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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. There are several variants of the technique. the darker the tone). the moulding around a window or door. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arcade (Lat. or organization. In Greek and Roman literature. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Degas.e. architectonic (Gk. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The term applies also to a print made by this method. arkhitektonikos. piers or pillars. "architectural") Relating to structure. including Goya. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Lancet and Tudor. Picasso. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. architrave (It. the lowest part of the entablature). roofed with a half-dome. at the east end of a church behind the altar. . The adjective is apsidal. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arcus. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. which is fused to the plate by heating. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.A semicircular projection. design. but in essence the process is as follows. and Rouault. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Also known as an exedra. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists.
or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). aureole (Lat. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Dante's Vita nuova ." from Gk. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements.archivolt (Ital. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. aureolus. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. archeiu. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "the art of dying well") a small book on death. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. "golden." and Lat. dominate. "begin.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. attributum. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.and the Comedy . archivolto. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. voltus. "front arch. In the case of martyrs. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Ars Moriendi (Lat. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. usually a saint. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. attribute (Lat.
as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Later.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. applied to the physically . The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). that of Cardano. who had been residing in France since 1305. Six pontificates later. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. often anecdotal. The actual move was made in 1309. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. baldachin. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. 'Captivity'. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. paintings of everyday life. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. the god of wine and fertility. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. in 1377. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). or baldacchino (It. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic.
. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. built by Sixtus III. banderole (It. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. AD 300). Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. AD 273. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. a church. Spalato [Split. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. or connected with. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. banderuola. Baalbek. Parma. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. such as those at Pisa. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. and Poitiers. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting.g.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). el Kantara. the Temple of Venus. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. seven. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Florence. pope between 432 and 440. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Customarily.. Alg. France. beggars in rags. Easter. As eight follows the "complete" number. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Lebanon. and Epiphany. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. . and Nocera in Italy. or canopy. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. or forecourt. Croatia]. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. and abject filthy things. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Pentecost. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. a visual metaphor for the number eight.
Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Constant Troyon (French. were often omitted entirely. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Jean-François Millet (French. 1811-1889). baptisteries. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. or baptismal chapels. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1810-1865). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Vermeer). 1814-1875). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In architecture. Théodore Rousseau (French. however. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. stoa basilike. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. in the 1840s and 1850s. 1807-1876). Rubens). 1796-1875). Baroque (Port. in its usual location near the church door . southeast of Paris. Also tunnel vault. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. basilica (Gk. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1817-1878). the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. something of earlier symbolism survives. Jules Dupré (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini.In the 10th century. the dramatic use of light and shadow. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). barocco. achieved through scale. and (3) everyday realism. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Originally. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. which is reserved for the clergy. usually facing east. . "king's hall") a church building. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and thus a church.
Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. particularly porcelain. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. By association. such as those by Diego Velázquez. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. bodegón Image. in which still-life predominates. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. domesticity. Bodegónes. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. as is to be expected. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. 1650 in Spain. such as Waldmüller. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. It takes its name from its grainy texture. The term was mainly used up to c. which is either not yet glazed. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. often with food and drink. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. up until the mid-17th century. Book of Hours . There were. also incorrectly called bisque. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Biscuit porcelain. like their Dutch counterparts. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. or which is to be left as it is. however.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. especially Spanish. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Spanish still-lifes. were referred to by their specific contents. and often sentimentality.
bozzetto Strictly speaking. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. or seasons. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. but can also be used for painted sketches. months. and the fact that it is easily workable .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . varying from silverish to a rich. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. durability. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. made as a study for a larger picture. . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. bozzetto(Italian. Chantilly). They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. a rapid sketch in oil.by a variety of processes. coppery red. days of the week. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.an advantage over marble sculpture. By extension. though these are more often called 'modelli'. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. See flying buttress.both hot and cold .
or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. box") In architecture. and Giotto. ceramics. mosaics. C cabinet A small. camera obscura . a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. caisson (Fr. private room where works of art. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Duccio. cameo Small relief made from gems. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). which was often allegorical. its forms highly stylized. It also served to glorify the emperor. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. notable from Syria and Egypt. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Among its most distinctive products were icons. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. "a chest. casson. and work in precious metals. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. glass. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. manuscript illuminations. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire.
It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. which was usually whitened. dating to antiquity. capital (Lat. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. which isolates the fabric from the paint.-N. candelabrum (It. usually in a church. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall." and the earliest versions. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candlestick. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. Niepce created photography. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. hemp. and jute. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. usually with several branches or arms. only very rough effects will be obtainable. Structurally. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. followed by smaller and even pocket models. . capitellum. as an aid to drawing. The Latin name means "dark chamber. usually decorated. candelabra. cantoria. candela. campanile Bell tower. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting.) A gallery for singers or musicians. usually built beside or attached to a church. by the 16th century. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. "candle") A large. sing. Portable versions were built. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. pl. cantorie (It. both of which have richly carved marble panels. other materials used are cotton. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.Ancestor of the photographic camera. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.
