A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

the moulding around a window or door. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). the darker the tone). Degas. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Picasso. the lowest part of the entablature). The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. which is fused to the plate by heating. and Rouault. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. roofed with a half-dome. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. . "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. design. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The adjective is apsidal. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. but in essence the process is as follows. or organization.e. In Greek and Roman literature. architrave (It. including Goya.A semicircular projection. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Also known as an exedra. The term applies also to a print made by this method. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Lancet and Tudor. architectonic (Gk. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). arcade (Lat. arcus. arkhitektonikos. "architectural") Relating to structure. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. piers or pillars. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.

like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. In the case of martyrs. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). archivolto. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. attributum." from Gk. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. dominate. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. voltus. "begin. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. usually a saint.archivolt (Ital. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "front arch. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Dante's Vita nuova . attribute (Lat.and the Comedy . aureole (Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . archeiu. Ars Moriendi (Lat. aureolus. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum." and Lat. "golden. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.

that of Cardano. Later. or baldacchino (It. who had been residing in France since 1305. Six pontificates later. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. 'Captivity'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. in 1377. baldachin. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). applied to the physically . paintings of everyday life. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The actual move was made in 1309. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. often anecdotal. the god of wine and fertility.

Alg. a church. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. AD 273.. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Easter. the Temple of Venus. or canopy. and Poitiers. Customarily. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. el Kantara. France. Baalbek. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. seven. Parma. banderole (It. beggars in rags. Spalato [Split. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. AD 300). .malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). As eight follows the "complete" number. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. banderuola. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade.g. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered.. and abject filthy things. Lebanon. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. or forecourt. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and Epiphany. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. a visual metaphor for the number eight. and Nocera in Italy. Pentecost. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. or connected with. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. pope between 432 and 440. Croatia]. Florence. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. set beneath a domical ciborium. built by Sixtus III. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. such as those at Pisa. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to.

In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. the dramatic use of light and shadow. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1814-1875). were often omitted entirely. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. "king's hall") a church building. and thus a church. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. 1796-1875). the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Jean-François Millet (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1811-1889). stoa basilike. however. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. . 1817-1878). Baroque (Port. Also tunnel vault. basilica (Gk. barocco. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Jules Dupré (French. In architecture. Rubens). and increasingly elaborate decoration. baptisteries. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. southeast of Paris. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. usually facing east. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Originally. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. 1807-1876). 1810-1865). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. in the 1840s and 1850s. achieved through scale. which is reserved for the clergy. Constant Troyon (French.In the 10th century. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Vermeer). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. or baptismal chapels. and (3) everyday realism. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Théodore Rousseau (French. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. in its usual location near the church door .

By association. often with food and drink. Book of Hours . Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. as is to be expected. like their Dutch counterparts. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. particularly porcelain. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. were referred to by their specific contents. also incorrectly called bisque. Biscuit porcelain.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. The term was mainly used up to c. especially Spanish. up until the mid-17th century. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. There were. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. or which is to be left as it is. It takes its name from its grainy texture. domesticity. which is either not yet glazed. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. 1650 in Spain. Bodegónes. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. and often sentimentality. Spanish still-lifes. such as those by Diego Velázquez. such as Waldmüller. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. in which still-life predominates. bodegón Image. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. however. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves).

The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. or seasons. varying from silverish to a rich. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . though these are more often called 'modelli'. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. bozzetto Strictly speaking. but can also be used for painted sketches. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. .an advantage over marble sculpture. months. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. days of the week. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. made as a study for a larger picture. Chantilly). coppery red. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. durability.by a variety of processes. a rapid sketch in oil. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. See flying buttress. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. By extension. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. bozzetto(Italian. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.both hot and cold . and the fact that it is easily workable . buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.

cameo Small relief made from gems. its forms highly stylized. ceramics. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. and work in precious metals. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. private room where works of art. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. mosaics. glass. It also served to glorify the emperor. Among its most distinctive products were icons. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. and Giotto. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). which was often allegorical. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. C cabinet A small. "a chest. notable from Syria and Egypt. casson. box") In architecture. manuscript illuminations. camera obscura . or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. caisson (Fr. Duccio.

the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. which isolates the fabric from the paint. usually in a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. which was usually whitened. followed by smaller and even pocket models. candlestick. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). candelabra. "candle") A large. capitellum. cantoria." and the earliest versions. .-N. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. dating to antiquity. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. both of which have richly carved marble panels. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The Latin name means "dark chamber. hemp. and jute. campanile Bell tower. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. capital (Lat. Structurally. by the 16th century. other materials used are cotton. usually built beside or attached to a church. candela. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. candelabrum (It. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. Portable versions were built. as an aid to drawing. only very rough effects will be obtainable.) A gallery for singers or musicians. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantorie (It. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole.Ancestor of the photographic camera. usually with several branches or arms. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. Niepce created photography. sing. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. pl. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. usually decorated.

cardinalis. cartone. the date of the painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. or fresco. New Charterhouses. cartellino. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Fortitudo (Fortitude). The order combines reclusive and community life. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended.a humorous drawing or parody. In fresco painting. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartellini In a painting. cartouche .Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . near Grenoble. and humanism. Carthusian Order (Lat. tapestry. At the height of the Middle Ages. or a motto. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. details of the subject. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Carmelites (Lat. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. pl.both Italians and artists from other countries . monasteries containing separate hermitages. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartoon (It. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St.

or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. In the 15th century. decorated with gilt gesso.) "castle". cassone (It. or nave. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. they were also used in other countries. putti (cupids).toward the setting sun. The altar is placed at the east end. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. and swags of fruit and flowers. caryatid (Gk. Cascina. or arms of the cross. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. They contained the bride's clothes. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. castello (It. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and many other items of her dowry.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. . Paolo Uccello. where the throne of the bishop is placed. palace. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The main body. linen. cathedral (cathedra. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. a cathedral always faces west . For reasons lost to time and tradition. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. These lead up to the north and south transepts.

