A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and Rouault.e.A semicircular projection. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. . In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. but in essence the process is as follows. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. arkhitektonikos. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. the darker the tone). the moulding around a window or door. "architectural") Relating to structure. architrave (It. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. There are several variants of the technique. The term applies also to a print made by this method. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. Lancet and Tudor. arcus. or organization. In Greek and Roman literature. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. piers or pillars. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Also known as an exedra. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). the lowest part of the entablature). which is fused to the plate by heating. Picasso. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. design. arcade (Lat. including Goya. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Degas. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. at the east end of a church behind the altar. The adjective is apsidal. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. roofed with a half-dome. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. architectonic (Gk.

it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. usually a saint. archivolto. Dante's Vita nuova . "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. attributum. aureole (Lat. archeiu. "golden. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. In the case of martyrs. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. aureolus." and Lat. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. attribute (Lat. voltus. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.archivolt (Ital. dominate. "front arch. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements." from Gk.and the Comedy . autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "begin.

Bacchic rites were often orgiastic.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Six pontificates later. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. in 1377. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. or baldacchino (It. The actual move was made in 1309. paintings of everyday life. Later. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. baldachin. who had been residing in France since 1305. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. that of Cardano. applied to the physically . The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the god of wine and fertility. 'Captivity'. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. often anecdotal. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well.

a visual metaphor for the number eight. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e.. such as those at Pisa. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. and abject filthy things.g. a church. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. pope between 432 and 440.. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Spalato [Split. or forecourt. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Florence.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Parma. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Alg. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. AD 273. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Baalbek. built by Sixtus III. Easter. Croatia]. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. set beneath a domical ciborium. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. . and Epiphany. France. banderole (It. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. beggars in rags. and Nocera in Italy. the Temple of Venus. el Kantara. As eight follows the "complete" number. seven. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. AD 300). The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Lebanon. and Poitiers. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. banderuola. Customarily. Pentecost. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. or canopy. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. or connected with.

a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. "king's hall") a church building. 1810-1865). barocco. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. in its usual location near the church door . southeast of Paris. in the 1840s and 1850s. Constant Troyon (French. Vermeer). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. which is reserved for the clergy. . a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. usually facing east. and thus a church. Jean-François Millet (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. stoa basilike. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. baptisteries. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Baroque (Port. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Originally. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. 1817-1878). the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Rubens). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Théodore Rousseau (French. In architecture. basilica (Gk. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Also tunnel vault. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1811-1889). however. achieved through scale.In the 10th century. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. or baptismal chapels. 1807-1876). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and the growth of absolutist monarchies.an allusion to entering the Christian life. something of earlier symbolism survives. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and (3) everyday realism. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Jules Dupré (French. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1814-1875). were often omitted entirely. 1796-1875).

also incorrectly called bisque. like their Dutch counterparts. Biscuit porcelain. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. bodegón Image. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. however. especially Spanish. particularly porcelain. up until the mid-17th century. Bodegónes. such as Waldmüller. 1650 in Spain. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. or which is to be left as it is. There were. which is either not yet glazed. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The term was mainly used up to c. in which still-life predominates. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. as is to be expected. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. It takes its name from its grainy texture. were referred to by their specific contents. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). such as those by Diego Velázquez. often with food and drink. Book of Hours . though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. domesticity. By association. Spanish still-lifes. and often sentimentality. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense.

though these are more often called 'modelli'. months. bozzetto Strictly speaking. . The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. bozzetto(Italian. By extension. but can also be used for painted sketches. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. days of the week. Chantilly).A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.by a variety of processes. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. See flying buttress. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. coppery red. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. or seasons.both hot and cold . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. durability. and the fact that it is easily workable .an advantage over marble sculpture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. a rapid sketch in oil. varying from silverish to a rich. made as a study for a larger picture.

and work in precious metals. over time the term was used for the collections themselves.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). C cabinet A small. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. cameo Small relief made from gems. "a chest. Duccio. notable from Syria and Egypt. glass. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caisson (Fr. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. mosaics. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. and Giotto. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. box") In architecture. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. ceramics. casson. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. It also served to glorify the emperor. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. manuscript illuminations. which was often allegorical. private room where works of art. Among its most distinctive products were icons. its forms highly stylized. camera obscura . which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet.

Ancestor of the photographic camera. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. campanile Bell tower. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. hemp. usually decorated. "candle") A large. Niepce created photography. other materials used are cotton." and the earliest versions. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Portable versions were built. candela. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. by the 16th century. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. usually built beside or attached to a church. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The Latin name means "dark chamber. which was usually whitened. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. candelabrum (It. . Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. usually with several branches or arms. usually in a church. candlestick. dating to antiquity.) A gallery for singers or musicians. cantorie (It. capital (Lat. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.-N. sing. capitellum. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. and jute. pl. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. which isolates the fabric from the paint. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. followed by smaller and even pocket models. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. as an aid to drawing. cantoria. candelabra. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). both of which have richly carved marble panels. Structurally. only very rough effects will be obtainable.

a humorous drawing or parody. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. The order combines reclusive and community life. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Fortitudo (Fortitude). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. details of the subject. At the height of the Middle Ages. the date of the painting. and humanism. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartoon (It. cartouche . pl. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . or fresco.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. New Charterhouses. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. monasteries containing separate hermitages. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . near Grenoble. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Carthusian Order (Lat. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the endeavour to attain true humanity. cartellini In a painting. In fresco painting. or a motto. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartone. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cardinalis. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. tapestry. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartellino. Carmelites (Lat.

toward the setting sun. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. They contained the bride's clothes. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. putti (cupids). The altar is placed at the east end. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. castello (It. decorated with gilt gesso. These lead up to the north and south transepts. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. . Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. In the 15th century. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. linen. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Worked on at intervals 1504-06.) "castle". seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. a cathedral always faces west . the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. Cascina. palace. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. and swags of fruit and flowers. cassone (It. and many other items of her dowry. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. The main body. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. For reasons lost to time and tradition. or arms of the cross. they were also used in other countries. Paolo Uccello. caryatid (Gk. cathedral (cathedra. or nave. where the throne of the bishop is placed. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon.