Carmelites (Lat. At the height of the Middle Ages. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. The order combines reclusive and community life. the date of the painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartoon (It. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Cardinal Virtues (Lat.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters .a humorous drawing or parody. or a motto. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cartouche . or fresco. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Carthusian Order (Lat. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cardinalis. and humanism. tapestry. near Grenoble. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartellino. In fresco painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. pl. the endeavour to attain true humanity. cartellini In a painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. New Charterhouses. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).both Italians and artists from other countries . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. monasteries containing separate hermitages.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. details of the subject. cartone. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century.
the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. castello (It. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and swags of fruit and flowers. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. In the 15th century. . of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. they were also used in other countries. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families.toward the setting sun. cassone (It. putti (cupids). caryatid (Gk. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. cathedral (cathedra. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. These lead up to the north and south transepts.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). a cathedral always faces west .) "castle". decorated with gilt gesso. and many other items of her dowry. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. The altar is placed at the east end. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. palace. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Paolo Uccello. The main body. linen. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Cascina. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. or nave. They contained the bride's clothes. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. where the throne of the bishop is placed. or arms of the cross.
cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. . but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. continually praise him. in accordance with their distance from the observer. and Islamic literature. Christian. rather than intercessory functions. landscapes. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. as celestial attendants of God. and perspicere. Both the statement of St. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Relative to the observer. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. champlevé (Fr. central perspective (Lat. animal. or birdlike characteristics. a celestial winged being with human.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. a throne bearer of the deity. buildings and figures that are being depicted. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. "in the centre". In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. centralis. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography.
choir (Gk. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. replacing tempera. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Burgkmair (1510). and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). the Order of the Hospital of St. choros. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. North of the Alps. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. reserved for the clergy to pray together. "light dark") In painting." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . Since Carolingian times. or for choral singing. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. Lastly. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy.chiaroscuro (It. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges.
Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and the Churrigueresque column. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. became the most common motif. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. ciborium . The Mexico cathedral (1718). An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). balustrades. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Very few still exist in their original positions. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. is as typically Churrigueresque. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and garlands. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. which was shaped like an inverted cone. undulating cornices. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. stucco shells.intersect). Sculpted clouds. an architect. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. undulating lines. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. further enriching the style. and repetition of pattern. gilded rays. The Transparente (completed 1732). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. a massing of carved angels. reversed volutes.
the manufacturers' corporation which employed them.and post-medieval Italy. Their economic condition worsened. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. placing one of their members.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. beaters. craft of dyeing. on July 22. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. the wool carder Michele di Lando. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. They were forbidden to form a trade association. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. combers. Quattrocento (1400s. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Without being members of a guild. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. etc. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. or achieve political representation. as also were those in the associated. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. The new government. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. controlled by the minor guilds. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Then. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. who were raised to the status of a guild. ciompi. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. but self-employed. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. including the ciompi. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. High Renaissance). Members of the lower classes. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. In reaction to this revolutionary . Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident.
cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. the black contours usually with a special line plate. Concepts of the classical. clair-obscur (Fr. . clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. In the 15th century Greek literature. editing and translating a wide range of texts. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. on which strings were plucked. writers. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. philosophy and art . the ciompi guild was abolished. scholars patiently finding.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cithara (Gk. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).) An ancient musical instrument. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. except in cases where . In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. literature. philosophy. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. resembling a lyre. with Italian scholars. however.episode. and politics. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. changed greatly from one period to the next.as in Italy these were dispensed with.
Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. compline (Lat. [hora] completa. when set side by side. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Coffered ceilings. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. those with refined tastes. the church service at which these prayers are said. a work's underlying theme. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. cognoscenti. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. or "contract. sing. terrorized the country. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. The name was derived from the condotta. as well as from the Bible. pl. concetti (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. literature or music. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. blue and orange. intensify one another. arch or ceiling. cognoscente (It. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. condottiere. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. occasionally made of wood. . pl. Green and red. concetto. condottieri (It.
and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. in the service of Naples. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. clergy. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Muzio's son. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. By the 16th century. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. . In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili.e. i. flagellant confraternities. confraternities Confraternities. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Francesco Sforza. Umbria. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. in the service of Perugia. primarily for syphilitics. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops.devastating Romagna. Martino). (2) Confraternite del Rosario. i. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Toward the end of the 15th century. often called compagnie or. convents of convertite. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. which spread in the 15th century. and Tuscany. commonly called either Compagnia di S. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. or with the spiritual assistance of. Mark (1432). Carmagnola. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. and German--the condottieri.e. With no goal beyond personal gain. in Venice. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Spanish. often under the direction of. scuole. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. who won control of Milan in 1450. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. disappeared. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. By the end of the 14th century.
its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. In medieval painting.e. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. reformed prostitutes. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. while the Venetian government.g. contour. While the Doge ranked above the Council. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the Florentine Neri.g. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contrapposto (It. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. and refuges for maidens. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. contour (Fr. notwithstanding their location. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Dorotea in Trastevere. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. however. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. e. contours were initially regular. e. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .i. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. founded c. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. in Florence. Later. Confraternities. 1514 in S. but sometimes had their own premises. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. flat outlines. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese.
The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. The style spread as far as England. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. 1280). such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. . Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. large cornice or other feature. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. conventicle (Lat. Reform programs. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. 1100 and 1300. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. conventiculurn.weight on one leg. a bracket of stone. whose names are inscribed on several works. Lat. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. corbel In architecture. started the process of inner reform in the Church. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. did not achieve any lasting results. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. aes cyprium. They are often ornamented. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. cuprum. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. an engraving produced in this way. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. declining moral standards.
the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Death. Jews. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Constantine the Great. An ancestor of the oboe. particularly among the Persians.e. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. "small vat") In architecture. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. the most famous victim of crucifixion. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. after being whipped. Usually. the first Christian emperor. Seleucids. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Carthaginians. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the condemned man." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. or "scourged. There were various methods of performing the execution. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. cupula. D dado . crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. a small dome. Next. i. cupola (Lat. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. reedy sound. a semi-circular vault.