In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. as celestial attendants of God. or birdlike characteristics. Christian. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. and perspicere. Relative to the observer. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. animal. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. . Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. rather than intercessory functions. central perspective (Lat. in accordance with their distance from the observer. buildings and figures that are being depicted. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. landscapes. Both the statement of St.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. champlevé (Fr. a celestial winged being with human. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. a throne bearer of the deity. "in the centre". moral laxity in the clergy and so on). cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. and Islamic literature. centralis. continually praise him. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God.

chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. replacing tempera. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. choros. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). reserved for the clergy to pray together.chiaroscuro (It. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. choir (Gk. the Order of the Hospital of St. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Lastly. notably Lucas Cranach (1506)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. or for choral singing. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. North of the Alps. Since Carolingian times. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. "light dark") In painting." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. Hans Burgkmair (1510). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used.

Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera.intersect). Very few still exist in their original positions. and repetition of pattern. gilded rays. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). stucco shells. a massing of carved angels. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. reversed volutes. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. an architect. Sculpted clouds. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. became the most common motif. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The Transparente (completed 1732). and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and garlands. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. ciborium . In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. undulating lines. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. undulating cornices. balustrades. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and the Churrigueresque column. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. is as typically Churrigueresque. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. further enriching the style.

High Renaissance). craft of dyeing. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Their economic condition worsened. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. ciompi. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. They were forbidden to form a trade association. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. In reaction to this revolutionary . in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.and post-medieval Italy. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. placing one of their members. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. the wool carder Michele di Lando. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. who were raised to the status of a guild. Quattrocento (1400s. beaters. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Then. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. combers. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. including the ciompi. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. etc. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Without being members of a guild. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. controlled by the minor guilds. Members of the lower classes. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. or achieve political representation. on July 22. The new government. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. but self-employed. as also were those in the associated.

except in cases where .) An ancient musical instrument. literature. with Italian scholars. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). writers. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. editing and translating a wide range of texts. clair-obscur (Fr. changed greatly from one period to the next.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. the black contours usually with a special line plate. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. the ciompi guild was abolished. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity).episode. . and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. Concepts of the classical. philosophy and art . The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. cithara (Gk. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. philosophy. resembling a lyre. on which strings were plucked. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. however. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). and politics. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.as in Italy these were dispensed with. scholars patiently finding. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. In the 15th century Greek literature.

cognoscente (It. the church service at which these prayers are said. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. literature or music. or "contract. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. ." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. as well as from the Bible. condottiere. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. terrorized the country. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. condottieri (It. those with refined tastes. sing. when set side by side. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. pl. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Green and red. a work's underlying theme. compline (Lat. cognoscenti. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. [hora] completa. blue and orange. occasionally made of wood. arch or ceiling. intensify one another. pl. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. concetto. concetti (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The name was derived from the condotta. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Coffered ceilings. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches.

Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. flagellant confraternities. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Martino). disappeared. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. often under the direction of.e. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Muzio's son. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Francesco Sforza. in the service of Perugia. and Tuscany. By the 16th century. often called compagnie or. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. scuole. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Umbria. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. and German--the condottieri. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Mark (1432). clergy. Spanish. primarily for syphilitics. and his rival Braccio da Montone. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. commonly called either Compagnia di S. confraternities Confraternities. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. By the end of the 14th century. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. i. . one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. With no goal beyond personal gain. convents of convertite.devastating Romagna. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. or with the spiritual assistance of. in Venice. i. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Carmagnola. who won control of Milan in 1450. in the service of Naples. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno.e. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. which spread in the 15th century. Toward the end of the 15th century.

founded c. In medieval painting. however. notwithstanding their location. reformed prostitutes. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). while the Venetian government. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Later. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. e. 1514 in S. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Dorotea in Trastevere. Confraternities.e. and refuges for maidens. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . which accompanied condemned prisoners. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. While the Doge ranked above the Council. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. contour. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. contour (Fr. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. flat outlines. in Florence. but sometimes had their own premises. e. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic.g. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. and those which aided imprisoned debtors.i. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions.g. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contrapposto (It. the Florentine Neri. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contours were initially regular.

and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. conventicle (Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. 1100 and 1300. . brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. cuprum. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). aes cyprium. whose names are inscribed on several works. The style spread as far as England. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Lat. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. an engraving produced in this way. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. conventiculurn. 1280). executed by imported Italian craftsmen.weight on one leg. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. declining moral standards. Reform programs. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. did not achieve any lasting results. corbel In architecture. large cornice or other feature. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. a bracket of stone. They are often ornamented. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which.

the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. or "scourged. Seleucids. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. the condemned man. Next. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Constantine the Great. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. i. reedy sound. Carthaginians. Death. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the most famous victim of crucifixion. An ancestor of the oboe.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. after being whipped. a small dome. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. D dado .e. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. There were various methods of performing the execution. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. cupula. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Usually. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. a semi-circular vault. the first Christian emperor. cupola (Lat. Jews. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. particularly among the Persians. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. "small vat") In architecture. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.

