A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

Degas. arkhitektonikos. piers or pillars. or organization. Picasso. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. the moulding around a window or door. The adjective is apsidal. arcus. which is fused to the plate by heating. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). roofed with a half-dome. and Rouault. including Goya. the lowest part of the entablature). Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. .e. design. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. architectonic (Gk. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Also known as an exedra. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. but in essence the process is as follows. Lancet and Tudor. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. the darker the tone). The term applies also to a print made by this method. "architectural") Relating to structure. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. arcade (Lat. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. In Greek and Roman literature.A semicircular projection. architrave (It. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.

or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.and the Comedy . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Dante's Vita nuova . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attribute (Lat. attributum." and Lat. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "the art of dying well") a small book on death. usually a saint. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. aureolus." from Gk. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. dominate. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. voltus.archivolt (Ital. "begin. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. aureole (Lat. "golden. archeiu. archivolto. In the case of martyrs. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Ars Moriendi (Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "front arch.

The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. that of Cardano. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. or baldacchino (It. Later. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. baldachin.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Six pontificates later. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. in 1377. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. often anecdotal. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). applied to the physically . paintings of everyday life. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The actual move was made in 1309. the god of wine and fertility. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. 'Captivity'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. who had been residing in France since 1305.

and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. el Kantara. Easter. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Lebanon. such as those at Pisa. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. and abject filthy things. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example.. the Temple of Venus. AD 300). and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Pentecost. a visual metaphor for the number eight. or forecourt. Baalbek. AD 273. pope between 432 and 440. or canopy. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. banderuola.g. and Poitiers. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and Epiphany. Spalato [Split. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. and Nocera in Italy. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Alg. or connected with. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Parma. Customarily. .malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. a church. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. seven. As eight follows the "complete" number. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Croatia]. beggars in rags. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. built by Sixtus III. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered.. banderole (It. Florence. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. France.

Baroque (Port. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. . a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. in the 1840s and 1850s. 1817-1878). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1807-1876). the dramatic use of light and shadow. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1796-1875). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Théodore Rousseau (French. barocco. Rubens). Vermeer). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories.an allusion to entering the Christian life. and (3) everyday realism. 1810-1865). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. which is reserved for the clergy. basilica (Gk. however. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. southeast of Paris. and increasingly elaborate decoration. achieved through scale. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. or baptismal chapels. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. usually facing east. In architecture. baptisteries. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. were often omitted entirely. Jules Dupré (French. Also tunnel vault. Constant Troyon (French. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1811-1889).In the 10th century. stoa basilike. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. something of earlier symbolism survives. and thus a church. "king's hall") a church building. Originally. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Jean-François Millet (French. 1814-1875). in its usual location near the church door . it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio).

domesticity. often with food and drink. as is to be expected. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Spanish still-lifes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. and often sentimentality. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. were referred to by their specific contents. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. particularly porcelain. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. bodegón Image. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. By association. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. however. Bodegónes. in which still-life predominates. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. which is either not yet glazed. 1650 in Spain. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). up until the mid-17th century. Biscuit porcelain. especially Spanish. The term was mainly used up to c.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Book of Hours . also incorrectly called bisque. or which is to be left as it is. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. It takes its name from its grainy texture. such as Waldmüller. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. like their Dutch counterparts. There were. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). such as those by Diego Velázquez.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society.

an advantage over marble sculpture. or seasons. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. but can also be used for painted sketches. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. months. made as a study for a larger picture. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. and the fact that it is easily workable . days of the week. bozzetto(Italian. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.both hot and cold . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. varying from silverish to a rich. coppery red.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. though these are more often called 'modelli'. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. Chantilly).by a variety of processes. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto Strictly speaking. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. By extension. . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. a rapid sketch in oil. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. See flying buttress. durability. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.

casson. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. glass. cameo Small relief made from gems. private room where works of art.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Among its most distinctive products were icons. which was often allegorical. its forms highly stylized. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. camera obscura . C cabinet A small. It also served to glorify the emperor. mosaics. and work in precious metals. caisson (Fr. and Giotto. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. "a chest. ceramics. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. notable from Syria and Egypt. Duccio. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. box") In architecture. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). manuscript illuminations.

candelabra. candlestick. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. usually built beside or attached to a church. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. usually decorated. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar.Ancestor of the photographic camera. "candle") A large. which was usually whitened. capital (Lat. which isolates the fabric from the paint. capitellum. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. as an aid to drawing. sing. . by the 16th century. usually in a church. dating to antiquity. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. campanile Bell tower." and the earliest versions. Portable versions were built. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candelabrum (It. cantorie (It. hemp. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. other materials used are cotton. cantoria. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. usually with several branches or arms.-N. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. both of which have richly carved marble panels. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Niepce created photography. Structurally. pl. and jute. followed by smaller and even pocket models. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace.) A gallery for singers or musicians. only very rough effects will be obtainable. candela. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.

the date of the painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cardinalis. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. The order combines reclusive and community life. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.a humorous drawing or parody. near Grenoble.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. cartellini In a painting. In fresco painting. and humanism.both Italians and artists from other countries . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartoon (It. At the height of the Middle Ages. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cartone. Fortitudo (Fortitude). pl. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. tapestry. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. cartellino. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartouche . the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). or fresco. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . New Charterhouses. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. or a motto. Carmelites (Lat. details of the subject. the Carmelites were originally hermits.

or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. putti (cupids). These lead up to the north and south transepts. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework.toward the setting sun. They contained the bride's clothes. caryatid (Gk. where the throne of the bishop is placed. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance.) "castle". decorated with gilt gesso. cassone (It. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. cathedral (cathedra. or arms of the cross. a cathedral always faces west .An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. The altar is placed at the east end. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. The main body. and swags of fruit and flowers. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. linen. or nave. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Paolo Uccello. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. For reasons lost to time and tradition. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. they were also used in other countries. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. castello (It. Cascina. and many other items of her dowry. In the 15th century. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. palace. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers.