Germany. Passau. diptych (Lat. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. design") In Renaissance art theory. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. a favorite late medieval picture subject. usually in matching pairs. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. disegno (It. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Gk. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. e. danse macabre The dance of death. Deësis (Gk. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. The term stresses not the literal drawing. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. an expressive use of nature. and Linz possessed common characteristics. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). "drawing. deacon (Gk. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. often an altarpiece. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. but the concept behind an art work. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg.g. diptychum. which was help to be the basis of all art. Anglican and Orthodox churches. diptychos. diakonos. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest.
The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. The studio easel. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. "to mix.fully realize. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly .Thomas Aquinas. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. donator. though a few artists. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. which runs on castors or wheels. dome in architecture. Dominicans (Lat. Ordo Praedictatorum. is a heavy piece of furniture. As disegno appeals to the intellect. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. donor (Lat. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. formerly worn under armour. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. distemperare. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. usually forming a ceiling or roof. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. also used it on canvas. a 19th-century invention. distemper (Lat. when painters took to working out of doors. such as we still use today. doublet A male garment. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St.
The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. and architecture. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. ensemble (Fr. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. sculpture.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. a depiction of Jesus. Hence. en face In portraiture. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. entablature In classical architecture. in art. the frieze. "last". eschaton. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. bound and flogged. and logos. and the cornice. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. Ecce Homo (Lat. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. It consists of the architrave. sometimes combining panel painting. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. full face. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. eschatology (Gk. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. John (19. epitaph (Gk. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. fresco. "word") .
and also to Giulia Gonzaga. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Italy. celebrated with bread and wine. particularly ware made in France. which is called "delftware. which is called "maiolica.death and resurrection. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. It developed in France in the early 16th century.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Jerome. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Vittoria Colonna." and charis. . faun Ancient Roman god of nature. and of the last things. Contarini. notably Cardinal Pole. 4500 BCE. fields and livestock. Eucharist (Gk. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Spain. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Marcantonio Flaminio. Augustine. Equated with the Greek god Pan. and is named for Faenza. which was developed in the Near East ca. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. eu. Giovanni Morone. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. protector of shepherds. farmers. which was famous for maiolica. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine." and that made in the Netherlands and England. "good. Germany. Saints Ambrose. and Scandinavia." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience.
usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. black and dun. fresco (It. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. that of the others red. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. and these areas. 2 . The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. relaxed. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. fluted of a column or pillar. and flowers suspended in a loop. a technique known as a secco fresco. Committed to charitable and missionary work. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Only a small area can be painted in a day. can in time be seen.festoni (It. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). drying to a slightly different tint. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). sword and set of balances. such as plague. The colour of his horse is white. war. Their attributes are the bow. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. leaves.8). well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. frescos in Italy . Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. famine and death. a swag. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance.
a person's invisible tutelary god. are genres of painting. Final details. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. where the atmosphere was too damp. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. for example. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and to a lesser extent for tapestries. In art from the classical period onwards. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. usually childish figure. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow.Save in Venice. the intonaco. genre In a broad sense. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. The technique of buon fresco. covings and ceilings. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. both in churches and in private and public palaces. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. or fresco secco. or true fresco. landscape and portraiture. Genius in classical Rome. G Garter. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women.
gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. in portraits and on tombs. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Gobelins . Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. as well as writers and artists. how it differed from notoriety. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Maso di Banco. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. whether it must be connected with the public good. and as spurring on men of action. As such. Bernardo Daddi. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Maria Gloriosa).
Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. still in existence today. . and although it reopened in 1699. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In other Italian cities. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. thereafter it made only tapestries. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Golden Fleece. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Paris. who appointed Lebrun Director. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century.French tapestry manufactory. golden section (Lat. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. This ratio is approximately 8:13. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV.
1200 and c. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. Gothic Gothic. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Nevertheless. and lies much deeper than. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The artistic. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. like the cultural and commercial. painting. Amiens. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Denis. . which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. In particular. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. that the effects are to be felt. the superficial particularities of form. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. from the 13th until the 17th century. There is a transcendental quality. painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. In sculpture and in painting. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. In thinking of Nicola (d.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. or the influence of one building. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. 1270. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. c. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style.
are but different appellations of the same thing'. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. chiefly to France. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Canaletto. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. notably in the writings of Bellori. These qualities. and Morris Graves. to white or tinted paper and card and. genius. to silk. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. occasionally. . sometimes in the company of a tutor. with sable. Pannini. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. the Netherlands. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and above all Italy. starch. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Klee. and Piranesi. and the great style. and taste among the English. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. the beau idéal of the French. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni.and hog-hair brushes. Honey. Such tours often took a year or more. Dubuffet. without visible brush marks. if required. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. It is thinned with water for applying. There was also a flourishing market in guide books.
grisaille (Fr. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. which had recruited most of the merchant class.e. gris. after this. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. usually gray. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Although its palace was rebuilt c. c. From 1266 to 1268. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Some writers. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. exclude drawing from this definition. through central Italy. to Provence and Paris. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. brother of Louis IX. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. however. In Florence. In another sense. . the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. however. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. In the context of the fine arts. 1216. drawing and the various forms of engraving. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. the parties taking a multitude of local names. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. then as now. and Waiblingen. After the War of the Eight Saints. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. including text as well as illustrations. became an abiding feature of European politics.
