A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. which is fused to the plate by heating. at the east end of a church behind the altar. the lowest part of the entablature). A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. arcade (Lat. arkhitektonikos. roofed with a half-dome. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.A semicircular projection. including Goya. Also known as an exedra. Lancet and Tudor. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. "architectural") Relating to structure. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). architrave (It. . piers or pillars. the darker the tone). Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. design. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Degas. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. and Rouault. Picasso. architectonic (Gk. The adjective is apsidal. the moulding around a window or door. In Greek and Roman literature. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. or organization.e. but in essence the process is as follows. The term applies also to a print made by this method. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. arcus. There are several variants of the technique. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.

archivolto. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. voltus. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. aureole (Lat. usually a saint. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "begin. attributum." and Lat. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. archeiu.archivolt (Ital. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. dominate. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Ars Moriendi (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. In the case of martyrs. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "front arch." from Gk. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Dante's Vita nuova .and the Comedy . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). attribute (Lat. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. aureolus.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "golden.

The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. or baldacchino (It. that of Cardano. Later. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. 'Captivity'. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Six pontificates later. in 1377. baldachin.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). The actual move was made in 1309. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. often anecdotal. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. applied to the physically . who had been residing in France since 1305. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. the god of wine and fertility. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples.

As eight follows the "complete" number. or forecourt. and Nocera in Italy. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Croatia]. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. a church. el Kantara. France.. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. and abject filthy things. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Customarily. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. pope between 432 and 440. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. banderuola. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. AD 300). but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Easter. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion.g. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures.. seven. beggars in rags. such as those at Pisa.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. . set beneath a domical ciborium. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. or canopy. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Lebanon. AD 273. Florence. Spalato [Split. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. a visual metaphor for the number eight. the Temple of Venus. built by Sixtus III. Baalbek. banderole (It. and Epiphany. or connected with." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Parma. Alg. and Poitiers. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Pentecost.

1807-1876). basilica (Gk. 1810-1865). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. "king's hall") a church building. and thus a church. achieved through scale. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. 1796-1875). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Constant Troyon (French. were often omitted entirely. Jean-François Millet (French.In the 10th century. Théodore Rousseau (French. stoa basilike. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. In architecture. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. usually facing east. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Baroque (Port. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Rubens). and increasingly elaborate decoration. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. the dramatic use of light and shadow. in its usual location near the church door . Also tunnel vault. 1814-1875). Jules Dupré (French. baptisteries. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Vermeer). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. barocco. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. however. . which is reserved for the clergy. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. in the 1840s and 1850s. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. and (3) everyday realism.an allusion to entering the Christian life. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1811-1889). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. 1817-1878). Originally. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. or baptismal chapels. something of earlier symbolism survives. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. southeast of Paris.

and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. which is either not yet glazed. however. or which is to be left as it is. Biscuit porcelain. 1650 in Spain. particularly porcelain. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. also incorrectly called bisque. were referred to by their specific contents. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. as is to be expected. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. There were. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). such as those by Diego Velázquez. domesticity. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. often with food and drink. up until the mid-17th century. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Spanish still-lifes. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. especially Spanish. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. in which still-life predominates. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Bodegónes.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. and often sentimentality. The term was mainly used up to c. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. such as Waldmüller. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. like their Dutch counterparts. bodegón Image. Book of Hours . They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. By association.

See flying buttress. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. and the fact that it is easily workable . days of the week. . It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. coppery red. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts.both hot and cold . varying from silverish to a rich. durability. a rapid sketch in oil. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. months. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. bozzetto Strictly speaking. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. though these are more often called 'modelli'.by a variety of processes. bozzetto(Italian. By extension. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. made as a study for a larger picture. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.an advantage over marble sculpture. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. or seasons. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. but can also be used for painted sketches. Chantilly). Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.

from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. cameo Small relief made from gems. its forms highly stylized. private room where works of art. caisson (Fr. box") In architecture. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. It also served to glorify the emperor. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Among its most distinctive products were icons. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. "a chest. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. camera obscura . ceramics. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. and Giotto. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). which was often allegorical.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. manuscript illuminations. notable from Syria and Egypt. casson. glass. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. mosaics. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. and work in precious metals. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Duccio. C cabinet A small. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. Based largely on Roman and Greek art.

Portable versions were built. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. only very rough effects will be obtainable. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. usually decorated. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. cantorie (It. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candlestick. other materials used are cotton. by the 16th century. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. The Latin name means "dark chamber. "candle") A large. usually built beside or attached to a church. Structurally.Ancestor of the photographic camera. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up." and the earliest versions. as an aid to drawing. followed by smaller and even pocket models. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). The best-quality canvas is made of linen. campanile Bell tower. pl. usually with several branches or arms. candelabra. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. cantoria. dating to antiquity. hemp. which isolates the fabric from the paint. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. candela. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. both of which have richly carved marble panels.-N. usually in a church. which was usually whitened. . the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. and jute.) A gallery for singers or musicians. Niepce created photography. capitellum. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. capital (Lat. candelabrum (It. sing. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and.