. "in the centre". centralis. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). in accordance with their distance from the observer. Both the statement of St. animal. buildings and figures that are being depicted. champlevé (Fr. as celestial attendants of God. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. or birdlike characteristics. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. continually praise him. and perspicere. a celestial winged being with human. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Christian. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. rather than intercessory functions. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. a throne bearer of the deity. central perspective (Lat. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Relative to the observer. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. and Islamic literature. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. landscapes.

and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. North of the Alps. choros." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. or for choral singing. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. notably Lucas Cranach (1506)." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. Lastly. the Order of the Hospital of St. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. Since Carolingian times. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters.chiaroscuro (It. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. "light dark") In painting. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. replacing tempera. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. Hans Burgkmair (1510). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. choir (Gk. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars).

Sculpted clouds. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. ciborium . and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The Transparente (completed 1732). seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. further enriching the style. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. reversed volutes. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. undulating cornices. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. and repetition of pattern. The Mexico cathedral (1718). The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Very few still exist in their original positions. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. gilded rays. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. a massing of carved angels. and garlands.intersect). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. is as typically Churrigueresque. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. stucco shells. balustrades. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. undulating lines. and the Churrigueresque column. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). became the most common motif. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. which was shaped like an inverted cone. an architect. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies.

In reaction to this revolutionary . as also were those in the associated. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. beaters. They were forbidden to form a trade association. etc. combers. on July 22. controlled by the minor guilds. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. Without being members of a guild. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Their economic condition worsened. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Quattrocento (1400s. the wool carder Michele di Lando. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Then. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. the lower classes forcibly took over the government.and post-medieval Italy. but self-employed. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. craft of dyeing. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. who were raised to the status of a guild. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. or achieve political representation. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. placing one of their members. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Members of the lower classes. The new government. including the ciompi.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. High Renaissance). Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. ciompi.

except in cases where . classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. with Italian scholars. philosophy and art . writers. the black contours usually with a special line plate. clair-obscur (Fr. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. changed greatly from one period to the next.) An ancient musical instrument. resembling a lyre.as in Italy these were dispensed with. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. philosophy. cithara (Gk. however. In the 15th century Greek literature.episode. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. Concepts of the classical. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. editing and translating a wide range of texts. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. scholars patiently finding.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. . and politics. on which strings were plucked. literature. the ciompi guild was abolished. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.

when set side by side. those with refined tastes. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). cognoscenti. sing. The name was derived from the condotta. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. or "contract." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Coffered ceilings. blue and orange. pl. arch or ceiling. [hora] completa. concetti (It. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. occasionally made of wood. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. Green and red. a work's underlying theme. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. . intensify one another. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. the church service at which these prayers are said. concetto. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. cognoscente (It. condottieri (It. pl. compline (Lat. literature or music. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. as well as from the Bible. condottiere. terrorized the country. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners.

i. or with the spiritual assistance of. who won control of Milan in 1450. clergy. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Muzio's son. in Venice. Toward the end of the 15th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Francesco Sforza. i. Spanish. commonly called either Compagnia di S. scuole. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. in the service of Naples. often under the direction of.e. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. flagellant confraternities. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. often called compagnie or. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood.devastating Romagna. convents of convertite. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. By the 16th century. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. and German--the condottieri. which spread in the 15th century. disappeared. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. in the service of Perugia. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. By the end of the 14th century. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. and Tuscany. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Carmagnola. Umbria. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Mark (1432). With no goal beyond personal gain. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. . primarily for syphilitics. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Martino). confraternities Confraternities.e. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French.

To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love.i.g. founded c. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. In medieval painting. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). and those which aided imprisoned debtors. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. flat outlines. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. however. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Later. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. but sometimes had their own premises. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. 1514 in S. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. while the Venetian government. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. While the Doge ranked above the Council. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. contour (Fr. which accompanied condemned prisoners. e. Confraternities. contours were initially regular. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. e. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. and refuges for maidens.g.e. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. reformed prostitutes. in Florence. contour. the Florentine Neri. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Dorotea in Trastevere. contrapposto (It. notwithstanding their location. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .

Copperplate engraving (late Lat. . 1100 and 1300. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Reform programs. cuprum. a bracket of stone. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. corbel In architecture. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. The style spread as far as England. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. 1280). for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. did not achieve any lasting results. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer.weight on one leg. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. large cornice or other feature. whose names are inscribed on several works. declining moral standards. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. aes cyprium. They are often ornamented. conventicle (Lat. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. an engraving produced in this way. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. conventiculurn.

Constantine the Great. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. An ancestor of the oboe. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Death. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. a small dome. the most famous victim of crucifixion.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. or "scourged. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. after being whipped. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Carthaginians. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Next. D dado . reedy sound. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment.e. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. cupola (Lat. cupula. Usually. i. the first Christian emperor. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. the condemned man. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Jews. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Seleucids. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. There were various methods of performing the execution. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. particularly among the Persians. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. "small vat") In architecture. a semi-circular vault. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.

consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. diptych (Lat. and Linz possessed common characteristics.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Germany. Passau. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg.g. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. often an altarpiece. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. danse macabre The dance of death. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Gk. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diakonos. "drawing. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. diptychum. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. deacon (Gk. but the concept behind an art work. disegno (It. an expressive use of nature. design") In Renaissance art theory. which was help to be the basis of all art. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. diptychos. Deësis (Gk. The term stresses not the literal drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. usually in matching pairs. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. e.

Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The studio easel. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. when painters took to working out of doors.fully realize. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. doublet A male garment. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. donor (Lat. distemper (Lat. "to mix. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. such as we still use today. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. donator. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St.Thomas Aquinas. which runs on castors or wheels. As disegno appeals to the intellect. dome in architecture. a 19th-century invention. distemperare. though a few artists. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. is a heavy piece of furniture. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Dominicans (Lat. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. also used it on canvas. Ordo Praedictatorum. formerly worn under armour. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. usually forming a ceiling or roof.

a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. a depiction of Jesus. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. bound and flogged. and logos. eschaton. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. John (19. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the frieze. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Ecce Homo (Lat. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. It consists of the architrave. and architecture. fresco. entablature In classical architecture. en face In portraiture.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. in art. epitaph (Gk. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "last". full face. sometimes combining panel painting. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. sculpture. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. ensemble (Fr. and the cornice. eschatology (Gk. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. "word") . Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. Hence. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point.

Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Spain. "good. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Jerome. Contarini. Augustine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. which was developed in the Near East ca. farmers. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Vittoria Colonna." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience." and charis. and Scandinavia. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. 4500 BCE. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and of the last things. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Saints Ambrose. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. and also to Giulia Gonzaga.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. eu. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. celebrated with bread and wine. Eucharist (Gk. protector of shepherds. which is called "delftware. . Germany. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Italy. fields and livestock. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy.death and resurrection. Giovanni Morone." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which was famous for maiolica. particularly ware made in France. Marcantonio Flaminio. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. which is called "maiolica. notably Cardinal Pole. and is named for Faenza.

that of the others red. a swag. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Their attributes are the bow. and these areas. war. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. fluted of a column or pillar. relaxed. fresco (It. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. drying to a slightly different tint. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. 2 . and flowers suspended in a loop. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Committed to charitable and missionary work. can in time be seen. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. famine and death.8). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. leaves.festoni (It. such as plague. frescos in Italy . sword and set of balances. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). The colour of his horse is white. black and dun. Only a small area can be painted in a day. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. a technique known as a secco fresco.

could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. covings and ceilings. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. both in churches and in private and public palaces. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. G Garter. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. the intonaco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing .Save in Venice. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. landscape and portraiture. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. The technique of buon fresco. or true fresco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Final details. or fresco secco. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. genre In a broad sense. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Genius in classical Rome. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. a person's invisible tutelary god. where the atmosphere was too damp. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. usually childish figure. are genres of painting. In art from the classical period onwards. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. for example.

as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and as spurring on men of action. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Maria Gloriosa). which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Bernardo Daddi. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. in portraits and on tombs. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. how it differed from notoriety. As such. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Gobelins . whether it must be connected with the public good. as well as writers and artists. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Maso di Banco. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition.

the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century.French tapestry manufactory. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. still in existence today. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. who appointed Lebrun Director. This ratio is approximately 8:13. In other Italian cities. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. and although it reopened in 1699. Paris. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. thereafter it made only tapestries. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. Golden Fleece. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. golden section (Lat. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). .

which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. that the effects are to be felt. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. In particular. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. . the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. Amiens. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. In thinking of Nicola (d. and lies much deeper than. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. 1200 and c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. the superficial particularities of form. Denis. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. painting. from the 13th until the 17th century. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. painting. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. There is a transcendental quality. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. c. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. Gothic Gothic. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. or the influence of one building. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The artistic. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. like the cultural and commercial. 1270. In sculpture and in painting. Nevertheless.

known also as poster paint and designer's colour.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. It is thinned with water for applying. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. to silk. occasionally. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. genius. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. These qualities. starch. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Pannini. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. chiefly to France. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. are but different appellations of the same thing'. with sable. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and Piranesi. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Honey. Canaletto. and taste among the English. Such tours often took a year or more. without visible brush marks. and Morris Graves. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele.and hog-hair brushes. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. the Netherlands. the beau idéal of the French. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. and above all Italy. . if required. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). to white or tinted paper and card and. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Klee. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. notably in the writings of Bellori. and the great style. Dubuffet.

Some writers. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. became an abiding feature of European politics. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Although its palace was rebuilt c. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. c. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics.e. then as now. after this. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. grisaille (Fr. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. usually gray. 1216. In Florence. internal factions in Florence went under other names. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. brother of Louis IX. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. however. including text as well as illustrations. In the context of the fine arts. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. drawing and the various forms of engraving. through central Italy. gris. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. . In another sense. After the War of the Eight Saints. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. which had recruited most of the merchant class. to Provence and Paris. and Waiblingen. From 1266 to 1268. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. exclude drawing from this definition. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. however. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers.

there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In Florence. Guilds were also patrons of art. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and greater hostility between master and man. [science] héraldique. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. trade or profession (painters. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. In some towns. H hatching In a drawing. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. The guilds were not equal. In 16th century Venice. The guild also monitored standards of work. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. notably Florence in the 14th century. "[knowledge of] heraldry. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. héraut. such as Brescia and Vicenza. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. goldsmiths. for example." from Fr. surgeons. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. trades. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. as some did). In Italy they go back a long way. "herald") . only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. but in time they acquired other functions. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. heraldry (Fr. print or painting. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. or professions. and provided assistance to members in need. In some cities. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state.

only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. one great missionary community. i. while others merged with the Waldensians. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The main impact of the . At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. as Antichrist. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). the followers of Juan de Valdes. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. d. By contrast. the Waldensian. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. normative for churchmen. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. from the start. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. and regarded themselves as forming. with the rules governing their use. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. indeed. together with brethren north of the Alps. the Cathars were an anti-church. head of the 'carnal Church'. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. However. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. they were condemned in 1184.