Relative to the observer. rather than intercessory functions. animal. centralis. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. "in the centre". Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. as celestial attendants of God. Christian. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. landscapes. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. champlevé (Fr. . but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. and Islamic literature. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. buildings and figures that are being depicted. and perspicere. Both the statement of St. or birdlike characteristics. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. a throne bearer of the deity. continually praise him. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. central perspective (Lat. a celestial winged being with human.

The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. or for choral singing. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. replacing tempera. choir (Gk. the Order of the Hospital of St. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . choros." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. Lastly. "light dark") In painting. Hans Burgkmair (1510)." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. North of the Alps. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church.chiaroscuro (It. Since Carolingian times.

The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and repetition of pattern. undulating lines. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that.intersect). and garlands. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. and the Churrigueresque column. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. undulating cornices. Very few still exist in their original positions. reversed volutes. is as typically Churrigueresque. stucco shells. became the most common motif. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. an architect. balustrades. ciborium . In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. gilded rays. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. The Transparente (completed 1732). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. which was shaped like an inverted cone. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. a massing of carved angels. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Sculpted clouds. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. further enriching the style. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross.

and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. In reaction to this revolutionary . The new government. beaters. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. as also were those in the associated. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Their economic condition worsened. the wool carder Michele di Lando. craft of dyeing. Then. Quattrocento (1400s. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. combers. ciompi. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. but self-employed. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted.and post-medieval Italy. on July 22. Without being members of a guild. High Renaissance).A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. who were raised to the status of a guild. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. They were forbidden to form a trade association. placing one of their members. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. or achieve political representation. etc. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. controlled by the minor guilds. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Members of the lower classes. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. including the ciompi.

clair-obscur (Fr. scholars patiently finding. however. philosophy.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). except in cases where .episode. literature. and politics. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.as in Italy these were dispensed with. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.) An ancient musical instrument. the ciompi guild was abolished. Concepts of the classical. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. the black contours usually with a special line plate. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. cithara (Gk. with Italian scholars. philosophy and art . on which strings were plucked. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In the 15th century Greek literature. changed greatly from one period to the next. editing and translating a wide range of texts. resembling a lyre. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. writers. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. . In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.

"completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. occasionally made of wood. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Coffered ceilings. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. terrorized the country. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. or "contract. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. pl. the church service at which these prayers are said. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. [hora] completa. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. intensify one another. concetti (It. cognoscente (It. pl. . literature or music. concetto. compline (Lat. blue and orange. The name was derived from the condotta. condottiere. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. as well as from the Bible.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. cognoscenti. those with refined tastes. a work's underlying theme. Green and red. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. condottieri (It. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. sing. when set side by side. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. arch or ceiling. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches.

e. confraternities Confraternities. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Martino). who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. scuole. primarily for syphilitics. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. or with the spiritual assistance of. which spread in the 15th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities.e. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Mark (1432). and Tuscany. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Muzio's son. Spanish. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. flagellant confraternities. often called compagnie or. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Umbria. and German--the condottieri. convents of convertite. i. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. disappeared. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. clergy. in the service of Perugia. in the service of Naples. in Venice. Francesco Sforza. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. i. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. With no goal beyond personal gain. often under the direction of. commonly called either Compagnia di S. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. who won control of Milan in 1450. By the end of the 14th century. Carmagnola. Toward the end of the 15th century.devastating Romagna. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. and his rival Braccio da Montone. By the 16th century. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. . Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases.

e. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. contour. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). e. however. In medieval painting. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. While the Doge ranked above the Council. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. while the Venetian government. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order.g. contrapposto (It. Later. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. contours were initially regular. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. notwithstanding their location. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. contour (Fr. but sometimes had their own premises. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. reformed prostitutes. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Confraternities. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. and refuges for maidens.e. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. 1514 in S. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Dorotea in Trastevere. founded c. in Florence.g. the Florentine Neri. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.i. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. flat outlines. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. which accompanied condemned prisoners.

an engraving produced in this way. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. 1100 and 1300. Lat. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. started the process of inner reform in the Church. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. cuprum. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. conventiculurn. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. The style spread as far as England. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Reform programs. large cornice or other feature. declining moral standards. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. conventicle (Lat. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. aes cyprium. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. whose names are inscribed on several works. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. 1280). Copperplate engraving (late Lat. corbel In architecture. a bracket of stone. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. did not achieve any lasting results. They are often ornamented.weight on one leg. . Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c.

so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. i. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. a small dome.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Constantine the Great. the condemned man. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. cupula. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Usually. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Seleucids. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. reedy sound. particularly among the Persians. a semi-circular vault. after being whipped. the first Christian emperor. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Next. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. "small vat") In architecture. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. or "scourged.e. Death. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Carthaginians. the most famous victim of crucifixion. There were various methods of performing the execution. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. cupola (Lat. D dado . An ancestor of the oboe. Jews. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground.