diptychum. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. The term stresses not the literal drawing. diptych (Lat. Germany. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. often an altarpiece. Passau. deacon (Gk. Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. and Linz possessed common characteristics. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Anglican and Orthodox churches. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. danse macabre The dance of death. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Deësis (Gk. an expressive use of nature. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). but the concept behind an art work. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg.g. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. diptychos. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. disegno (It. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. a favorite late medieval picture subject. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. e. diakonos. which was help to be the basis of all art. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. "drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section. design") In Renaissance art theory. usually in matching pairs.

distemperare. doublet A male garment. usually forming a ceiling or roof. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. a 19th-century invention. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. formerly worn under armour. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. "to mix. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Dominicans (Lat. such as we still use today. also used it on canvas. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. donator. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). dome in architecture. Ordo Praedictatorum. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. distemper (Lat. though a few artists.fully realize. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. As disegno appeals to the intellect. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. donor (Lat. is a heavy piece of furniture. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue.Thomas Aquinas. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The studio easel. which runs on castors or wheels. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. when painters took to working out of doors.

"word") . John (19. and the cornice. full face. the frieze. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. a depiction of Jesus. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. sometimes combining panel painting. fresco. en face In portraiture. eschatology (Gk. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. entablature In classical architecture. epitaph (Gk. It consists of the architrave. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. eschaton. and architecture. and logos. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "last". bound and flogged. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. sculpture. ensemble (Fr. in art. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. Hence. Ecce Homo (Lat.

they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Saints Ambrose. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church.death and resurrection. Eucharist (Gk. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Germany. fields and livestock. which is called "maiolica. Jerome. notably Cardinal Pole. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Spain." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Italy." and charis. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica." and that made in the Netherlands and England. eu. and Scandinavia. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Contarini. . 4500 BCE. Augustine. Marcantonio Flaminio. "good. particularly ware made in France. celebrated with bread and wine. which is called "delftware.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Giovanni Morone. which was developed in the Near East ca. farmers. which was famous for maiolica. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. protector of shepherds. and is named for Faenza. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. and of the last things. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Vittoria Colonna. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle.

The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and these areas. a swag.festoni (It. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. and flowers suspended in a loop. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. can in time be seen. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). sword and set of balances. Their attributes are the bow. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. relaxed. such as plague. The colour of his horse is white. black and dun. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. leaves. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. that of the others red. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. fluted of a column or pillar.8). usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. famine and death. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. frescos in Italy . a technique known as a secco fresco. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. war. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Only a small area can be painted in a day. drying to a slightly different tint. fresco (It. Committed to charitable and missionary work. 2 . and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance.

both in churches and in private and public palaces. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. covings and ceilings. usually childish figure. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. the intonaco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . It was founded by Edward III in 1348. genre In a broad sense. landscape and portraiture. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. The technique of buon fresco. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Genius in classical Rome. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. are genres of painting. In art from the classical period onwards. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or fresco secco.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. for example. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster.Save in Venice. where the atmosphere was too damp. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. Final details. a person's invisible tutelary god. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. G Garter. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. or true fresco. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand.

and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. as well as writers and artists. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Maso di Banco.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Bernardo Daddi. and as spurring on men of action. how it differed from notoriety. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Maria Gloriosa). whether it must be connected with the public good. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. in portraits and on tombs. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. As such. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Gobelins . as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.

This ratio is approximately 8:13. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. who appointed Lebrun Director. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. and although it reopened in 1699. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Paris. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In other Italian cities. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. golden section (Lat. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). thereafter it made only tapestries. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. still in existence today. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. . Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order.French tapestry manufactory. Golden Fleece. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum.

The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. In particular. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Gothic Gothic. painting. painting. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The artistic. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). like the cultural and commercial. . The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. or the influence of one building. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. In thinking of Nicola (d. Denis. and lies much deeper than. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. from the 13th until the 17th century.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. the superficial particularities of form. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. Nevertheless. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. that the effects are to be felt. 1200 and c. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. There is a transcendental quality. c. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. Amiens. In sculpture and in painting. 1270. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another.

There was also a flourishing market in guide books. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Canaletto. Klee. and above all Italy. These qualities. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. with sable.and hog-hair brushes. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. if required. to silk. starch. to white or tinted paper and card and. and taste among the English. the Netherlands. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Pannini.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. It is thinned with water for applying. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and Morris Graves. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. . that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Honey. Such tours often took a year or more. are but different appellations of the same thing'. without visible brush marks. and Piranesi. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. the beau idéal of the French. notably in the writings of Bellori. and the great style. chiefly to France. Dubuffet. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. genius. occasionally. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and.

generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. From 1266 to 1268. After the War of the Eight Saints. usually gray. c. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. then as now. In another sense. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. gris. Some writers. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. grisaille (Fr. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. to Provence and Paris. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. which had recruited most of the merchant class. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. exclude drawing from this definition. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. and Waiblingen. In Florence. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. the parties taking a multitude of local names. In the context of the fine arts. Although its palace was rebuilt c. became an abiding feature of European politics. through central Italy. brother of Louis IX. . after this. internal factions in Florence went under other names. however.e. including text as well as illustrations. however. 1216. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou.

commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. as some did). acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. In some towns. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. print or painting.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. but in time they acquired other functions. or professions. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. and provided assistance to members in need. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. surgeons. trade or profession (painters. In 16th century Venice. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. trades. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and greater hostility between master and man. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. heraldry (Fr. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The guild also monitored standards of work. The guilds were not equal. héraut. In some cities. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. notably Florence in the 14th century. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. goldsmiths. In Italy they go back a long way. "herald") . [science] héraldique. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. Guilds were also patrons of art. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In Florence. H hatching In a drawing. for example. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples." from Fr. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers.

