A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. which is fused to the plate by heating.A semicircular projection. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). the lowest part of the entablature). but in essence the process is as follows. including Goya. Also known as an exedra. In Greek and Roman literature. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Lancet and Tudor. or organization. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. piers or pillars. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arcade (Lat. arcus. and Rouault. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. The term applies also to a print made by this method. "architectural") Relating to structure. arkhitektonikos. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. the moulding around a window or door. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. design. Picasso. . and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the darker the tone). The adjective is apsidal. roofed with a half-dome. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture.e. architectonic (Gk. Degas. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). architrave (It. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.

or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.archivolt (Ital. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova . Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. voltus. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. archeiu. aureolus." from Gk. attribute (Lat. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated." and Lat. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "begin. usually a saint. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century.and the Comedy . aureole (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. In the case of martyrs. attributum. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "front arch. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. archivolto. dominate. "golden. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person.

"brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. 'Captivity'. baldachin. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. paintings of everyday life. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. the god of wine and fertility. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The actual move was made in 1309. in 1377. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. that of Cardano. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. applied to the physically . who had been residing in France since 1305. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Later. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. often anecdotal. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Six pontificates later. or baldacchino (It. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V.

their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. and Poitiers. Baalbek. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. the Temple of Venus. built by Sixtus III. Croatia]. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. el Kantara. banderole (It. beggars in rags. France. Florence. or connected with. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. a baptistery was roofed with a dome.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Spalato [Split. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. AD 273. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. set beneath a domical ciborium. seven. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Pentecost. AD 300). and Epiphany. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.. Alg. Customarily. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Parma.g. a church. banderuola. or forecourt. . or canopy. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. pope between 432 and 440. and Nocera in Italy.. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. such as those at Pisa. Easter. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Lebanon. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. As eight follows the "complete" number. and abject filthy things. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome.

In architecture. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Originally.an allusion to entering the Christian life. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Rubens). In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. baptisteries. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Vermeer). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. and (3) everyday realism. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. however. 1796-1875). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Jules Dupré (French. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. were often omitted entirely. Théodore Rousseau (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. 1807-1876). and thus a church. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. something of earlier symbolism survives. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). . Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Also tunnel vault. in the 1840s and 1850s. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1811-1889). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Constant Troyon (French. stoa basilike. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1817-1878). the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. achieved through scale. southeast of Paris. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. which is reserved for the clergy. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. usually facing east. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Jean-François Millet (French. "king's hall") a church building. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. basilica (Gk. or baptismal chapels. in its usual location near the church door .In the 10th century. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. 1810-1865). Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. barocco. Baroque (Port. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. 1814-1875). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini.

the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. By association. such as those by Diego Velázquez. as is to be expected. such as Waldmüller. Book of Hours . no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Bodegónes. also incorrectly called bisque. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. especially Spanish. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. often with food and drink. Biscuit porcelain. Spanish still-lifes. or which is to be left as it is. domesticity. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. There were.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. It takes its name from its grainy texture. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). like their Dutch counterparts. which is either not yet glazed. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). 1650 in Spain. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. particularly porcelain. The term was mainly used up to c. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. up until the mid-17th century. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. were referred to by their specific contents. however. in which still-life predominates. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. and often sentimentality. bodegón Image.

By extension. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. varying from silverish to a rich. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.by a variety of processes. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin.an advantage over marble sculpture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. months. bozzetto(Italian. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. made as a study for a larger picture. bozzetto Strictly speaking. and the fact that it is easily workable . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. Chantilly). or seasons. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. coppery red. durability.both hot and cold . They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. . days of the week.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. a rapid sketch in oil. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. but can also be used for painted sketches. though these are more often called 'modelli'. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. See flying buttress.

caisson (Fr. ceramics. It also served to glorify the emperor. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. notable from Syria and Egypt. glass. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. mosaics. and work in precious metals. "a chest. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. private room where works of art. and Giotto. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. its forms highly stylized. Duccio. which was often allegorical. C cabinet A small. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. box") In architecture. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Among its most distinctive products were icons. camera obscura . Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. casson.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. manuscript illuminations. cameo Small relief made from gems. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.

usually built beside or attached to a church. which was usually whitened. by the 16th century. other materials used are cotton. candlestick. pl. Portable versions were built. candela. both of which have richly carved marble panels. . cantorie (It. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. campanile Bell tower. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. cantoria.-N. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up.Ancestor of the photographic camera. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. which isolates the fabric from the paint. usually in a church. as an aid to drawing. hemp. The best-quality canvas is made of linen." and the earliest versions. dating to antiquity. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. capitellum. capital (Lat. Niepce created photography. "candle") A large. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. usually decorated. only very rough effects will be obtainable. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. Structurally. usually with several branches or arms. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. candelabra. candelabrum (It. sing. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports.) A gallery for singers or musicians. followed by smaller and even pocket models. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. and jute. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting.

or a motto. At the height of the Middle Ages. tapestry. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Carmelites (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartellino. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. New Charterhouses. monasteries containing separate hermitages. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting.both Italians and artists from other countries . or fresco. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Carthusian Order (Lat. near Grenoble. cardinalis. details of the subject. In fresco painting. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Cardinal Virtues (Lat. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cartouche . the date of the painting. pl. cartellini In a painting. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cartoon (It.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites.a humorous drawing or parody. cartone. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Fortitudo (Fortitude). and humanism. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature.

Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. where the throne of the bishop is placed. linen. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). a cathedral always faces west . when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Paolo Uccello. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. cathedral (cathedra. They contained the bride's clothes. The main body. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance.) "castle". Cascina. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. palace. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. cassone (It. and many other items of her dowry. In the 15th century. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles.toward the setting sun. . The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. decorated with gilt gesso. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. These lead up to the north and south transepts. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. they were also used in other countries. castello (It. or nave. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. For reasons lost to time and tradition. The altar is placed at the east end. caryatid (Gk. or arms of the cross. putti (cupids). and swags of fruit and flowers.

a celestial winged being with human. as celestial attendants of God. "in the centre". Christian. central perspective (Lat. Both the statement of St. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. champlevé (Fr. continually praise him. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. and perspicere. in accordance with their distance from the observer. a throne bearer of the deity.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. and Islamic literature. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. or birdlike characteristics. centralis. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. landscapes. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). animal. Relative to the observer. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. rather than intercessory functions. buildings and figures that are being depicted. . It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God.

had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. Since Carolingian times. the Order of the Hospital of St. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. "light dark") In painting. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. replacing tempera. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). choros. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. North of the Alps. or for choral singing. reserved for the clergy to pray together. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. choir (Gk. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. Lastly. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526.chiaroscuro (It." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III.

surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. reversed volutes. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. balustrades. undulating lines. and repetition of pattern. which was shaped like an inverted cone. is as typically Churrigueresque. ciborium . Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). undulating cornices.intersect). The Mexico cathedral (1718). gilded rays. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. further enriching the style. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. a massing of carved angels. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and garlands. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Very few still exist in their original positions. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. The Transparente (completed 1732). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Sculpted clouds. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. stucco shells. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and the Churrigueresque column. became the most common motif. an architect. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated.

the wool carder Michele di Lando. craft of dyeing. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. In reaction to this revolutionary . ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. ciompi. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. as also were those in the associated. etc. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. including the ciompi. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. or achieve political representation. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s.and post-medieval Italy. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. who were raised to the status of a guild. Without being members of a guild. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Quattrocento (1400s. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Then. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. controlled by the minor guilds. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. combers. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. beaters. Members of the lower classes. on July 22. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. High Renaissance). and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. but self-employed. Their economic condition worsened. The new government. They were forbidden to form a trade association. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. placing one of their members.

and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. however. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. philosophy. with Italian scholars.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. . the ciompi guild was abolished. philosophy and art . In the 15th century Greek literature. except in cases where . writers. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. literature. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. Concepts of the classical. clair-obscur (Fr. changed greatly from one period to the next. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.episode. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). on which strings were plucked. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). the black contours usually with a special line plate. cithara (Gk. scholars patiently finding.as in Italy these were dispensed with. editing and translating a wide range of texts. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.) An ancient musical instrument. resembling a lyre. and politics. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).

"completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. sing. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. terrorized the country. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. concetto. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. Green and red. a work's underlying theme. [hora] completa. condottiere. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. concetti (It. compline (Lat. Coffered ceilings. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. occasionally made of wood. cognoscenti. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). intensify one another. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. pl. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. those with refined tastes. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. the church service at which these prayers are said. The name was derived from the condotta. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. cognoscente (It. literature or music. when set side by side. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. condottieri (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. arch or ceiling. pl. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. . as well as from the Bible. blue and orange. or "contract. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century.

in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century.e. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. . in Venice. Spanish. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. With no goal beyond personal gain. Carmagnola. By the end of the 14th century. clergy. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Toward the end of the 15th century. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. and Tuscany. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Mark (1432). By the 16th century. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Muzio's son. confraternities Confraternities. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. and his rival Braccio da Montone. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. in the service of Naples. often under the direction of. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and German--the condottieri. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities.e. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili.devastating Romagna. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. convents of convertite. Francesco Sforza. i. or with the spiritual assistance of. which spread in the 15th century. i. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. scuole. flagellant confraternities. Martino). Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. who won control of Milan in 1450. Umbria. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. primarily for syphilitics. often called compagnie or. disappeared. in the service of Perugia. commonly called either Compagnia di S. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity.

"placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the Florentine Neri. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .g. and refuges for maidens. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention.i. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies.e. however. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. In medieval painting. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. in Florence.g. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. While the Doge ranked above the Council. contours were initially regular. but sometimes had their own premises. notwithstanding their location. e. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. 1514 in S. Dorotea in Trastevere. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. e. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. contour. which accompanied condemned prisoners. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. contour (Fr. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Later. flat outlines. Confraternities. founded c. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. while the Venetian government. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contrapposto (It. reformed prostitutes. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy.

Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. 1280). an engraving produced in this way. 1100 and 1300. conventicle (Lat. cuprum. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. The style spread as far as England. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. did not achieve any lasting results. . the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. corbel In architecture. started the process of inner reform in the Church. conventiculurn. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. aes cyprium.weight on one leg. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. large cornice or other feature. Lat. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. declining moral standards. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Reform programs. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. They are often ornamented. whose names are inscribed on several works. a bracket of stone. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics.

A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. the most famous victim of crucifixion. a semi-circular vault. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. or "scourged. Next. There were various methods of performing the execution. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. An ancestor of the oboe. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the condemned man. "small vat") In architecture. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. cupola (Lat. a small dome." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. particularly among the Persians. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Death. reedy sound. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. the first Christian emperor. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Constantine the Great. cupula. after being whipped. Carthaginians. Jews. i. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Seleucids. Usually. D dado . it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime.e.