g. an expressive use of nature. Gk. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. diakonos. and Linz possessed common characteristics. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diptych (Lat. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. "drawing. Germany. deacon (Gk. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. often an altarpiece. Passau. e. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. danse macabre The dance of death. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. but the concept behind an art work. diptychos. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. usually in matching pairs. Anglican and Orthodox churches. The term stresses not the literal drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. Deësis (Gk. disegno (It. design") In Renaissance art theory. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. diptychum. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art.

fully realize. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. which runs on castors or wheels. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. The studio easel. a 19th-century invention. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. usually forming a ceiling or roof. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). such as we still use today. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. though a few artists. doublet A male garment. distemper (Lat. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. formerly worn under armour. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. "to mix. Dominicans (Lat. Ordo Praedictatorum. dome in architecture. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. As disegno appeals to the intellect. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. donor (Lat. also used it on canvas.Thomas Aquinas. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. donator. distemperare. is a heavy piece of furniture. when painters took to working out of doors.

a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. sometimes combining panel painting. "last". "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. Hence. the frieze. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. eschatology (Gk. "word") . and architecture. and the cornice. bound and flogged. Ecce Homo (Lat. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. epitaph (Gk. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. en face In portraiture. sculpture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. entablature In classical architecture. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. eschaton. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. John (19. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. fresco. and logos. full face. It consists of the architrave. a depiction of Jesus. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. in art. ensemble (Fr.

Giovanni Morone. Carnesecchi and Ochino. notably Cardinal Pole. Jerome. Marcantonio Flaminio. particularly ware made in France. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Saints Ambrose." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Equated with the Greek god Pan. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. "good. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. which is called "delftware." and charis. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. fields and livestock. Contarini. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and Scandinavia. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. protector of shepherds." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. farmers. celebrated with bread and wine. eu. Vittoria Colonna. and is named for Faenza. Germany. . Augustine. which was famous for maiolica. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. 4500 BCE. which was developed in the Near East ca.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Eucharist (Gk.death and resurrection. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Italy. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. and of the last things. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. which is called "maiolica. Spain. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism.

The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The colour of his horse is white. black and dun. drying to a slightly different tint. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre.festoni (It. fresco (It. and these areas. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. and flowers suspended in a loop. can in time be seen. famine and death. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. leaves. Only a small area can be painted in a day. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. that of the others red. a swag. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. frescos in Italy . a technique known as a secco fresco. 2 . sword and set of balances. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Their attributes are the bow. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful.8). war. relaxed. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. fluted of a column or pillar. Committed to charitable and missionary work. such as plague. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo.

Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or fresco secco. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Genius in classical Rome. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. genre In a broad sense. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . usually childish figure. landscape and portraiture. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. for example. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand.Save in Venice. G Garter. a person's invisible tutelary god. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or true fresco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. are genres of painting. where the atmosphere was too damp. The technique of buon fresco. covings and ceilings. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. both in churches and in private and public palaces. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. In art from the classical period onwards. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. the intonaco. Final details. and to a lesser extent for tapestries.

Gobelins . and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. whether it must be connected with the public good. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and as spurring on men of action. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Bernardo Daddi. how it differed from notoriety. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. in portraits and on tombs. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Maria Gloriosa). as well as writers and artists. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. As such. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Maso di Banco. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature.

still in existence today. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). who appointed Lebrun Director. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. golden section (Lat. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Golden Fleece. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Paris. In other Italian cities. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. This ratio is approximately 8:13. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew.French tapestry manufactory. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. thereafter it made only tapestries. . and although it reopened in 1699.

that the effects are to be felt. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. from the 13th until the 17th century. The artistic. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Amiens. Gothic Gothic. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and lies much deeper than. Nevertheless. the superficial particularities of form. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. c. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. or the influence of one building. . and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. In particular. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). painting. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. 1200 and c. In sculpture and in painting. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. like the cultural and commercial. In thinking of Nicola (d. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Denis. 1270. There is a transcendental quality. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres.

notably in the writings of Bellori. are but different appellations of the same thing'. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Honey. genius. with sable. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Pannini. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Canaletto. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. These qualities. if required. and the great style. without visible brush marks. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. occasionally. the Netherlands. to silk. the beau idéal of the French. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and Morris Graves. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). to white or tinted paper and card and. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. . It is thinned with water for applying. Dubuffet. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. starch. and taste among the English. and above all Italy. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. sometimes in the company of a tutor.and hog-hair brushes. and Piranesi. Such tours often took a year or more. chiefly to France. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Klee.

In Florence. Some writers. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. After the War of the Eight Saints. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. became an abiding feature of European politics. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. c. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. which had recruited most of the merchant class.e. 1216. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. gris. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. usually gray. brother of Louis IX. after this. In the context of the fine arts. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. From 1266 to 1268. to Provence and Paris. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. however. In another sense. then as now. and Waiblingen. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the parties taking a multitude of local names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. grisaille (Fr. through central Italy. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. including text as well as illustrations. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. exclude drawing from this definition. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Although its palace was rebuilt c. . however. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples.

trade or profession (painters. The guilds were not equal. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. goldsmiths. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. and greater hostility between master and man. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. The guild also monitored standards of work. [science] héraldique. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. trades. In Florence. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. but in time they acquired other functions. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. héraut. In Italy they go back a long way. H hatching In a drawing. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In some cities. surgeons. In some towns. Guilds were also patrons of art. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. print or painting. notably Florence in the 14th century. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and provided assistance to members in need.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. for example. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute." from Fr. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. "herald") . such as Brescia and Vicenza. "[knowledge of] heraldry. or professions. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. as some did). heraldry (Fr. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In 16th century Venice.