Carthusian Order (Lat. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. details of the subject.a humorous drawing or parody. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). the Carmelites were originally hermits. or a motto. cartouche . and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartellini In a painting. or fresco. In fresco painting. At the height of the Middle Ages. The order combines reclusive and community life. and humanism. cartoon (It.both Italians and artists from other countries . monasteries containing separate hermitages. Cardinal Virtues (Lat.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. New Charterhouses. cardinalis. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Fortitudo (Fortitude). a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cartone. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Carmelites (Lat. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . tapestry. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. the endeavour to attain true humanity. near Grenoble. cartellino. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. pl. the date of the painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century.

castello (It. putti (cupids). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. The main body. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. palace. cathedral (cathedra. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. linen. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy.toward the setting sun. and swags of fruit and flowers. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Paolo Uccello. In the 15th century. They contained the bride's clothes. cassone (It. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. and many other items of her dowry. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. they were also used in other countries. or arms of the cross. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Cascina. The altar is placed at the east end. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. caryatid (Gk.) "castle". battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. where the throne of the bishop is placed. or nave. decorated with gilt gesso. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. . For reasons lost to time and tradition. a cathedral always faces west . and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).

but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. animal. or birdlike characteristics. and perspicere. "in the centre". and Islamic literature. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. continually praise him. Christian. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. champlevé (Fr. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). landscapes. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. a throne bearer of the deity. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. as celestial attendants of God. Both the statement of St. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. centralis. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. . rather than intercessory functions. Relative to the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. central perspective (Lat. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. a celestial winged being with human. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God.

with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. "light dark") In painting. choros. Since Carolingian times. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. choir (Gk. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. replacing tempera.chiaroscuro (It. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. the Order of the Hospital of St. Lastly. Hans Burgkmair (1510)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . North of the Alps. or for choral singing. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling.

and repetition of pattern. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. reversed volutes. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. undulating cornices. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The Transparente (completed 1732). Very few still exist in their original positions. became the most common motif. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. undulating lines. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. is as typically Churrigueresque. ciborium . In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Mexico cathedral (1718). which was shaped like an inverted cone. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and garlands. balustrades. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. gilded rays. an architect. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. further enriching the style. Sculpted clouds.intersect). Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. and the Churrigueresque column. a massing of carved angels. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. stucco shells.

They were forbidden to form a trade association. combers. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. etc. placing one of their members. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. including the ciompi. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana.and post-medieval Italy. or achieve political representation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Quattrocento (1400s. High Renaissance). on July 22. ciompi. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. controlled by the minor guilds. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Without being members of a guild. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. craft of dyeing. but self-employed. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Their economic condition worsened. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Then. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. the wool carder Michele di Lando. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. as also were those in the associated. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Members of the lower classes. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. beaters. The new government. In reaction to this revolutionary .A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. who were raised to the status of a guild. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history.

in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. clair-obscur (Fr. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. the black contours usually with a special line plate. cithara (Gk. editing and translating a wide range of texts.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. philosophy. scholars patiently finding. writers.) An ancient musical instrument. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). . In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. the ciompi guild was abolished. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and politics. literature. philosophy and art . Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. except in cases where . cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).episode. resembling a lyre. In the 15th century Greek literature. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. Concepts of the classical.as in Italy these were dispensed with. changed greatly from one period to the next. with Italian scholars. on which strings were plucked. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. however. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.

Green and red. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. sing. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. the church service at which these prayers are said. a work's underlying theme. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. cognoscente (It. The name was derived from the condotta. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. terrorized the country. pl. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Coffered ceilings." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. intensify one another. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. cognoscenti. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. compline (Lat. arch or ceiling. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. blue and orange. as well as from the Bible. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). [hora] completa. or "contract. condottieri (It. concetto. pl. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. .coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. when set side by side. occasionally made of wood. concetti (It. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. condottiere. literature or music. those with refined tastes.

Muzio's son. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. clergy. scuole. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. commonly called either Compagnia di S. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Spanish. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. and Tuscany. confraternities Confraternities. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. in Venice. Martino). and German--the condottieri. i. primarily for syphilitics. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. often called compagnie or. flagellant confraternities. or with the spiritual assistance of. By the 16th century. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. in the service of Perugia. By the end of the 14th century. often under the direction of. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. . (2) Confraternite del Rosario. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. in the service of Naples. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Francesco Sforza.devastating Romagna. i.e. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. convents of convertite. Toward the end of the 15th century. who won control of Milan in 1450. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. With no goal beyond personal gain. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Umbria. Mark (1432). which spread in the 15th century. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. disappeared. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy.e. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Carmagnola. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260.

"outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. notwithstanding their location. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. however. contours were initially regular. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate.e. contrapposto (It.i. reformed prostitutes. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. and refuges for maidens. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Dorotea in Trastevere. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.g. while the Venetian government. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis.g. the Florentine Neri. 1514 in S. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. e. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. While the Doge ranked above the Council. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. flat outlines. contour. founded c. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. e. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. contour (Fr. in Florence. In medieval painting. Confraternities. but sometimes had their own premises. Later. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. which accompanied condemned prisoners.

Lat. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Reform programs. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. did not achieve any lasting results. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics.weight on one leg. conventicle (Lat. 1100 and 1300. The style spread as far as England. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. . and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. cuprum. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. whose names are inscribed on several works. large cornice or other feature. conventiculurn. They are often ornamented. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. 1280). the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. declining moral standards. a bracket of stone. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. started the process of inner reform in the Church. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. an engraving produced in this way. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. corbel In architecture. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. aes cyprium. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist.

i. Seleucids. after being whipped. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the first Christian emperor. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. reedy sound. Jews. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. particularly among the Persians. Carthaginians. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. "small vat") In architecture. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. a small dome. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Death. the condemned man. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Next. a semi-circular vault. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Usually. cupola (Lat. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Constantine the Great. cupula." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. or "scourged. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. There were various methods of performing the execution. An ancestor of the oboe. D dado . evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. the most famous victim of crucifixion. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body.e. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime.

