It. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. contour (Fr. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. While the Doge ranked above the Council. but sometimes had their own premises. contours were initially regular. however. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. 1514 in S. in Florence. flat outlines. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. the Florentine Neri.g. Dorotea in Trastevere. while the Venetian government. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention.e. and refuges for maidens. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Confraternities.g. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art.
Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Lat. corbel In architecture. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. aes cyprium. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. cuprum. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Reform programs. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. declining moral standards. a bracket of stone. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s.weight on one leg. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. did not achieve any lasting results. 1280). "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. . They are often ornamented. 1100 and 1300. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. whose names are inscribed on several works. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. conventiculurn. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. conventicle (Lat. The style spread as far as England. an engraving produced in this way. large cornice or other feature. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c.
Jews. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. or "scourged. after being whipped. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. i. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. reedy sound. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Carthaginians. There were various methods of performing the execution.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. D dado . evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. cupula. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Seleucids. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. cupola (Lat. the condemned man. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the first Christian emperor. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the most famous victim of crucifixion. "small vat") In architecture. Constantine the Great. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. a small dome. particularly among the Persians. An ancestor of the oboe." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Death.e. a semi-circular vault. Usually. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Next.
"drawing. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. The term stresses not the literal drawing. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors.g. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. decorated diffrently from the upper section. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). which was help to be the basis of all art. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. an expressive use of nature. Passau. and Linz possessed common characteristics.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. diptychos. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. danse macabre The dance of death. a favorite late medieval picture subject. diptychum. Gk. Germany. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. but the concept behind an art work. diptych (Lat. disegno (It. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. usually in matching pairs. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. deacon (Gk. often an altarpiece. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . e. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. design") In Renaissance art theory. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. diakonos. Deësis (Gk. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room.
and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). As disegno appeals to the intellect.Thomas Aquinas. doublet A male garment. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. distemperare. donator. is a heavy piece of furniture. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. also used it on canvas. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. donor (Lat. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Dominicans (Lat. when painters took to working out of doors. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. "to mix. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. which runs on castors or wheels. a 19th-century invention. Ordo Praedictatorum. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. dome in architecture. such as we still use today. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c.fully realize. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The studio easel. though a few artists. distemper (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). formerly worn under armour.
Ecce Homo (Lat. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. fresco. ensemble (Fr. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. epitaph (Gk. a depiction of Jesus. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. It consists of the architrave. full face. bound and flogged. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. the frieze. eschaton. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Hence.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. entablature In classical architecture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. and architecture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. and the cornice. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. in art. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. en face In portraiture. "word") . John (19. sometimes combining panel painting. and logos. sculpture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschatology (Gk. "last". engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off.
and is named for Faenza." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Giovanni Morone. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. fields and livestock. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which is called "delftware. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world.death and resurrection. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Saints Ambrose. particularly ware made in France. Spain. farmers. and Scandinavia. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. "good. celebrated with bread and wine. 4500 BCE." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Jerome. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. eu. Marcantonio Flaminio. which was famous for maiolica. Vittoria Colonna. Italy. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Augustine. which is called "maiolica. Equated with the Greek god Pan. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. . notably Cardinal Pole. Germany. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. and of the last things. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. It developed in France in the early 16th century. which was developed in the Near East ca." and charis. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Contarini. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. protector of shepherds. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Eucharist (Gk. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.
war. The colour of his horse is white. Only a small area can be painted in a day. Committed to charitable and missionary work. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. relaxed. drying to a slightly different tint.festoni (It. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. a swag. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). that of the others red. famine and death.8). In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. a technique known as a secco fresco. black and dun. leaves. 2 . which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. such as plague. Their attributes are the bow. frescos in Italy . "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. sword and set of balances. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fluted of a column or pillar. and flowers suspended in a loop. and these areas. fresco (It. can in time be seen.
the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. a person's invisible tutelary god. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Genius in classical Rome. or fresco secco. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.Save in Venice. usually childish figure. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. for example. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. G Garter. In art from the classical period onwards. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. the intonaco. Final details. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. are genres of painting. covings and ceilings.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. genre In a broad sense. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The technique of buon fresco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. landscape and portraiture. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or true fresco. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. where the atmosphere was too damp.