George Inness. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. American painters were studying in Rome. Germany. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. In humanism. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . B. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Durand. At the same time. and classical literature. working from 1825 to 1875. Kensett. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. S. Church. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. its subjects considered morally elevating. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. history (usually classical history). There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. F. humanus. mainly in the south. humanism (Lat. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Frederick E. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Morse. Thomas Cole. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. F. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Jasper Cropsey. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. my spouse'. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). in his earlier work. the emancipation of man from God took place. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. J. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and. hortus conclusus (Lat. Henry Inman.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Human figures. usually the donors of a work of art.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. soft style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. etc. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. originality. inventio (It. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the rooster of Peter's denial. and they are also depicted on their own. or of other saints. the ability to create. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. beautiful style. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the pincers. For instance. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. and the ladder. invention. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. with many further details added. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the hammer. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Derived from classical rhetoric. The terms court style. investiture .g. the scourge that was used in the scourging. In the second half of the 14th century. Donatallo. it denominates a kind of behaviour. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the veil of St. Veronica. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). are also used in art literature. "invention") In Renaissance art theory.

Andries and Jan Both. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. generally Dutch or Flemish. Both and Berchem. . The Both brothers. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. who traveled in Italy and.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Jerome's writings. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. and Jan Asselijn. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. although they are usually called Romanists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. of Utrecht. bathed in a golden haze. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Nicolaes Berchem. Upon his return to Holland. principally Dutch. Italianizers Northern artists. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn.

One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. encouraged by the Crusades. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. the rite of communion is based on this. As their military role grew. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Archbishop of Genoa. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. especially one at which the Bible is read. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. John of Jerusalem . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Emperor Maximilian I (1459. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.1519). lectern A reading stand or desk. liberal arts .

lunette (Fr. first the preparatory trivium . John F. It is related to. astronomy and music. that could be used for public ceremonies. Martin J. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Maria Novella in Florence). commemorating a marriage. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. that may contain a window. painting or sculptural decoration. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. "little moon") In architecture. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Kensett (1816-1872). rhetoric and dialectic. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Church (1826-1900). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). poetic atmosphere. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. often standing in markets and town squares. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). then the basis of a philosophical training. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.grammar. . Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). often sublime. the quadrivium. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Heade (1819-1904). together with identifying attributes (e.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. a semicircular space. and Frederick E. geometry. loggia (It.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Tubal for music).g. comprising arithmetic. through the use of aerial perspective.g. its roof supported by columns.

the goddess Cybele. manganese purple. and however bright their lighting effects. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. active mainly in Florence c. antimony yellow. Specifically. magna mater (Lat. usually for the lute. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). being written. for example. madrigal A part song. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. When white is used for painting. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. 1855–65. and portraits as well as landscapes. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. originally sung without accompaniment. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. "almond") . and iron red. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. particularly such ware produced in Italy. mandorla (It. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. historical subjects. "great mother") A mother goddess. copper green. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. but they painted genre scenes. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and accompaniments.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. originating in Italy in the 14th century.

The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Flanders. maniera. Bronzino. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. in a specific sense. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. strong. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Burgundy. complex and crowded compositions. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. worn open. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. which was quarried at Mount . ecclesiastical. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and literary texts. often ornamented with decorative borders. Developing out of the Renaissance. depending on the social class of the wearer. In Mannerist painting. In architecture. It reached to the knee or foot. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Parmigianino. bound. and crowned with thorns. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism (It. "manner. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. the hand-written medieval book. mantle An overcoat. more strictly. El Greco and Tintoretto. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. the Codex manuscriptus. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. marked by flagellation. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. illuminated initials and miniatures. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin.

Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. The pure white Carrara marble. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. quarried at Massa. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. sleek surface. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. proof") the sufferings. the medal's purpose was commemorative.Pentelicon in Attica. martyrdom (Gk. having finished his training. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. medallion In architecture. martyrion. marmi finti (It. Carrara. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). "witness. particularly by Michelangelo. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. which were beginning to be reverently collected. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Like the finest Imperial coins. a different design on the reverse. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Without monetary value. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. an inscription running round the rim. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble.

every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. often anonymous. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1467-688). the stress on individual character. particularly. c. The work of these men. perhaps oddly. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. even grain. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1425-1504). Medusa In Greek mythology. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. A Dutch officer. This yields a soft effect in the print. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. of the person portrayed on the other side. . and of the many. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. The process is essentially extinct today.round the neck. Ludwig von Siegen. 14601528). Her head features on Minerva's shield. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. 1452-1526/27). who reflected them. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. in England. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. no line drawing is employed. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. In pure mezzotint. a Gorgon. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. c. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. supposedly to petrify her enemies. 1640. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. for landscapes and portraits. When Perseus cuts off her head. It was. as it were. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career.

modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a branch of the Franciscan order. Parmigianino (d. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. "one color") Painted in a single color. usually portraits.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. monokhromatos. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. saying") . still exist. pointed headdress worn by bishops. ink and paint. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. Many such small versions. Francis himself. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. executed on a very small scale.g. often quite highly finished. a painting executed in a single color. miter A high. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. e. motto (Ital. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. "word. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. monochrome (Gk.

