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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
"architectural") Relating to structure.e. arkhitektonikos. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Lancet and Tudor. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. architectonic (Gk. architrave (It. The term applies also to a print made by this method. . Picasso. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the lowest part of the entablature). The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arcus. the moulding around a window or door. Degas. In Greek and Roman literature. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The adjective is apsidal. design. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture.A semicircular projection. There are several variants of the technique. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. and Rouault. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the darker the tone). and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. roofed with a half-dome. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. at the east end of a church behind the altar. but in essence the process is as follows. arcade (Lat. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. or organization. piers or pillars. Also known as an exedra. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. including Goya. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). which is fused to the plate by heating.
attribute (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "front arch. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "begin. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages." from Gk. dominate. Ars Moriendi (Lat. aureole (Lat. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. archivolto.and the Comedy . "golden. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. usually a saint. voltus. aureolus.archivolt (Ital. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. archeiu. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). In the case of martyrs.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century." and Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. attributum. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .
often anecdotal. that of Cardano. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. in 1377.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Six pontificates later. Later. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. applied to the physically . The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). All the popes elected at Avignon were French. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. the god of wine and fertility. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. who had been residing in France since 1305. The actual move was made in 1309. or baldacchino (It. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. baldachin. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). 'Captivity'. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. paintings of everyday life. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions.
the Temple of Venus. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. AD 273. and Poitiers. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Spalato [Split. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. a church. and Nocera in Italy.g. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. banderole (It. el Kantara. Croatia]. built by Sixtus III. beggars in rags. or forecourt. a visual metaphor for the number eight. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. banderuola. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Easter. seven. and Epiphany. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. AD 300). Florence. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Baalbek. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous.. or connected with. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. set beneath a domical ciborium. and abject filthy things. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. . and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. or canopy. Parma. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. such as those at Pisa." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Lebanon. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Customarily. Pentecost.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). As eight follows the "complete" number. pope between 432 and 440. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays.. France. Alg.
1811-1889). (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1796-1875). however.In the 10th century. achieved through scale. and (3) everyday realism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. 1807-1876). Vermeer). Originally. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Also tunnel vault. something of earlier symbolism survives. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. barocco. Constant Troyon (French. or baptismal chapels. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1810-1865). in its usual location near the church door . a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. baptisteries. . Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Jules Dupré (French. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. and Charles-François Daubigny (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. in the 1840s and 1850s. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. 1814-1875). Théodore Rousseau (French. which is reserved for the clergy. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. 1817-1878). In architecture. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and thus a church. were often omitted entirely. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. southeast of Paris. Rubens). Jean-François Millet (French. basilica (Gk. stoa basilike. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. usually facing east. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Baroque (Port. "king's hall") a church building.
were referred to by their specific contents. Book of Hours . The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Biscuit porcelain. as is to be expected. bodegón Image. also incorrectly called bisque. By association. domesticity. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. like their Dutch counterparts.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. often with food and drink. Bodegónes. and often sentimentality. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. especially Spanish. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. which is either not yet glazed. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. particularly porcelain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. There were. It takes its name from its grainy texture. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. up until the mid-17th century. 1650 in Spain. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. in which still-life predominates. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. such as Waldmüller. The term was mainly used up to c. Spanish still-lifes. or which is to be left as it is. however. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume.
and the fact that it is easily workable . coppery red. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. days of the week. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. though these are more often called 'modelli'. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. made as a study for a larger picture. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. durability. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. By extension. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina.both hot and cold . often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. See flying buttress. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. varying from silverish to a rich.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. bozzetto Strictly speaking. but can also be used for painted sketches. or seasons. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.by a variety of processes. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bozzetto(Italian. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. Chantilly). months.an advantage over marble sculpture. a rapid sketch in oil. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.
or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. box") In architecture. Among its most distinctive products were icons. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. "a chest. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. private room where works of art. It also served to glorify the emperor. caisson (Fr. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. its forms highly stylized. and work in precious metals. mosaics. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which was often allegorical. and Giotto. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Duccio. C cabinet A small. glass. casson. camera obscura . Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. manuscript illuminations.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. ceramics. cameo Small relief made from gems. notable from Syria and Egypt. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries.
"little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture.) A gallery for singers or musicians. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. candelabra. dating to antiquity. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. both of which have richly carved marble panels. The Latin name means "dark chamber. capitellum. "candle") A large. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). which was usually whitened. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. Portable versions were built. pl. followed by smaller and even pocket models. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. campanile Bell tower. . It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. sing. only very rough effects will be obtainable. Niepce created photography. by the 16th century. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. capital (Lat. as an aid to drawing. other materials used are cotton. candelabrum (It. cantoria. hemp. candela.Ancestor of the photographic camera." and the earliest versions. candlestick. which isolates the fabric from the paint. usually with several branches or arms. usually built beside or attached to a church. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. and jute. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. cantorie (It. The best-quality canvas is made of linen.-N. usually decorated. usually in a church. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. Structurally. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground.
a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In fresco painting. cardinalis.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. the Carmelites were originally hermits. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. or fresco. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cartellino. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartoon (It. The order combines reclusive and community life. At the height of the Middle Ages. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. monasteries containing separate hermitages. near Grenoble. cartone. and humanism.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cartellini In a painting. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.a humorous drawing or parody. Carmelites (Lat. details of the subject. the date of the painting. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. or a motto.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartouche . Carthusian Order (Lat. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. pl. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Fortitudo (Fortitude). New Charterhouses. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. tapestry. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites.
this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. where the throne of the bishop is placed. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. putti (cupids). Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework.toward the setting sun. The main body. The altar is placed at the east end. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. . they were also used in other countries. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. In the 15th century. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. For reasons lost to time and tradition. They contained the bride's clothes. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. cassone (It. caryatid (Gk. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. Paolo Uccello. cathedral (cathedra. decorated with gilt gesso. castello (It. and swags of fruit and flowers. Cascina. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. or arms of the cross. palace. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. a cathedral always faces west . and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. These lead up to the north and south transepts.) "castle". and many other items of her dowry. linen. or nave. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).
Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. rather than intercessory functions. Relative to the observer. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. continually praise him. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). in accordance with their distance from the observer. and Islamic literature. . The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. "in the centre". landscapes. centralis. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. or birdlike characteristics. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. animal. as celestial attendants of God. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. a celestial winged being with human. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. buildings and figures that are being depicted. Both the statement of St. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. a throne bearer of the deity. and perspicere. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Christian. champlevé (Fr. central perspective (Lat. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper.
reserved for the clergy to pray together. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. "light dark") In painting. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades.chiaroscuro (It. or for choral singing. Lastly. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Burgkmair (1510)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. replacing tempera. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. the Order of the Hospital of St. choir (Gk. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. North of the Alps. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Since Carolingian times. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. choros. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling.
which was shaped like an inverted cone.intersect). seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Very few still exist in their original positions. undulating cornices. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and garlands. and repetition of pattern. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. is as typically Churrigueresque. gilded rays. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and the Churrigueresque column. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. reversed volutes. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. further enriching the style. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. became the most common motif. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. a massing of carved angels. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. balustrades. The Transparente (completed 1732). The Mexico cathedral (1718). Sculpted clouds. stucco shells. undulating lines. ciborium . Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. an architect.
It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. They were forbidden to form a trade association. on July 22. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. beaters. combers. including the ciompi. The new government. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. placing one of their members. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. controlled by the minor guilds. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. who were raised to the status of a guild. Their economic condition worsened. the wool carder Michele di Lando. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Members of the lower classes. Quattrocento (1400s. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Then. Without being members of a guild. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. or achieve political representation. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late.and post-medieval Italy. craft of dyeing. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. etc. High Renaissance). called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. but self-employed. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. as also were those in the associated. ciompi. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. In reaction to this revolutionary . the manufacturers' corporation which employed them.
on which strings were plucked. with Italian scholars. except in cases where . and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. resembling a lyre. philosophy. cithara (Gk. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. In the 15th century Greek literature. Concepts of the classical. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.episode. editing and translating a wide range of texts. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). and politics. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. however. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the black contours usually with a special line plate. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. literature. scholars patiently finding. . and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.as in Italy these were dispensed with. clair-obscur (Fr. philosophy and art . the ciompi guild was abolished. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. writers. changed greatly from one period to the next.) An ancient musical instrument.
"leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. cognoscente (It. or "contract. condottiere. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. intensify one another. as well as from the Bible. blue and orange. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. compline (Lat. [hora] completa. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. literature or music. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. cognoscenti. concetti (It. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). occasionally made of wood. the church service at which these prayers are said. terrorized the country. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. sing. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. a work's underlying theme. pl. The name was derived from the condotta. pl. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. concetto." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. arch or ceiling. Green and red. Coffered ceilings. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. when set side by side. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. condottieri (It. those with refined tastes. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. .
i. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. scuole. disappeared. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. commonly called either Compagnia di S. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Carmagnola. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. With no goal beyond personal gain. often called compagnie or. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. primarily for syphilitics. Martino). Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. which spread in the 15th century. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans.e. By the 16th century. Spanish. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. in the service of Naples. in the service of Perugia. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. convents of convertite. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. and German--the condottieri. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Mark (1432). Francesco Sforza. often under the direction of.e. i. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Toward the end of the 15th century. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. or with the spiritual assistance of. flagellant confraternities. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises.devastating Romagna. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Umbria. . By the end of the 14th century. and his rival Braccio da Montone. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. confraternities Confraternities. and Tuscany. in Venice. who won control of Milan in 1450. clergy. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Muzio's son.
he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. reformed prostitutes. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. in Florence. founded c. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. notwithstanding their location. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. while the Venetian government. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Dorotea in Trastevere. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . While the Doge ranked above the Council.g. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. e. contour (Fr. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. contours were initially regular. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. flat outlines. but sometimes had their own premises. 1514 in S. the Florentine Neri. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. however. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. and refuges for maidens. contrapposto (It. e. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love.i. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership).e. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Later.g. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. In medieval painting. Confraternities. contour. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.
Lat. a bracket of stone. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. cuprum. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. aes cyprium. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. whose names are inscribed on several works. conventiculurn. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. declining moral standards. corbel In architecture. an engraving produced in this way. started the process of inner reform in the Church.weight on one leg. Reform programs. They are often ornamented. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. 1100 and 1300. . Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. large cornice or other feature. 1280). Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. The style spread as far as England. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventicle (Lat. did not achieve any lasting results. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s.
Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. D dado . crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.e. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. after being whipped. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. the most famous victim of crucifixion. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. the first Christian emperor. Usually. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. the condemned man. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. reedy sound. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Seleucids. Jews. Death. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. or "scourged. An ancestor of the oboe. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Next. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. cupola (Lat. "small vat") In architecture. Constantine the Great. There were various methods of performing the execution. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. a semi-circular vault. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. a small dome." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. particularly among the Persians. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Carthaginians. i. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. cupula.
flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. and Linz possessed common characteristics. danse macabre The dance of death. but the concept behind an art work. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. often an altarpiece. e. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. disegno (It. which was help to be the basis of all art. an expressive use of nature. Passau. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. deacon (Gk.g. Gk. diptychum. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Anglican and Orthodox churches. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Deësis (Gk. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. design") In Renaissance art theory. "drawing. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Germany. diptych (Lat. diptychos. decorated diffrently from the upper section. diakonos. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. usually in matching pairs.