The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. as Antichrist. one great missionary community. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. together with brethren north of the Alps. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. normative for churchmen. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. d. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. with the rules governing their use. they were condemned in 1184. and regarded themselves as forming. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. The main impact of the . head of the 'carnal Church'. i. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. while others merged with the Waldensians. indeed. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. the Waldensian. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. from the start.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. the Cathars were an anti-church. By contrast. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. However. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty.

One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. and classical literature. Morse. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Jasper Cropsey. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Thomas Cole. J. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. working from 1825 to 1875. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. American painters were studying in Rome. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. humanism (Lat. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Frederick E. Kensett. Germany. F. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. my spouse'.movement upon the laity was in southern France. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. history (usually classical history). its subjects considered morally elevating. in his earlier work. Church. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Durand. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. George Inness. S. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. the emancipation of man from God took place. At the same time. humanus. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. hortus conclusus (Lat. B. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. In humanism. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). F. mainly in the south. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Henry Inman. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery .

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

Derived from classical rhetoric. For instance. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. The terms court style. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the scourge that was used in the scourging. soft style. In the second half of the 14th century. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century.g. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. investiture . Judas' thirty pieces of silver. originality. usually the donors of a work of art. the rooster of Peter's denial. the pincers. and the ladder.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Human figures. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. there are representations of the bundle of rods. trecento rococo and lyrical style. beautiful style. or of other saints. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. invention. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. it denominates a kind of behaviour. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. the hammer. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Veronica. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the veil of St. Donatallo. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. are also used in art literature. inventio (It. etc. and they are also depicted on their own. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. with many further details added. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the ability to create.

a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. of Utrecht. bathed in a golden haze. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. who traveled in Italy and. The Both brothers. Upon his return to Holland. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Both and Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. principally Dutch. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Italianizers Northern artists. . generally Dutch or Flemish. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. and Jan Asselijn. although they are usually called Romanists. Andries and Jan Both. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Jerome's writings.

Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Archbishop of Genoa. liberal arts . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). As their military role grew. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. the rite of communion is based on this. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). John of Jerusalem . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . lectern A reading stand or desk. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Legenda Aurea (Lat. encouraged by the Crusades. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.1519). especially one at which the Bible is read.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.

Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. the quadrivium.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. It is related to. often standing in markets and town squares. loggia (It. lunette (Fr. often sublime. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. John F. then the basis of a philosophical training. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. geometry. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Maria Novella in Florence). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Martin J. that could be used for public ceremonies. Tubal for music).grammar. through the use of aerial perspective. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. comprising arithmetic. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. painting or sculptural decoration. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. astronomy and music. "little moon") In architecture. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. its roof supported by columns.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. together with identifying attributes (e.g. Heade (1819-1904). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.g. first the preparatory trivium . Church (1826-1900). Kensett (1816-1872). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. and Frederick E. a semicircular space. poetic atmosphere. that may contain a window. . Pythagoras for arithmetic. commemorating a marriage. rhetoric and dialectic.

and iron red. antimony yellow. particularly such ware produced in Italy. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. the goddess Cybele. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. 1855–65. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. originating in Italy in the 14th century. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. and accompaniments. "almond") . mandorla (It. "great mother") A mother goddess. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). manganese purple. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). but they painted genre scenes. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. usually for the lute. copper green. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and portraits as well as landscapes. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). originally sung without accompaniment. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. magna mater (Lat.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. active mainly in Florence c. being written. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. When white is used for painting. historical subjects. Specifically. madrigal A part song. and however bright their lighting effects. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. for example.

and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. which was quarried at Mount . and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and literary texts. mantle An overcoat. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. It reached to the knee or foot. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. "manner. often ornamented with decorative borders. bound. in a specific sense. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. more strictly.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Parmigianino. worn open. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism (It. Developing out of the Renaissance. illuminated initials and miniatures. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. ecclesiastical. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Burgundy. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. In Mannerist painting. strong. and crowned with thorns. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. complex and crowded compositions. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. El Greco and Tintoretto. depending on the social class of the wearer. the hand-written medieval book. Flanders. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. marked by flagellation. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. the Codex manuscriptus. maniera. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. In architecture. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Bronzino.

who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. the medal's purpose was commemorative. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. proof") the sufferings. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. which were beginning to be reverently collected. martyrion. Carrara. "witness. Like the finest Imperial coins. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. an inscription running round the rim. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. a different design on the reverse. The pure white Carrara marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. marmi finti (It.Pentelicon in Attica. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. particularly by Michelangelo. quarried at Massa. Without monetary value. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . having finished his training. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. sleek surface. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. medallion In architecture. martyrdom (Gk.

1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. 1452-1526/27). the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. even grain. It was. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. a Gorgon. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. the stress on individual character. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. The process is essentially extinct today. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. as it were. and of the many. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). in England. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. This yields a soft effect in the print. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. c. no line drawing is employed. The work of these men. for landscapes and portraits. When Perseus cuts off her head. Ludwig von Siegen. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. 1425-1504). . Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 1640. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles.round the neck. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. supposedly to petrify her enemies. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. c. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. A Dutch officer. In pure mezzotint. perhaps oddly. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. of the person portrayed on the other side. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Medusa In Greek mythology. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. often anonymous. 14601528). 1467-688). The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. who reflected them. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. particularly. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi.