Passau. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. often an altarpiece. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area.g. diptychum. and Linz possessed common characteristics. design") In Renaissance art theory. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. disegno (It. diptych (Lat. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. "drawing. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section. but the concept behind an art work. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diptychos. danse macabre The dance of death. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. usually in matching pairs. Gk. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). deacon (Gk. diakonos. Germany. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. an expressive use of nature. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. which was help to be the basis of all art. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Anglican and Orthodox churches. e. Deësis (Gk. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic.

also used it on canvas. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. As disegno appeals to the intellect. such as we still use today. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. The studio easel. doublet A male garment.Thomas Aquinas. formerly worn under armour. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. distemperare. dome in architecture. donator. though a few artists. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Dominicans (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). when painters took to working out of doors.fully realize. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. is a heavy piece of furniture. distemper (Lat. which runs on castors or wheels. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . donor (Lat. usually forming a ceiling or roof. "to mix. Ordo Praedictatorum. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. a 19th-century invention.

Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. epitaph (Gk. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. a depiction of Jesus. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. bound and flogged. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. sculpture. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. en face In portraiture. ensemble (Fr. Ecce Homo (Lat. eschatology (Gk. entablature In classical architecture. Hence. and architecture. in art. the frieze. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. and the cornice. fresco. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. full face. eschaton. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "last". sometimes combining panel painting. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "word") . "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. and logos. It consists of the architrave. John (19. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof.

and Scandinavia. and of the last things. fields and livestock. Vittoria Colonna." and charis. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. which was developed in the Near East ca. and is named for Faenza. eu. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Augustine. particularly ware made in France. which is called "delftware. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. notably Cardinal Pole. 4500 BCE. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Jerome. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. "good. Carnesecchi and Ochino. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion.death and resurrection. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Marcantonio Flaminio. which was famous for maiolica. celebrated with bread and wine. Eucharist (Gk. which is called "maiolica." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Germany. protector of shepherds. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Giovanni Morone. Contarini. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. farmers. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Italy. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. It developed in France in the early 16th century. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Spain. . Saints Ambrose.

war. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Only a small area can be painted in a day. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind.festoni (It. black and dun. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. a swag. sword and set of balances. fluted of a column or pillar. fresco (It. and these areas. such as plague. Committed to charitable and missionary work. The colour of his horse is white. famine and death. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. 2 . carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. relaxed. leaves. that of the others red. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Their attributes are the bow. drying to a slightly different tint. and flowers suspended in a loop. can in time be seen. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment.8). Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. a technique known as a secco fresco. frescos in Italy .

diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. usually childish figure. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. In art from the classical period onwards. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. covings and ceilings. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Genius in classical Rome. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. or true fresco. where the atmosphere was too damp. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. or fresco secco. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy.Save in Venice. Final details. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. the intonaco. both in churches and in private and public palaces. a person's invisible tutelary god. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. landscape and portraiture. G Garter. genre In a broad sense. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. for example.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. The technique of buon fresco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. are genres of painting. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper.

and as spurring on men of action. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Gobelins . Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. in portraits and on tombs. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. whether it must be connected with the public good. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. As such. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. as well as writers and artists. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Maso di Banco. Bernardo Daddi. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. how it differed from notoriety. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maria Gloriosa). glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism.

who appointed Lebrun Director. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In other Italian cities. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. . This ratio is approximately 8:13. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). thereafter it made only tapestries. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. and although it reopened in 1699. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Golden Fleece. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. golden section (Lat. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. still in existence today. Paris. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture.French tapestry manufactory. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters.

and lies much deeper than. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. c. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Gothic Gothic. from the 13th until the 17th century. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style').The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. that the effects are to be felt. In thinking of Nicola (d. 1200 and c. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. . or the influence of one building. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. In particular. painting. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. 1270. In sculpture and in painting. Denis. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. There is a transcendental quality. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. Nevertheless. Amiens. The artistic. the superficial particularities of form. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. like the cultural and commercial. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c.

with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. to white or tinted paper and card and. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Such tours often took a year or more. and above all Italy. Pannini. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. . Klee. the Netherlands. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Honey. It is thinned with water for applying. Dubuffet. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. the beau idéal of the French. sometimes in the company of a tutor. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. if required. and Piranesi.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and Morris Graves. Canaletto. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. are but different appellations of the same thing'. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. to silk. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and taste among the English. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. occasionally. without visible brush marks. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. with sable. and the great style. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. genius. starch.and hog-hair brushes. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. notably in the writings of Bellori. chiefly to France. These qualities.

graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou.e. After the War of the Eight Saints. c. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. became an abiding feature of European politics. Some writers. to Provence and Paris. In another sense. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. after this. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. grisaille (Fr. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. internal factions in Florence went under other names. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. From 1266 to 1268. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. however. exclude drawing from this definition. drawing and the various forms of engraving. In the context of the fine arts. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. the parties taking a multitude of local names. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. brother of Louis IX. and Waiblingen. through central Italy. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. gris. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. however. then as now. which had recruited most of the merchant class. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. including text as well as illustrations. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. 1216. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. . Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. usually gray. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. In Florence.

only guildsmen were eligible for civic office." from Fr. notably Florence in the 14th century. for example. trades. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. Guilds were also patrons of art. In some towns. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. "herald") . but in time they acquired other functions. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. goldsmiths. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. print or painting. and greater hostility between master and man. héraut. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. [science] héraldique. The guild also monitored standards of work. The guilds were not equal. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. H hatching In a drawing.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. and provided assistance to members in need. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. or professions. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. heraldry (Fr. In Italy they go back a long way. In 16th century Venice. In some cities. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. trade or profession (painters. such as Brescia and Vicenza. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. surgeons. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In Florence. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. as some did). The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts.

e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. they were condemned in 1184. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. together with brethren north of the Alps. with the rules governing their use. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. the Cathars were an anti-church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. The main impact of the . i. and regarded themselves as forming. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. the Waldensian. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. one great missionary community. d. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. head of the 'carnal Church'. However. while others merged with the Waldensians. as Antichrist. By contrast. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. indeed. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. normative for churchmen. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. from the start.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani.