(2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Maria Gloriosa). The nature of true gloria was much discussed. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Gobelins . in portraits and on tombs. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Bernardo Daddi. how it differed from notoriety. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. whether it must be connected with the public good. As such. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Maso di Banco. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. and as spurring on men of action. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. as well as writers and artists. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso.
while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. thereafter it made only tapestries. who appointed Lebrun Director. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Paris. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70).French tapestry manufactory. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. golden section (Lat. In other Italian cities. and although it reopened in 1699. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. . for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Golden Fleece. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. This ratio is approximately 8:13. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. still in existence today. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum.
The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. In particular. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Nevertheless. 1200 and c. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. In sculpture and in painting. Gothic Gothic. the superficial particularities of form. or the influence of one building. The artistic. that the effects are to be felt. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. There is a transcendental quality. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. painting. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. . In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. like the cultural and commercial. Amiens. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. 1270. and lies much deeper than. painting. c. from the 13th until the 17th century. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Denis. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. In thinking of Nicola (d. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.
the Netherlands. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. genius. chiefly to France. the beau idéal of the French. Dubuffet. starch. and Piranesi. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Canaletto. and taste among the English. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. to silk. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Honey. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. notably in the writings of Bellori. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. without visible brush marks. if required. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and Morris Graves. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. to white or tinted paper and card and. Such tours often took a year or more. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and above all Italy. and the great style. These qualities. occasionally. It is thinned with water for applying. Pannini.and hog-hair brushes. with sable. sometimes in the company of a tutor. . and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Klee.
including text as well as illustrations. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. gris. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. internal factions in Florence went under other names. which had recruited most of the merchant class. then as now.e. after this. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. through central Italy. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. After the War of the Eight Saints. From 1266 to 1268. brother of Louis IX. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. 1216.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. to Provence and Paris. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. . In the context of the fine arts. exclude drawing from this definition. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. In another sense. became an abiding feature of European politics. c. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. usually gray. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. Although its palace was rebuilt c. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. and Waiblingen. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In Florence. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Some writers. however. grisaille (Fr. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. the parties taking a multitude of local names. however. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria.
for example. but in time they acquired other functions. In some cities. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. surgeons. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. H hatching In a drawing. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. print or painting. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. "herald") . contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guild also monitored standards of work. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. trades. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. In 16th century Venice. The guilds were not equal. Guilds were also patrons of art. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Italy they go back a long way. and provided assistance to members in need. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. heraldry (Fr. or professions. héraut. In some towns. In Florence. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. "[knowledge of] heraldry." from Fr. notably Florence in the 14th century. and greater hostility between master and man. goldsmiths. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. trade or profession (painters. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. [science] héraldique. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. as some did). Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state.
At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. as Antichrist. i. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. the Cathars were an anti-church. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. head of the 'carnal Church'. The main impact of the . from the start. d. By contrast. indeed. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. the followers of Juan de Valdes. However. they were condemned in 1184. the Waldensian. with the rules governing their use. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. together with brethren north of the Alps. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. while others merged with the Waldensians. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. and regarded themselves as forming. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. one great missionary community.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. normative for churchmen. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s.
Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. and. Frederick E. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. humanus. hortus conclusus (Lat. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. working from 1825 to 1875. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. American painters were studying in Rome. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Jasper Cropsey. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. F. Thomas Cole. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. history (usually classical history). J. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Durand. the emancipation of man from God took place. S. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. George Inness. in his earlier work. humanism (Lat. At the same time. Morse. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Church. Kensett. Henry Inman. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Germany. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. F. In humanism. B. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. its subjects considered morally elevating. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. mainly in the south. my spouse'.movement upon the laity was in southern France. and classical literature. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
the rooster of Peter's denial.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the ability to create. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Veronica. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. The terms court style. investiture . models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. the scourge that was used in the scourging. and they are also depicted on their own. beautiful style. there are representations of the bundle of rods. soft style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. invention. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. with many further details added. inventio (It. and the ladder. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Human figures. In the second half of the 14th century. etc. For instance. usually the donors of a work of art. are also used in art literature. Derived from classical rhetoric. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. or of other saints. the veil of St.g. originality. the hammer. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the pincers. Donatallo. Judas' thirty pieces of silver.
a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. . but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Nicolaes Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The Both brothers. Italianizers Northern artists. principally Dutch. Both and Berchem.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. although they are usually called Romanists. who traveled in Italy and. generally Dutch or Flemish. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). bathed in a golden haze. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. and Jan Asselijn. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. of Utrecht. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Upon his return to Holland. Andries and Jan Both. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jerome's writings. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Ignatius Loyola in 1534.