The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. though a few artists. when painters took to working out of doors. donator. Ordo Praedictatorum. "to mix. dome in architecture. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). also used it on canvas. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour).fully realize. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. doublet A male garment. As disegno appeals to the intellect. distemperare. which runs on castors or wheels. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. usually forming a ceiling or roof. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. formerly worn under armour. is a heavy piece of furniture.Thomas Aquinas. The studio easel. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. a 19th-century invention. such as we still use today. Dominicans (Lat. distemper (Lat. donor (Lat. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St.
ensemble (Fr. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. It consists of the architrave. "last". sometimes combining panel painting. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. a depiction of Jesus. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. fresco. entablature In classical architecture. "word") . "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. full face. en face In portraiture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. Hence. sculpture. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. John (19. Ecce Homo (Lat. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. and the cornice. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. epitaph (Gk. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. eschaton. eschatology (Gk. and architecture. in art. bound and flogged. the frieze. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. and logos.
" It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Jerome. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Equated with the Greek god Pan. eu. celebrated with bread and wine. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. which is called "maiolica. and of the last things. Giovanni Morone. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. particularly ware made in France." and charis.death and resurrection. Augustine." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Germany. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. which is called "delftware. Spain. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. . he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Carnesecchi and Ochino. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Italy.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. protector of shepherds. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. fields and livestock. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. and Scandinavia. Eucharist (Gk. notably Cardinal Pole. which was developed in the Near East ca. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and is named for Faenza. Marcantonio Flaminio. farmers. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. "good. Contarini. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Vittoria Colonna. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Saints Ambrose. which was famous for maiolica. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. 4500 BCE.
Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment.festoni (It. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. black and dun. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. The colour of his horse is white. can in time be seen. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. and these areas. Only a small area can be painted in a day. a technique known as a secco fresco. relaxed. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. that of the others red. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. war. 2 . famine and death. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically.8). Committed to charitable and missionary work. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. and flowers suspended in a loop. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. leaves. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. sword and set of balances. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fresco (It. frescos in Italy . drying to a slightly different tint. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). a swag. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. fluted of a column or pillar. such as plague. Their attributes are the bow. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.
genre In a broad sense. a person's invisible tutelary god. are genres of painting. In art from the classical period onwards. Final details. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. G Garter. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. landscape and portraiture. covings and ceilings. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. for example. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work.Save in Venice. the intonaco. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. where the atmosphere was too damp. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. usually childish figure. or true fresco. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The technique of buon fresco. or fresco secco. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Genius in classical Rome. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works.
whether it must be connected with the public good. in portraits and on tombs. Maria Gloriosa). it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). how it differed from notoriety. As such. Gobelins . and as spurring on men of action. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Bernardo Daddi. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Maso di Banco. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. as well as writers and artists. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive.
For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. . sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. This ratio is approximately 8:13. thereafter it made only tapestries. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In other Italian cities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. who appointed Lebrun Director. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. still in existence today. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Golden Fleece. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century.French tapestry manufactory. Paris. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. golden section (Lat. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. and although it reopened in 1699. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean).
painting. like the cultural and commercial. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. c. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. . It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Amiens. The artistic. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. Denis. that the effects are to be felt. In thinking of Nicola (d. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. or the influence of one building. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. the superficial particularities of form. painting. There is a transcendental quality. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Nevertheless. 1270. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. In sculpture and in painting. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Gothic Gothic. and lies much deeper than. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In particular. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. from the 13th until the 17th century. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. 1200 and c.
. Klee. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. chiefly to France. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). the beau idéal of the French. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. the Netherlands. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. to white or tinted paper and card and. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Pannini. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. These qualities. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Such tours often took a year or more. It is thinned with water for applying. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. notably in the writings of Bellori. sometimes in the company of a tutor. to silk. genius. occasionally. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and the great style.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and Piranesi. Honey. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. are but different appellations of the same thing'. without visible brush marks. Canaletto. Dubuffet. and above all Italy. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael.and hog-hair brushes. if required. and taste among the English. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. and Morris Graves. starch. with sable.
grisaille (Fr. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. gris. After the War of the Eight Saints. and Waiblingen. usually gray. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. internal factions in Florence went under other names. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. which had recruited most of the merchant class. drawing and the various forms of engraving. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. to Provence and Paris. through central Italy. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Although its palace was rebuilt c. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Some writers. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. however. brother of Louis IX. From 1266 to 1268. became an abiding feature of European politics. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the parties taking a multitude of local names. including text as well as illustrations. In another sense. 1216. exclude drawing from this definition. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy.e. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. however. c. after this. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. In Florence. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. . Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. In the context of the fine arts. then as now. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour.
The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. print or painting. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In Italy they go back a long way. notably Florence in the 14th century. heraldry (Fr. héraut. for example. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. "[knowledge of] heraldry. surgeons. In some cities. [science] héraldique. In Florence. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The guilds were not equal. such as Brescia and Vicenza. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. In 16th century Venice. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In some towns. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. as some did). The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined." from Fr. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. trades. or professions. but in time they acquired other functions. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The guild also monitored standards of work. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and greater hostility between master and man. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. trade or profession (painters. H hatching In a drawing. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and provided assistance to members in need. Guilds were also patrons of art. goldsmiths. "herald") .