1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. still exist. often quite highly finished. Many such small versions. painting in gouache on vellum or card. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. miter A high. usually portraits. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. saying") . monokhromatos. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. e. Francis himself.. a painting executed in a single color. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. "word. executed on a very small scale. Parmigianino (d. a branch of the Franciscan order. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. ink and paint. motto (Ital. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.g. "one color") Painted in a single color. monochrome (Gk.

and two other members moved to Rome. and is intersected by the transept. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Rome. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Berlin. nave (from Lat. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. 1817-29). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. named after the patron saint of painting. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. . One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. naturalism (Fr. Pforr. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Isidore. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. The invention of personal mottos. navis. Nazarenes A group of young. but often insipid. and Casino Massimo. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. In general. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. often separated from it by pillars. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. 1816-17. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In 1810 0verbeck.from the Middle Ages.

Nymphaeum (Gk. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). niello (Lat. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. usually golden. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. were usually old when elected. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. Popes. the style of the Ancien Régime. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. nigellus. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. nimbus (Lat. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. moreover. is as true as it is notorious.) . but their ideas continued to be influential. "aureole") The disc or halo. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers.

The Corinthian order was the most ornate. walnut. "services. such as linseed. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. its richness of colour. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. and its greater tonal range. Greek goddesses of Nature. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. was the simplest. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. fluted column and a plain capital. inborn sin. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. a small private chapel. and entablatures. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. with a sturdy. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. O obsequies (Lat. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. . the Doric order. obsequia. a more elaborate base. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). capital. or poppy. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The earliest. observances") Rites performed for the dead. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. They are seen in the form of the columns. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595).Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. orders of architecture In classical architecture. the three basic styles of design.

and. tradition and social structure. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. standing at the foot of the Cross. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. with biforate windows. P pala (Ital. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Palazzo Strozzi). The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. designed as a . Alberti described the palace as a city in little. while shops came to be thought undignified. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.g. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and the main apartments above. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. the Cancelleria). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. like cities. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). palazzo (It.

especially after the Sack of Rome. like Genoa. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard.g. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. column-caps. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. evolved influential types. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Palazzo Massimi).scholarly retreat. behind a sober Florentine façade. palmette. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. cornices and abutments. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Rich. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. and large households. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. In Venice. Papal incentives to build. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. came to be applied all over Europe. like the colonnaded vestibule. Other cities. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. often built next to their titular churches. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Following Oriental patterns. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall.g. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. e. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and Palladio's in Vicenza. panel . Movement of patrons and architects. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila).

extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and other synthetic materials as supports. In the 20th century cedar. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. larch. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. or the incidence of taxation. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. and spanned by a single dome.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy.Term in painting for a support of wood. To maintain their authority. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. so that they might have a voice at court. secular rulers. The third aspect was administrative. and modern painters have also used plywood. olive. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. fir. the. metal. and the pressure and temptations . As successors to St Peter. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). enforce law and order. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. teak. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. the management of clerical dues and taxation. cedar. however. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Having a circular plan. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. as distinct from canvas. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. chestnut. Then. A number of matters. and walnut. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Many other types were used. including beech. On a larger scale. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. fibre-board. slate has occasionally been used as a support. or other rigid substance. mahogany. linden. and dark walnut are favourites. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. as it were. to influence popes in their favour.

the acceptance of the city as the most practical . from the point of view of its religious associations. the most appropriate . had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. in the eyes of God. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. would. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. By then. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. however. To resolve the problem of divided authority. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). which met at Constance 1414-18. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. could supersede that of a pope.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. As at Avignon. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals.that could be applied to them. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. if it did no serious damage to the faith. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. So onerous. to be long delayed. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). There remained. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. possess an authority which. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. in spite of further absences from Rome. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France.as well. was long in doubt. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. as such. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. at Avignon. however. however. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Colonna and Caetani. It was argued that such a council. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. of individuals. which seems so inevitable. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.

but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and with Zeuxis (c.. 400-300 BC). hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Parrhasius (c. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. pastor. goat. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. less frequently pig. Skin had been used as a writng material before this.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. nymphs. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. to a world peopled by shepherds. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). However. the creation of a cultural capital. in classical literature. it has also been used for painting. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. pastoral (Lat. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. as well as a governmental one. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. scholars and men of letters. through lavish patronage of artists. Passion . but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and other animals. and satyrs.

wealthy citizen. Francesco Salviati. and also the archbishop of Pisa. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Portrayals of the Passion. a small. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. and so on. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. a prominent section of a monumental façade. .The events leading up to Good Friday.) or pasticcio (It. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. 1478. 1478). Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. patrician (Lat.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. ornamental building. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. such as a garden summerhouse. patricius. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. projecting either centrally or at both ends. "butterfly. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. pavilion (Lat. a region in north-central Italy. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. but not necessarily a direct copy. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. Meanwhile. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. papilio. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. which focus on the Suffering Christ. the crown of thorns. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pastiche (fr.