the rite of communion is based on this. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. especially one at which the Bible is read. liberal arts . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Legenda Aurea (Lat.1519). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Archbishop of Genoa.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. encouraged by the Crusades. John of Jerusalem . As their military role grew. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .as the Friars of the Hospital of St. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). lectern A reading stand or desk. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
geometry. John F. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. through the use of aerial perspective. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. the quadrivium.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). painting or sculptural decoration. . a semicircular space. its roof supported by columns. then the basis of a philosophical training. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Heade (1819-1904). loggia (It. often standing in markets and town squares. and Frederick E. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. lunette (Fr. Pythagoras for arithmetic. commemorating a marriage.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. comprising arithmetic. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. "little moon") In architecture. Martin J.grammar.g. poetic atmosphere. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.g. Church (1826-1900). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. that could be used for public ceremonies. often sublime. first the preparatory trivium . such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Tubal for music). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Maria Novella in Florence). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. and sometimes refers to Impressionism.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Kensett (1816-1872). together with identifying attributes (e. rhetoric and dialectic. It is related to. that may contain a window. astronomy and music. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.
for example. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. When white is used for painting. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. antimony yellow. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). originating in Italy in the 14th century. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. "great mother") A mother goddess. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. active mainly in Florence c. copper green. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. "almond") . the goddess Cybele. and however bright their lighting effects. but they painted genre scenes. being written. particularly such ware produced in Italy. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. originally sung without accompaniment. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. mandorla (It. usually for the lute. They were influenced by the Barbizon School.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. historical subjects. and accompaniments. magna mater (Lat. manganese purple. 1855–65. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. Specifically. and portraits as well as landscapes. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and iron red. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. madrigal A part song.
and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. more strictly. often ornamented with decorative borders. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. "manner. It reached to the knee or foot. bound. depending on the social class of the wearer. Developing out of the Renaissance. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. In Mannerist painting. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. mantle An overcoat. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. and literary texts. ecclesiastical. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Burgundy. worn open. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. the hand-written medieval book.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. illuminated initials and miniatures. complex and crowded compositions. In architecture. Parmigianino. and crowned with thorns. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Flanders. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. which was quarried at Mount . maniera. in a specific sense. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Bronzino. El Greco and Tintoretto. the Codex manuscriptus. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. strong. Mannerism (It. marked by flagellation.
or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medallion In architecture. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. sleek surface. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. marmi finti (It. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). The pure white Carrara marble. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. particularly by Michelangelo. Without monetary value. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. martyrdom (Gk. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. the medal's purpose was commemorative. quarried at Massa. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. having finished his training. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Carrara. which were beginning to be reverently collected. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. an inscription running round the rim. Like the finest Imperial coins. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. martyrion. a different design on the reverse. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth.Pentelicon in Attica. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. "witness. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. proof") the sufferings.
even grain. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. particularly. 14601528). of the person portrayed on the other side. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. no line drawing is employed. In pure mezzotint. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. often anonymous. 1425-1504). 1452-1526/27). and of the many. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Medusa In Greek mythology. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. as it were. perhaps oddly. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. This yields a soft effect in the print. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. A Dutch officer. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. . 1640. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Ludwig von Siegen. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. the stress on individual character. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. It was. supposedly to petrify her enemies. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. When Perseus cuts off her head. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles.round the neck. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. in England. a Gorgon. The work of these men. for landscapes and portraits. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. The process is essentially extinct today. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Her head features on Minerva's shield. who reflected them. 1467-688). c. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi).
not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. saying") .g. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. motto (Ital. monokhromatos. "one color") Painted in a single color. pointed headdress worn by bishops. ink and paint. monochrome (Gk. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. often quite highly finished. e. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Francis himself.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. by Tiepolo and Rubens. a branch of the Franciscan order. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture.. usually portraits. Many such small versions. "word. miter A high. Parmigianino (d. painting in gouache on vellum or card. executed on a very small scale. still exist. a painting executed in a single color. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.
and their work is clear and prettily coloured. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. but often insipid. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. 1816-17. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. The invention of personal mottos. In 1810 0verbeck. Berlin. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. often separated from it by pillars. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and two other members moved to Rome. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and Casino Massimo. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. . Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Nazarenes A group of young. Rome. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. In general. named after the patron saint of painting. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and is intersected by the transept. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. naturalism (Fr. nave (from Lat. 1817-29). where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Pforr. Isidore. navis. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy.from the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side.
