A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

The adjective is apsidal. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. at the east end of a church behind the altar. architectonic (Gk. In Greek and Roman literature. There are several variants of the technique. the lowest part of the entablature). architrave (It. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Picasso.A semicircular projection.e. including Goya. . was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arcade (Lat. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the moulding around a window or door. Degas. "architectural") Relating to structure. arcus. piers or pillars. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. design. the darker the tone). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. Also known as an exedra. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Lancet and Tudor. which is fused to the plate by heating. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. arkhitektonikos. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. or organization. but in essence the process is as follows. The term applies also to a print made by this method. and Rouault. roofed with a half-dome.

the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies." from Gk. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "begin. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "front arch. aureolus. In the case of martyrs." and Lat. archivolto. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attributum.archivolt (Ital. aureole (Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Ars Moriendi (Lat. attribute (Lat. archeiu. dominate. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. Dante's Vita nuova . usually a saint. "golden. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. voltus. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.and the Comedy . "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine.

paintings of everyday life. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. often anecdotal. in 1377. Later. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The actual move was made in 1309. baldachin. 'Captivity'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. who had been residing in France since 1305. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Six pontificates later. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). that of Cardano. or baldacchino (It.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. the god of wine and fertility. applied to the physically . The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome.

in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. set beneath a domical ciborium. and Epiphany. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. banderole (It. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. or connected with. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. and Nocera in Italy. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. . banderuola.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. France. Easter. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting.. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. el Kantara. As eight follows the "complete" number. beggars in rags. pope between 432 and 440. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. AD 300). Lebanon. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. AD 273. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. seven. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Croatia].. a church. and Poitiers. Baalbek. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Florence. a visual metaphor for the number eight. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Parma. built by Sixtus III. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium.g. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. the Temple of Venus. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. or canopy. Customarily. and abject filthy things. or forecourt. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Alg. Pentecost. such as those at Pisa. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Spalato [Split.

the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1807-1876). usually facing east. however. 1810-1865). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. 1817-1878). and (3) everyday realism. Vermeer). and increasingly elaborate decoration. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1811-1889). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Also tunnel vault. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. In architecture.In the 10th century. 1796-1875). baptisteries. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories.an allusion to entering the Christian life. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). "king's hall") a church building. Originally. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. which is reserved for the clergy. the dramatic use of light and shadow. barocco. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. . Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. or baptismal chapels. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Constant Troyon (French. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. something of earlier symbolism survives. 1814-1875). Théodore Rousseau (French. Jean-François Millet (French. Baroque (Port. stoa basilike. Jules Dupré (French. southeast of Paris. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. in its usual location near the church door . and thus a church. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. in the 1840s and 1850s. Rubens). basilica (Gk. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. achieved through scale. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. were often omitted entirely.

and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. domesticity. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. such as those by Diego Velázquez. The term was mainly used up to c. and often sentimentality. By association. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Book of Hours . in which still-life predominates. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Bodegónes. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. There were. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). were referred to by their specific contents. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. It takes its name from its grainy texture. however. such as Waldmüller. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. as is to be expected. often with food and drink. particularly porcelain. or which is to be left as it is. Biscuit porcelain. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. bodegón Image. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. like their Dutch counterparts. Spanish still-lifes. also incorrectly called bisque. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). especially Spanish. 1650 in Spain. up until the mid-17th century. which is either not yet glazed. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.

or seasons.by a variety of processes. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. and the fact that it is easily workable . days of the week. though these are more often called 'modelli'. See flying buttress. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. coppery red. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. varying from silverish to a rich. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. bozzetto Strictly speaking. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . made as a study for a larger picture. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.an advantage over marble sculpture. but can also be used for painted sketches. Chantilly). containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. a rapid sketch in oil. bozzetto(Italian. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. months. durability. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. .both hot and cold . By extension.

hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. notable from Syria and Egypt. and Giotto. and work in precious metals. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. camera obscura . Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. private room where works of art. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Duccio. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. "a chest. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. glass. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. caisson (Fr. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. mosaics. manuscript illuminations. ceramics. cameo Small relief made from gems. It also served to glorify the emperor. box") In architecture. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Among its most distinctive products were icons. its forms highly stylized. C cabinet A small. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. which was often allegorical. casson.

Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral.) A gallery for singers or musicians. other materials used are cotton.-N. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. and jute. usually decorated. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. followed by smaller and even pocket models. candlestick. The Latin name means "dark chamber. candela. Portable versions were built. as an aid to drawing. candelabrum (It. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Niepce created photography. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. capitellum. usually with several branches or arms. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. usually in a church." and the earliest versions. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Structurally. by the 16th century. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. dating to antiquity. pl. which was usually whitened. "candle") A large. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. campanile Bell tower. only very rough effects will be obtainable. cantoria. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. capital (Lat. hemp. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. usually built beside or attached to a church. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.Ancestor of the photographic camera. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. candelabra. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. . Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. sing. cantorie (It.

Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. and humanism. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In fresco painting. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartouche . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cartellini In a painting. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Carthusian Order (Lat.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . or fresco. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cardinalis.a humorous drawing or parody. New Charterhouses. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. tapestry. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . cartellino.both Italians and artists from other countries . the Carmelites were originally hermits. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. near Grenoble. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). cartone. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. The order combines reclusive and community life. Carmelites (Lat. At the height of the Middle Ages. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". details of the subject. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartoon (It. pl. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. the date of the painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. or a motto.

"priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. they were also used in other countries. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. cathedral (cathedra. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. a cathedral always faces west . or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. and many other items of her dowry. The altar is placed at the east end.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. . Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. cassone (It. and swags of fruit and flowers. palace. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. These lead up to the north and south transepts. They contained the bride's clothes. Cascina. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. linen. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. castello (It. For reasons lost to time and tradition. In the 15th century. caryatid (Gk. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. decorated with gilt gesso. or arms of the cross. where the throne of the bishop is placed. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The main body. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.toward the setting sun. or nave. Paolo Uccello.) "castle". putti (cupids).

centralis. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. . in accordance with their distance from the observer. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. central perspective (Lat. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. as celestial attendants of God. and Islamic literature. and perspicere. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. continually praise him. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Both the statement of St. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). buildings and figures that are being depicted. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Relative to the observer. a celestial winged being with human. landscapes. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. "in the centre". champlevé (Fr. Christian. or birdlike characteristics.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. animal. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. a throne bearer of the deity. rather than intercessory functions. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura.

choros. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Lastly. reserved for the clergy to pray together. the Order of the Hospital of St. or for choral singing. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. North of the Alps. Hans Burgkmair (1510). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. replacing tempera. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "light dark") In painting. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Since Carolingian times. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. choir (Gk. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century.chiaroscuro (It. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy.

In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64).intersect). Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Sculpted clouds. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. further enriching the style. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The Mexico cathedral (1718). and garlands. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. is as typically Churrigueresque. balustrades. ciborium . undulating lines. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and repetition of pattern. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. stucco shells. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. reversed volutes. became the most common motif. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. and the Churrigueresque column. The Transparente (completed 1732). In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. an architect. undulating cornices. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Very few still exist in their original positions. a massing of carved angels. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. gilded rays.

Their economic condition worsened. In reaction to this revolutionary .A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. ciompi. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. who were raised to the status of a guild. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. The new government. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. as also were those in the associated. beaters. controlled by the minor guilds. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. placing one of their members. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. High Renaissance). But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. on July 22. craft of dyeing. etc. Then. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. or achieve political representation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. but self-employed. the wool carder Michele di Lando. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. including the ciompi. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Members of the lower classes. Without being members of a guild.and post-medieval Italy. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. combers. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Quattrocento (1400s.

) An ancient musical instrument. Concepts of the classical. cithara (Gk.as in Italy these were dispensed with.episode. philosophy and art . writers. the ciompi guild was abolished. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). however.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. philosophy. the black contours usually with a special line plate. editing and translating a wide range of texts. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. resembling a lyre. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. literature. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. except in cases where . The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. clair-obscur (Fr. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. on which strings were plucked. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. and politics. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. with Italian scholars. changed greatly from one period to the next. In the 15th century Greek literature. . scholars patiently finding. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.

"leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. concetti (It. . Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). and yellow and violet are complementary colours. blue and orange. Green and red. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. The name was derived from the condotta. cognoscente (It. a work's underlying theme. condottiere. sing. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Coffered ceilings. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. occasionally made of wood. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. compline (Lat. [hora] completa. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. terrorized the country. as well as from the Bible.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. concetto. when set side by side. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. intensify one another." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. or "contract. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottieri (It. literature or music. those with refined tastes. pl. arch or ceiling. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. cognoscenti. pl. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners.