One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. and classical literature. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. humanus. J. Jasper Cropsey. in his earlier work. At the same time. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. its subjects considered morally elevating. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints.movement upon the laity was in southern France. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. and. S. Durand. In humanism. mainly in the south. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . F. B. working from 1825 to 1875. hortus conclusus (Lat. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. my spouse'. Frederick E. Germany. Thomas Cole. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Kensett. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). humanism (Lat. F. American painters were studying in Rome. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. the emancipation of man from God took place. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. history (usually classical history). There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. George Inness. Morse. Church. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Henry Inman. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. and the ladder.g. there are representations of the bundle of rods. investiture . Human figures. the pincers. are also used in art literature. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the ability to create. etc. The terms court style. For instance. In the second half of the 14th century. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Derived from classical rhetoric. inventio (It. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. the veil of St. Veronica. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. with many further details added. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the hammer. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. and they are also depicted on their own. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the rooster of Peter's denial. or of other saints. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Donatallo. beautiful style. trecento rococo and lyrical style. soft style. usually the donors of a work of art. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. "invention") In Renaissance art theory.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the scourge that was used in the scourging. invention. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. originality. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory.

but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Upon his return to Holland. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. and Jan Asselijn. Andries and Jan Both. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. of Utrecht. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. bathed in a golden haze. although they are usually called Romanists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). . principally Dutch. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. The Both brothers. Italianizers Northern artists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. who traveled in Italy and. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Jerome's writings. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. generally Dutch or Flemish. Nicolaes Berchem. Both and Berchem.

1519). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Emperor Maximilian I (1459. the rite of communion is based on this. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Archbishop of Genoa. lectern A reading stand or desk. liberal arts . John of Jerusalem .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. As their military role grew. Legenda Aurea (Lat. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. encouraged by the Crusades. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . especially one at which the Bible is read. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.

a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. loggia (It. "little moon") In architecture. then the basis of a philosophical training. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.g.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. the quadrivium. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. that may contain a window. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. John F. that could be used for public ceremonies. together with identifying attributes (e. . often standing in markets and town squares. Heade (1819-1904). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. and Frederick E. lunette (Fr. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. commemorating a marriage. astronomy and music. through the use of aerial perspective. geometry. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). poetic atmosphere. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. a semicircular space. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns.grammar. often sublime. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Tubal for music). its roof supported by columns.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. It is related to. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Maria Novella in Florence). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.g. comprising arithmetic. Kensett (1816-1872). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Pythagoras for arithmetic. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Martin J. Church (1826-1900). rhetoric and dialectic. painting or sculptural decoration. first the preparatory trivium . the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.

especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. historical subjects. active mainly in Florence c. Specifically. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. mandorla (It. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. madrigal A part song. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and however bright their lighting effects. particularly such ware produced in Italy. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. manganese purple. "almond") . being written. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. and portraits as well as landscapes. and iron red. "great mother") A mother goddess. originally sung without accompaniment. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Silvestro Lega (1826–95). who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). they never lost a sense of solidity of form. but they painted genre scenes. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). for example. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. usually for the lute. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. magna mater (Lat. 1855–65. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. copper green. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. antimony yellow. and accompaniments. When white is used for painting. the goddess Cybele.

Flanders. "manner. Parmigianino. the Codex manuscriptus. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. mantle An overcoat. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. It reached to the knee or foot. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. ecclesiastical. In Mannerist painting. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. El Greco and Tintoretto. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Burgundy. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. more strictly. Bronzino. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. in a specific sense. often ornamented with decorative borders. which was quarried at Mount . maniera. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. the hand-written medieval book. depending on the social class of the wearer. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. worn open. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. illuminated initials and miniatures. Mannerism (It. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. complex and crowded compositions. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. In architecture. marked by flagellation. and crowned with thorns. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. bound. and literary texts. strong.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Developing out of the Renaissance.

when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. sleek surface. a different design on the reverse. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. an inscription running round the rim. having finished his training. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Carrara. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by Michelangelo. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Without monetary value. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. medallion In architecture. martyrdom (Gk. quarried at Massa. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . the medal's purpose was commemorative. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. marmi finti (It. which were beginning to be reverently collected. "witness.Pentelicon in Attica. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. The pure white Carrara marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Like the finest Imperial coins. proof") the sufferings. martyrion.

round the neck. It was. Her head features on Minerva's shield. who reflected them. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. a Gorgon. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. of the person portrayed on the other side. . more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. particularly. c. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The process is essentially extinct today. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 14601528). no line drawing is employed. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. 1425-1504). 1640. for landscapes and portraits. the stress on individual character. c. as it were. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. in England. In pure mezzotint. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. perhaps oddly. The work of these men. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. even grain. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1452-1526/27). hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. When Perseus cuts off her head. Ludwig von Siegen. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. often anonymous. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Medusa In Greek mythology. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. A Dutch officer. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. and of the many. supposedly to petrify her enemies. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. This yields a soft effect in the print. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 1467-688). mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone.