is as true as it is notorious. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Popes. the style of the Ancien Régime. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. niello (Lat. "aureole") The disc or halo. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). but their ideas continued to be influential. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance.) . moreover. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. were usually old when elected. nigellus. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. nimbus (Lat. Nymphaeum (Gk. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. usually golden.
oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. a more elaborate base. . The Corinthian order was the most ornate. inborn sin. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). walnut. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. "services. the Doric order. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. The earliest. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. or poppy. obsequia. such as linseed. the three basic styles of design. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. and entablatures. a small private chapel. observances") Rites performed for the dead. O obsequies (Lat. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. with a sturdy. orders of architecture In classical architecture. Greek goddesses of Nature. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). its richness of colour. and its greater tonal range. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. fluted column and a plain capital. was the simplest. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church.
reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. with biforate windows. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy.g. like cities. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. Palazzo Strozzi). In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. and. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). tradition and social structure. standing at the foot of the Cross. the Cancelleria). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and the main apartments above. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. P pala (Ital. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. designed as a . At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. palazzo (It. while shops came to be thought undignified.
originally evolved in response to specific conditions. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Following Oriental patterns.g. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Rich. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro).g. Papal incentives to build. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. behind a sober Florentine façade. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. cornices and abutments. came to be applied all over Europe. column-caps. Palazzo Massimi). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Other cities. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Movement of patrons and architects. In Venice. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. evolved influential types. and Palladio's in Vicenza. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). e. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. especially after the Sack of Rome. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). like the colonnaded vestibule. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises.scholarly retreat. and large households. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. like Genoa. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. often built next to their titular churches. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. palmette. panel .
Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. larch. fibre-board. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. and other synthetic materials as supports. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. To maintain their authority. The third aspect was administrative. including beech. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and spanned by a single dome. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. fir. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. cedar. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. chestnut. Then. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and the pressure and temptations . panel painting Painting on wooden panels. enforce law and order. so that they might have a voice at court. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and modern painters have also used plywood. teak. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. Many other types were used. On a larger scale. and walnut. In the 20th century cedar. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. or the incidence of taxation. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. olive. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example).popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. slate has occasionally been used as a support. Having a circular plan. however. mahogany. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. metal. secular rulers. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. linden. A number of matters. As successors to St Peter. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. or other rigid substance. as distinct from canvas.Term in painting for a support of wood. as it were. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and dark walnut are favourites. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. the. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. to influence popes in their favour.
As at Avignon. It was argued that such a council. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40).base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. if it did no serious damage to the faith. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. which met at Constance 1414-18. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. as such. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. from the point of view of its religious associations. at Avignon. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. By then. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini.as well. however. however. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. in the eyes of God. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. in spite of further absences from Rome. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. To resolve the problem of divided authority. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. was long in doubt. to be long delayed. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449.that could be applied to them. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the most appropriate . prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. There remained. however. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Colonna and Caetani. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . could supersede that of a pope. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. of individuals. possess an authority which. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. which seems so inevitable. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. would. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). So onerous. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. The identification of the Papacy with Rome.
Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). in classical literature. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). it has also been used for painting. pastoral (Lat. as well as a governmental one. goat. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum..by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. to a world peopled by shepherds. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. the creation of a cultural capital. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and satyrs. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. scholars and men of letters. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. pastor. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. and other animals. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. However. 400-300 BC). Parrhasius (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and with Zeuxis (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. Passion . through lavish patronage of artists. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. nymphs. less frequently pig. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents.
hence tent") A lightly constructed. 1478. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. pastiche (fr. . In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. Meanwhile. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. patrician (Lat. a prominent section of a monumental façade. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. Portrayals of the Passion. the crown of thorns. patricius. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. such as a garden summerhouse. but not necessarily a direct copy. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. "butterfly. which focus on the Suffering Christ. and also the archbishop of Pisa. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize.The events leading up to Good Friday. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. projecting either centrally or at both ends.) or pasticcio (It. ornamental building. a small. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. and so on. pavilion (Lat. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. wealthy citizen. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. 1478). Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. a region in north-central Italy. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Francesco Salviati. papilio. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau.
pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. perspicere. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. pendant (Fr. in particular the face. personification (Lat. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. . "nature". pergola (It. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. persona. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. physis. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "hanging. "person". They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). and gnomon. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. or related elements within an art work. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and facere. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concept or deity. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "to see through. physiognomy (Gk. perspective (Lat.
and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. affording a good subject for a landscape. Rome. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. both real and painted. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. exemplified. usually above the ground floor. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigment (Lat. but may consist of a cluster of columns. but full of variety. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. glue. remarkable for singularity. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. for example. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.) The main floor of a building. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).piano nobile (Ital. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. striking the imagination with the force of painting. . Pietà (Lat. or resin to make paint. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. pigmentum. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. proper to take a landscape from.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. to be expressed in painting. A pier is generally larger than a column. curious details. containing the public rooms. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Peter's.
Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture.pilaster (Lat. however. and capital. Thenceforward. perhaps. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. also used in Spain's American colonies. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). and thereafter all Europe. despite regional variations. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. pilastrum. For this reason. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. the burning of 'infected' clothing. in October 1347. It is often fluted. moreover. In the 15th century. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. plague Plague. such as Florence and Genoa. for instance. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Rocco and Sebastian. "pillar") A flat. It seems probable. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. more sporadic outbreaks. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. since. outside Tuscany. During 1348 the Black Death. though in less widespread. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. it has a base. a shaft. it is difficult to find. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease.
In contrast with Aristotle. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Philebus. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Phaedrus. and sinuous scrolls. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. placement. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. A student of Socrates. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). utilized Mudejar ornament -. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.. The first phase. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Theatetus and the Laws. more severe. Diego evolved a purer. are the masterworks of the second style. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. composition. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). correct classical orders became frequent. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. which lasted only a few decades. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. or appropriateness. harmonious. Phaedo. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. the Symposium. the Renaissance-Plateresque. i. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Timaeus. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. like its successor. The second phase. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases.e. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The first phase. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. or simply the Plateresque. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. heraldic escutcheons.
prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition.in Plato's thought. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 1472-c. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. partially. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. near Florence. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Iamblichus. including those of Plotinus. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. A new Latin translation. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Rather unsystematic. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Plotinus. replaced Ficino's. and Agostino Steuco (c.1577) becoming particularly popular. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. and the Chaldaic Oracles. all of which he also translated into Latin. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and he utilized many other writings. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. systematized and added to what Plato had done. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. but not completely. the greatest of his ancient disciples. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople.
plinth (Gk.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . portico (Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. or statue. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. pluvial (Med. where a pectoral is used to close it. pluviale. plinthos. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. porticus. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. column. Lat. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. such as processions and consecrations. polyptych (Gk. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. as in classical architecture). It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. poluptukhos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pointed arch In architecture. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Plato was read in the universities.
The 16th century portrait became generalized. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Group portraits. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. and the . based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. psychologically more complex. was revived in the 14th century. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.. Venice). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. and only a decorative accessory to form. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Cathedral) by Uccello. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Palazzo Farnese). painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Gattarnelata. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Siena. decorating whole rooms.e. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Campidoglio). Colleoni. The realism of the clear. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. National Gallery). whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. flattened image. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Maria Novella. The equestrian portrait. inessential. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Florence (1486-90). Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. 1328. Desiderio da Settignano.sculptors such as Donatello. the Carracci. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Mantua. Florence. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli.
to discharge their preaching duties. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Fiamma's sermons." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. not least those of statesmen and prelates. The styles of S. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Borromeo. bishops especially. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. The sermons of Visdomini. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Correggio.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. abrasive even. Charles Le Brun. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. minatory exhortations. bishop of Chioggia. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. and Peter Paul Rubens. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishop of Asti. was versed in classical and patristic . and. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. are not florid in style. who had as their ideal masters Titian. 1494). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. of the sermon as an art form. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). from the secular clergy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. several of whom became bishops. however. but 16th century ones were more cautious here." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. primarily the mendicants. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. As Poussin was a Frenchman. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Savonarola and Musso. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael.
prefiguration Typology . Naples). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. The New Testament references in these would. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Because of the small size of predelle . the temptations of Adam and Christ. among them Holman Hunt. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.g. predella (It. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. tapestries. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Louis of Toulouse (1317.rhetoric. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. though often relatively very wide . Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Millais and Rossetti. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. however. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. and so forth. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament .they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.