However.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. from the start. The main impact of the . as Antichrist. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. the Waldensian. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. and regarded themselves as forming. with the rules governing their use. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. the followers of Juan de Valdes. while others merged with the Waldensians. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. together with brethren north of the Alps. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. indeed. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. one great missionary community. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. they were condemned in 1184. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. d. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. normative for churchmen. By contrast. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the Cathars were an anti-church. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. head of the 'carnal Church'. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. i. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence.
Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. mainly in the south. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). American painters were studying in Rome. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. humanism (Lat. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Henry Inman. Church. humanus. and. working from 1825 to 1875. Morse. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. S. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. and classical literature. its subjects considered morally elevating. Frederick E. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. George Inness. Germany. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Durand. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. At the same time. history (usually classical history). F. F. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. B. In humanism. in his earlier work. Kensett. the emancipation of man from God took place. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. hortus conclusus (Lat. J. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. my spouse'. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Thomas Cole. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Jasper Cropsey.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
and the ladder. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Derived from classical rhetoric. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the pincers. Veronica. the rooster of Peter's denial.g. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. usually the donors of a work of art. or of other saints. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. the veil of St. beautiful style. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. In the second half of the 14th century. invention. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. there are representations of the bundle of rods. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. investiture . did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Donatallo. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. with many further details added. originality. For instance. the hammer. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. soft style. and they are also depicted on their own. the scourge that was used in the scourging. etc. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. are also used in art literature. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. The terms court style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). Human figures. inventio (It. the ability to create.
who traveled in Italy and. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. principally Dutch. The Both brothers. generally Dutch or Flemish. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Both and Berchem. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. . The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Nicolaes Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. although they are usually called Romanists. Jerome's writings. of Utrecht. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. bathed in a golden haze. Andries and Jan Both. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Upon his return to Holland. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. and Jan Asselijn. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley.
as the Friars of the Hospital of St. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. lectern A reading stand or desk.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). As their military role grew. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. especially one at which the Bible is read. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).1519). Legenda Aurea (Lat. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem . liberal arts . Emperor Maximilian I (1459. encouraged by the Crusades. Archbishop of Genoa. the rite of communion is based on this. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .
Kensett (1816-1872). the quadrivium. "little moon") In architecture. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. astronomy and music. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). geometry. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.grammar. often standing in markets and town squares. Pythagoras for arithmetic. that may contain a window. its roof supported by columns. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Martin J. comprising arithmetic. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). often sublime. .) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. poetic atmosphere. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. first the preparatory trivium . Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. a semicircular space.g. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. John F. rhetoric and dialectic. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. loggia (It. Heade (1819-1904).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.g. together with identifying attributes (e. and Frederick E. then the basis of a philosophical training. Tubal for music). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. It is related to. Church (1826-1900). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. painting or sculptural decoration. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. that could be used for public ceremonies. lunette (Fr. through the use of aerial perspective. commemorating a marriage. Maria Novella in Florence). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's).
active mainly in Florence c. madrigal A part song. antimony yellow. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. being written. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). When white is used for painting. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. originally sung without accompaniment. and accompaniments. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. copper green. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. magna mater (Lat. usually for the lute. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). historical subjects. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. mandorla (It. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. for example. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. but they painted genre scenes. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). with secular texts replacing sacred ones. the goddess Cybele. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. and however bright their lighting effects. "almond") . manganese purple. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). Specifically. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. particularly such ware produced in Italy. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and portraits as well as landscapes. 1855–65. "great mother") A mother goddess. and iron red. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour.
It reached to the knee or foot. Flanders. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. in a specific sense. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and crowned with thorns. marked by flagellation. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. ecclesiastical. In Mannerist painting. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. more strictly. maniera. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. El Greco and Tintoretto. and literary texts.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. strong. depending on the social class of the wearer. Mannerism (It. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Bronzino. In architecture. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. the Codex manuscriptus. "manner. mantle An overcoat. which was quarried at Mount . the hand-written medieval book. Developing out of the Renaissance. Parmigianino. Burgundy. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. worn open. often ornamented with decorative borders. bound. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. complex and crowded compositions. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. illuminated initials and miniatures.
having finished his training. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. quarried at Massa. an inscription running round the rim. a different design on the reverse. which were beginning to be reverently collected. the medal's purpose was commemorative. sleek surface. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Like the finest Imperial coins. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. The pure white Carrara marble. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Without monetary value. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). martyrdom (Gk. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. marmi finti (It. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. particularly by Michelangelo. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Carrara. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506).Pentelicon in Attica. medallion In architecture. martyrion. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. "witness. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. This was partly because ancient Roman coins.
sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Medusa In Greek mythology. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. a Gorgon. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. the stress on individual character. and of the many. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The process is essentially extinct today. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 1467-688). A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. in England. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. 1452-1526/27). more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. of the person portrayed on the other side. 1640. as it were. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. particularly. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. often anonymous. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. no line drawing is employed. It was. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). When Perseus cuts off her head. who reflected them. c. In pure mezzotint. 14601528). Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Ludwig von Siegen. 1425-1504). Her head features on Minerva's shield. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. even grain. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. This yields a soft effect in the print. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. . c. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone.round the neck. for landscapes and portraits. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. A Dutch officer. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. perhaps oddly. The work of these men.
e. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings.. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. monokhromatos. a branch of the Franciscan order. a painting executed in a single color. painting in gouache on vellum or card. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. still exist. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. "one color") Painted in a single color. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. ink and paint. Francis himself. executed on a very small scale. "word. Parmigianino (d. usually portraits. pointed headdress worn by bishops. monochrome (Gk.g. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. motto (Ital. saying") . often quite highly finished. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. miter A high. Many such small versions. by Tiepolo and Rubens. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.
and Casino Massimo. Pforr. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. The invention of personal mottos. In 1810 0verbeck. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. 1817-29). which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. but often insipid. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. Berlin. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. often separated from it by pillars. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Nazarenes A group of young. named after the patron saint of painting. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. It may have parallel aisles on each side. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and is intersected by the transept. 1816-17. Isidore. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. navis. . and two other members moved to Rome. nave (from Lat. In general. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. naturalism (Fr. Rome.from the Middle Ages.