The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. surgeons. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. heraldry (Fr. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. "[knowledge of] heraldry. print or painting. "herald") . notably Florence in the 14th century." from Fr. In 16th century Venice. and greater hostility between master and man. commissioning paintings for guildhalls.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. H hatching In a drawing. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. In Florence. for example. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and provided assistance to members in need. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. In some towns. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. but in time they acquired other functions. or professions. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. The guild also monitored standards of work. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In some cities. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. as some did). héraut. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In Italy they go back a long way. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The guilds were not equal. goldsmiths. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. trades. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. trade or profession (painters. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. Guilds were also patrons of art. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. [science] héraldique. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control.
However. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. d. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. the Cathars were an anti-church. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. the followers of Juan de Valdes. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. they were condemned in 1184. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. the Waldensian. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. while others merged with the Waldensians. together with brethren north of the Alps. head of the 'carnal Church'. as Antichrist. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. with the rules governing their use. one great missionary community. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. normative for churchmen. The main impact of the . The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. from the start. i.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. indeed.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. By contrast. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. and regarded themselves as forming. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church.
F. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Morse. Kensett. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). J. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. humanus. Henry Inman. humanism (Lat. S. Durand. F. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. B. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. in his earlier work. the emancipation of man from God took place. its subjects considered morally elevating. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. working from 1825 to 1875. American painters were studying in Rome. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Jasper Cropsey. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Frederick E. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. mainly in the south. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. and classical literature. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. At the same time. Thomas Cole. Church. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. In humanism. hortus conclusus (Lat. history (usually classical history). history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. my spouse'. George Inness. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Germany. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. and. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
"invention") In Renaissance art theory. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic.g. For instance. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. and they are also depicted on their own. Human figures. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. beautiful style. Derived from classical rhetoric. the scourge that was used in the scourging. In the second half of the 14th century. are also used in art literature. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. and the ladder. soft style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. there are representations of the bundle of rods. invention. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. the pincers. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. etc. usually the donors of a work of art. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. inventio (It. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. originality. the rooster of Peter's denial. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. The terms court style. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the ability to create. the veil of St. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Veronica. it denominates a kind of behaviour. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the hammer. investiture . or of other saints. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Donatallo. with many further details added.
Nicolaes Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Italianizers Northern artists. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. The Both brothers. Both and Berchem. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. generally Dutch or Flemish. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Andries and Jan Both. although they are usually called Romanists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. . Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. of Utrecht. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who traveled in Italy and. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Jerome's writings. principally Dutch. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Upon his return to Holland. and Jan Asselijn. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there.
L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). John of Jerusalem . Archbishop of Genoa.1519). encouraged by the Crusades. lectern A reading stand or desk.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. especially one at which the Bible is read. liberal arts . Emperor Maximilian I (1459. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. the rite of communion is based on this. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Legenda Aurea (Lat. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. As their military role grew. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards.
a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).grammar. poetic atmosphere. comprising arithmetic.g. Heade (1819-1904). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. often standing in markets and town squares. together with identifying attributes (e. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. that could be used for public ceremonies.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. a semicircular space.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. commemorating a marriage. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. loggia (It. and Frederick E. Pythagoras for arithmetic. lunette (Fr. first the preparatory trivium .g. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). then the basis of a philosophical training. . that may contain a window. Maria Novella in Florence). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. through the use of aerial perspective. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Martin J. Kensett (1816-1872). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Church (1826-1900). often sublime. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. "little moon") In architecture. astronomy and music. the quadrivium. John F. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. geometry. its roof supported by columns.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. rhetoric and dialectic. painting or sculptural decoration. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. It is related to. Tubal for music).
active mainly in Florence c. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. originating in Italy in the 14th century. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and however bright their lighting effects. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. 1855–65. "great mother") A mother goddess. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. madrigal A part song. historical subjects. for example. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. magna mater (Lat. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. mandorla (It. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. Specifically. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and accompaniments. being written. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. copper green. and iron red. particularly such ware produced in Italy. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. and portraits as well as landscapes. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). "almond") . and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. the goddess Cybele. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. antimony yellow. but they painted genre scenes. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). When white is used for painting. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. manganese purple. usually for the lute. originally sung without accompaniment. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state.
ecclesiastical. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. bound. which was quarried at Mount . mantle An overcoat. the hand-written medieval book. often ornamented with decorative borders. Burgundy. El Greco and Tintoretto. and literary texts. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. and crowned with thorns. In architecture. more strictly.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. "manner. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. strong. It reached to the knee or foot. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Flanders. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. complex and crowded compositions. in a specific sense. marked by flagellation. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. maniera. the Codex manuscriptus. worn open. illuminated initials and miniatures. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Parmigianino. Developing out of the Renaissance. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Mannerism (It. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. depending on the social class of the wearer. Bronzino. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. In Mannerist painting. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors.
suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). having finished his training. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. medallion In architecture. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. "witness.Pentelicon in Attica. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Like the finest Imperial coins. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. martyrion. sleek surface. Without monetary value. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). a different design on the reverse. marmi finti (It. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. the medal's purpose was commemorative. quarried at Massa. an inscription running round the rim. which were beginning to be reverently collected. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. The pure white Carrara marble. particularly by Michelangelo. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. martyrdom (Gk. proof") the sufferings.
Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. . c. It was. The process is essentially extinct today. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. perhaps oddly. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. 1640. When Perseus cuts off her head. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. The work of these men. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. even grain. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. and of the many. a Gorgon. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). for landscapes and portraits. 1452-1526/27). The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the stress on individual character. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. 14601528). Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. 1467-688). Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. A Dutch officer. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1425-1504). Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Ludwig von Siegen. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto.round the neck. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Medusa In Greek mythology. often anonymous. as it were. In pure mezzotint. c. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. no line drawing is employed. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. who reflected them. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. of the person portrayed on the other side. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. particularly. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. This yields a soft effect in the print. in England. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body.