"make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. persona. and facere. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "person". "nature". "to see through. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. perspicere. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. physis. perspective (Lat. pergola (It. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. . concept or deity.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. physiognomy (Gk. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. in particular the face. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). or related elements within an art work. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. personification (Lat. and gnomon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "hanging. pendant (Fr.

piano nobile (Ital. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pigmentum. proper to take a landscape from. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigment (Lat. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. affording a good subject for a landscape. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. for example. A pier is generally larger than a column. remarkable for singularity. usually above the ground floor. glue. exemplified. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. but may consist of a cluster of columns.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Pietà (Lat. both real and painted. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. or resin to make paint. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. containing the public rooms. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. to be expressed in painting. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Peter's. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. curious details. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Rome. but full of variety. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. striking the imagination with the force of painting. .) The main floor of a building. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye.

in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. it is difficult to find. a shaft. Rocco and Sebastian. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. despite regional variations. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. It is often fluted. however. Thenceforward. since. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. In the 15th century.pilaster (Lat. moreover. It seems probable. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. perhaps. outside Tuscany. also used in Spain's American colonies. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. more sporadic outbreaks. for instance. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. such as Florence and Genoa. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. and capital. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. plague Plague. "pillar") A flat. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. For this reason. it has a base. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. and thereafter all Europe. in October 1347. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). During 1348 the Black Death. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. though in less widespread. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). the burning of 'infected' clothing. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. pilastrum. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague.

emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. composition. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). heraldic escutcheons. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). the Renaissance-Plateresque. the Symposium. and sinuous scrolls. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.. Timaeus. placement. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The first phase. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Philebus. like its successor.e. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Phaedo. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Diego evolved a purer. more severe. The first phase. which lasted only a few decades. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. In contrast with Aristotle. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. or simply the Plateresque. i. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. or appropriateness. Theatetus and the Laws. harmonious. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. are the masterworks of the second style. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. correct classical orders became frequent. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Phaedrus. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . A student of Socrates. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The second phase.

and Agostino Steuco (c.in Plato's thought. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. the greatest of his ancient disciples. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. replaced Ficino's. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . including those of Plotinus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Plotinus. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. all of which he also translated into Latin. systematized and added to what Plato had done. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. A new Latin translation. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and he utilized many other writings. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). but not completely. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Unlike the case of Aristotle. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. near Florence. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries.1577) becoming particularly popular. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Rather unsystematic. and the Chaldaic Oracles. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Iamblichus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. partially. 1472-c. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved.

if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pluvial (Med. pluviale. plinth (Gk. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. where a pectoral is used to close it. Frequently supports a pediment. porticus. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. portico (Lat. poluptukhos. Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. such as processions and consecrations. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. or statue. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. plinthos. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pointed arch In architecture. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. column. Plato was read in the universities. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. as in classical architecture). portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. polyptych (Gk.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts.

decorating whole rooms. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. inessential. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Siena. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. psychologically more complex. was revived in the 14th century. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. flattened image. and the . The equestrian portrait. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Farnese). The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Group portraits. Colleoni. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Cathedral) by Uccello.sculptors such as Donatello. The realism of the clear. and only a decorative accessory to form. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Mantua. Venice). The 16th century portrait became generalized. Maria Novella. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. 1328. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. the Carracci.. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Desiderio da Settignano. Florence (1486-90). Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Florence. National Gallery). Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Campidoglio). Gattarnelata. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436.e.

In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. from the secular clergy. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. however. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. who had as their ideal masters Titian. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. of the sermon as an art form. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. was versed in classical and patristic . Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. together with the Dominican Savonarola. and Peter Paul Rubens. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. The styles of S. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). bishop of Chioggia. are not florid in style. bishops especially. Borromeo. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. minatory exhortations. Correggio.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. The sermons of Visdomini. and. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Fiamma's sermons. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. not least those of statesmen and prelates. bishop of Asti. Charles Le Brun. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Savonarola and Musso. several of whom became bishops. 1494). abrasive even. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. primarily the mendicants. whereas drawing satisfies the mind.

Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. the temptations of Adam and Christ.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. presbytery (or choir) (Gk.g. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. and so forth. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. prefiguration Typology . predella (It.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Louis of Toulouse (1317. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . among them Holman Hunt. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. however. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. The New Testament references in these would. Naples). Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. though often relatively very wide . Because of the small size of predelle . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. tapestries. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Millais and Rossetti.rhetoric. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.

"evenness") in painting. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. these highly finished drawings. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. the quadrature. proportion (Lat. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. 3. notably David. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Fragonard. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. intended as complete works of art in themselves. again indicative of the purpose they served. 2. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). proportio. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. the golden section. Girardon. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The following are important: 1. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the Canon of Proportion. profil perdu (Fr. sculpture and architecture. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. which uses the square . and Houdon among sculptors. projecting shelf on which to kneel. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible.

many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Ignazio. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. putti sing. Unlike Pozzo. Rome. a fifth = 2:3. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. one half the length of the other). It was common in Roman art. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. for example). "boys") Plump naked little boys. and 5. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). . architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. provenance The origins of an art work. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. triangulation. a fourth = 3:4. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. harmonic proportions. 4. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putto (It.

canons regular. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. or some item connected with a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Donatello. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. In 16th century Europe. and high relief (alto rilievo). Among the . medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). the great orders of monks. refectory (Med. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. in which figures are seen half round. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relicquiae.g. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Lat. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Brunelleschi. or the Jesuits. Botticelli. also known as the Realist school. with the Anglican Church developing in England. basso rilievo). relevare. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. friars and nuns. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in particular works by Masaccio. e. Fra Angelico and others. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief.Quattrocento (It. hermits. relic (Lat. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. the object of particular veneration. relief (Lat.

the Conventuals. S. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Founded by St Romuald c. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Lorenzo Giustiniani. and the generally moderate Observants. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. however. the most notable being S. That of S. it became the Cassinese congregation. Mantua. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. the great patriarch of Venice. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. which was to become the main Italian one. and their more institutionalized brethren. The Silvestrines. At the same time.contemplative orders. Salvatore. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. presided over by chapters general. Lucca. The same bull . In 1517. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. The Conventuals. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Giustina. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. In 1504. Venice (1404). A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Maria di Fregonaia.e. various groups were fused in the latter body. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Giorgio in Alga. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. although technically of secular canons. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. After the repression of the Spirituals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Bernardino of Siena. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Benedictines. Padua. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. who had no overall organization originally. Bologna (1419). Benedetto. 1012. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. was the congregation of S. i.

Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). The first. Gaetano da Thiene. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the Theatines. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. however. Michele in Isola. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. however. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Gerolamo Aemiliani. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. founded by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. a historical period. also. Angela Merici. Venice. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Filippo Neri.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. founded in 1535 by S.

century. too long forgotten glories. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. which had begun early in the 14th century. the historical reality of antiquity. and his own as potentially one of light. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). of 'darkness'. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. of an energetic revival of interest in. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. All-Roundness. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. even Amoralism. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of arts. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. and competition with. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. as well as political. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. was so vast and potent. Thereafter. however. For long. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. 1875-86). however. . Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. life. of scholarship. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. of letters. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. because its core of energy. increasingly. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism.

Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. statues. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science.) was the term chosen. consist merely of a painting. Cathedral of SaintBavon. later still to Genoa. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. gratefully. Ghent). letters. and other liturgical objects. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. mobilized nationalism. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period.with all its shabbiness . (3) There is not a true. the previous record . let alone a uniform. congruence between. etc. though sometimes of metal. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. etc. candlesticks. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. and mass media. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. however. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole.erased. of industrialization. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . It is for this additional. especially in the High Gothic period. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Though thus challenged. and is decorated with paintings. sometimes. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). in the more limited sense. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. The challenges are to be accepted. There was an early. retables can be detached and. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.

Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.France.in the 11th century. and 'Romanesque'. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. rocaille (French. Rococo A style of design. is a typical product. literally. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Originally commissioned in 976. its mood lighthearted and witry. With the development of freestanding altars. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. More usually. however. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. almost simultaneously. Germany. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. retables have become extinct. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). "relief") In painting. Spain . the first style to achieve such international currency. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. richly decorated with organic forms. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. . as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. like 'Gothic'. Italy. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Romanesque art. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. the impression that an object is three-dimensional.of St Mark in Venice. the St. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. in several countries . Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Louis XV furniture. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). painting. rilievo (It. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. As the name suggests. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.

Claude. van Orley. . the development of nationalistic pride. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Piranesi. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). such as red ochre. van Heemskerk. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Massys and M. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Q. Mabuse. M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. The aim of painting. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Pannini and Mengs. they maintained. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. In addition. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Rome. stylized design representing an open rose. B.

a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. holy orders. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Clement escaped into Castel S. matrimony. Many compositions were anonymous. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. the Eucharist. from the Old and New Testaments. and Lorenzo de' Medici. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Sacra Conversazione (It. supported by lay confraternities. penance. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Written primarily in ottava rima. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84).greatly increased. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. local saints. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. and impoverished.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. gutted. multiple sets used in succession. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Orthodox. and anointing of the sick. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. In the . "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Eastern independent. and Protestant churches. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. confirmation. pious legend and hagiography. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. glance and movement . Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. but others were the work of well-known figures. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Subjects were nominally sacred. There were no limits on time. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).expressed through gesture. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable.

though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. which in the Gospel According to John. Lutheran. Candidates first face west." which are called sacramentals. The chief focus of discontent. Thus. sacraments. that the price of salt should be increased. Anglican. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger." sala (Ital. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. It is still practiced on special occasions. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. strictly speaking. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and then face east.early church the number of sacraments varied. as in the Church of the Brethren. as an excuse to revolt. The classical Protestant churches (i. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. baptism and the Eucharist. foot washing. make such strict distinctions. the symbolic direction of Christ. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. and sacraments. Saracens . The theology of the Orthodox Church. Hence. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.e. replaces the Lord's Supper. They were still seeking aid. Salt War. in principle. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. notably from Florence and in Germany.) Hall. used for drawing. the Rocca Paolina. Immediately following baptism..i. was buried under a new fortress. the Bentivoglio. was not maintained as a sacrament. the Orthodox Church does not.e. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . large room. the sun of righteousness. chapter 13. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors..

satyr In Greek mythology. human-like woodland deities with the ears. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. are lost. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. legs and horns of a goat. the Arabs or Muslims. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 45 BC). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. pl. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). sarcophagi (Gk. wood or terracotta. 210 AD). The publication of Latin (1562. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. and many others. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.c. whose writings. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Little known in the Middle Ages. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 360 . 270 BC). made of stone. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. sarcophagus. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).During the Middle Ages. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. the god of wine. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 160 . Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).

for example Pieter van Laer. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. As a result. In northern Italy. for. scholasticism . Alexander V. most of whom. the Florentines. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. one of the early leaders. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. while England. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Louis I (d. with France and her allies Aragon. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). who had the support of the Avignon pope. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). in June 1409. However. on the other.they had individual Bentnames . Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Schism. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. from time to time both he and his opponents. and. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. but with little effect. 1386) and his son Ladislas. who recognized the Roman pope. while devout Christians agonized. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. being Frenchmen. was called Bamboccio. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Charles III of Durazzo (d. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. than their medieval predecessors. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). on one side.

textual scholarship. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Christian. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. As such. on one side. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. that scholasticism was left. Medieval scholars.were different from those of medieval. as it is easier to add details in this way. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S.The term is ambivalent. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). Padua. moreover. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. if lime-water was used. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Often called the burning ones. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Serenissima (Ital. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). It was because the central concerns of humanism . 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. as it were. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. notably Aquinas. university-based study.moral philosophy. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. (See also: fresco. history and rhetoric . secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. the plaster had to be damped before painting.) . and theology. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. None the less. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. and Islamic literature. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God.