But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. usually golden. nigellus. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. the style of the Ancien Régime. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. nimbus (Lat. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Nymphaeum (Gk. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. is as true as it is notorious. niello (Lat.) . nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. "aureole") The disc or halo. Popes. but their ideas continued to be influential. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. moreover. were usually old when elected. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).
fluted column and a plain capital. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). obsequia. inborn sin. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. Greek goddesses of Nature. walnut. the Doric order.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. O obsequies (Lat. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. They are seen in the form of the columns. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and entablatures. a more elaborate base. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. capital. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. a small private chapel. the three basic styles of design. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. its richness of colour. . and its greater tonal range. with a sturdy. "services. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. or poppy. such as linseed. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). prayer and preaching being central to their mission. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. observances") Rites performed for the dead. orders of architecture In classical architecture. was the simplest. The earliest.
designed as a . Alberti described the palace as a city in little. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. like cities. tradition and social structure. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.g. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. P pala (Ital. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. the Cancelleria). with biforate windows. while shops came to be thought undignified. Palazzo Strozzi). watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. and the main apartments above. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. standing at the foot of the Cross. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. palazzo (It. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.
it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Palazzo Massimi). Movement of patrons and architects. Other cities. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia.g. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Papal incentives to build. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. like Genoa. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Following Oriental patterns. panel . column-caps. and Palladio's in Vicenza. especially after the Sack of Rome. like the colonnaded vestibule. behind a sober Florentine façade. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Rich.g. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. e. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. often built next to their titular churches. came to be applied all over Europe. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. In Venice.scholarly retreat. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. palmette. evolved influential types. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. cornices and abutments. and large households. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila).
to influence popes in their favour. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. including beech. however. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. teak. so that they might have a voice at court. slate has occasionally been used as a support. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. enforce law and order. and other synthetic materials as supports. as distinct from canvas. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. To maintain their authority. and dark walnut are favourites. A number of matters. metal. thanks to their possession of the Papal State.Term in painting for a support of wood. chestnut. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. fibre-board. larch. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. and modern painters have also used plywood. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. olive. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. secular rulers. or the incidence of taxation. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. On a larger scale. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. mahogany. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. Then. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. linden. The third aspect was administrative. As successors to St Peter. and the pressure and temptations . Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and spanned by a single dome. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. as it were. and walnut. fir. or other rigid substance. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. cedar. the management of clerical dues and taxation. In the 20th century cedar. Many other types were used. the.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Having a circular plan.
in the eyes of God. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. as such. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . could supersede that of a pope. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. To resolve the problem of divided authority. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. however. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. if it did no serious damage to the faith. There remained. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. possess an authority which. would. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. the most appropriate . however. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. in spite of further absences from Rome. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). to be long delayed. which met at Constance 1414-18. however. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. of individuals. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. from the point of view of its religious associations. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. By then. As at Avignon.that could be applied to them.as well. So onerous. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Colonna and Caetani. It was argued that such a council. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . which seems so inevitable. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. was long in doubt. at Avignon. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and.
less frequently pig. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. the creation of a cultural capital. goat. 400-300 BC). 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. pastoral (Lat. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. and other animals. However. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. to a world peopled by shepherds. through lavish patronage of artists. as well as a governmental one. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. nymphs. scholars and men of letters. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and with Zeuxis (c. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. it has also been used for painting. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Parrhasius (c.. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and satyrs. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. pastor. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. Passion . hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. in classical literature.
hence tent") A lightly constructed. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Portrayals of the Passion. Meanwhile. ornamental building. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. a region in north-central Italy. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. and also the archbishop of Pisa. a prominent section of a monumental façade. but not necessarily a direct copy. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. "butterfly. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. patricius. wealthy citizen. 1478. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. . unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. and so on. which focus on the Suffering Christ.The events leading up to Good Friday. 1478). other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. pastiche (fr. projecting either centrally or at both ends. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. pavilion (Lat. a small. patrician (Lat. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. papilio.) or pasticcio (It. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. Francesco Salviati. such as a garden summerhouse. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. the crown of thorns.
in particular the face. concept or deity. or related elements within an art work. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. pergola (It. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. persona. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "person". perspicere. and facere. "nature". perspective (Lat. pendant (Fr. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. physis. . "hanging. personification (Lat. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. dependent") One of a pair of related art works.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. "to see through. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and gnomon. physiognomy (Gk.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown.
but full of variety. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. proper to take a landscape from. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Rome. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. to be expressed in painting. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pigmentum. . usually above the ground floor. exemplified. glue. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap.piano nobile (Ital. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. affording a good subject for a landscape. Peter's. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. containing the public rooms. both real and painted. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. for example. A pier is generally larger than a column. but may consist of a cluster of columns. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output.) The main floor of a building. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. or resin to make paint. remarkable for singularity. pigment (Lat. Pietà (Lat. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. curious details.