.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings.g. motto (Ital. saying") . a branch of the Franciscan order. Many such small versions. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. monochrome (Gk. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. usually portraits. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Francis himself. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. painting in gouache on vellum or card. still exist. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. miter A high. pointed headdress worn by bishops. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. a painting executed in a single color. executed on a very small scale. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. often quite highly finished. e. monokhromatos. "word. Parmigianino (d. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. ink and paint. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. "one color") Painted in a single color. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St.
Nazarenes A group of young. . a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. named after the patron saint of painting. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). often separated from it by pillars. 1817-29). It may have parallel aisles on each side. Pforr. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. but often insipid. 1816-17. and is intersected by the transept. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Isidore. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. navis. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. naturalism (Fr. Rome. In 1810 0verbeck. nave (from Lat. Berlin. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and two other members moved to Rome. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. In general. The invention of personal mottos.from the Middle Ages. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and Casino Massimo. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches.
placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. nigellus. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. were usually old when elected. but their ideas continued to be influential.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nimbus (Lat. moreover. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. niello (Lat. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Popes. is as true as it is notorious.) . Nymphaeum (Gk. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. usually golden. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the style of the Ancien Régime. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. "aureole") The disc or halo. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich.
an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. and its greater tonal range. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). the three basic styles of design. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. the Doric order. such as linseed. O obsequies (Lat. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. walnut. and entablatures. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. fluted column and a plain capital. "services. a more elaborate base. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. with a sturdy. orders of architecture In classical architecture. . The earliest. its richness of colour. a small private chapel. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. inborn sin. They are seen in the form of the columns. Greek goddesses of Nature. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). or poppy. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. was the simplest. observances") Rites performed for the dead. obsequia. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. capital. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils.
palazzo (It. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. while shops came to be thought undignified. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. like cities. the Cancelleria). tradition and social structure. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Palazzo Strozzi). "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. with biforate windows. designed as a . a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.g. standing at the foot of the Cross. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. and. P pala (Ital. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. and the main apartments above. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.
meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. came to be applied all over Europe. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). behind a sober Florentine façade. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Other cities. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). evolved influential types. Rich. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Papal incentives to build. especially after the Sack of Rome. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Following Oriental patterns. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions.g. cornices and abutments. panel . In Venice. like Genoa. often built next to their titular churches. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. and Palladio's in Vicenza. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. palmette. column-caps.scholarly retreat. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Movement of patrons and architects. e. and large households. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. like the colonnaded vestibule. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Palazzo Massimi).g. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type.
it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and dark walnut are favourites. On a larger scale.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the management of clerical dues and taxation. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. enforce law and order. cedar. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and the pressure and temptations . panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Many other types were used. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. mahogany. In the 20th century cedar. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. chestnut. and spanned by a single dome. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. metal. A number of matters. or other rigid substance. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. the. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. To maintain their authority. slate has occasionally been used as a support. or the incidence of taxation. as distinct from canvas. teak. including beech. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. As successors to St Peter. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. secular rulers. olive. Then. fibre-board. fir. and walnut. to influence popes in their favour. so that they might have a voice at court. as it were. and modern painters have also used plywood. however. The third aspect was administrative. linden. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. Having a circular plan. larch. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and other synthetic materials as supports.Term in painting for a support of wood.
the most appropriate . notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). in the eyes of God. would. if it did no serious damage to the faith. in spite of further absences from Rome. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. at Avignon.as well. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. It was argued that such a council. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. which seems so inevitable. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. from the point of view of its religious associations. of individuals.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. There remained. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. to be long delayed. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. So onerous. To resolve the problem of divided authority. however. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. however.that could be applied to them. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. possess an authority which. was long in doubt. As at Avignon. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. which met at Constance 1414-18. Colonna and Caetani. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. as such. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . the acceptance of the city as the most practical . had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. however. could supersede that of a pope. By then. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily.
. in classical literature. 400-300 BC). Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. less frequently pig. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. as well as a governmental one. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). goat. Passion . the creation of a cultural capital. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. it has also been used for painting. pastoral (Lat. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. to a world peopled by shepherds. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and other animals. pastor. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. scholars and men of letters. and satyrs. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. through lavish patronage of artists. nymphs. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. However. Parrhasius (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and with Zeuxis (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths.
Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form.The events leading up to Good Friday. wealthy citizen. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. a region in north-central Italy. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. 1478). pastiche (fr. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. projecting either centrally or at both ends. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. patrician (Lat. which focus on the Suffering Christ. and so on. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. hence tent") A lightly constructed.) or pasticcio (It. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. "butterfly. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. patricius. a small. the crown of thorns. pavilion (Lat. but not necessarily a direct copy. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. 1478. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. Francesco Salviati. Meanwhile. papilio. such as a garden summerhouse. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Portrayals of the Passion. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. and also the archbishop of Pisa. ornamental building. .) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements.