In general. navis. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. naturalism (Fr. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. 1816-17. named after the patron saint of painting. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. and Casino Massimo. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Isidore. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Nazarenes A group of young. Berlin. often separated from it by pillars. and two other members moved to Rome. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Rome. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. nave (from Lat. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. It may have parallel aisles on each side. but often insipid. . 1817-29). naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Pforr. In 1810 0verbeck. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). The invention of personal mottos.from the Middle Ages. and is intersected by the transept.

nimbus (Lat. moreover. "aureole") The disc or halo. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nigellus. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. but their ideas continued to be influential. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s.) . Nymphaeum (Gk. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. niello (Lat. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. the style of the Ancien Régime. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. is as true as it is notorious. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). usually golden. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. were usually old when elected. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Popes. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black.

with a sturdy. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). They are seen in the form of the columns. inborn sin. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). fluted column and a plain capital. and its greater tonal range. such as linseed. walnut. .Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. capital. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. was the simplest. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. O obsequies (Lat. Greek goddesses of Nature. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. obsequia. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. or poppy. and entablatures. The earliest. its richness of colour. a small private chapel. orders of architecture In classical architecture. a more elaborate base. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. observances") Rites performed for the dead. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. "services. the three basic styles of design. the Doric order.

and large windows appeared on the ground floor. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. the Cancelleria).Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. P pala (Ital. with biforate windows. tradition and social structure. standing at the foot of the Cross. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Palazzo Strozzi). and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and the main apartments above. while shops came to be thought undignified. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. designed as a . 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). like cities. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. palazzo (It. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text.g. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.

came to be applied all over Europe. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. palmette. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). e. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Following Oriental patterns. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and large households. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. behind a sober Florentine façade. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. cornices and abutments. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. evolved influential types. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. often built next to their titular churches. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Papal incentives to build. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces.g. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings.g. especially after the Sack of Rome. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Other cities. Movement of patrons and architects. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. panel . originally evolved in response to specific conditions. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome.scholarly retreat. In Venice. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. column-caps. like Genoa. Palazzo Massimi). Rich. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. like the colonnaded vestibule. and Palladio's in Vicenza.

and spanned by a single dome. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. cedar. Having a circular plan. fir.Term in painting for a support of wood. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. metal. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and walnut. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. fibre-board. Then. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. To maintain their authority. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. as distinct from canvas. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. enforce law and order. the. The third aspect was administrative. and dark walnut are favourites. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. olive. or the incidence of taxation. chestnut. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. In the 20th century cedar. and modern painters have also used plywood. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. linden. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. including beech. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. mahogany. to influence popes in their favour. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. slate has occasionally been used as a support. or other rigid substance. On a larger scale. secular rulers. and other synthetic materials as supports. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Many other types were used. A number of matters. larch. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. as it were. so that they might have a voice at court.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. teak. As successors to St Peter. however. the management of clerical dues and taxation. and the pressure and temptations . Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law.

possess an authority which. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . It was argued that such a council. from the point of view of its religious associations. however. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. was long in doubt. in spite of further absences from Rome. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. if it did no serious damage to the faith. the most appropriate . of individuals. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. however. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. which seems so inevitable. which met at Constance 1414-18. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. As at Avignon. in the eyes of God. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). To resolve the problem of divided authority. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. There remained. to be long delayed. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. as such. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. at Avignon. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.that could be applied to them. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). would. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city.as well. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. So onerous. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. could supersede that of a pope. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Colonna and Caetani. By then.

and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and satyrs. through lavish patronage of artists. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. in classical literature. the creation of a cultural capital. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. it has also been used for painting. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Passion . and other animals. 400-300 BC). Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. pastor.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. to a world peopled by shepherds. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. less frequently pig. pastoral (Lat.. and with Zeuxis (c. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. However. nymphs. Parrhasius (c. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. scholars and men of letters. as well as a governmental one. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. goat.

the crown of thorns. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. and also the archbishop of Pisa. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. and so on. wealthy citizen. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pastiche (fr. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble.The events leading up to Good Friday. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Francesco Salviati.) or pasticcio (It. pavilion (Lat. 1478. a prominent section of a monumental façade. hence tent") A lightly constructed. "butterfly. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. such as a garden summerhouse. . patricius. Portrayals of the Passion. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. a small. ornamental building. 1478). Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. patrician (Lat. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. projecting either centrally or at both ends. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. papilio. which focus on the Suffering Christ.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Meanwhile. a region in north-central Italy. but not necessarily a direct copy.

"nature". "person". see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. . often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "to see through. and facere. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. physiognomy (Gk. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. or related elements within an art work. personification (Lat. pergola (It. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). physis. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. perspicere. persona. in particular the face. perspective (Lat. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "hanging. concept or deity. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and gnomon. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. pendant (Fr.

and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. containing the public rooms.piano nobile (Ital. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. . much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. exemplified. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. pigmentum. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. affording a good subject for a landscape. Rome. or resin to make paint. A pier is generally larger than a column. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap.) The main floor of a building. pigment (Lat. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Pietà (Lat. but full of variety. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Peter's. remarkable for singularity. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. both real and painted. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. to be expressed in painting. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. for example. proper to take a landscape from. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. glue. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. striking the imagination with the force of painting. but may consist of a cluster of columns. curious details. usually above the ground floor.