He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. they were condemned in 1184. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. with the rules governing their use. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. normative for churchmen. head of the 'carnal Church'. d. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. as Antichrist.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. the Waldensian. indeed. from the start. i. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. one great missionary community. The main impact of the . They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. and regarded themselves as forming. while others merged with the Waldensians. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. However. the Cathars were an anti-church. By contrast. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. together with brethren north of the Alps. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church.

and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. its subjects considered morally elevating. J. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Henry Inman. Durand. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). At the same time. mainly in the south. Thomas Cole. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . hortus conclusus (Lat. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Jasper Cropsey. the emancipation of man from God took place. Frederick E. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. B. F. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister.movement upon the laity was in southern France. my spouse'. humanus. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. and classical literature. working from 1825 to 1875. humanism (Lat. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. in his earlier work. history (usually classical history). Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. In humanism. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and. S. George Inness. F. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Kensett. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Germany. Morse. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. American painters were studying in Rome. Church.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

inventio (It. soft style. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. For instance. the pincers. Donatallo. the scourge that was used in the scourging. originality. the ability to create. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams.g. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. there are representations of the bundle of rods. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. with many further details added. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the veil of St. etc. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. or of other saints.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Human figures. are also used in art literature. it denominates a kind of behaviour. investiture . as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. invention. In the second half of the 14th century. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the rooster of Peter's denial. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. and they are also depicted on their own. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Veronica. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. usually the donors of a work of art. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Derived from classical rhetoric. trecento rococo and lyrical style. The terms court style. and the ladder. the hammer. beautiful style.

J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. although they are usually called Romanists. Andries and Jan Both. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Upon his return to Holland. Nicolaes Berchem. The Both brothers. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. . Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Both and Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). generally Dutch or Flemish. principally Dutch. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Jerome's writings. bathed in a golden haze. of Utrecht. who traveled in Italy and. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. and Jan Asselijn. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Italianizers Northern artists.

encouraged by the Crusades. Archbishop of Genoa. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. especially one at which the Bible is read. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. liberal arts . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem . Emperor Maximilian I (1459. the rite of communion is based on this.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. lectern A reading stand or desk.1519). Legenda Aurea (Lat. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. As their military role grew.

lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.g. astronomy and music.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. "little moon") In architecture. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. geometry. that could be used for public ceremonies.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). often standing in markets and town squares. Kensett (1816-1872). Heade (1819-1904). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. loggia (It. Martin J. John F. then the basis of a philosophical training. its roof supported by columns.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. first the preparatory trivium . . commemorating a marriage. Maria Novella in Florence). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.g. often sublime. lunette (Fr.grammar. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. the quadrivium. painting or sculptural decoration. a semicircular space. that may contain a window. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Tubal for music). It is related to. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. through the use of aerial perspective. Church (1826-1900). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. comprising arithmetic. poetic atmosphere. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. rhetoric and dialectic. together with identifying attributes (e. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). and Frederick E.

especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. antimony yellow. When white is used for painting. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and accompaniments. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. particularly such ware produced in Italy. but they painted genre scenes. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. magna mater (Lat. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and iron red. for example. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. "great mother") A mother goddess. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. historical subjects. originally sung without accompaniment. copper green. madrigal A part song. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. and however bright their lighting effects. usually for the lute. 1855–65. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. being written. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). mandorla (It. Specifically.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. the goddess Cybele. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. active mainly in Florence c. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. manganese purple. "almond") . there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and portraits as well as landscapes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.

there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and crowned with thorns. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. illuminated initials and miniatures. in a specific sense. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. El Greco and Tintoretto. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Developing out of the Renaissance. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. ecclesiastical. which was quarried at Mount . Mannerism (It. often ornamented with decorative borders. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. In architecture. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. complex and crowded compositions. bound. Bronzino. Flanders. marked by flagellation. depending on the social class of the wearer. strong. Parmigianino. maniera. more strictly. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. and literary texts. the hand-written medieval book. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. worn open. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. the Codex manuscriptus. "manner. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. In Mannerist painting. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. mantle An overcoat. It reached to the knee or foot. Burgundy.

"pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. quarried at Massa. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings. Like the finest Imperial coins. a different design on the reverse. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Without monetary value. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. "witness. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). which were beginning to be reverently collected. Carrara. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. having finished his training. the medal's purpose was commemorative. martyrion. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. The pure white Carrara marble. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . martyrdom (Gk. medallion In architecture. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. marmi finti (It. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. particularly by Michelangelo. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead).Pentelicon in Attica. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. an inscription running round the rim. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. sleek surface. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere.

every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. and of the many. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. even grain. for landscapes and portraits. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. 1452-1526/27). Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. in England. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. of the person portrayed on the other side. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 1467-688).round the neck. Medusa In Greek mythology. often anonymous. a Gorgon. It was. A Dutch officer. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. who reflected them. 1640. supposedly to petrify her enemies. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. c. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. The process is essentially extinct today. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. as it were. 14601528). The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. c. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Ludwig von Siegen. the stress on individual character. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. . This yields a soft effect in the print. particularly. The work of these men. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. 1425-1504). When Perseus cuts off her head. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. In pure mezzotint. no line drawing is employed. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. perhaps oddly. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque.

by Tiepolo and Rubens. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. often quite highly finished. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. painting in gouache on vellum or card.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. executed on a very small scale. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. a branch of the Franciscan order. still exist. "word. "one color") Painted in a single color. Parmigianino (d.g. e. a painting executed in a single color. motto (Ital. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Many such small versions. monokhromatos. Francis himself. ink and paint. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. usually portraits. miter A high. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. pointed headdress worn by bishops. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. monochrome (Gk. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. saying") . The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.