usually presided over by individual families. Sibyls foretold the Birth.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Signoria (It. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sibylla.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. at the same time. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. in the period of classical antiquity. In Christian legend. which were all identical in thickness. there was only one Sibyl. Med. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. the number gradually rose to ten. sfumato A technique. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibyls (Gk. brass. and the delicate. women who could prophesy. Originally. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. term. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sinopia . in use since the Middle Ages. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Servite (Lat. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. "the most serene republic of Venice"). "prophetess") In antiquity. Lat. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.

stigmata. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. soffit (Lat. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. as the name implies. and. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Stanze (Ital. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. sotto in sù (It. It is very closely related to International Gothic. brand. . (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). "mark. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. especially in the flow of drapery. in other words. stigma (Gk. pronounced as French. staffage This word. sing. Francis of Assisi. Ital.) Wooden ceiling decoration.

Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Indeed. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studioli (It.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. with that for the Picturesque. stucco A type of light. whose verses actually fabrications . supremacy . sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). In a looser sense. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. studiolo. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). pl. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. both external and internal. John Milton. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The vogue for the Sublime. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.

many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. or cartoons. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). The subject is underexplored. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. i. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass.e. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. chiefly from Flanders. doubtless. . though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. But the Italians did not make them. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . then being replaced by oil paint. These were imported. Salviati and Allori. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries.and. and in literature. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. was being decorated with frescoes. his own headquarters.Historically. temperare. into Italy. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. London. both for panel painting and fresco. 1407). Tempera colors are bright and translucent. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. tempera (Lat. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545.

and later to subdivide gable ends. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). in the architecture of ancient Rome. and sculptures. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. and profile. widely used form. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. theme or motif. model. figure of speech. vessels. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topoi (Gk. and other surfaces. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "fields. Trajan's Column . quarter face. topiary (Gk. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "a commonplace") In literature. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. topos. tondo. walls. topia. triumphal arch. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tondi (It. terraferma (Ital. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. pl. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. in art. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. pl. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows.terracotta (It. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.e. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. i.

or wings.' Before it go the apostles. usually an altarpiece. Battista Sforza. behind it. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. after 'a countless number of virgins. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. as it were. tryptychos. into a number of less controversial forms. Meanwhile. the military triumph became sublimated. of both sexes'. . the wars by which they were won . Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. fame. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. a car so brave'.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Trinity (Lat. triptych (Gk.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. patriarchs and prophets. trinitas. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. chastity. beside it the army of martyrs. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. time and eternity. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. Early triptychs were often portable.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. "threefold") in Christianity. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. of virtues and of the arts. added to the glamour of the triumph. death. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Disseminated soon after his death. "threefold") A painting in three sections. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.

tympanum (Lat. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. it is usually decorated with carvings. In medieval architecture. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Dating from classical times. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. tusche A thick. first recorded in 1232. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tromp l'oeil (Fr. viscous black ink. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. through various naturalistic devices. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. enclosed by an arch. often decorated with sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. "drum") In classical architecture. typology . often decorated with sculptures or mosaics.

but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). . Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.g. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . e. Judith. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. such as five works devoted to the senses. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. lanterns. In Christian thought. 1610). each had access to his paintings. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. knew his former patrons.Dirck van Baburen (c. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. killer of Holofernes. were popular with them also. slayer of Goliath. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. especially his half-length figural groups.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.A system of classification. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.) The Renaissance "universal man". tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. 1590-1624). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. The numerous candles. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. where they were most accessible. U uomo universale (It. and David.

varietà (It. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. hour-glasses and clocks. mixed in. and even flowers (which will soon fade). V vanishing point In perspective. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. There are a wide range of forms. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. it was used to decorate furniture. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Parisian craftsmen. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. carriages. Vespers (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. vesper. overturned vessels. the groin vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Also varietas (Lat. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. snuff boxes and other objects. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. guttering candles. often gold. vanitas (Lat. and the rib vault. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. a work's richness of subject matter.). painting at both the Dutch and English courts. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. "evening") . vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.

Gluttony. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. vite (Lat. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Prudence. virtù could be used. Fortitude. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. "life") . vita. Hope. 'Assume a virtue. and Sloth. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. in which the word signifies efficacy. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. if you have it not'. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. for example. The seven Virtues were: Faith. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. "not exposed to winds". Vestibule (Lat. In ancient Roman dwellings. vestibulum. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. the church service at which these prayers are said. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Covetousness. Envy. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. pl. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Anger. Temperance. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Lust.Prayers said in the evening. and Justice. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vimperga Of German origin. actual or latent. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Charity.

came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1482-84). votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. those of Volterera. 1478-80.g. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1472. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Vitruvius Pollio. and appalled recognition of. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. published in 1550 and 1568. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. usually when a prayer for good fortune. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. in fact. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. protection from harm. they were from the 18th century . And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Marcus (1st cent. Sculptors and Architects"). 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. and of Ferrara. The wars from 1494 do.An account of someone's life and work. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. a biography. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. or recovery from illness has been made.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

pompous on the floor above. treasury or a place where justice was administered. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. . wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. during its subsequent history. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. based on stylization of various animal forms. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. "world view") A comprehensive world view. a philosophy of life. usually linear. woodcut A print made from a wood block. It was intended to have a variety of functions. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. "Western work of art". X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. gallery. Westwerk German word.Weltanschauung (Gr. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. usually restorers. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist.

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