low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. in October 1347. pilastrum. also used in Spain's American colonies. In the 15th century. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. outside Tuscany. moreover. such as Florence and Genoa. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. the burning of 'infected' clothing. plague Plague. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. and thereafter all Europe. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. though in less widespread. perhaps. For this reason. a shaft. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century.pilaster (Lat. it is difficult to find. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. more sporadic outbreaks. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Thenceforward. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. "pillar") A flat. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. It is often fluted. however. It seems probable. Rocco and Sebastian. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. it has a base. and capital. since. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . During 1348 the Black Death. despite regional variations. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. for instance.
correct classical orders became frequent. Philebus. more severe. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form.. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. A student of Socrates. like its successor. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. In contrast with Aristotle. The first phase. the Symposium. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. or appropriateness. and unified style using massive geometric forms. which lasted only a few decades. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. the Renaissance-Plateresque. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. heraldic escutcheons. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. are the masterworks of the second style. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Diego evolved a purer. The second phase.e. Phaedrus. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. utilized Mudejar ornament -. and sinuous scrolls. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Phaedo. harmonious. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). composition. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. placement. i. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. or simply the Plateresque. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Timaeus.
and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. but not completely. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. and the Chaldaic Oracles. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. and Agostino Steuco (c. Rather unsystematic. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Plotinus. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). partially. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. 1472-c. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. including those of Plotinus. Unlike the case of Aristotle. the greatest of his ancient disciples. replaced Ficino's. Iamblichus. all of which he also translated into Latin. systematized and added to what Plato had done. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c.in Plato's thought. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. and he utilized many other writings.1577) becoming particularly popular. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. near Florence. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century.
as in classical architecture). column. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pointed arch In architecture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Plato was read in the universities. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. such as processions and consecrations. poluptukhos. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. plinth (Gk. portico (Lat. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. pluvial (Med. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Frequently supports a pediment. Lat. porticus. plinthos. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. pluviale. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. or statue. where a pectoral is used to close it. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. polyptych (Gk. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara.
was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. was revived in the 14th century. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Desiderio da Settignano. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Group portraits. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. 1328. and only a decorative accessory to form. Maria Novella. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Mantua. Palazzo Farnese). Venice). Florence (1486-90). Campidoglio). Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The realism of the clear. the Carracci. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. flattened image. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.sculptors such as Donatello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. National Gallery).. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. The equestrian portrait. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Colleoni. Cathedral) by Uccello. psychologically more complex. Siena. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s.e. decorating whole rooms. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Gattarnelata. inessential. Florence. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. and the .
minatory exhortations. The sermons of Visdomini. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. together with the Dominican Savonarola. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishops especially. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). of the sermon as an art form. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. bishop of Asti. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). As Poussin was a Frenchman. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The styles of S. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Borromeo. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. are not florid in style. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Fiamma's sermons.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. bishop of Chioggia. Charles Le Brun. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. was versed in classical and patristic . abrasive even. however. to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Correggio. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. several of whom became bishops." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. primarily the mendicants. and. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Savonarola and Musso. from the secular clergy. and Peter Paul Rubens. 1494). his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references.
Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. though often relatively very wide . have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. and so forth. prefiguration Typology . and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.g. Louis of Toulouse (1317. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. The New Testament references in these would. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. tapestries. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. predella (It.rhetoric.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament .they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Because of the small size of predelle . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. among them Holman Hunt. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Millais and Rossetti. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . however. Naples). presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. the temptations of Adam and Christ. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.
The following are important: 1. notably David. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. again indicative of the purpose they served. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. "evenness") in painting. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. sculpture and architecture. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the Canon of Proportion. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. proportion (Lat. 3. Prix de Rome A scholarship. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. intended as complete works of art in themselves. which uses the square . presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. projecting shelf on which to kneel. 2. and Houdon among sculptors. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. proportio. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. profil perdu (Fr. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. the quadrature. the golden section. these highly finished drawings. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Fragonard. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Girardon.
and 5. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. putto (It. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. harmonic proportions. a fourth = 3:4. one half the length of the other). architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus).as a unit of measurement. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. Unlike Pozzo. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. triangulation. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Ignazio. "boys") Plump naked little boys. provenance The origins of an art work. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. 4. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. the steward or treasurer of a church. Rome. for example). quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. . provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. a fifth = 2:3. putti sing. It was common in Roman art. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century.
Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. canons regular. hermits. Brunelleschi. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. also known as the Realist school. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relicquiae. friars and nuns.Quattrocento (It. Fra Angelico and others. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. in particular works by Masaccio. the great orders of monks. in which figures are almost detached from their background. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectory (Med. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. in which figures are seen half round. relevare. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Lat. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. e. or the Jesuits. with the Anglican Church developing in England.g. In 16th century Europe. the object of particular veneration. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. relic (Lat. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Among the . Botticelli. or some item connected with a saint. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. basso rilievo). Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. and high relief (alto rilievo). relief (Lat. Donatello.