also used in Spain's American colonies. Thenceforward. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the .pilaster (Lat. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. perhaps. despite regional variations. and capital. plague Plague. It seems probable. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. "pillar") A flat. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Rocco and Sebastian. though in less widespread. more sporadic outbreaks. it is difficult to find. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. it has a base. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). such as Florence and Genoa. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. outside Tuscany. During 1348 the Black Death. It is often fluted. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. moreover. a shaft. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. however. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. the burning of 'infected' clothing. and thereafter all Europe. since. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. for instance. In the 15th century. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. For this reason. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. in October 1347. pilastrum.

or appropriateness. Timaeus. are the masterworks of the second style. heraldic escutcheons. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Theatetus and the Laws. and unified style using massive geometric forms. A student of Socrates. or simply the Plateresque. The second phase. utilized Mudejar ornament -. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). more severe. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . placement. Phaedo. the Symposium. Diego evolved a purer. Phaedrus. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The first phase. harmonious. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I.. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge.e. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Philebus. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. correct classical orders became frequent. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. In contrast with Aristotle. like its successor. and sinuous scrolls. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. i. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). which lasted only a few decades. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The first phase. composition. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation.

Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and Agostino Steuco (c. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. partially. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Rather unsystematic. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Iamblichus.in Plato's thought. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Plotinus. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. and the Chaldaic Oracles. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but not completely. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 1472-c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. the greatest of his ancient disciples. all of which he also translated into Latin. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. A new Latin translation. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. and he utilized many other writings. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. replaced Ficino's. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. near Florence. including those of Plotinus. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame.1577) becoming particularly popular. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Unlike the case of Aristotle.

Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. polyptych (Gk. plinthos. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. where a pectoral is used to close it. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Lat. Plato was read in the universities. pluviale.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. poluptukhos. pointed arch In architecture. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. column. pluvial (Med. as in classical architecture). portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. such as processions and consecrations. plinth (Gk. or statue. porticus. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. Frequently supports a pediment. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. portico (Lat.

include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The realism of the clear. The equestrian portrait. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Desiderio da Settignano. Cathedral) by Uccello. Gattarnelata. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Maria Novella. inessential. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Florence (1486-90). flattened image. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait.e. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Siena. was revived in the 14th century.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Farnese). Florence. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. psychologically more complex. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Mantua. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Group portraits. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. decorating whole rooms. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Colleoni. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. and the . 1328. Venice). whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Campidoglio). and only a decorative accessory to form. National Gallery). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. the Carracci. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671.

bishop of Chioggia." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. was versed in classical and patristic . bishop of Asti. are not florid in style. and. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The sermons of Visdomini. together with the Dominican Savonarola. not least those of statesmen and prelates. primarily the mendicants. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. 1494). several of whom became bishops. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. from the secular clergy. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Savonarola and Musso. however. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Borromeo. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. who had as their ideal masters Titian. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. bishops especially. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. and Peter Paul Rubens. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. minatory exhortations. Fiamma's sermons. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. As Poussin was a Frenchman. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. The styles of S. of the sermon as an art form. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Charles Le Brun. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. abrasive even. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. to discharge their preaching duties. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Correggio.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists.

These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Naples).they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Because of the small size of predelle . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . and so forth. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Louis of Toulouse (1317. The New Testament references in these would. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. prefiguration Typology . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. tapestries.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Millais and Rossetti. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala).g. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. the temptations of Adam and Christ. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. among them Holman Hunt. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. however. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. predella (It. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.rhetoric. though often relatively very wide .

and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. and Houdon among sculptors. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. profil perdu (Fr. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. proportion (Lat. these highly finished drawings. again indicative of the purpose they served. intended as complete works of art in themselves. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). and Ingres among painters and Clodion. 3. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. which uses the square . Girardon. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. 2. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the golden section. Fragonard. proportio. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. sculpture and architecture. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the quadrature. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. "evenness") in painting. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. notably David. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. projecting shelf on which to kneel. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The following are important: 1. the Canon of Proportion.

an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. Ignazio. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. It was common in Roman art. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Unlike Pozzo. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. for example). "boys") Plump naked little boys. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. triangulation. harmonic proportions. and 5. one half the length of the other). quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Rome. the steward or treasurer of a church. a fifth = 2:3. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction.as a unit of measurement. . many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. putto (It. a fourth = 3:4. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. 4. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provenance The origins of an art work. putti sing. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century.

e. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. basso rilievo). or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. in which figures are almost detached from their background. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Fra Angelico and others. or the Jesuits. in particular works by Masaccio. and high relief (alto rilievo). Brunelleschi. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. canons regular. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Among the . In 16th century Europe. the object of particular veneration. or some item connected with a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. also known as the Realist school. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. refectory (Med. relief (Lat. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. friars and nuns. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface.Quattrocento (It.g. in which figures are seen half round. Botticelli. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. relic (Lat. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relevare. relicquiae. with the Anglican Church developing in England. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. hermits. Donatello. the great orders of monks.

Bologna (1419). developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The same bull . whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. i. the great patriarch of Venice. Venice (1404). In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Bernardino of Siena. the most notable being S. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. In 1517. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. After the repression of the Spirituals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. The Silvestrines. Lucca. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. was the congregation of S. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. In 1504. various groups were fused in the latter body. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Benedetto. Maria di Fregonaia. Salvatore. That of S. Mantua. 1012. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. presided over by chapters general. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.e. the Conventuals. who had no overall organization originally. it became the Cassinese congregation. and the generally moderate Observants. however. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. The Benedictines. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. which was to become the main Italian one. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Giustina. S. Padua. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. At the same time. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. The Conventuals. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. and their more institutionalized brethren. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Founded by St Romuald c. although technically of secular canons. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches.contemplative orders. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Giorgio in Alga. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation.

Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Venice. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Angela Merici. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. founded in 1535 by S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Gerolamo Aemiliani. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Gaetano da Thiene. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. founded by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. The first. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Michele in Isola. also. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). a historical period. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Filippo Neri. however. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the Theatines. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S.

For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. which had begun early in the 14th century. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. however. increasingly. life. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Thereafter. of scholarship. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. too long forgotten glories. and competition with. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. even Amoralism. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of 'darkness'. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. was so vast and potent. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. of an energetic revival of interest in. of arts. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. 1875-86). All-Roundness. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. of letters. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity).century. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). as well as political. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. the historical reality of antiquity. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. however. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. because its core of energy. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. and his own as potentially one of light. . For long. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride.

candlesticks. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. and other liturgical objects.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. the previous record . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. let alone a uniform. later still to Genoa. Though thus challenged. in the more limited sense. congruence between. It is for this additional. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. of industrialization. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. though sometimes of metal. and mass media. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science.with all its shabbiness . Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. however. consist merely of a painting. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. statues. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice.) was the term chosen. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Ghent). subjective reason a term to be used with caution. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. retables can be detached and. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. especially in the High Gothic period. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). mobilized nationalism. letters. etc. gratefully. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. The challenges are to be accepted. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Cathedral of SaintBavon. sometimes. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church.erased. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. (3) There is not a true. There was an early. and is decorated with paintings. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. etc.

and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753).France. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. rocaille (French. the first style to achieve such international currency. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Germany. With the development of freestanding altars. painting. retables have become extinct. is a typical product. like 'Gothic'. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Spain . and architecture dominating the 18th century. Italy. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction.in the 11th century. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. As the name suggests.of St Mark in Venice. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. . literally. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). however. "relief") In painting. Rococo A style of design. Louis XV furniture. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. richly decorated with organic forms. Romanesque art. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. and 'Romanesque'. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Originally commissioned in 976. its mood lighthearted and witry. in several countries . rilievo (It. More usually. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. almost simultaneously. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. the St. the impression that an object is three-dimensional.

and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. The aim of painting. Rome. Pannini and Mengs. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Piranesi. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. . romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. van Orley. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. B. the development of nationalistic pride. van Heemskerk. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Mabuse. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. they maintained. Q. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Claude. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. In addition. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. such as red ochre. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. M. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Massys and M. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. stylized design representing an open rose. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist).

matrimony. when it finally left the city it had devastated. and impoverished. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable.greatly increased. the Eucharist. multiple sets used in succession. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and Protestant churches. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. glance and movement . The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . In the . and Lorenzo de' Medici. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. from the Old and New Testaments. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Sacra Conversazione (It. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. local saints. penance. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. gutted. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Subjects were nominally sacred. pious legend and hagiography. Eastern independent. supported by lay confraternities. and anointing of the sick. Many compositions were anonymous. but others were the work of well-known figures. confirmation. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Clement escaped into Castel S.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).expressed through gesture. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. holy orders. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. There were no limits on time. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Orthodox. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Written primarily in ottava rima.

when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. It is still practiced on special occasions. Salt War. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Immediately following baptism.. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. They were still seeking aid. The theology of the Orthodox Church. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. the Rocca Paolina. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. that the price of salt should be increased. make such strict distinctions. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. foot washing. sacraments. Thus. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. large room. The classical Protestant churches (i. was not maintained as a sacrament. used for drawing. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.early church the number of sacraments varied. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. in principle. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge." which are called sacramentals. Candidates first face west.e. as an excuse to revolt. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the symbolic direction of Christ. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. The chief focus of discontent. and sacraments. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and then face east.i. was buried under a new fortress. the sun of righteousness. the Bentivoglio. as in the Church of the Brethren. strictly speaking. Saracens . Lutheran. Anglican. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Hence. replaces the Lord's Supper." sala (Ital. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. notably from Florence and in Germany. which in the Gospel According to John.. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. baptism and the Eucharist.e. the Orthodox Church does not.) Hall. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. chapter 13.

satyr In Greek mythology. and many others. legs and horns of a goat. whose writings. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 210 AD). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. The publication of Latin (1562. 45 BC). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. made of stone. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. 360 . 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ).During the Middle Ages. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 270 BC). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Arabs or Muslims. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). sarcophagus. the god of wine. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. sarcophagi (Gk. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Little known in the Middle Ages. wood or terracotta.c. 160 . are lost. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. pl. human-like woodland deities with the ears.c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.

scholasticism . while England. In northern Italy. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. most of whom. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. and. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Louis I (d.for example Pieter van Laer. on the other. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. who recognized the Roman pope. As a result. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). from time to time both he and his opponents. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. was called Bamboccio. on one side. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. with France and her allies Aragon. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. one of the early leaders. for. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. Schism. in June 1409. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Alexander V. but with little effect. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. being Frenchmen. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who had the support of the Avignon pope. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense.they had individual Bentnames . However. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. while devout Christians agonized. 1386) and his son Ladislas. than their medieval predecessors. the Florentines. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou.

a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. and Islamic literature. Serenissima (Ital. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water.) . Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.moral philosophy. Padua. Often called the burning ones. textual scholarship. None the less. As such. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. (See also: fresco.were different from those of medieval. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. history and rhetoric . In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Medieval scholars.The term is ambivalent. as it were. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. as it is easier to add details in this way. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Christian. on one side.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. moreover. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. because the secco technique is much less permanent. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). It was because the central concerns of humanism . the plaster had to be damped before painting. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. and theology. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. notably Aquinas. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. if lime-water was used. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. university-based study. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. that scholasticism was left. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries.