2. which uses the square . and Houdon among sculptors. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. these highly finished drawings. the Canon of Proportion. proportio. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). sculpture and architecture. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. notably David. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Fragonard. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. intended as complete works of art in themselves. again indicative of the purpose they served. The following are important: 1. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. Prix de Rome A scholarship. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. "evenness") in painting. proportion (Lat. the quadrature. Girardon. the golden section. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. profil perdu (Fr. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. 3. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. projecting shelf on which to kneel.
Unlike Pozzo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. putto (It. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Rome. triangulation. a fourth = 3:4. 4. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. harmonic proportions. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. putti sing. Ignazio. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. and 5. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. . a fifth = 2:3. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). for example). in whose celebrated ceiling in S. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. one half the length of the other). "boys") Plump naked little boys. the steward or treasurer of a church. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. It was common in Roman art. provenance The origins of an art work.as a unit of measurement.
canons regular. in which figures are seen half round. In 16th century Europe. or the Jesuits. in particular works by Masaccio. or some item connected with a saint. in which figures are almost detached from their background. the great orders of monks. Brunelleschi. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. relief (Lat. Botticelli. e. relic (Lat. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). friars and nuns. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. hermits. and high relief (alto rilievo). Lat.g. with the Anglican Church developing in England. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Donatello. basso rilievo). The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectory (Med. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists.Quattrocento (It. relevare. also known as the Realist school. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relicquiae. Fra Angelico and others. the object of particular veneration. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Among the . "remains") a part of the body of a saint.
developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. however. The Conventuals. although technically of secular canons. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. was the congregation of S.contemplative orders. the Conventuals. Benedetto. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Maria di Fregonaia. The Benedictines. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. the most notable being S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. presided over by chapters general. Giustina. Lucca. the great patriarch of Venice. various groups were fused in the latter body. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Silvestrines. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. i. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. it became the Cassinese congregation. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. In 1517. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Mantua.e. which was to become the main Italian one. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. That of S. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Founded by St Romuald c. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. At the same time. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. and their more institutionalized brethren. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. 1012. The same bull . The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. After the repression of the Spirituals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. Lorenzo Giustiniani. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Giorgio in Alga. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. S. who had no overall organization originally. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. In 1504. Venice (1404). Bologna (1419). Padua. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Bernardino of Siena. and the generally moderate Observants. Salvatore.
who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. founded by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. however. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. the Theatines. Michele in Isola. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Gaetano da Thiene. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. a historical period. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Angela Merici. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. S. The first. Filippo Neri. also. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. however. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Gerolamo Aemiliani. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Venice. founded in 1535 by S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524.
and his own as potentially one of light. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. All-Roundness. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. was so vast and potent. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. of scholarship. the historical reality of antiquity.century. of an energetic revival of interest in. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. as well as political. however. life. Thereafter. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. even Amoralism. For long. which had begun early in the 14th century. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. however. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. of arts. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. of letters. and competition with. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. because its core of energy. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. . because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. too long forgotten glories. of 'darkness'. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. 1875-86). The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. increasingly. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. culture was linked to personality and behaviour.
and mass media. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . consist merely of a painting. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. candlesticks. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. sometimes. though sometimes of metal. (3) There is not a true. The challenges are to be accepted.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). in the more limited sense. the previous record . later still to Genoa. Ghent). and other liturgical objects. let alone a uniform. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Though thus challenged. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. etc.) was the term chosen. There was an early. retables can be detached and.erased. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.with all its shabbiness . statues.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. of industrialization. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. It is for this additional. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. gratefully. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. mobilized nationalism. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. congruence between. however. and is decorated with paintings. etc. Cathedral of SaintBavon. letters. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. especially in the High Gothic period. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.
often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. richly decorated with organic forms. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. rilievo (It. With the development of freestanding altars. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.in the 11th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.of St Mark in Venice. Originally commissioned in 976. More usually. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. retables have become extinct. however. in several countries . Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). its mood lighthearted and witry. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. is a typical product. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Louis XV furniture. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Germany. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Spain . painting. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). like 'Gothic'. Romanesque art. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. rocaille (French. Rococo A style of design. almost simultaneously. the first style to achieve such international currency. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. the St. Italy. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. As the name suggests. literally.France. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. and 'Romanesque'. "relief") In painting. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. . with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. it indicates a derivation from Roman art.
making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Massys and M. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. such as red ochre. Claude. van Orley. van Heemskerk. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. The aim of painting. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. In addition. . rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). they maintained. Mabuse. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Q. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Pannini and Mengs. Piranesi. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rome. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. stylized design representing an open rose. M. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. B.