Isidore. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. In 1810 0verbeck. and is intersected by the transept. Pforr. but often insipid.from the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In general. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. naturalism (Fr. navis. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Rome. 1816-17. Nazarenes A group of young. . It may have parallel aisles on each side. 1817-29). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and Casino Massimo. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Berlin. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. named after the patron saint of painting. often separated from it by pillars. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. nave (from Lat. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). The invention of personal mottos. and two other members moved to Rome.

The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).) . But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. usually golden. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. but their ideas continued to be influential. nigellus. nimbus (Lat. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. "aureole") The disc or halo. Popes. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. moreover. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. the style of the Ancien Régime. is as true as it is notorious. were usually old when elected. niello (Lat. Nymphaeum (Gk. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites.

oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. They are seen in the form of the columns. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. inborn sin. walnut.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. fluted column and a plain capital. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. and its greater tonal range. O obsequies (Lat. the Doric order. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. orders of architecture In classical architecture. a more elaborate base. observances") Rites performed for the dead. with a sturdy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. capital. a small private chapel. Greek goddesses of Nature. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). or poppy. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. and entablatures. obsequia. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. its richness of colour. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. the three basic styles of design. The earliest. such as linseed. . oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. was the simplest. "services.

reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and the main apartments above. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. designed as a . reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. the Cancelleria). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. tradition and social structure. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). palazzo (It. and. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. Palazzo Strozzi). while shops came to be thought undignified. like cities. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. and large windows appeared on the ground floor.g. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. with biforate windows. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). P pala (Ital. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. standing at the foot of the Cross.

palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and Palladio's in Vicenza. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Papal incentives to build. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. column-caps. Movement of patrons and architects. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy.g. Palazzo Massimi). came to be applied all over Europe. In Venice. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. like Genoa. panel . adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. e. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila).scholarly retreat. cornices and abutments. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. often built next to their titular churches. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s).g. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. evolved influential types. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. especially after the Sack of Rome. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. and large households. Rich. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Other cities. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. behind a sober Florentine façade. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Following Oriental patterns. palmette. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. like the colonnaded vestibule. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes.

mahogany. as it were. A number of matters. so that they might have a voice at court. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and dark walnut are favourites. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). larch. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. enforce law and order. To maintain their authority. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. In the 20th century cedar.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. cedar. including beech. Having a circular plan. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and walnut. fir. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. As successors to St Peter. On a larger scale. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. teak. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. The third aspect was administrative. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. to influence popes in their favour. metal. and modern painters have also used plywood. olive. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and spanned by a single dome. secular rulers. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. fibre-board. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. slate has occasionally been used as a support. as distinct from canvas. the. the management of clerical dues and taxation. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and other synthetic materials as supports. Many other types were used. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. however. and the pressure and temptations . Then. or the incidence of taxation. or other rigid substance. linden. chestnut. panel painting Painting on wooden panels.Term in painting for a support of wood.

if it did no serious damage to the faith. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. however. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). of individuals. however. in spite of further absences from Rome. the most appropriate . however. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. could supersede that of a pope. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. Colonna and Caetani. It was argued that such a council. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. would. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. in the eyes of God. As at Avignon. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. was long in doubt. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). at Avignon. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. to be long delayed. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. from the point of view of its religious associations. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. which seems so inevitable. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. By then. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. There remained. which met at Constance 1414-18. possess an authority which. So onerous. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. as such.as well. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted.that could be applied to them. To resolve the problem of divided authority. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449.

less frequently pig. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. goat. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Parrhasius (c. through lavish patronage of artists.. in classical literature. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. pastoral (Lat. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. nymphs. However. it has also been used for painting. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. 400-300 BC). and with Zeuxis (c. scholars and men of letters. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. as well as a governmental one. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. pastor. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and satyrs. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. to a world peopled by shepherds. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and other animals. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. the creation of a cultural capital. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Passion .

the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. papilio. projecting either centrally or at both ends. . In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. patricius. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. pastiche (fr. hence tent") A lightly constructed. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss.) or pasticcio (It. the crown of thorns. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. and so on. which focus on the Suffering Christ. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. a small.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. but not necessarily a direct copy.The events leading up to Good Friday. pavilion (Lat. and also the archbishop of Pisa. 1478). 1478. patrician (Lat. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. a prominent section of a monumental façade. wealthy citizen. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. ornamental building. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. Meanwhile. such as a garden summerhouse. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. Portrayals of the Passion. "butterfly. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. Francesco Salviati. a region in north-central Italy. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear.

and gnomon. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. pergola (It. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. perspicere.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. pendant (Fr. physis. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. or related elements within an art work. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. persona. "person". But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "hanging. . They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. in particular the face. concept or deity. personification (Lat. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "nature". The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). perspective (Lat. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "to see through. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. and facere. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. physiognomy (Gk. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. Peace of Augsburg A treaty.

and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Rome. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigmentum. Pietà (Lat. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. exemplified. both real and painted. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. affording a good subject for a landscape. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Peter's. proper to take a landscape from. striking the imagination with the force of painting. glue. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. to be expressed in painting. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. remarkable for singularity.piano nobile (Ital. for example. but full of variety. . and the Picturesque generated a large literary output.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. curious details. pigment (Lat. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). usually above the ground floor. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. containing the public rooms. but may consist of a cluster of columns. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. or resin to make paint.) The main floor of a building. A pier is generally larger than a column.