"word. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. e. Parmigianino (d.g. ink and paint. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch.. usually portraits. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. executed on a very small scale. monokhromatos. a branch of the Franciscan order. "one color") Painted in a single color. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Francis himself. miter A high. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. often quite highly finished. monochrome (Gk. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Many such small versions. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. pointed headdress worn by bishops. still exist. saying") . by Tiepolo and Rubens. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. a painting executed in a single color. motto (Ital.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings.

but often insipid. Berlin. . modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Rome. named after the patron saint of painting. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. often separated from it by pillars. nave (from Lat. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. 1816-17. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. In 1810 0verbeck. Pforr. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and Casino Massimo. navis. and two other members moved to Rome. In general. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. 1817-29). and is intersected by the transept. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others.from the Middle Ages. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. The invention of personal mottos. naturalism (Fr. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Nazarenes A group of young. Isidore.

the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). were usually old when elected. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. nimbus (Lat. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). is as true as it is notorious.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. the style of the Ancien Régime. moreover. niello (Lat. Popes. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. usually golden. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Nymphaeum (Gk. but their ideas continued to be influential. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. nigellus. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. "aureole") The disc or halo. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.) . placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people.

it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. was the simplest.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). its richness of colour. orders of architecture In classical architecture. with a sturdy. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. inborn sin. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. . such as linseed. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. "services. O obsequies (Lat. a small private chapel. capital. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. the Doric order. The earliest. and entablatures. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. walnut. a more elaborate base. or poppy. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. They are seen in the form of the columns. obsequia. observances") Rites performed for the dead. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). and its greater tonal range. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. the three basic styles of design. fluted column and a plain capital. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. Greek goddesses of Nature. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities.

Alberti described the palace as a city in little. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. and.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. designed as a . and the main apartments above.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. standing at the foot of the Cross. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Palazzo Strozzi). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. while shops came to be thought undignified. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.g. with biforate windows. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. palazzo (It. the Cancelleria). P pala (Ital. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. tradition and social structure. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. like cities. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang.

scholarly retreat. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. like the colonnaded vestibule. Movement of patrons and architects. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. column-caps. Following Oriental patterns. panel . Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. especially after the Sack of Rome. Rich. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". like Genoa. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. evolved influential types. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. palmette. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Palazzo Massimi).g. often built next to their titular churches. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. e. came to be applied all over Europe. Other cities. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. the architectural pace was set by the papal court.g. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. In Venice. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and large households. Papal incentives to build. cornices and abutments. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. behind a sober Florentine façade. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds.

the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Then. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. as distinct from canvas. olive. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. chestnut. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. mahogany. On a larger scale. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. teak. to influence popes in their favour. the. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and modern painters have also used plywood.Term in painting for a support of wood. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. cedar. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Having a circular plan. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and the pressure and temptations . wooden panels were the standard support in painting. metal. as it were. and spanned by a single dome. and dark walnut are favourites. or other rigid substance. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). including beech. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. fir. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. To maintain their authority. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. however. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. The third aspect was administrative. the management of clerical dues and taxation. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and walnut. and other synthetic materials as supports. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. linden. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. secular rulers. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. larch. In the 20th century cedar. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. enforce law and order. or the incidence of taxation. A number of matters. fibre-board. As successors to St Peter. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. so that they might have a voice at court. Many other types were used. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other.

as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'.that could be applied to them. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. could supersede that of a pope. which seems so inevitable. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. in spite of further absences from Rome. As at Avignon. would. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. By then. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. It was argued that such a council. possess an authority which. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . in the eyes of God. which met at Constance 1414-18. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. So onerous. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. however. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. To resolve the problem of divided authority. from the point of view of its religious associations. as such. Colonna and Caetani.as well. however. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. There remained. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. at Avignon. the most appropriate . who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. if it did no serious damage to the faith. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. of individuals. to be long delayed. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). however. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. was long in doubt.

330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. scholars and men of letters. pastor. it has also been used for painting. to a world peopled by shepherds. and with Zeuxis (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. However. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. Passion . and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Parrhasius (c. less frequently pig. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. the creation of a cultural capital. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. pastoral (Lat. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. as well as a governmental one. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. nymphs. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum.. and other animals. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and satyrs.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. 400-300 BC). goat. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. through lavish patronage of artists. in classical literature. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.

Portrayals of the Passion. papilio. a prominent section of a monumental façade. "butterfly. pavilion (Lat. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. which focus on the Suffering Christ. ornamental building. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. 1478. projecting either centrally or at both ends. wealthy citizen. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. pastiche (fr. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Francesco Salviati. patricius. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. . Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. a small. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. and also the archbishop of Pisa.The events leading up to Good Friday. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. 1478). but not necessarily a direct copy. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Meanwhile. patrician (Lat. such as a garden summerhouse. and so on. the crown of thorns.) or pasticcio (It. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. a region in north-central Italy. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss.

Peace of Augsburg A treaty. physis. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "person". concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. perspicere. persona. and facere. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). concept or deity. or related elements within an art work. "nature". and gnomon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. in particular the face. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. perspective (Lat. pergola (It. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). personification (Lat. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "to see through. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. pendant (Fr. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. . physiognomy (Gk. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "hanging.

striking the imagination with the force of painting. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. affording a good subject for a landscape. exemplified. for example. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. containing the public rooms. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). A pier is generally larger than a column. or resin to make paint. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. both real and painted. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. proper to take a landscape from. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. . Rome. to be expressed in painting. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. glue. remarkable for singularity. Pietà (Lat. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. but may consist of a cluster of columns. pigment (Lat. usually above the ground floor.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. but full of variety. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Peter's. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. curious details. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap.piano nobile (Ital. pigmentum.) The main floor of a building. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands.

however. perhaps. it is difficult to find. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . the burning of 'infected' clothing. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula.pilaster (Lat. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. and thereafter all Europe. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. It seems probable. Thenceforward. for instance. and capital. such as Florence and Genoa. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. pilastrum. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. During 1348 the Black Death. Rocco and Sebastian. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). a shaft. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. moreover. It is often fluted. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. "pillar") A flat. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. plague Plague. in October 1347. more sporadic outbreaks. it has a base. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. outside Tuscany. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. For this reason. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. though in less widespread. despite regional variations. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. since. In the 15th century. also used in Spain's American colonies.