S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Lucca. Giustina. Mantua.e. the most notable being S. and the generally moderate Observants. Giorgio in Alga. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Founded by St Romuald c. In 1504. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. That of S. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. In 1517. Bologna (1419). although technically of secular canons. the great patriarch of Venice. presided over by chapters general. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. was the congregation of S. the Conventuals. who had no overall organization originally. At the same time. Venice (1404). Lorenzo Giustiniani. After the repression of the Spirituals. 1012. The Conventuals. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Padua. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. The Benedictines. Benedetto. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. and their more institutionalized brethren. which was to become the main Italian one. Bernardino of Siena. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Salvatore. it became the Cassinese congregation. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. however. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. various groups were fused in the latter body. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Maria di Fregonaia. i. The same bull . 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S.contemplative orders. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Silvestrines. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines.
an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Filippo Neri. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. founded by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. the Theatines. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Gaetano da Thiene. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. however. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Venice. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. also. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. founded in 1535 by S. The first. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Michele in Isola. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18).provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Gerolamo Aemiliani. a historical period. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. however. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Angela Merici. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese.
man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). was so vast and potent. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. For long. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute.century. of scholarship. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. too long forgotten glories. however. Thereafter. life. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. increasingly. as well as political. of 'darkness'. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. which had begun early in the 14th century. All-Roundness. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. . however. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. and competition with. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. because its core of energy. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. the historical reality of antiquity. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. of arts. even Amoralism. of letters. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. and his own as potentially one of light. of an energetic revival of interest in. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). 1875-86).
let alone a uniform. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Cathedral of SaintBavon. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. gratefully. mobilized nationalism. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. The challenges are to be accepted. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. though sometimes of metal. and is decorated with paintings. and mass media.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole.with all its shabbiness . especially in the High Gothic period. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. etc. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Ghent). (3) There is not a true. retables can be detached and. statues. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. sometimes. congruence between. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. however. the previous record . 'culture' and 'history' during the period. consist merely of a painting. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. of industrialization. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Though thus challenged. in the more limited sense. and other liturgical objects. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. candlesticks. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century.) was the term chosen. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science.erased. etc. later still to Genoa. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. It is for this additional. letters. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. There was an early.
Originally commissioned in 976. its mood lighthearted and witry. Louis XV furniture. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. . literally. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. More usually.in the 11th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.of St Mark in Venice. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. almost simultaneously. rocaille (French. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo A style of design. Italy. in several countries . Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Romanesque art. like 'Gothic'. richly decorated with organic forms. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). With the development of freestanding altars. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. and 'Romanesque'. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. however. Spain . Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Germany. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. the St. retables have become extinct. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. rilievo (It. is a typical product. As the name suggests. "relief") In painting. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. painting.France. the first style to achieve such international currency.
Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. such as red ochre. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Rome. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). making it the centre of the High Renaissance. In addition. The aim of painting. the development of nationalistic pride. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Massys and M. Claude. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. van Heemskerk. Pannini and Mengs. Q. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. stylized design representing an open rose. B.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. van Orley. . The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. they maintained. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. M. Piranesi. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Mabuse. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect.
and Lorenzo de' Medici. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable.greatly increased. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Written primarily in ottava rima. Sacra Conversazione (It. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. but others were the work of well-known figures. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Subjects were nominally sacred. There were no limits on time. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. the Eucharist. local saints. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. confirmation. from the Old and New Testaments. when it finally left the city it had devastated. matrimony. Eastern independent. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. multiple sets used in succession. and impoverished. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Orthodox. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Many compositions were anonymous. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. and anointing of the sick. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance.expressed through gesture. In the . glance and movement . pious legend and hagiography. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. holy orders. Clement escaped into Castel S. gutted. penance. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . supported by lay confraternities. and Protestant churches.
e. The classical Protestant churches (i. the sun of righteousness. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. The theology of the Orthodox Church. was buried under a new fortress. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Saracens . such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Anglican. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. chapter 13. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. the Bentivoglio. as an excuse to revolt.e. and sacraments. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . as in the Church of the Brethren. It is still practiced on special occasions. large room. They were still seeking aid. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. was not maintained as a sacrament. replaces the Lord's Supper. strictly speaking. that the price of salt should be increased. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. the Rocca Paolina. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. sacraments. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Salt War." sala (Ital. baptism and the Eucharist. Immediately following baptism.. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. which in the Gospel According to John." which are called sacramentals.. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. notably from Florence and in Germany. Candidates first face west. make such strict distinctions. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it.early church the number of sacraments varied. used for drawing. and then face east. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the Orthodox Church does not. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. the symbolic direction of Christ. The chief focus of discontent. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. Hence.) Hall.i. Thus. Lutheran. foot washing. in principle.
made of stone. sarcophagi (Gk. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy.During the Middle Ages. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 160 . The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . whose writings. 210 AD). and many others.c. are lost. wood or terracotta. legs and horns of a goat. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). pl. sarcophagus. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. The publication of Latin (1562. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. the Arabs or Muslims. 360 . the god of wine. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Little known in the Middle Ages. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 45 BC). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 270 BC). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. satyr In Greek mythology.
on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). from time to time both he and his opponents. in June 1409. In northern Italy.they had individual Bentnames . Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Charles III of Durazzo (d. on the other. As a result. most of whom. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. on one side. Louis I (d. 1386) and his son Ladislas. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. for. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. being Frenchmen. Alexander V. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. scholasticism . Schism. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). the Florentines. who recognized the Roman pope. who had the support of the Avignon pope.for example Pieter van Laer. one of the early leaders. than their medieval predecessors. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. while England. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. and. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. with France and her allies Aragon. while devout Christians agonized. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. was called Bamboccio. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. but with little effect. However. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome.
) . Padua. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.The term is ambivalent. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. on one side. (See also: fresco. the plaster had to be damped before painting. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. that scholasticism was left. Medieval scholars. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. as it is easier to add details in this way. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. It was because the central concerns of humanism . if lime-water was used. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. Christian. moreover. notably Aquinas. Serenissima (Ital. history and rhetoric . The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.moral philosophy. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. and Islamic literature. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. and theology. because the secco technique is much less permanent. as it were. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.were different from those of medieval. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. As such. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. None the less.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). textual scholarship. university-based study. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Often called the burning ones. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.