It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Deësis (Gk. "drawing. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. diptychos. danse macabre The dance of death. Passau. design") In Renaissance art theory.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Germany. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. an expressive use of nature. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. decorated diffrently from the upper section. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Anglican and Orthodox churches. deacon (Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. diakonos. and Linz possessed common characteristics. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. but the concept behind an art work. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Gk. usually in matching pairs. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities.g. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. disegno (It. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . a favorite late medieval picture subject. diptych (Lat. often an altarpiece. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. e. diptychum. which was help to be the basis of all art. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic.

a 19th-century invention. dome in architecture. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). is a heavy piece of furniture. distemperare. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. formerly worn under armour. donator. "to mix. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. which runs on castors or wheels. usually forming a ceiling or roof. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. donor (Lat. Dominicans (Lat. The studio easel.Thomas Aquinas. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. though a few artists. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. As disegno appeals to the intellect. also used it on canvas. Ordo Praedictatorum. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.fully realize. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . distemper (Lat. when painters took to working out of doors. doublet A male garment. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. such as we still use today.

engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschatology (Gk. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. and architecture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. sometimes combining panel painting. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. sculpture. It consists of the architrave. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. eschaton. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. and the cornice. a depiction of Jesus. bound and flogged. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. epitaph (Gk. in art. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. the frieze. John (19. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. "last". ensemble (Fr. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. full face. "word") . Ecce Homo (Lat. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. fresco. and logos. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. en face In portraiture. entablature In classical architecture. Hence. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing.

Contarini. particularly ware made in France. Spain. Augustine. Eucharist (Gk. which was developed in the Near East ca. and of the last things. which is called "delftware. and is named for Faenza. . Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Equated with the Greek god Pan." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Germany. farmers.death and resurrection. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. which is called "maiolica. fields and livestock. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. "good. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Marcantonio Flaminio. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. 4500 BCE. notably Cardinal Pole. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Jerome. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Vittoria Colonna. protector of shepherds." and charis. eu. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. celebrated with bread and wine." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Italy. Saints Ambrose. which was famous for maiolica. and Scandinavia. It developed in France in the early 16th century. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Giovanni Morone.

such as plague. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. sword and set of balances. fresco (It. a swag. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). a technique known as a secco fresco. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. 2 . Only a small area can be painted in a day. frescos in Italy . Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. leaves. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. relaxed. and these areas.festoni (It. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.8). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. and flowers suspended in a loop. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. drying to a slightly different tint. black and dun. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. fluted of a column or pillar. that of the others red. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. can in time be seen. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. war. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Their attributes are the bow. famine and death. The colour of his horse is white. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment.

this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. landscape and portraiture. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. genre In a broad sense. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. In art from the classical period onwards.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. or fresco secco.Save in Venice. both in churches and in private and public palaces. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. a person's invisible tutelary god. G Garter. Final details. usually childish figure. for example. covings and ceilings. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Genius in classical Rome. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. or true fresco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. the intonaco. where the atmosphere was too damp. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. are genres of painting. The technique of buon fresco. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster.

gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Maso di Banco. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and as spurring on men of action. As such. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. in portraits and on tombs. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. how it differed from notoriety. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. whether it must be connected with the public good.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Maria Gloriosa). it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Gobelins . as well as writers and artists. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Bernardo Daddi. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements.

This ratio is approximately 8:13. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. who appointed Lebrun Director. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. thereafter it made only tapestries. and although it reopened in 1699. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In other Italian cities. Paris. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). . Golden Fleece. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. golden section (Lat. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. still in existence today.French tapestry manufactory. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole.

painting. The artistic. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. or the influence of one building. c. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. Denis. There is a transcendental quality. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. that the effects are to be felt. In sculpture and in painting. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. Amiens. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. In particular. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. Gothic Gothic. 1270. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Nevertheless. In thinking of Nicola (d. from the 13th until the 17th century. and lies much deeper than. 1200 and c. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. painting. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. like the cultural and commercial. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. . the superficial particularities of form.

These qualities. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. without visible brush marks. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. the beau idéal of the French. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It is thinned with water for applying.and hog-hair brushes. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. to white or tinted paper and card and. Canaletto. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and Morris Graves. chiefly to France.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Pannini. Honey. . if required. and above all Italy. Dubuffet. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and taste among the English. with sable. starch. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. the Netherlands. and the great style. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Klee. to silk. are but different appellations of the same thing'. occasionally. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and Piranesi. notably in the writings of Bellori. Such tours often took a year or more. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. genius.

and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. became an abiding feature of European politics. internal factions in Florence went under other names. however. In the context of the fine arts. After the War of the Eight Saints. grisaille (Fr. usually gray. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. c. to Provence and Paris. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. In Florence. exclude drawing from this definition. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. gris. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. 1216. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Although its palace was rebuilt c. drawing and the various forms of engraving. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218.e. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Some writers. From 1266 to 1268. the parties taking a multitude of local names. In another sense. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. however. through central Italy. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. brother of Louis IX. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. after this. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. including text as well as illustrations. . and Waiblingen. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. then as now. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf.

a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. In Italy they go back a long way. such as Brescia and Vicenza. H hatching In a drawing. trades. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The guild also monitored standards of work. for example. and provided assistance to members in need. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. as some did). The guilds were not equal. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. "herald") . "[knowledge of] heraldry. or professions. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. In Florence. In 16th century Venice. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. goldsmiths. In some cities. heraldry (Fr." from Fr. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. Guilds were also patrons of art. héraut. [science] héraldique.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. surgeons. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. print or painting. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. and greater hostility between master and man. In some towns. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. trade or profession (painters. but in time they acquired other functions. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. notably Florence in the 14th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'.