In the 15th century. For this reason.pilaster (Lat. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. more sporadic outbreaks. also used in Spain's American colonies. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). It seems probable. During 1348 the Black Death. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. for instance. perhaps. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. plague Plague. Rocco and Sebastian. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. a shaft. outside Tuscany. though in less widespread. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. it is difficult to find. however. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. pilastrum. and thereafter all Europe. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Thenceforward. despite regional variations. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. and capital. in October 1347. moreover. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. such as Florence and Genoa. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . It is often fluted. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. since. it has a base. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. "pillar") A flat. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. the burning of 'infected' clothing. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries.

The first phase. or simply the Plateresque. Timaeus. Philebus. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. composition. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Phaedrus.e. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. i. more severe. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . A student of Socrates. and sinuous scrolls. harmonious. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. correct classical orders became frequent. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Phaedo. The second phase. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Theatetus and the Laws. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. like its successor. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. placement. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53).. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. heraldic escutcheons. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. In contrast with Aristotle. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. and unified style using massive geometric forms. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Symposium. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Diego evolved a purer. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The first phase. or appropriateness. which lasted only a few decades.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. are the masterworks of the second style. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.

seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. but not completely. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Rather unsystematic. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and Agostino Steuco (c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. partially. and he utilized many other writings. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato.1577) becoming particularly popular. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. A new Latin translation. Iamblichus. replaced Ficino's. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. all of which he also translated into Latin. 1472-c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Plotinus. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. including those of Plotinus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 .in Plato's thought. near Florence. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus.

an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. pointed arch In architecture. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Plato was read in the universities. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. or statue. pluvial (Med. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. where a pectoral is used to close it. such as processions and consecrations. porticus. portico (Lat.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. column. plinth (Gk. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. poluptukhos. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . plinthos. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. as in classical architecture). polyptych (Gk. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluviale. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Lat.

The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Maria Novella. The equestrian portrait. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Florence. Gattarnelata. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The realism of the clear.sculptors such as Donatello.. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. flattened image. Desiderio da Settignano.e. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Siena. the Carracci. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. and only a decorative accessory to form. Palazzo Farnese). Group portraits. 1328. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Florence (1486-90). Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. decorating whole rooms. Campidoglio). Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. and the . Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. psychologically more complex. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. was revived in the 14th century. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Venice). inessential. Cathedral) by Uccello. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Mantua. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Colleoni. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. National Gallery). The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.

Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. bishop of Chioggia. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. bishop of Asti. 1494). when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. and. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. of the sermon as an art form. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. primarily the mendicants. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Correggio. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. The styles of S. however. Fiamma's sermons. together with the Dominican Savonarola. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Charles Le Brun. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. bishops especially. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. abrasive even. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. minatory exhortations. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Borromeo. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The sermons of Visdomini. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. and Peter Paul Rubens. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. are not florid in style. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. who had as their ideal masters Titian. As Poussin was a Frenchman. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. was versed in classical and patristic . Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Savonarola and Musso. from the secular clergy. several of whom became bishops. to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders.

had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. however. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. presbyterion "Council of Elders") .rhetoric. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.g.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . though often relatively very wide . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. prefiguration Typology . The New Testament references in these would. Because of the small size of predelle . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. among them Holman Hunt. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Millais and Rossetti. Naples). this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. tapestries. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. and so forth. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. predella (It.

Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. again indicative of the purpose they served. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The following are important: 1. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the quadrature. and Houdon among sculptors. intended as complete works of art in themselves. 2. profil perdu (Fr. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. notably David. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. the golden section. 3. Fragonard. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. these highly finished drawings. proportion (Lat. Girardon. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. the Canon of Proportion. Prix de Rome A scholarship. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. "evenness") in painting. which uses the square . sculpture and architecture. proportio. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body.

Unlike Pozzo. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. a fifth = 2:3.as a unit of measurement. It was common in Roman art. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. 4. provenance The origins of an art work. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. and 5. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. for example). Rome. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putti sing. one half the length of the other). which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Ignazio. putto (It. triangulation. . the steward or treasurer of a church. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. a fourth = 3:4. harmonic proportions. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. "boys") Plump naked little boys. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size.

religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. with the Anglican Church developing in England. relief (Lat. relevare. Among the . relicquiae. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). or the Jesuits. the great orders of monks. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. refectory (Med. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento.g.Quattrocento (It. also known as the Realist school. Fra Angelico and others. in particular works by Masaccio. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in which figures are almost detached from their background. the object of particular veneration. in which figures are seen half round. friars and nuns. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. basso rilievo). Botticelli. or some item connected with a saint. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Brunelleschi. relic (Lat. In 16th century Europe. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). canons regular. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Donatello. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. e. and high relief (alto rilievo). hermits. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Lat.

The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. 1012. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. After the repression of the Spirituals. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the Conventuals. who had no overall organization originally. was the congregation of S. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. S. the great patriarch of Venice. and the generally moderate Observants. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. however. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Founded by St Romuald c. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Bologna (1419). presided over by chapters general. The Silvestrines. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Bernardino of Siena. The same bull . the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. In 1504. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S.e. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Giustina. Padua. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Mantua. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Giorgio in Alga. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. although technically of secular canons. That of S. Benedetto. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. i. The Conventuals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. and their more institutionalized brethren. At the same time. various groups were fused in the latter body. Maria di Fregonaia. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Lucca.contemplative orders. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the most notable being S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Venice (1404). they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Salvatore. it became the Cassinese congregation. The Benedictines. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. which was to become the main Italian one. In 1517. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty.

Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. founded in 1535 by S. Michele in Isola. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the Theatines. founded by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. however. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The first. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Other orders of Friars were the Minims. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Filippo Neri. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. a historical period. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. also. however. Venice. Gerolamo Aemiliani. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Gaetano da Thiene. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Angela Merici.

'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Thereafter. life. All-Roundness. and competition with. increasingly. however. of scholarship. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. of arts. because its core of energy. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. . For long. and his own as potentially one of light. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. 1875-86). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of letters. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. which had begun early in the 14th century. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. even Amoralism. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. too long forgotten glories. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. the historical reality of antiquity. however. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. as well as political. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of an energetic revival of interest in. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. was so vast and potent.century. of 'darkness'.

Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. (3) There is not a true. though sometimes of metal. the previous record . The challenges are to be accepted. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Cathedral of SaintBavon. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. let alone a uniform. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. etc. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. There was an early. gratefully. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Though thus challenged. and is decorated with paintings.erased. sometimes. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. candlesticks. and mass media. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. in the more limited sense. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.) was the term chosen. and other liturgical objects. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. especially in the High Gothic period.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). retables can be detached and. congruence between. It is for this additional. however. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. of industrialization. mobilized nationalism. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. consist merely of a painting. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. etc.with all its shabbiness . statues. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Ghent). repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. letters. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. later still to Genoa.

the St. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). With the development of freestanding altars. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. is a typical product. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. and architecture dominating the 18th century. rilievo (It.of St Mark in Venice. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Originally commissioned in 976. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century.France. "relief") In painting. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. richly decorated with organic forms. like 'Gothic'. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Rococo A style of design. As the name suggests. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. . and 'Romanesque'. however. in several countries . Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. literally. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Spain . and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque art. Germany. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture.in the 11th century. rocaille (French. painting. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. More usually. almost simultaneously. Italy. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. retables have become extinct. Louis XV furniture. its mood lighthearted and witry.

Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Claude. Q. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. . they maintained. Pannini and Mengs. The aim of painting. B. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. M. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. van Heemskerk. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. In addition. Mabuse. the development of nationalistic pride. such as red ochre. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Massys and M. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Rome. Piranesi. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. stylized design representing an open rose. van Orley. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity.

sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Clement escaped into Castel S. holy orders. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. glance and movement . Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and anointing of the sick. multiple sets used in succession. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. penance. local saints. Sacra Conversazione (It. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. matrimony. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. the Eucharist. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and Lorenzo de' Medici. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Subjects were nominally sacred. Eastern independent. supported by lay confraternities. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. gutted. Written primarily in ottava rima. Orthodox. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but others were the work of well-known figures. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and impoverished. In the . Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and Protestant churches. when it finally left the city it had devastated. There were no limits on time. from the Old and New Testaments.greatly increased. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. confirmation.expressed through gesture. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. pious legend and hagiography. Many compositions were anonymous. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.

which in the Gospel According to John. Anglican. and sacraments. sacraments. Saracens . as an excuse to revolt. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. baptism and the Eucharist. used for drawing. the sun of righteousness. the Orthodox Church does not.e. large room. The theology of the Orthodox Church. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. strictly speaking. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. the Bentivoglio. Candidates first face west. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. was buried under a new fortress. Lutheran. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger." sala (Ital. the symbolic direction of Christ.e. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. foot washing. was not maintained as a sacrament.early church the number of sacraments varied. The chief focus of discontent. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . notably from Florence and in Germany.i. Salt War. and then face east. Immediately following baptism. replaces the Lord's Supper. that the price of salt should be increased. Hence. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. It is still practiced on special occasions. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. make such strict distinctions.) Hall. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. as in the Church of the Brethren. in principle.." which are called sacramentals.. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. chapter 13. They were still seeking aid. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Thus. the Rocca Paolina. The classical Protestant churches (i. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.

whose writings. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.During the Middle Ages.c. satyr In Greek mythology. 210 AD). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. legs and horns of a goat. 45 BC). sarcophagus. sarcophagi (Gk. pl. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 360 . 160 . 270 BC). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). are lost. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the god of wine. Little known in the Middle Ages. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. The publication of Latin (1562. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. the Arabs or Muslims. wood or terracotta. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. made of stone. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and many others. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. human-like woodland deities with the ears.

was called Bamboccio. while England. In northern Italy. on one side. Alexander V. Louis I (d. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. while devout Christians agonized. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. who had the support of the Avignon pope. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. but with little effect. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See.for example Pieter van Laer. However. than their medieval predecessors. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. one of the early leaders. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. and. most of whom. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. the Florentines. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). scholasticism . who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy.they had individual Bentnames . were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. on the other. in June 1409. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). who recognized the Roman pope. with France and her allies Aragon. for. As a result. being Frenchmen. Schism. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. from time to time both he and his opponents. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support.

) . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Serenissima (Ital. None the less. (See also: fresco. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). if lime-water was used. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers.The term is ambivalent. and theology. because the secco technique is much less permanent. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Medieval scholars. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. university-based study. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. textual scholarship. As such. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Christian. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.were different from those of medieval. that scholasticism was left. Often called the burning ones. as it is easier to add details in this way. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. notably Aquinas. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries.moral philosophy. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. as it were. on one side. history and rhetoric . and Islamic literature. It was because the central concerns of humanism . moreover. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). Padua. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. the plaster had to be damped before painting. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.

sibyls (Gk.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. which were all identical in thickness. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. usually presided over by individual families. Sibyls foretold the Birth. women who could prophesy. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. the number gradually rose to ten. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Signoria (It. "prophetess") In antiquity. sinopia . Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. They first appear in alpine monasteries. at the same time.. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Originally. there was only one Sibyl. in use since the Middle Ages. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. in the period of classical antiquity. sfumato A technique. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sibylla. In Christian legend. brass. and the delicate. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Servite (Lat. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Med. term. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Lat. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. an expression of Venetian self-confidence.

the red chalk used to make such a drawing. especially in the flow of drapery. "mark. brand. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil).) Wooden ceiling decoration. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. stigma (Gk. soffit (Lat. and. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. pronounced as French. Ital. in other words. .. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. as the name implies.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. staffage This word. Stanze (Ital. It is very closely related to International Gothic. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Francis of Assisi. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. stigmata. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. sing. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. sotto in sù (It.'Beautiful Madonnas'. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.

The vogue for the Sublime. pl. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Indeed. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. stucco A type of light.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. whose verses actually fabrications . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. In a looser sense. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. studioli (It. studiolo. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. John Milton. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. with that for the Picturesque. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). both external and internal. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. supremacy .

the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. chiefly from Flanders. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. tempera (Lat. was being decorated with frescoes. his own headquarters. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. doubtless. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). i. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. into Italy. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. These were imported. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. . Salviati and Allori.Historically.e. temperare. then being replaced by oil paint. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. or cartoons. and in literature. London. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. both for panel painting and fresco. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. But the Italians did not make them. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. The subject is underexplored. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. 1407).and. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.

quarter face. and other surfaces. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. widely used form. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "a commonplace") In literature. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "fields. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tondo. topos. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. topoi (Gk. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. model. i. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. walls. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. and sculptures. theme or motif. pl. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. in art. tondi (It. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. topiary (Gk. triumphal arch. and profile. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. terraferma (Ital. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. in the architecture of ancient Rome. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. Trajan's Column . the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted.terracotta (It. topia. and later to subdivide gable ends. vessels. figure of speech. pl.e. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.

Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. added to the glamour of the triumph. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. death. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the wars by which they were won . Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. of both sexes'. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court).and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. patriarchs and prophets. Early triptychs were often portable. fame. Meanwhile. Trinity (Lat. "threefold") in Christianity. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. the Son and the Holy Spirit. beside it the army of martyrs. behind it. or wings. of virtues and of the arts. Battista Sforza. triptych (Gk. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. time and eternity. Disseminated soon after his death. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. into a number of less controversial forms. a car so brave'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. .poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. "threefold") A painting in three sections. usually an altarpiece.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. after 'a countless number of virgins. as it were. chastity. trinitas. tryptychos.' Before it go the apostles. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. the military triumph became sublimated. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel.

triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. often decorated with sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. it is usually decorated with carvings. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. through various naturalistic devices. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. tusche A thick. typology . enclosed by an arch. tromp l'oeil (Fr. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tympanum (Lat. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. first recorded in 1232. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. viscous black ink. It incorporates Renaissance features. In medieval architecture. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Dating from classical times. "drum") In classical architecture. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory.

1610). In Christian thought. slayer of Goliath. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters .g. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and David. The numerous candles. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. knew his former patrons. U uomo universale (It. where they were most accessible. each had access to his paintings. killer of Holofernes. Judith. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. were popular with them also. e.A system of classification. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. such as five works devoted to the senses. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. . 1590-1624). lanterns.Dirck van Baburen (c.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. especially his half-length figural groups. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.) The Renaissance "universal man". and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).

a work's richness of subject matter. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. snuff boxes and other objects. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. often gold. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Vespers (Lat. the groin vault.). "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. mixed in. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. guttering candles. V vanishing point In perspective. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and even flowers (which will soon fade). vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. overturned vessels. varietà (It. There are a wide range of forms. vesper. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. and the rib vault. hour-glasses and clocks. Also varietas (Lat. vanitas (Lat. carriages. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. "evening") . Parisian craftsmen. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. it was used to decorate furniture.

vimperga Of German origin. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Prudence. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Lust. "life") . In ancient Roman dwellings. and Sloth. actual or latent. Hope. pl. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Charity. Covetousness. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Anger. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. "not exposed to winds". the church service at which these prayers are said. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. if you have it not'. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Gluttony. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Vestibule (Lat. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. vite (Lat. vestibulum. Envy. vita. in which the word signifies efficacy. Fortitude. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. and Justice. Temperance. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'.Prayers said in the evening. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. for example. 'Assume a virtue. virtù could be used.

1478-80. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. a biography. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and appalled recognition of. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. usually when a prayer for good fortune. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. they were from the 18th century . And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. and of Ferrara. The wars from 1494 do. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Vitruvius Pollio. 1482-84). protection from harm. or recovery from illness has been made. those of Volterera. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. Sculptors and Architects"). whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. in fact. published in 1550 and 1568. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1472. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements.An account of someone's life and work. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Marcus (1st cent.g.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Westwerk German word. woodcut A print made from a wood block. "Western work of art". gallery. a philosophy of life. usually linear. pompous on the floor above. during its subsequent history. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. . Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. It was intended to have a variety of functions. treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually restorers. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. based on stylization of various animal forms. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print.Weltanschauung (Gr. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. "world view") A comprehensive world view.

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