The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. in particular the face. and facere. physis. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. perspicere. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. perspective (Lat. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and gnomon. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. physiognomy (Gk. pergola (It. . who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "hanging. or related elements within an art work. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "nature". "to see through. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. personification (Lat.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. pendant (Fr. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concept or deity. persona. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "person".
for example. proper to take a landscape from. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. containing the public rooms.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. pigmentum. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).) The main floor of a building. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. . usually above the ground floor. but full of variety. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. affording a good subject for a landscape. exemplified. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Rome. or resin to make paint. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. remarkable for singularity. pigment (Lat. striking the imagination with the force of painting. but may consist of a cluster of columns. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Peter's. curious details.piano nobile (Ital. to be expressed in painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Pietà (Lat. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. A pier is generally larger than a column. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. glue. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. both real and painted. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity.
but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. moreover. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. it is difficult to find. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Thenceforward. and capital. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). for instance. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s.pilaster (Lat. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. such as Florence and Genoa. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. Rocco and Sebastian. it has a base. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. During 1348 the Black Death. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. though in less widespread. "pillar") A flat. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. in October 1347. It seems probable. also used in Spain's American colonies. For this reason. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. since. the burning of 'infected' clothing. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. perhaps. despite regional variations. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. a shaft. more sporadic outbreaks. In the 15th century. It is often fluted. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. and thereafter all Europe. plague Plague. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. however. pilastrum. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. outside Tuscany. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease.
Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. like its successor. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. or simply the Plateresque. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Theatetus and the Laws. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). The first phase. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. correct classical orders became frequent. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The first phase. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. composition. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Phaedrus. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones.. i. more severe. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). or appropriateness. harmonious. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Diego evolved a purer. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Timaeus. placement. In contrast with Aristotle. Philebus. and unified style using massive geometric forms. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. heraldic escutcheons.e. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. A student of Socrates. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Phaedo. and sinuous scrolls. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The second phase. the Symposium. are the masterworks of the second style. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. which lasted only a few decades.
turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. 1472-c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Plotinus. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. all of which he also translated into Latin. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. but not completely. and he utilized many other writings. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. and Agostino Steuco (c. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. including those of Plotinus. Iamblichus. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. and the Chaldaic Oracles. near Florence. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French.in Plato's thought. A new Latin translation. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Rather unsystematic. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. replaced Ficino's. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. the greatest of his ancient disciples.1577) becoming particularly popular. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. partially.
pluviale. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. portico (Lat. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. as in classical architecture). "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pointed arch In architecture. pluvial (Med. polyptych (Gk. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. plinthos. poluptukhos. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. such as processions and consecrations. or statue. Plato was read in the universities. porticus. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. column. plinth (Gk. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. where a pectoral is used to close it. Lat. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings.
National Gallery). The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Cathedral) by Uccello. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. was revived in the 14th century. Mantua. flattened image. Maria Novella. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Campidoglio). Desiderio da Settignano. Palazzo Farnese). decorating whole rooms. The realism of the clear. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature.e. Venice). Gattarnelata. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino.sculptors such as Donatello. Florence. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Group portraits. The equestrian portrait. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Siena. The 16th century portrait became generalized. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. inessential. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Florence (1486-90). Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i.. the Carracci. and only a decorative accessory to form. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. and the . based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. 1328. psychologically more complex. Colleoni. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436.
abrasive even. minatory exhortations. not least those of statesmen and prelates. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Borromeo. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. are not florid in style. to discharge their preaching duties. bishop of Asti. however. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Savonarola and Musso. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. 1494). bishop of Chioggia. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. from the secular clergy. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. bishops especially. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Correggio. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The sermons of Visdomini." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Charles Le Brun. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. together with the Dominican Savonarola. several of whom became bishops. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. As Poussin was a Frenchman. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. primarily the mendicants. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. was versed in classical and patristic . The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. of the sermon as an art form. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Fiamma's sermons. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. and Peter Paul Rubens. and. The styles of S. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy.
however. among them Holman Hunt. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.g. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. prefiguration Typology . though often relatively very wide . and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. predella (It. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. tapestries. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Naples). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . presbyterion "Council of Elders") .had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Because of the small size of predelle . "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Millais and Rossetti. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Louis of Toulouse (1317. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The New Testament references in these would. and so forth.rhetoric.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.
The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. profil perdu (Fr. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. proportion (Lat. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. sculpture and architecture.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The following are important: 1. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. the quadrature. notably David. these highly finished drawings. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. 3. Fragonard. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. intended as complete works of art in themselves. Girardon. the Canon of Proportion. which uses the square . the golden section. projecting shelf on which to kneel. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 2. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. proportio. and Houdon among sculptors. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Prix de Rome A scholarship. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. "evenness") in painting. again indicative of the purpose they served. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723.
4. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. putti sing. a fourth = 3:4. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. provenance The origins of an art work. "boys") Plump naked little boys. one half the length of the other). Rome. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. triangulation. for example). provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. putto (It. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). the steward or treasurer of a church. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. harmonic proportions. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Unlike Pozzo. Ignazio. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. . Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. a fifth = 2:3. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. and 5. It was common in Roman art. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo.as a unit of measurement.
"remains") a part of the body of a saint. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. hermits. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. friars and nuns. in which figures are seen half round. relief (Lat. refectory (Med.Quattrocento (It. relic (Lat. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Among the .g. In 16th century Europe. in particular works by Masaccio. the object of particular veneration. basso rilievo). in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. with the Anglican Church developing in England. the great orders of monks. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Brunelleschi. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. also known as the Realist school. canons regular. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Botticelli. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Fra Angelico and others. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. relicquiae. Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Donatello. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relevare. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. or the Jesuits. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). or some item connected with a saint. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). and high relief (alto rilievo). e. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists.
The Silvestrines. and their more institutionalized brethren. their resources being in the hands of trustees. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. That of S.e. 1012. the Conventuals. Giorgio in Alga. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Salvatore. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Maria di Fregonaia. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. At the same time. The same bull . the most notable being S. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Bologna (1419). 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. although technically of secular canons. After the repression of the Spirituals. and the generally moderate Observants. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. various groups were fused in the latter body. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. In 1517. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Benedetto. presided over by chapters general. the great patriarch of Venice. i. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Venice (1404). A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. was the congregation of S. S. which was to become the main Italian one. who had no overall organization originally. Giustina. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. The Conventuals. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. however. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Lucca. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Founded by St Romuald c. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Padua. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Mantua. In 1504.contemplative orders. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Bernardino of Siena. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. it became the Cassinese congregation. The Benedictines.