Orthodox. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to.greatly increased. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . and Lorenzo de' Medici. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. gutted. when it finally left the city it had devastated. pious legend and hagiography. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. supported by lay confraternities. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Sacra Conversazione (It. matrimony. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. but others were the work of well-known figures. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Eastern independent. from the Old and New Testaments. Subjects were nominally sacred. glance and movement . Clement escaped into Castel S.expressed through gesture. local saints. Many compositions were anonymous. Written primarily in ottava rima. holy orders. multiple sets used in succession. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and impoverished. and Protestant churches. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. In the . There were no limits on time. and anointing of the sick. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). whose Rappresentazione dei SS. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. penance. confirmation. the Eucharist.
the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. large room. that the price of salt should be increased. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper." which are called sacramentals. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. strictly speaking. in principle. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. The classical Protestant churches (i. the sun of righteousness. and then face east. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Candidates first face west. the Bentivoglio. was not maintained as a sacrament. make such strict distinctions. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Salt War. They were still seeking aid. the symbolic direction of Christ. used for drawing. Immediately following baptism. the Orthodox Church does not.early church the number of sacraments varied. foot washing. was buried under a new fortress.. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. which in the Gospel According to John. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the Rocca Paolina. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. notably from Florence and in Germany. Hence. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. chapter 13. as in the Church of the Brethren. Anglican. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. It is still practiced on special occasions. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it.) Hall. baptism and the Eucharist. and sacraments. The theology of the Orthodox Church.e. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Saracens . baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. replaces the Lord's Supper. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Lutheran." sala (Ital. as an excuse to revolt.e. The chief focus of discontent.. Thus. sacraments.i.
During the Middle Ages. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Little known in the Middle Ages. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. and many others. The publication of Latin (1562. 210 AD). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition.c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. the Arabs or Muslims. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . whose writings. pl. sarcophagus. 270 BC). legs and horns of a goat. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). wood or terracotta. sarcophagi (Gk. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. made of stone. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 45 BC). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 160 . scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades.c. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the god of wine. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. human-like woodland deities with the ears. 360 . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. satyr In Greek mythology. are lost. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.
1384) and Louis II of Anjou. in June 1409. was called Bamboccio. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. on one side. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. In northern Italy. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support.they had individual Bentnames . practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. However. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. for. than their medieval predecessors. As a result. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. the Florentines. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). being Frenchmen. while England. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. who had the support of the Avignon pope. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. one of the early leaders. most of whom. Louis I (d. with France and her allies Aragon. from time to time both he and his opponents. Schism. and.for example Pieter van Laer. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. who recognized the Roman pope. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. 1386) and his son Ladislas. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Alexander V. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. but with little effect. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. while devout Christians agonized. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on the other. scholasticism .
if lime-water was used. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. the plaster had to be damped before painting. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers.The term is ambivalent. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. as it is easier to add details in this way. as it were. that scholasticism was left. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Padua. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic.were different from those of medieval. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. moreover.) . But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Serenissima (Ital. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Often called the burning ones. university-based study. Christian. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. because the secco technique is much less permanent. (See also: fresco. on one side. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. None the less. rather than wet plaster as in fresco.moral philosophy. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). It was because the central concerns of humanism . history and rhetoric . celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Medieval scholars. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. notably Aquinas. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. and theology. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. and Islamic literature. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. As such. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). textual scholarship. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.
"prophetess") In antiquity. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. in use since the Middle Ages. women who could prophesy. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "the most serene republic of Venice"). which were all identical in thickness. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. They first appear in alpine monasteries. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. the number gradually rose to ten. sfumato A technique. Servite (Lat. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Originally. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. In Christian legend. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Med. usually presided over by individual families. Sibyls foretold the Birth. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. sibylla. Signoria (It. term. Lat. in the period of classical antiquity. there was only one Sibyl. at the same time.. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. brass. sinopia . or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. and the delicate. sibyls (Gk. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.