his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. head of the 'carnal Church'. By contrast. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. i. the followers of Juan de Valdes. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. indeed. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. one great missionary community. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. they were condemned in 1184. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. However. together with brethren north of the Alps. with the rules governing their use.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. the Waldensian. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. the Cathars were an anti-church. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. and regarded themselves as forming. normative for churchmen. as Antichrist. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. while others merged with the Waldensians. The main impact of the . The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. d. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. from the start.

and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. In humanism. B.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Morse. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). working from 1825 to 1875. F. George Inness. Jasper Cropsey. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. American painters were studying in Rome. my spouse'. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. hortus conclusus (Lat. mainly in the south. J. Thomas Cole. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. At the same time. the emancipation of man from God took place. and classical literature. and. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Durand. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. humanus. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Henry Inman. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. humanism (Lat. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. in his earlier work. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. S. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Kensett. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Church. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. its subjects considered morally elevating. history (usually classical history). Frederick E. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. F. Germany.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. the hammer. Human figures. etc. are also used in art literature. it denominates a kind of behaviour. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Veronica. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture.g. or of other saints. investiture . did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. The terms court style. Derived from classical rhetoric. Donatallo. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the rooster of Peter's denial.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). inventio (It. soft style. In the second half of the 14th century. with many further details added. the ability to create. and they are also depicted on their own. invention. the veil of St. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the pincers. beautiful style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. usually the donors of a work of art. and the ladder. there are representations of the bundle of rods. For instance. the scourge that was used in the scourging. originality. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families.

Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Italianizers Northern artists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. The Both brothers. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. principally Dutch. generally Dutch or Flemish. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Nicolaes Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Jerome's writings. . Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. of Utrecht.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. although they are usually called Romanists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. who traveled in Italy and. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. bathed in a golden haze. Both and Berchem. Andries and Jan Both. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Upon his return to Holland. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. and Jan Asselijn. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.

L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). John of Jerusalem . especially one at which the Bible is read. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Archbishop of Genoa. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Legenda Aurea (Lat. the rite of communion is based on this.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . lectern A reading stand or desk. encouraged by the Crusades. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. liberal arts .

lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. comprising arithmetic. the quadrivium. often sublime. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. astronomy and music. Martin J. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. through the use of aerial perspective. and Frederick E.g. Pythagoras for arithmetic. loggia (It. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Kensett (1816-1872).grammar. commemorating a marriage. first the preparatory trivium . Heade (1819-1904). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Maria Novella in Florence).) A gallery or room open on one or more sides.g. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. then the basis of a philosophical training. poetic atmosphere. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). . Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). It is related to. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. painting or sculptural decoration. lunette (Fr. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. together with identifying attributes (e. Tubal for music). "little moon") In architecture. geometry. rhetoric and dialectic. that may contain a window. its roof supported by columns. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. John F. Church (1826-1900). a semicircular space. often standing in markets and town squares.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. that could be used for public ceremonies.

It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. magna mater (Lat. mandorla (It. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. the goddess Cybele. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. originally sung without accompaniment. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). madrigal A part song. and iron red. being written. 1855–65. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and accompaniments. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. but they painted genre scenes. "almond") . for example. When white is used for painting. active mainly in Florence c. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and portraits as well as landscapes. historical subjects.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). usually for the lute. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. "great mother") A mother goddess. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and however bright their lighting effects. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. copper green. Specifically. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. particularly such ware produced in Italy. manganese purple. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). antimony yellow. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state.

bound. more strictly. illuminated initials and miniatures. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. complex and crowded compositions. depending on the social class of the wearer. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Bronzino. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. It reached to the knee or foot. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. the hand-written medieval book. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. marked by flagellation. the Codex manuscriptus. maniera. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. In architecture. worn open. Flanders. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. In Mannerist painting. often ornamented with decorative borders. in a specific sense. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Parmigianino. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and crowned with thorns.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. and literary texts. Mannerism (It. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. ecclesiastical. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Burgundy. "manner. strong. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Developing out of the Renaissance. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. mantle An overcoat. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. El Greco and Tintoretto. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. which was quarried at Mount . style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600.

The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. quarried at Massa. martyrion. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Without monetary value. which were beginning to be reverently collected. proof") the sufferings. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. martyrdom (Gk. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. a different design on the reverse. the medal's purpose was commemorative. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse.Pentelicon in Attica. an inscription running round the rim. Like the finest Imperial coins. "witness. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. marmi finti (It. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Carrara. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. particularly by Michelangelo. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). and was much favoured in the Renaissance. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. sleek surface. The pure white Carrara marble. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. medallion In architecture. having finished his training. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions.

not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. c. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. perhaps oddly. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. When Perseus cuts off her head. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. The work of these men. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. In pure mezzotint. who reflected them. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. particularly. 1640. 14601528). A Dutch officer. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. It was. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Medusa In Greek mythology. 1467-688). 1425-1504). Her head features on Minerva's shield. in England. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). This yields a soft effect in the print. often anonymous. and of the many. for landscapes and portraits. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. no line drawing is employed. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. of the person portrayed on the other side. as it were. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. supposedly to petrify her enemies. . more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. c. a Gorgon. Ludwig von Siegen. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the stress on individual character. 1452-1526/27).round the neck. even grain. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The process is essentially extinct today.

painting in gouache on vellum or card. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. "one color") Painted in a single color. monochrome (Gk. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Parmigianino (d. e. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. often quite highly finished. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. usually portraits. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.. "word. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a painting executed in a single color. Many such small versions. still exist.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. saying") . which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. ink and paint. monokhromatos. miter A high. pointed headdress worn by bishops. executed on a very small scale. motto (Ital. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. by Tiepolo and Rubens. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Francis himself. a branch of the Franciscan order. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.g.