Michele in Isola. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. The first. also. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. however. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Venice. founded by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. however. Gerolamo Aemiliani.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. founded in 1535 by S. a historical period. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Angela Merici. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Gaetano da Thiene. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Filippo Neri. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Theatines. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism.
there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. life. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and his own as potentially one of light. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. however. of scholarship. of letters. the historical reality of antiquity. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries.century. and competition with. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). For long. as well as political. of arts. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. however. Thereafter. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. 1875-86). not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. All-Roundness. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. increasingly. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). even Amoralism. because its core of energy. of 'darkness'. . Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of an energetic revival of interest in. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. too long forgotten glories. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. which had begun early in the 14th century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. was so vast and potent. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and.
let alone a uniform. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .erased. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. and other liturgical objects. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. of industrialization. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity.with all its shabbiness . Though thus challenged. retables can be detached and. Cathedral of SaintBavon.) was the term chosen. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. letters. in the more limited sense. later still to Genoa. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. sometimes. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. There was an early. statues. The challenges are to be accepted. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. consist merely of a painting. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. mobilized nationalism. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. though sometimes of metal. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. etc. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. and mass media. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. and is decorated with paintings. gratefully. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. especially in the High Gothic period. (3) There is not a true. candlesticks. however. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. the previous record . congruence between. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. It is for this additional.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt').A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. etc. Ghent).
is a typical product. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. painting. however. rocaille (French. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. rilievo (It. With the development of freestanding altars. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. the St. Italy. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. As the name suggests. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Louis XV furniture. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.in the 11th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. and 'Romanesque'. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Germany. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. almost simultaneously. literally. Spain . is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. its mood lighthearted and witry. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Romanesque art. richly decorated with organic forms. Originally commissioned in 976. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. like 'Gothic'. retables have become extinct. More usually. "relief") In painting. Rococo A style of design. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. in several countries . the first style to achieve such international currency.of St Mark in Venice.France. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. .
Rome. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Piranesi. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. . van Orley. Pannini and Mengs. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Massys and M. Mabuse. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). they maintained. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. M. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. such as red ochre. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Claude. The aim of painting. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. the development of nationalistic pride. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Q.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. B. stylized design representing an open rose. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. van Heemskerk. In addition.
whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Orthodox.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. and Lorenzo de' Medici. confirmation. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Subjects were nominally sacred. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Written primarily in ottava rima. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. There were no limits on time. pious legend and hagiography. Eastern independent. holy orders. glance and movement . or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature.greatly increased. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. In the . and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. the Eucharist. and anointing of the sick. multiple sets used in succession. supported by lay confraternities. and Protestant churches. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. from the Old and New Testaments. gutted. local saints. matrimony. Clement escaped into Castel S. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . but others were the work of well-known figures. and impoverished. when it finally left the city it had devastated. penance. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Many compositions were anonymous. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control.expressed through gesture. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Sacra Conversazione (It. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints.
and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. make such strict distinctions. Saracens . Anglican. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Salt War. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12.. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Lutheran. Candidates first face west. the symbolic direction of Christ. The chief focus of discontent. foot washing. They were still seeking aid. It is still practiced on special occasions. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. chapter 13. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.e. and then face east. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. and sacraments.early church the number of sacraments varied. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540.) Hall." which are called sacramentals. Hence. was not maintained as a sacrament. was buried under a new fortress. in principle. notably from Florence and in Germany. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. used for drawing. sacraments. large room.i. as in the Church of the Brethren. that the price of salt should be increased. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The classical Protestant churches (i. the Bentivoglio. replaces the Lord's Supper.. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper." sala (Ital. strictly speaking. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. the Rocca Paolina. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Thus. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. The theology of the Orthodox Church. which in the Gospel According to John. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the sun of righteousness. Immediately following baptism.e. baptism and the Eucharist. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. the Orthodox Church does not. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. as an excuse to revolt.
c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. legs and horns of a goat. sarcophagus. are lost.c. pl. 160 . 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Little known in the Middle Ages.During the Middle Ages. whose writings. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the god of wine. and many others. wood or terracotta. 270 BC). Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). 210 AD). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. satyr In Greek mythology. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. made of stone. 360 . Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. The publication of Latin (1562. the Arabs or Muslims. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 45 BC). sarcophagi (Gk. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.
most of whom. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. from time to time both he and his opponents. Schism. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Louis I (d. who recognized the Roman pope. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. one of the early leaders. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. scholasticism . who had the support of the Avignon pope. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. 1386) and his son Ladislas. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. However. but with little effect. on the other. In northern Italy. for. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. was called Bamboccio. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. while England. Alexander V. the Florentines. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404).for example Pieter van Laer. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. being Frenchmen.they had individual Bentnames . in June 1409. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. while devout Christians agonized. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. with France and her allies Aragon. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. As a result. on one side. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. than their medieval predecessors. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. and.
the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. that scholasticism was left. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. and theology.) . Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). and Islamic literature. as it is easier to add details in this way. None the less. moreover.were different from those of medieval. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. textual scholarship. history and rhetoric . as it were. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.moral philosophy. Christian. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. on one side. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). Serenissima (Ital. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. It was because the central concerns of humanism . the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Often called the burning ones. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. notably Aquinas. (See also: fresco. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. because the secco technique is much less permanent. university-based study. Medieval scholars. the plaster had to be damped before painting. As such. Padua. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco.The term is ambivalent. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. if lime-water was used. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.
Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. In Christian legend. which were all identical in thickness. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Lat. Servite (Lat.. sibylla. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. at the same time. "prophetess") In antiquity. They first appear in alpine monasteries. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. sinopia . women who could prophesy. sibyls (Gk. Signoria (It. term. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in use since the Middle Ages. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. the number gradually rose to ten. Originally. brass. sfumato A technique. usually presided over by individual families. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. there was only one Sibyl. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. in the period of classical antiquity. Med. and the delicate.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. "the most serene republic of Venice").
sing. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . the red chalk used to make such a drawing. brand. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). sotto in sù (It. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. and. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault.. Stanze (Ital. Francis of Assisi. soffit (Lat. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. staffage This word.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigma (Gk. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. especially in the flow of drapery. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. . It is very closely related to International Gothic. pronounced as French.) Wooden ceiling decoration. "mark. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. Ital. stigmata. in other words. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.'Beautiful Madonnas'. as the name implies. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.
helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. stucco A type of light. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). both external and internal. whose verses actually fabrications . The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The vogue for the Sublime. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studiolo. John Milton. Indeed. supremacy . pl. studioli (It.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. In a looser sense. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. with that for the Picturesque.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim).) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art.
temperare. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. 1407). The subject is underexplored. then being replaced by oil paint. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). his own headquarters. London. i. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). These were imported. was being decorated with frescoes. into Italy. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545.e. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. and in literature. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. or cartoons. both for panel painting and fresco. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. But the Italians did not make them. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.and. Salviati and Allori. doubtless. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . chiefly from Flanders. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. tempera (Lat. . Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence.Historically.
and profile. topoi (Gk. topos. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. in the architecture of ancient Rome. tondi (It. i. Trajan's Column . and later to subdivide gable ends. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). It is used for architectural features and ornaments. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "fields. theme or motif. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. in art. and other surfaces. quarter face. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. topia. triumphal arch. tondo. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. walls. "a commonplace") In literature. vessels. topiary (Gk. pl. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. figure of speech. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. terraferma (Ital. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. widely used form. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. model.e. pl. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. and sculptures.terracotta (It.
time and eternity.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Meanwhile. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. "threefold") in Christianity. triptych (Gk. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. tryptychos. usually an altarpiece. the military triumph became sublimated. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Disseminated soon after his death. fame. . trinitas.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. or wings. death. behind it. Trinity (Lat. chastity. as it were. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. of virtues and of the arts. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. added to the glamour of the triumph. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. after 'a countless number of virgins. a car so brave'. Battista Sforza. beside it the army of martyrs. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. "threefold") A painting in three sections.' Before it go the apostles. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. the Son and the Holy Spirit. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Early triptychs were often portable. of both sexes'. into a number of less controversial forms. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. patriarchs and prophets. the wars by which they were won .
the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. viscous black ink. first recorded in 1232. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. "drum") In classical architecture. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tusche A thick. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. often decorated with sculptures. enclosed by an arch. it is usually decorated with carvings. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). tympanum (Lat. typology . Dating from classical times. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. It incorporates Renaissance features. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. through various naturalistic devices. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. In medieval architecture.
but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.A system of classification. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). were popular with them also. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). slayer of Goliath. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.) The Renaissance "universal man". e. especially his half-length figural groups. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.g. In Christian thought. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. U uomo universale (It. The numerous candles. killer of Holofernes. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). where they were most accessible. 1610).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. knew his former patrons. Judith. such as five works devoted to the senses. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. 1590-1624). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.Dirck van Baburen (c. lanterns. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. each had access to his paintings. and David. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. .
with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. hour-glasses and clocks. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. varietà (It. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. it was used to decorate furniture. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. Vespers (Lat. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. mixed in. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "evening") . the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. often gold. Also varietas (Lat. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. There are a wide range of forms. the groin vault.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time.). and the rib vault. vanitas (Lat. guttering candles. snuff boxes and other objects. overturned vessels. vesper. Parisian craftsmen. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. a work's richness of subject matter. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. V vanishing point In perspective.
and Justice. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. in which the word signifies efficacy. 'Assume a virtue. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. "not exposed to winds". pl. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Fortitude. and Sloth. "life") . for example. Hope. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Lust.Prayers said in the evening. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Covetousness. Gluttony. vestibulum. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Envy. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Prudence. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Charity. virtù could be used. the church service at which these prayers are said. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. In ancient Roman dwellings. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Temperance. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. vimperga Of German origin. vite (Lat. actual or latent. Vestibule (Lat. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vita. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Anger. if you have it not'. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top.
and the occasional wars thereafter (e. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty.g. The wars from 1494 do. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. those of Volterera. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. a biography. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559.An account of someone's life and work. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. in fact. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and appalled recognition of. 1478-80. and of Ferrara. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. or recovery from illness has been made. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. protection from harm. Sculptors and Architects"). The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Vitruvius Pollio. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Marcus (1st cent. 1482-84). 1472. they were from the 18th century . the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. usually when a prayer for good fortune. published in 1550 and 1568. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. usually restorers. "Western work of art". woodcut A print made from a wood block. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. gallery. usually linear. "world view") A comprehensive world view.Weltanschauung (Gr. during its subsequent history. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. It was intended to have a variety of functions. . X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. based on stylization of various animal forms. pompous on the floor above. Westwerk German word. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. a philosophy of life.
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