. In contrast with Aristotle. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. more severe.e. The first phase. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. composition. are the masterworks of the second style. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Diego evolved a purer. Phaedrus. the Symposium. the Renaissance-Plateresque. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. and sinuous scrolls. like its successor. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. which lasted only a few decades. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. utilized Mudejar ornament -. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedo. placement. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The first phase. correct classical orders became frequent. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. heraldic escutcheons. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Timaeus. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Philebus. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. A student of Socrates. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The second phase. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). or simply the Plateresque. i. and unified style using massive geometric forms. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. harmonious. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. or appropriateness. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens.

Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. and the Chaldaic Oracles. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. all of which he also translated into Latin. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Plotinus.in Plato's thought. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. and Agostino Steuco (c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. and he utilized many other writings. but not completely. Rather unsystematic. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . partially. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. 1472-c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Unlike the case of Aristotle. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. near Florence. Iamblichus. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. the greatest of his ancient disciples. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. including those of Plotinus. replaced Ficino's. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form.1577) becoming particularly popular. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century.

"rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Plato was read in the universities. portico (Lat. pluviale. plinth (Gk. porticus. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. poluptukhos. column. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. polyptych (Gk. pointed arch In architecture. such as processions and consecrations. as in classical architecture). Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. or statue. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. plinthos. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Frequently supports a pediment. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. where a pectoral is used to close it. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. pluvial (Med.

. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Maria Novella. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. and the . Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Mantua. 1328. Gattarnelata. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. inessential. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Group portraits. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Florence (1486-90). was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait.e. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. was revived in the 14th century. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Colleoni. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Cathedral) by Uccello. The equestrian portrait.sculptors such as Donatello. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo Farnese). painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. flattened image. Siena. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. psychologically more complex. the Carracci. Venice). The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. The realism of the clear. Campidoglio). The 16th century portrait became generalized. Florence. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. and only a decorative accessory to form. decorating whole rooms. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Desiderio da Settignano. National Gallery). Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671.

who had as their ideal masters Titian. bishops especially. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). however. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. bishop of Chioggia. minatory exhortations. Savonarola and Musso. and. not least those of statesmen and prelates. 1494). The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. The sermons of Visdomini. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Fiamma's sermons. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. abrasive even. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Borromeo. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. was versed in classical and patristic . who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. The styles of S. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. are not florid in style. As Poussin was a Frenchman." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. of the sermon as an art form. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishop of Asti. Charles Le Brun. Correggio. several of whom became bishops. and Peter Paul Rubens." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. primarily the mendicants. together with the Dominican Savonarola. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. from the secular clergy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. to discharge their preaching duties. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society.

as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. among them Holman Hunt.rhetoric. tapestries. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The New Testament references in these would. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. predella (It. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Because of the small size of predelle .g. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. however. though often relatively very wide . have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. prefiguration Typology . These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Naples). The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Millais and Rossetti. Louis of Toulouse (1317. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. and so forth. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.

The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Fragonard. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. proportio. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Prix de Rome A scholarship. again indicative of the purpose they served. the golden section. profil perdu (Fr. the Canon of Proportion. sculpture and architecture. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. proportion (Lat. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. these highly finished drawings. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. 2. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. the quadrature. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The following are important: 1. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "evenness") in painting. which uses the square . 3. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Girardon. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. notably David. and Houdon among sculptors. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B.

for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. a fifth = 2:3. putto (It. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. provenance The origins of an art work.as a unit of measurement. one half the length of the other). triangulation. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. . 4. harmonic proportions. putti sing. for example). Unlike Pozzo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Rome. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. It was common in Roman art. Ignazio. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. a fourth = 3:4. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. "boys") Plump naked little boys. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. the steward or treasurer of a church. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. and 5. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations.

Fra Angelico and others. canons regular. hermits. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background.Quattrocento (It. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Donatello. or some item connected with a saint. in which figures are seen half round. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. relic (Lat. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. relicquiae. In 16th century Europe. in particular works by Masaccio. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. relief (Lat. friars and nuns. and high relief (alto rilievo). Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. the object of particular veneration. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Among the . Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. basso rilievo). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. or the Jesuits. relevare. in which figures are almost detached from their background. e. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Botticelli. the great orders of monks. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. also known as the Realist school. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Brunelleschi. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface.g. Lat. refectory (Med.

the Conventuals. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Mantua. their resources being in the hands of trustees. it became the Cassinese congregation. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Giorgio in Alga. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. was the congregation of S. Founded by St Romuald c. Maria di Fregonaia. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. whose friaries were technically non-property owning.e. however. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Lucca. After the repression of the Spirituals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. In 1517. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. At the same time. S. In 1504. The same bull . The Conventuals. The Silvestrines. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa.contemplative orders. Benedetto. Salvatore. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. the great patriarch of Venice. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Benedictines. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. and their more institutionalized brethren. and the generally moderate Observants. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. presided over by chapters general. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. which was to become the main Italian one. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. various groups were fused in the latter body. the most notable being S. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. 1012. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Bernardino of Siena. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Giustina. Venice (1404). Padua. Lorenzo Giustiniani. although technically of secular canons. Bologna (1419). Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. who had no overall organization originally. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. i. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. That of S.

Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th .provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Gaetano da Thiene. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Venice. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. also. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Michele in Isola. Filippo Neri. founded by S. however. a historical period. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The first. Gerolamo Aemiliani. the Theatines. founded in 1535 by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. however. S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Angela Merici. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order.

'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). too long forgotten glories. because its core of energy. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. however. was so vast and potent. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and his own as potentially one of light. and competition with. . Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. as well as political. Thereafter. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of arts. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. life. even Amoralism. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. For long. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. of an energetic revival of interest in. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it.century. of letters. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. increasingly. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. however. All-Roundness. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. of 'darkness'. the historical reality of antiquity. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. which had begun early in the 14th century. 1875-86). Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of scholarship. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it.

'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. let alone a uniform. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. congruence between. and mass media. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. retables can be detached and. gratefully. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. mobilized nationalism. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. etc. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Cathedral of SaintBavon.with all its shabbiness . Though thus challenged.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. (3) There is not a true. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. candlesticks. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). etc. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. and other liturgical objects. and is decorated with paintings. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. later still to Genoa. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. There was an early. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. sometimes. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. The challenges are to be accepted. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.erased.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). however. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. statues. Ghent). "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. in the more limited sense. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. of industrialization. letters. consist merely of a painting. It is for this additional. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. especially in the High Gothic period.) was the term chosen. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. the previous record . spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. though sometimes of metal. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century.

it indicates a derivation from Roman art. the first style to achieve such international currency. literally. As the name suggests. its mood lighthearted and witry. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.of St Mark in Venice. Louis XV furniture. richly decorated with organic forms. More usually. almost simultaneously. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. rilievo (It. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Rococo A style of design. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century.France. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Italy. retables have become extinct. With the development of freestanding altars. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. like 'Gothic'. Romanesque art. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.in the 11th century. the St. painting. Germany. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Originally commissioned in 976. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). "relief") In painting. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. however. rocaille (French. Spain . Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. . in several countries . reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. is a typical product. and 'Romanesque'. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. and architecture dominating the 18th century.

school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Mabuse. such as red ochre. they maintained. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Pannini and Mengs. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. van Heemskerk. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. M. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Claude. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. . van Orley. The aim of painting.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. In addition. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Rome. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. stylized design representing an open rose. B. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Q. Massys and M. Piranesi.

and Lorenzo de' Medici. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. the Eucharist. local saints. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and Protestant churches. Subjects were nominally sacred. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Eastern independent. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. Written primarily in ottava rima. penance. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. confirmation. and impoverished. pious legend and hagiography. In the . hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. when it finally left the city it had devastated. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but others were the work of well-known figures. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Clement escaped into Castel S. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature.greatly increased. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Sacra Conversazione (It. glance and movement . Orthodox. from the Old and New Testaments. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. holy orders. multiple sets used in succession. supported by lay confraternities. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). There were no limits on time. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. gutted. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Many compositions were anonymous.expressed through gesture. matrimony. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and anointing of the sick. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism.

spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Hence.i. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. used for drawing. replaces the Lord's Supper.. was not maintained as a sacrament. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. notably from Florence and in Germany. as an excuse to revolt." sala (Ital. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Immediately following baptism. Candidates first face west." which are called sacramentals. The chief focus of discontent. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. the Orthodox Church does not. Salt War. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. chapter 13. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. large room. and sacraments. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. The theology of the Orthodox Church. sacraments.e.. They were still seeking aid. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. make such strict distinctions. Saracens . strictly speaking. It is still practiced on special occasions.early church the number of sacraments varied. foot washing. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The classical Protestant churches (i. the Bentivoglio. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Thus. as in the Church of the Brethren. that the price of salt should be increased.e. the symbolic direction of Christ. the sun of righteousness. Lutheran. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. and then face east.) Hall. in principle. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Anglican. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. baptism and the Eucharist. the Rocca Paolina. which in the Gospel According to John. was buried under a new fortress. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.

whose writings. sarcophagi (Gk. legs and horns of a goat. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. are lost. 45 BC). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. The publication of Latin (1562. 160 . sarcophagus. 360 . Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). pl. human-like woodland deities with the ears. satyr In Greek mythology. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Arabs or Muslims. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Little known in the Middle Ages. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. 210 AD). made of stone.c. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition.c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. wood or terracotta. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the god of wine. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and many others. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 270 BC).During the Middle Ages.

The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. scholasticism . Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. most of whom. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who recognized the Roman pope. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. being Frenchmen. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. who had the support of the Avignon pope. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. However. while devout Christians agonized. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Louis I (d. 1386) and his son Ladislas. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support.for example Pieter van Laer. Schism. one of the early leaders. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. In northern Italy.they had individual Bentnames . with France and her allies Aragon. was called Bamboccio. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. on the other. and. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). but with little effect. Alexander V. than their medieval predecessors. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. from time to time both he and his opponents. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. the Florentines. in June 1409. on one side. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Charles III of Durazzo (d. for. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. As a result. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. while England.

the plaster had to be damped before painting. None the less.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. and Islamic literature. university-based study.The term is ambivalent. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Medieval scholars. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. as it is easier to add details in this way. if lime-water was used. that scholasticism was left. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. Padua. (See also: fresco. As such. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. It was because the central concerns of humanism .were different from those of medieval. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. notably Aquinas. textual scholarship. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. as it were. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. moreover. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought.) . Serenissima (Ital.moral philosophy. Christian. history and rhetoric . In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). and theology. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. because the secco technique is much less permanent. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Often called the burning ones. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. on one side. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God.