Rome. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and is intersected by the transept. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. naturalism (Fr. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. The invention of personal mottos. Berlin. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and two other members moved to Rome. . They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Nazarenes A group of young. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and Casino Massimo. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. but often insipid. nave (from Lat. Isidore. Pforr. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion.from the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. named after the patron saint of painting. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. It may have parallel aisles on each side. often separated from it by pillars. 1816-17. navis. 1817-29). The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). In 1810 0verbeck. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. In general.

Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. were usually old when elected. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. but their ideas continued to be influential. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Nymphaeum (Gk. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. nigellus. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "aureole") The disc or halo. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. is as true as it is notorious. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Popes. moreover. niello (Lat.) . and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). nimbus (Lat. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). usually golden. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. the style of the Ancien Régime. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825).

capital. . Greek goddesses of Nature. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. orders of architecture In classical architecture. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. a more elaborate base. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). obsequia. and its greater tonal range. inborn sin. walnut.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. and entablatures. the three basic styles of design. O obsequies (Lat. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. such as linseed. was the simplest. fluted column and a plain capital. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). with a sturdy. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. They are seen in the form of the columns. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. its richness of colour. a small private chapel. or poppy. The earliest. observances") Rites performed for the dead. the Doric order. "services.

who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. and the main apartments above. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). like cities. and. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs.g. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. designed as a . The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. standing at the foot of the Cross. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. the Cancelleria). P pala (Ital. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. Palazzo Strozzi). 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and large windows appeared on the ground floor.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. while shops came to be thought undignified. palazzo (It. tradition and social structure. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). with biforate windows. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary.

e. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe.scholarly retreat. Palazzo Massimi). behind a sober Florentine façade. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. like the colonnaded vestibule. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. evolved influential types. often built next to their titular churches. Following Oriental patterns. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and large households. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. came to be applied all over Europe. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". especially after the Sack of Rome.g. Rich. like Genoa. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Movement of patrons and architects. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Papal incentives to build. column-caps. In Venice.g. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. cornices and abutments. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). palmette. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Other cities. panel . with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus.

cedar. Then. Having a circular plan. mahogany. so that they might have a voice at court. metal. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. To maintain their authority. A number of matters. and modern painters have also used plywood. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. Many other types were used. including beech. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. as distinct from canvas. fibre-board. linden. secular rulers. teak. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. As successors to St Peter. the. enforce law and order. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. to influence popes in their favour. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. chestnut. larch. and walnut. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. or the incidence of taxation. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the management of clerical dues and taxation. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and other synthetic materials as supports. olive. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. The third aspect was administrative. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. On a larger scale. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. In the 20th century cedar. and spanned by a single dome. and the pressure and temptations . and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments.Term in painting for a support of wood. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. as it were. slate has occasionally been used as a support. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. however. and dark walnut are favourites. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. fir.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. or other rigid substance.

however. from the point of view of its religious associations. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . It was argued that such a council. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. of individuals. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.as well. was long in doubt. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. in the eyes of God. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded.that could be applied to them. to be long delayed. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. however. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. at Avignon. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. could supersede that of a pope. however. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Colonna and Caetani. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. There remained. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. By then. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. in spite of further absences from Rome. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. So onerous. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. which seems so inevitable. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. possess an authority which. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. would. which met at Constance 1414-18. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. the most appropriate . as such. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. As at Avignon. if it did no serious damage to the faith. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. To resolve the problem of divided authority. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were.

it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. 425 BC) and Apelles (c.. through lavish patronage of artists. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. Passion . Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. it has also been used for painting. Parrhasius (c. less frequently pig. as well as a governmental one. pastoral (Lat. in classical literature. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 400-300 BC). as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and other animals. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. scholars and men of letters. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. and satyrs. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and with Zeuxis (c. to a world peopled by shepherds. the creation of a cultural capital. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. nymphs. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). pastor. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. However. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. goat.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts.

ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Francesco Salviati. Meanwhile. "butterfly. patricius. wealthy citizen. a small. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. patrician (Lat. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. which focus on the Suffering Christ. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. Portrayals of the Passion. 1478. papilio. pastiche (fr. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. but not necessarily a direct copy. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. and so on.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. a region in north-central Italy. 1478). whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. ornamental building. such as a garden summerhouse. the crown of thorns. .) or pasticcio (It. a prominent section of a monumental façade. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pavilion (Lat. and also the archbishop of Pisa. projecting either centrally or at both ends. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded.The events leading up to Good Friday. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.

"nature". perspective (Lat. concept or deity. persona. pendant (Fr. or related elements within an art work. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. "person".) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. personification (Lat. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "hanging. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "to see through. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. physis. and gnomon. perspicere. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. . in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. physiognomy (Gk. in particular the face. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. pergola (It. and facere.

piano nobile (Ital. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Rome. pigment (Lat. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. pigmentum. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. curious details. A pier is generally larger than a column. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. . One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. striking the imagination with the force of painting. remarkable for singularity. exemplified. both real and painted. containing the public rooms. glue. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. or resin to make paint. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. but may consist of a cluster of columns. for example. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. proper to take a landscape from. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.) The main floor of a building. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. usually above the ground floor. to be expressed in painting. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Peter's. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Pietà (Lat. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. but full of variety. affording a good subject for a landscape. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.

Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. and thereafter all Europe. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. plague Plague. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. such as Florence and Genoa. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. pilastrum.pilaster (Lat. It seems probable. Rocco and Sebastian. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. and capital. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. outside Tuscany. For this reason. it is difficult to find. perhaps. It is often fluted. moreover. in October 1347. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. During 1348 the Black Death. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). more sporadic outbreaks. for instance. despite regional variations. a shaft. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. since. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. it has a base. In the 15th century. though in less widespread. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. "pillar") A flat. however. the burning of 'infected' clothing. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Thenceforward. also used in Spain's American colonies. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness.

the Symposium. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. harmonious. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. composition. or simply the Plateresque. In contrast with Aristotle. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. A student of Socrates. correct classical orders became frequent. are the masterworks of the second style. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Phaedrus. placement. heraldic escutcheons. and unified style using massive geometric forms. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Timaeus. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases.e. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). or appropriateness. The first phase. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Diego evolved a purer. and sinuous scrolls. Phaedo. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. which lasted only a few decades. i. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The second phase. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The first phase. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle.. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Philebus. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). more severe. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. like its successor. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland.

Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. and Agostino Steuco (c. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Rather unsystematic. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. partially. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. 1472-c. A new Latin translation. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and the Chaldaic Oracles. including those of Plotinus. systematized and added to what Plato had done. and he utilized many other writings. replaced Ficino's.1577) becoming particularly popular. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Plotinus. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. near Florence. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony.in Plato's thought. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Iamblichus. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. but not completely. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. all of which he also translated into Latin. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400.

plinthos. Frequently supports a pediment. porticus. plinth (Gk. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. column. pluvial (Med. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. poluptukhos. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pointed arch In architecture. Plato was read in the universities. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. pluviale. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. polyptych (Gk. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Lat. where a pectoral is used to close it. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. or statue. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. as in classical architecture). such as processions and consecrations. portico (Lat. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together.

Desiderio da Settignano. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. and only a decorative accessory to form. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The realism of the clear. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Campidoglio). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Florence. Florence (1486-90). psychologically more complex. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The equestrian portrait. flattened image. Cathedral) by Uccello. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Venice). decorating whole rooms. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. and the . Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. National Gallery). pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Gattarnelata. Siena. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. 1328. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome.sculptors such as Donatello. the Carracci. Maria Novella. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. inessential.. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799.e. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. was revived in the 14th century. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Colleoni. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Palazzo Farnese). Mantua. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Group portraits.

This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Charles Le Brun. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. to discharge their preaching duties. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. minatory exhortations. bishops especially. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Correggio. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Fiamma's sermons. Savonarola and Musso. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. from the secular clergy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Borromeo. are not florid in style. abrasive even. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. primarily the mendicants. The styles of S. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. and Peter Paul Rubens. The sermons of Visdomini. together with the Dominican Savonarola. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). bishop of Asti. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. 1494). of the sermon as an art form. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. not least those of statesmen and prelates. bishop of Chioggia. As Poussin was a Frenchman.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. and. several of whom became bishops. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. was versed in classical and patristic . the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. however. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find.

g. however. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. prefiguration Typology . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Louis of Toulouse (1317. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. tapestries. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. predella (It. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Naples). Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. and so forth. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The New Testament references in these would. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Millais and Rossetti. Because of the small size of predelle . aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. among them Holman Hunt. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . the temptations of Adam and Christ. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.rhetoric. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . though often relatively very wide . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.

the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. 2. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. sculpture and architecture. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the golden section. 3. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. which uses the square . The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "evenness") in painting. the Canon of Proportion. proportion (Lat. projecting shelf on which to kneel. and Houdon among sculptors. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. profil perdu (Fr.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. again indicative of the purpose they served. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. notably David. Girardon. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. proportio. Prix de Rome A scholarship. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the quadrature. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The following are important: 1. these highly finished drawings. Fragonard. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio.

Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Unlike Pozzo. a fifth = 2:3. . most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. "boys") Plump naked little boys. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. It was common in Roman art. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). the steward or treasurer of a church. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. harmonic proportions. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. one half the length of the other). a fourth = 3:4. Ignazio. for example). The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. 4. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. putto (It. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. provenance The origins of an art work. and 5. triangulation.as a unit of measurement. Rome. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. putti sing. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.

Fra Angelico and others. Donatello. or the Jesuits. Botticelli. In 16th century Europe. the great orders of monks. refectory (Med. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. canons regular. Brunelleschi. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. e. basso rilievo). in particular works by Masaccio. friars and nuns. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects.g. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. also known as the Realist school. the object of particular veneration. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in which figures are seen half round. relic (Lat. relicquiae. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. relief (Lat. Lat. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the . "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. with the Anglican Church developing in England. or some item connected with a saint. and high relief (alto rilievo). denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in which figures are almost detached from their background. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relevare. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life.Quattrocento (It. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. hermits.

Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. various groups were fused in the latter body. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. although technically of secular canons. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Salvatore. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The same bull . 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Bologna (1419). In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. i. In 1517. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. 1012. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Giustina. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Silvestrines. was the congregation of S. In 1504.contemplative orders. the most notable being S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. That of S. After the repression of the Spirituals. Giorgio in Alga. the Conventuals. Padua. however. Maria di Fregonaia. Mantua. which was to become the main Italian one. Venice (1404). hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. the great patriarch of Venice. Lucca. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. and their more institutionalized brethren. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. The Benedictines.e. Bernardino of Siena. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. and the generally moderate Observants. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. At the same time. The Conventuals. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. presided over by chapters general. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Founded by St Romuald c. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. it became the Cassinese congregation. Benedetto. who had no overall organization originally.

Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Michele in Isola. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Filippo Neri. founded in 1535 by S. the Theatines. also. The first. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Gaetano da Thiene. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Angela Merici. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. a historical period. however. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Gerolamo Aemiliani. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Venice. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. founded by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. however. S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life.

he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. which had begun early in the 14th century. too long forgotten glories. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. of an energetic revival of interest in. however. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. life. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. however. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. even Amoralism. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. increasingly. . as well as political. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. Thereafter. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). and his own as potentially one of light. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. because its core of energy. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of letters. of scholarship. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. was so vast and potent. of arts. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man.century. All-Roundness. of 'darkness'. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. 1875-86). there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. For long. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. and competition with. the historical reality of antiquity. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and.

Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. There was an early.erased. and other liturgical objects. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Cathedral of SaintBavon. candlesticks. Though thus challenged. etc.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. and is decorated with paintings. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. let alone a uniform. statues. The challenges are to be accepted. retables can be detached and. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. consist merely of a painting.) was the term chosen. however. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). The panel is usually made of wood or stone. gratefully. of industrialization. later still to Genoa. congruence between. etc. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. (3) There is not a true. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. mobilized nationalism. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. and mass media. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.with all its shabbiness . It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. the previous record . as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. letters. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Ghent). though sometimes of metal. sometimes. It is for this additional. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. especially in the High Gothic period. in the more limited sense. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .

rilievo (It. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. richly decorated with organic forms. rocaille (French. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. literally. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Italy. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. and architecture dominating the 18th century. "relief") In painting. As the name suggests. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. in several countries . is a typical product. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. With the development of freestanding altars. retables have become extinct. Rococo A style of design.France. like 'Gothic'. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. almost simultaneously. Germany. and 'Romanesque'.in the 11th century. the St. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. painting. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). the first style to achieve such international currency. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Originally commissioned in 976. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. More usually. . Spain .of St Mark in Venice. however. Louis XV furniture. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. its mood lighthearted and witry. Romanesque art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.

Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Orley. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Pannini and Mengs. Mabuse. the development of nationalistic pride. Rome. Piranesi. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. In addition. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. stylized design representing an open rose. Massys and M. B. Claude. van Heemskerk. The aim of painting. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. they maintained. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. . such as red ochre. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. M. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Q. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist).Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour.

multiple sets used in succession. Many compositions were anonymous. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. confirmation. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. glance and movement . but others were the work of well-known figures. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. holy orders. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .greatly increased. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). the Eucharist. There were no limits on time. Sacra Conversazione (It. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Orthodox. and impoverished. from the Old and New Testaments.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). gutted. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Subjects were nominally sacred. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Eastern independent. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. local saints. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and Lorenzo de' Medici. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and anointing of the sick. In the . the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. pious legend and hagiography. and Protestant churches. matrimony. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Clement escaped into Castel S. Written primarily in ottava rima. supported by lay confraternities. when it finally left the city it had devastated. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. penance.expressed through gesture.

under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. Hence.. was buried under a new fortress. was not maintained as a sacrament. chapter 13. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. It is still practiced on special occasions. used for drawing. large room. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the sun of righteousness. the Bentivoglio.i. Candidates first face west. the symbolic direction of Christ. strictly speaking. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the Orthodox Church does not. The classical Protestant churches (i.) Hall. as in the Church of the Brethren. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. and sacraments. the Rocca Paolina.early church the number of sacraments varied. foot washing. sacraments. that the price of salt should be increased. The theology of the Orthodox Church. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions.e. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Thus. as an excuse to revolt. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. replaces the Lord's Supper. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. make such strict distinctions. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.e. Saracens . sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. The chief focus of discontent. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Anglican. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and then face east. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Immediately following baptism. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Salt War." sala (Ital.. notably from Florence and in Germany. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. baptism and the Eucharist. They were still seeking aid. in principle. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger." which are called sacramentals. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. which in the Gospel According to John. Lutheran. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.

Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.c. 210 AD). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). and many others. 360 . are lost. The publication of Latin (1562. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. human-like woodland deities with the ears. whose writings. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. pl. 160 . scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. the god of wine. made of stone. sarcophagus. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. sarcophagi (Gk. 45 BC). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. wood or terracotta. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. legs and horns of a goat. satyr In Greek mythology.During the Middle Ages. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 270 BC). The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. the Arabs or Muslims. Little known in the Middle Ages.c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available.

was called Bamboccio. in June 1409. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place.for example Pieter van Laer. Louis I (d. the Florentines. being Frenchmen. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Charles III of Durazzo (d. for. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. one of the early leaders. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. on the other. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. As a result. with France and her allies Aragon. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. scholasticism . the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. who recognized the Roman pope. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). while devout Christians agonized. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals.they had individual Bentnames . and. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Schism. but with little effect. than their medieval predecessors. Alexander V. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. In northern Italy. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. most of whom. while England. on one side. However. from time to time both he and his opponents. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. who had the support of the Avignon pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. 1386) and his son Ladislas.

and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. (See also: fresco. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Medieval scholars. the plaster had to be damped before painting. university-based study. Padua. because the secco technique is much less permanent. as it were. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Serenissima (Ital. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). such passages have frequently flaked off with time. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. history and rhetoric . the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.were different from those of medieval. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.) . Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. notably Aquinas. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. on one side. and Islamic literature. moreover.The term is ambivalent. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. that scholasticism was left. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Christian. As such. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). textual scholarship. if lime-water was used. as it is easier to add details in this way. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest.moral philosophy. None the less. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Often called the burning ones. and theology. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.