In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Signoria (It. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. there was only one Sibyl. brass. term. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. women who could prophesy. sfumato A technique.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. sibyls (Gk.. Originally. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "the most serene republic of Venice"). at the same time. Lat. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. in use since the Middle Ages. which were all identical in thickness. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. In Christian legend. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Servite (Lat. sinopia . sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. Sibyls foretold the Birth. They first appear in alpine monasteries.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sibylla. and the delicate. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Med. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. usually presided over by individual families. the number gradually rose to ten. "prophetess") In antiquity. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in the period of classical antiquity. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.

soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). and by a sweet and playful sentiment. and. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. especially in the flow of drapery. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. as the name implies. . the red chalk used to make such a drawing. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. brand. sotto in sù (It. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Ital.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. soffit (Lat. pronounced as French. stigma (Gk..) Wooden ceiling decoration. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. staffage This word. Francis of Assisi. sing. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. "mark. Stanze (Ital. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .'Beautiful Madonnas'. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. It is very closely related to International Gothic. stigmata. in other words.

studiolo. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). stucco A type of light. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. whose verses actually fabrications . and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). John Milton. studioli (It. pl. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. both external and internal. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The vogue for the Sublime. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. supremacy . Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Indeed.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. In a looser sense. with that for the Picturesque.

Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. . his own headquarters. into Italy. tempera (Lat. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). and in literature. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. then being replaced by oil paint. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. both for panel painting and fresco. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. i. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. doubtless. London. was being decorated with frescoes. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.and. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. temperare. chiefly from Flanders. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua.Historically. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. 1407). The subject is underexplored. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Salviati and Allori. or cartoons. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling.e. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. But the Italians did not make them. These were imported. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk).

three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. pl. "a commonplace") In literature. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. Trajan's Column . tondi (It. and later to subdivide gable ends. and profile. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. topoi (Gk. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. pl. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. topos. i. and sculptures. in art. quarter face. topiary (Gk.terracotta (It. triumphal arch. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. walls. terraferma (Ital. theme or motif. and other surfaces. topia. tondo. widely used form. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. in the architecture of ancient Rome. "fields. vessels. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). figure of speech. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. model. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony.e.

added to the glamour of the triumph. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). the military triumph became sublimated. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. "threefold") in Christianity. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. Early triptychs were often portable. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. behind it. fame. time and eternity. after 'a countless number of virgins. Battista Sforza. Meanwhile. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. beside it the army of martyrs. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . triptych (Gk.' Before it go the apostles. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. death. as it were. . chastity. or wings. a car so brave'. tryptychos. into a number of less controversial forms. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Disseminated soon after his death. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. the Son and the Holy Spirit. "threefold") A painting in three sections. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. usually an altarpiece. the wars by which they were won .A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. trinitas. of both sexes'. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Trinity (Lat. patriarchs and prophets. of virtues and of the arts.

a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. first recorded in 1232. tympanum (Lat. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. viscous black ink. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. It incorporates Renaissance features. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tusche A thick. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. In medieval architecture. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tromp l'oeil (Fr. enclosed by an arch. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Dating from classical times. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. it is usually decorated with carvings. often decorated with sculptures. typology . they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "drum") In classical architecture. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. through various naturalistic devices.

but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. 1610). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. lanterns. especially his half-length figural groups. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. . then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). In Christian thought. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and David. each had access to his paintings. such as five works devoted to the senses. were popular with them also. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). slayer of Goliath. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).) The Renaissance "universal man". the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Judith. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. knew his former patrons.Dirck van Baburen (c.g. The numerous candles. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. U uomo universale (It. e. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. killer of Holofernes. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. where they were most accessible. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.A system of classification. 1590-1624).

varietà (It. mixed in. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. guttering candles. the groin vault. "evening") . "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. vesper. carriages. and even flowers (which will soon fade). Also varietas (Lat. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. overturned vessels. Vespers (Lat. vanitas (Lat. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. V vanishing point In perspective.). veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Parisian craftsmen. a work's richness of subject matter. snuff boxes and other objects. it was used to decorate furniture. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. There are a wide range of forms. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. hour-glasses and clocks. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. and the rib vault. often gold. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers.

Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Vestibule (Lat. Hope. Anger. for example. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. and Sloth. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows.Prayers said in the evening. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vimperga Of German origin. 'Assume a virtue. Covetousness. Gluttony. Charity. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Temperance. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). actual or latent. vita. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. In ancient Roman dwellings. if you have it not'. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Envy. "life") . to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. The seven Virtues were: Faith. in which the word signifies efficacy. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. and Justice. "not exposed to winds". virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. vite (Lat. pl. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Prudence. virtù could be used. Lust. the church service at which these prayers are said. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vestibulum. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Fortitude.

An account of someone's life and work. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Marcus (1st cent. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and of Ferrara. or recovery from illness has been made. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. 1472. they were from the 18th century . Sculptors and Architects"). and appalled recognition of. usually when a prayer for good fortune. The wars from 1494 do. in fact. Vitruvius Pollio. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements.g. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. a biography. those of Volterera. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. published in 1550 and 1568. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1482-84). votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. 1478-80. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. protection from harm. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

gallery. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. "world view") A comprehensive world view. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. woodcut A print made from a wood block. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands.Weltanschauung (Gr. . pompous on the floor above. Westwerk German word. during its subsequent history. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. usually linear. "Western work of art". usually restorers. a philosophy of life. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. based on stylization of various animal forms. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. It was intended to have a variety of functions.

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