Sibyls foretold the Birth. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. brass. Originally. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. "the most serene republic of Venice"). an expression of Venetian self-confidence. the number gradually rose to ten.. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. and the delicate. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. In Christian legend. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Signoria (It. in the period of classical antiquity. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. in use since the Middle Ages. sibylla. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Servite (Lat. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Med. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. "prophetess") In antiquity. usually presided over by individual families. sibyls (Gk. sinopia . which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sfumato A technique. women who could prophesy. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. which were all identical in thickness. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Lat. at the same time. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. term. there was only one Sibyl.

is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. especially in the flow of drapery. sotto in sù (It. . pronounced as French. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. stigma (Gk. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. Ital. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). brand. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . staffage This word. "mark.. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. sing.) Wooden ceiling decoration. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. as the name implies. soffit (Lat.'Beautiful Madonnas'. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. and. stigmata.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. Stanze (Ital. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. in other words. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. It is very closely related to International Gothic. Francis of Assisi.

and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Indeed. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. stucco A type of light. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. pl. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. studiolo.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). studioli (It. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). John Milton. The vogue for the Sublime. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. In a looser sense. whose verses actually fabrications . supremacy . but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. both external and internal. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. with that for the Picturesque. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.

his own headquarters. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. . tempera (Lat. doubtless.and. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. These were imported. both for panel painting and fresco. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. or cartoons. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Salviati and Allori. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. The subject is underexplored. temperare. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. i.Historically. chiefly from Flanders. 1407). These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.e. and in literature. But the Italians did not make them. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. was being decorated with frescoes. then being replaced by oil paint. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. into Italy. London.

the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. and other surfaces. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. vessels. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. in art. and later to subdivide gable ends. tondo. topos. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. terraferma (Ital.terracotta (It. quarter face. model. pl. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. walls. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topoi (Gk.e. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. figure of speech. Trajan's Column . though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. triumphal arch. widely used form. in the architecture of ancient Rome. and profile. "fields. i. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tondi (It. topiary (Gk. theme or motif. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). and sculptures. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. "a commonplace") In literature. pl. topia. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.

. chastity. the military triumph became sublimated. Trinity (Lat. "threefold") in Christianity. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Battista Sforza. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. usually an altarpiece. Meanwhile. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. a car so brave'. Disseminated soon after his death. "threefold") A painting in three sections. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. trinitas. the Son and the Holy Spirit.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. or wings. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. as it were. patriarchs and prophets. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. beside it the army of martyrs. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. death.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. behind it.' Before it go the apostles. time and eternity. Early triptychs were often portable. triptych (Gk. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). into a number of less controversial forms. of both sexes'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. the wars by which they were won . of virtues and of the arts. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. after 'a countless number of virgins. added to the glamour of the triumph.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. tryptychos. fame. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts.

Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tympanum (Lat. through various naturalistic devices. Dating from classical times. typology . "drum") In classical architecture. first recorded in 1232. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. it is usually decorated with carvings. viscous black ink. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. It incorporates Renaissance features. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. In medieval architecture. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. often decorated with sculptures. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. enclosed by an arch. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tusche A thick. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre.

Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. killer of Holofernes. . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.) The Renaissance "universal man". 1610). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. where they were most accessible. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and David. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. knew his former patrons. slayer of Goliath. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656).Dirck van Baburen (c. U uomo universale (It. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets.g. especially his half-length figural groups. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. were popular with them also. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1590-1624). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. In Christian thought. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano.A system of classification. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Judith. lanterns. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). each had access to his paintings. e. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). such as five works devoted to the senses.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. The numerous candles.

vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. "evening") . and the rib vault. Also varietas (Lat. Parisian craftsmen. carriages. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vanitas (Lat. it was used to decorate furniture. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. guttering candles. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. V vanishing point In perspective. There are a wide range of forms.). It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. mixed in. hour-glasses and clocks. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. a work's richness of subject matter. vesper. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. often gold. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Vespers (Lat. varietà (It. snuff boxes and other objects. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. the groin vault. overturned vessels.

Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Anger. and Sloth. pl. in which the word signifies efficacy. virtù could be used. Gluttony. actual or latent. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. if you have it not'. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Charity. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. vimperga Of German origin. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Lust. 'Assume a virtue. Vestibule (Lat.Prayers said in the evening. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Fortitude. the church service at which these prayers are said. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. vestibulum. Hope. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. The seven Virtues were: Faith. In ancient Roman dwellings. vite (Lat. Prudence. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Temperance. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. and Justice. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. for example. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vita. "life") . Envy. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. "not exposed to winds". rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Covetousness.

as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. protection from harm. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Sculptors and Architects"). and the occasional wars thereafter (e. and of Ferrara. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari.g. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1472. in fact. 1478-80. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Marcus (1st cent. those of Volterera. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. Vitruvius Pollio. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. or recovery from illness has been made. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. The wars from 1494 do. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. they were from the 18th century . No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. and appalled recognition of. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori.An account of someone's life and work. usually when a prayer for good fortune. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. published in 1550 and 1568. a biography. 1482-84).

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Weltanschauung (Gr. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. It was intended to have a variety of functions. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Westwerk German word. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. usually linear. usually restorers. pompous on the floor above. during its subsequent history. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "world view") A comprehensive world view. gallery. . based on stylization of various animal forms. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. woodcut A print made from a wood block. a philosophy of life. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. "Western work of art".

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