the number gradually rose to ten. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. at the same time. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Signoria (It. Originally. Sibyls foretold the Birth. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. in the period of classical antiquity.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibyls (Gk.. brass. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. women who could prophesy. Lat. which were all identical in thickness. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in use since the Middle Ages. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. and the delicate. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. "the most serene republic of Venice"). made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. term. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. In Christian legend. sfumato A technique. "prophetess") In antiquity. Med. Servite (Lat. usually presided over by individual families. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. there was only one Sibyl. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sinopia . an expression of Venetian self-confidence. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. sibylla. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12.

brand. in other words. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). stigma (Gk. as the name implies. "mark. It is very closely related to International Gothic. the red chalk used to make such a drawing.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. especially in the flow of drapery. Francis of Assisi. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. . hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Stanze (Ital. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. pronounced as French. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.'Beautiful Madonnas'. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. soffit (Lat. stigmata. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. Ital. sotto in sù (It.) Wooden ceiling decoration. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. and. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sing. staffage This word. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.

Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Indeed. stucco A type of light. studioli (It. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). John Milton. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. both external and internal. supremacy . In a looser sense. The vogue for the Sublime. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. with that for the Picturesque. studiolo. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. pl.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). whose verses actually fabrications . and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.

Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. These were imported. 1407). doubtless. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. into Italy. temperare. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. tempera (Lat. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. was being decorated with frescoes. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . chiefly from Flanders. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. London. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). or cartoons. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass.e. then being replaced by oil paint. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. i. . To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. But the Italians did not make them. both for panel painting and fresco. The subject is underexplored. his own headquarters. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545.Historically. and in literature. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Salviati and Allori. Tempera colors are bright and translucent.and.

and profile. in art. topiary (Gk. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "fields. figure of speech. theme or motif. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. topos. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. terraferma (Ital. in the architecture of ancient Rome. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tondi (It. pl. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. model. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. Trajan's Column . and sculptures. "a commonplace") In literature. walls. widely used form. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and other surfaces. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. triumphal arch. vessels. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. topoi (Gk. pl. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.e. topia. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tondo.terracotta (It. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. i. and later to subdivide gable ends. quarter face.

Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. chastity. Battista Sforza. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the military triumph became sublimated. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. as it were. of both sexes'. Trinity (Lat. or wings. of virtues and of the arts. Early triptychs were often portable. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. a car so brave'. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). "threefold") in Christianity. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the Son and the Holy Spirit. into a number of less controversial forms. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. patriarchs and prophets. usually an altarpiece. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. after 'a countless number of virgins. trinitas. Meanwhile. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. added to the glamour of the triumph. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. fame. behind it. tryptychos. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. triptych (Gk.' Before it go the apostles. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. the wars by which they were won .poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Disseminated soon after his death. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. death. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. beside it the army of martyrs. . that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. "threefold") A painting in three sections. time and eternity.

enclosed by an arch. through various naturalistic devices. typology . Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. viscous black ink. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. often decorated with sculptures. first recorded in 1232. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tromp l'oeil (Fr. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. it is usually decorated with carvings. "drum") In classical architecture. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tusche A thick. tympanum (Lat. In medieval architecture. It incorporates Renaissance features. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Dating from classical times. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which.

and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. where they were most accessible. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). 1610). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. killer of Holofernes. were popular with them also.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. The numerous candles. 1590-1624). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. In Christian thought. such as five works devoted to the senses. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . each had access to his paintings. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). especially his half-length figural groups. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art.Dirck van Baburen (c. Judith.) The Renaissance "universal man". So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. knew his former patrons. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and David. lanterns.A system of classification. slayer of Goliath.g. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. e. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. . U uomo universale (It.

varietà (It. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. and the rib vault. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. hour-glasses and clocks. it was used to decorate furniture. carriages. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. snuff boxes and other objects. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. the groin vault. V vanishing point In perspective. a work's richness of subject matter. guttering candles. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. There are a wide range of forms. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. vesper. vanitas (Lat. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. Also varietas (Lat.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. overturned vessels. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.). often gold. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. Vespers (Lat. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Parisian craftsmen. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. "evening") . The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. mixed in. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.

Anger. vimperga Of German origin. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Envy. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. "life") . Vestibule (Lat. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. the church service at which these prayers are said. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross.Prayers said in the evening. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The seven Virtues were: Faith. vestibulum. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vite (Lat. vita. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Charity. "not exposed to winds". if you have it not'. and Sloth. Gluttony. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. In ancient Roman dwellings. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. actual or latent. 'Assume a virtue. pl. in which the word signifies efficacy. Prudence. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Temperance. Covetousness. Lust. Fortitude. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. for example. and Justice. virtù could be used. Hope.

protection from harm. in fact. those of Volterera. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance.g.An account of someone's life and work. Vitruvius Pollio. a biography. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. Sculptors and Architects"). and of Ferrara. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. The wars from 1494 do. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. or recovery from illness has been made. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. 1478-80. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1482-84). And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. 1472. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Marcus (1st cent. published in 1550 and 1568. and appalled recognition of. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. they were from the 18th century . the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

usually linear. Westwerk German word. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. It was intended to have a variety of functions. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. a philosophy of life. pompous on the floor above. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. during its subsequent history. gallery. "Western work of art". Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament.Weltanschauung (Gr. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. . usually restorers. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. based on stylization of various animal forms. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. treasury or a place where justice was administered. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. woodcut A print made from a wood block. "world view") A comprehensive world view.

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