Ital. pronounced as French. "mark.'Beautiful Madonnas'. sing. in other words. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. soffit (Lat.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sotto in sù (It. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. stigma (Gk. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. staffage This word. especially in the flow of drapery. as the name implies. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Stanze (Ital. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. and.) Wooden ceiling decoration. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Francis of Assisi. It is very closely related to International Gothic. . stigmata. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . brand. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault.
helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. both external and internal. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. whose verses actually fabrications . In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. studioli (It. pl. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. John Milton. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. stucco A type of light. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In a looser sense. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. studiolo. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The vogue for the Sublime. with that for the Picturesque. Indeed. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate).) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. supremacy .were published in the 1760s to great acclaim).
temperare. and in literature.and. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. 1407). . T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. both for panel painting and fresco. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). Salviati and Allori. tempera (Lat. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . i. then being replaced by oil paint. into Italy. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. or cartoons.Historically. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. doubtless. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua.e. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. The subject is underexplored. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). chiefly from Flanders. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. was being decorated with frescoes. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. his own headquarters. These were imported. London. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. But the Italians did not make them.
"fields. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. tondo. pl. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. vessels. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. and sculptures. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). in art. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. walls. pl. and profile. figure of speech. theme or motif. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. triumphal arch. i. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. tondi (It. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and later to subdivide gable ends. "a commonplace") In literature. quarter face. topia. Trajan's Column . widely used form. terraferma (Ital. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. topos. in the architecture of ancient Rome.terracotta (It. topoi (Gk. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.e. and other surfaces. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. model. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topiary (Gk.
The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. beside it the army of martyrs. fame. time and eternity. of both sexes'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Early triptychs were often portable.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. into a number of less controversial forms. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Trinity (Lat. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. trinitas.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'.' Before it go the apostles. . tryptychos. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. the wars by which they were won . triptych (Gk. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. a car so brave'. added to the glamour of the triumph. the Son and the Holy Spirit. usually an altarpiece. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). chastity. or wings. Disseminated soon after his death. after 'a countless number of virgins. "threefold") in Christianity. patriarchs and prophets. Battista Sforza. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Meanwhile. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. of virtues and of the arts. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the military triumph became sublimated. behind it. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. death. as it were. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .
first recorded in 1232. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). tromp l'oeil (Fr. tusche A thick. "drum") In classical architecture. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. typology . though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. through various naturalistic devices. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. often decorated with sculptures. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. viscous black ink. Dating from classical times. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tympanum (Lat. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. it is usually decorated with carvings. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. enclosed by an arch.
then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. such as five works devoted to the senses. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Their subjects are frequently religious ones. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . In Christian thought. especially his half-length figural groups. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. The numerous candles. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . each had access to his paintings.) The Renaissance "universal man". but brothel scenes and pictures in sets.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. where they were most accessible. slayer of Goliath. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. . lanterns. and David.Dirck van Baburen (c. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. were popular with them also. e. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. 1590-1624). Judith.A system of classification. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). knew his former patrons. U uomo universale (It. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). 1610).g. killer of Holofernes.
hour-glasses and clocks. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. mixed in. and the rib vault. snuff boxes and other objects. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. overturned vessels. guttering candles. There are a wide range of forms. varietà (It. often gold. vanitas (Lat.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. carriages. the groin vault. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Parisian craftsmen. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.). a work's richness of subject matter. Vespers (Lat. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. it was used to decorate furniture. vesper. "evening") . vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. and even flowers (which will soon fade). veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. V vanishing point In perspective. Also varietas (Lat. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.
pl. "life") . Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. virtù could be used. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. the church service at which these prayers are said. Temperance. Covetousness. vestibulum.Prayers said in the evening. Lust. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vita. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. vimperga Of German origin. "not exposed to winds". to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. and Justice. 'Assume a virtue. Vestibule (Lat. in which the word signifies efficacy. Prudence. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Hope. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Gluttony. Envy. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. for example. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Fortitude. Anger. In ancient Roman dwellings. actual or latent. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. and Sloth. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. vite (Lat. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. if you have it not'. Charity.
Marcus (1st cent. and of Ferrara. those of Volterera. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. published in 1550 and 1568. and appalled recognition of. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. fall into a different category from those that preceded them.An account of someone's life and work. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. in fact. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. protection from harm. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. usually when a prayer for good fortune. 1472. Sculptors and Architects"). provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. or recovery from illness has been made. a biography. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. Vitruvius Pollio. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena.g. 1482-84). And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. 1478-80. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. they were from the 18th century . The wars from 1494 do.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "world view") A comprehensive world view. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. gallery. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. pompous on the floor above. Westwerk German word. usually linear. It was intended to have a variety of functions. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. woodcut A print made from a wood block. . "Western work of art". based on stylization of various animal forms.Weltanschauung (Gr. a philosophy of life. during its subsequent history. usually restorers.
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