"the most serene republic of Venice"). the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sibyls (Gk. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. in the period of classical antiquity. there was only one Sibyl. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. at the same time. the number gradually rose to ten. In Christian legend. Sibyls foretold the Birth. "prophetess") In antiquity. sinopia . single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. They first appear in alpine monasteries. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Med. Originally. brass. and the delicate. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sfumato A technique.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. which were all identical in thickness. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. usually presided over by individual families. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century..) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Servite (Lat. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. term. sibylla. in use since the Middle Ages. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Signoria (It. women who could prophesy. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.
sing.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Francis of Assisi. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.. pronounced as French. "mark. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. in other words. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). Stanze (Ital. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. staffage This word. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. It is very closely related to International Gothic. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. stigmata. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. as the name implies. brand. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. soffit (Lat. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. and. Ital. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. sotto in sù (It. . stigma (Gk. especially in the flow of drapery.) Wooden ceiling decoration.
Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. John Milton. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The vogue for the Sublime. stucco A type of light. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. Indeed. whose verses actually fabrications . pl. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. both external and internal. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. In a looser sense. studioli (It. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. supremacy . studiolo. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. with that for the Picturesque. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts.
the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. But the Italians did not make them. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. Tempera colors are bright and translucent.e. temperare. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. tempera (Lat. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. was being decorated with frescoes. doubtless. and in literature. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. The subject is underexplored. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . his own headquarters. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. London. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. into Italy. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. 1407). the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. then being replaced by oil paint. These were imported.and. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns.Historically. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. both for panel painting and fresco. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. or cartoons. . when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. chiefly from Flanders. Salviati and Allori. i. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church.
though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.e. terraferma (Ital. triumphal arch. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. pl. topia. topoi (Gk. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. tondi (It. in art. i. and profile. walls. "fields. topos. theme or motif. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. Trajan's Column . Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and sculptures. figure of speech. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "a commonplace") In literature. tondo. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. topiary (Gk. and other surfaces. vessels. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). quarter face. model. in the architecture of ancient Rome. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. widely used form. pl. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.terracotta (It. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. and later to subdivide gable ends.
the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. a car so brave'. "threefold") in Christianity. or wings.' Before it go the apostles. Early triptychs were often portable. chastity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. after 'a countless number of virgins. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. . and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. trinitas. behind it. as it were. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the Son and the Holy Spirit. fame. Battista Sforza. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Trinity (Lat. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. beside it the army of martyrs. the wars by which they were won . Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. patriarchs and prophets. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . decorated marriage chests and other paintings. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. of virtues and of the arts. Disseminated soon after his death. the military triumph became sublimated.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Meanwhile. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. tryptychos. death. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). time and eternity. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. of both sexes'. triptych (Gk. usually an altarpiece. into a number of less controversial forms. added to the glamour of the triumph.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph.
first recorded in 1232. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In medieval architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. it is usually decorated with carvings. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It incorporates Renaissance features. often decorated with sculptures. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. tympanum (Lat.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. Dating from classical times. "drum") In classical architecture. tusche A thick. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. tromp l'oeil (Fr. typology . The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. enclosed by an arch. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. through various naturalistic devices. viscous black ink.
and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). especially his half-length figural groups. 1590-1624). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. e. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. were popular with them also. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. killer of Holofernes. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art.g. The numerous candles.) The Renaissance "universal man". of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. each had access to his paintings. such as five works devoted to the senses. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Judith.A system of classification. knew his former patrons.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. where they were most accessible. In Christian thought. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . 1610). slayer of Goliath. and David. U uomo universale (It. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. .Dirck van Baburen (c. lanterns. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).
and even flowers (which will soon fade). Vespers (Lat. it was used to decorate furniture. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. guttering candles. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. often gold. hour-glasses and clocks. V vanishing point In perspective. "evening") . formed when two barrel vaults intersect. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. the groin vault. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. a work's richness of subject matter. Also varietas (Lat. vanitas (Lat. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. Parisian craftsmen. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. There are a wide range of forms. mixed in. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge.). snuff boxes and other objects. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. vesper. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. carriages. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. varietà (It. and the rib vault. overturned vessels.
Fortitude. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. and Sloth. In ancient Roman dwellings. Hope. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Covetousness. and Justice. vite (Lat. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vita. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. "life") . to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Vestibule (Lat. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. virtù could be used. the church service at which these prayers are said. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. "not exposed to winds". as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. for example. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Temperance. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Charity. if you have it not'. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. pl. in which the word signifies efficacy. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. vestibulum. Prudence. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Gluttony. vimperga Of German origin. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. 'Assume a virtue. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Lust. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Envy. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Anger. actual or latent. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna.Prayers said in the evening.
The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Sculptors and Architects"). by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. and of Ferrara. Marcus (1st cent. protection from harm. Vitruvius Pollio.g. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. those of Volterera. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. published in 1550 and 1568. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. or recovery from illness has been made. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. The wars from 1494 do. a biography. 1482-84). came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1478-80. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. they were from the 18th century . Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and appalled recognition of. in fact. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.An account of someone's life and work. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1472. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and the occasional wars thereafter (e.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
based on stylization of various animal forms. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. usually restorers.Weltanschauung (Gr. It was intended to have a variety of functions. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Westwerk German word. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. a philosophy of life. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. pompous on the floor above. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. gallery. "world view") A comprehensive world view. "Western work of art". The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. woodcut A print made from a wood block. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. usually linear. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. during its subsequent history. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. . Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament.
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