Francesco Sforza. . and Tuscany. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. flagellant confraternities. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. often called compagnie or. which spread in the 15th century. in Venice. Mark (1432). commonly called either Compagnia di S. Toward the end of the 15th century. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Spanish. Muzio's son.devastating Romagna. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. clergy. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities.e. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. By the 16th century. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Carmagnola. convents of convertite. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. who won control of Milan in 1450. Umbria. in the service of Naples. i. confraternities Confraternities. scuole.e. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. i. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. and German--the condottieri. With no goal beyond personal gain. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. primarily for syphilitics. or with the spiritual assistance of. Martino). often under the direction of. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. disappeared. and his rival Braccio da Montone. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. in the service of Perugia. By the end of the 14th century.

"placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. contour (Fr. the Florentine Neri. and refuges for maidens. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. e. Dorotea in Trastevere. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. notwithstanding their location. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them.i. 1514 in S. flat outlines. reformed prostitutes. while the Venetian government. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . founded c. contour. which accompanied condemned prisoners. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. but sometimes had their own premises.e. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. contours were initially regular. In medieval painting. in Florence. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. however. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Confraternities. Later. contrapposto (It. e.g. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention.g.

in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. . The style spread as far as England. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. 1280). did not achieve any lasting results. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. They are often ornamented. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. an engraving produced in this way. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Reform programs. large cornice or other feature. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. conventicle (Lat. a bracket of stone. 1100 and 1300.weight on one leg. aes cyprium. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. whose names are inscribed on several works. corbel In architecture. cuprum. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. started the process of inner reform in the Church. conventiculurn. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Lat. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. declining moral standards.

crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Jews. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Constantine the Great. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. An ancestor of the oboe. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. cupula. There were various methods of performing the execution. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the first Christian emperor. reedy sound. the condemned man. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Carthaginians. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. a small dome.e. a semi-circular vault. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. cupola (Lat. D dado . Death. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. the most famous victim of crucifixion. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. or "scourged. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. "small vat") In architecture. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Usually. i. after being whipped. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Next. Seleucids. particularly among the Persians.

an expressive use of nature. usually in matching pairs. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. disegno (It. Gk. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. deacon (Gk. danse macabre The dance of death. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. diptych (Lat.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. often an altarpiece. Anglican and Orthodox churches. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. but the concept behind an art work. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. a favorite late medieval picture subject. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). which was help to be the basis of all art. diptychos. Deësis (Gk.g. design") In Renaissance art theory. e. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. diptychum. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. and Linz possessed common characteristics. diakonos. Germany. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Passau. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. "drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg.

notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). such as we still use today. "to mix. a 19th-century invention. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket.Thomas Aquinas. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . which runs on castors or wheels. distemperare. donator. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. As disegno appeals to the intellect. The studio easel. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. when painters took to working out of doors. dome in architecture. doublet A male garment. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Dominicans (Lat.fully realize. donor (Lat. also used it on canvas. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Ordo Praedictatorum. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. usually forming a ceiling or roof. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). though a few artists. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. is a heavy piece of furniture. formerly worn under armour. distemper (Lat.

John (19. It consists of the architrave. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. and logos. sculpture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. eschatology (Gk. sometimes combining panel painting. full face. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. entablature In classical architecture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. the frieze. "last". in art. en face In portraiture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "word") . a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. a depiction of Jesus. fresco. Hence. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. and the cornice. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. ensemble (Fr. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. Ecce Homo (Lat. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. and architecture. bound and flogged. eschaton. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. epitaph (Gk. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work.

Italy. Equated with the Greek god Pan. and Scandinavia. which was developed in the Near East ca. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Augustine. Contarini. It developed in France in the early 16th century. celebrated with bread and wine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. farmers. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. fields and livestock. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. notably Cardinal Pole. Germany. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. which was famous for maiolica. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Saints Ambrose. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. particularly ware made in France. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. which is called "maiolica. protector of shepherds. Spain. Eucharist (Gk. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism." and charis. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. and of the last things. 4500 BCE. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. "good. Vittoria Colonna. eu. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Marcantonio Flaminio. Giovanni Morone.death and resurrection. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Jerome. Carnesecchi and Ochino. which is called "delftware. . and is named for Faenza. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns." and that made in the Netherlands and England.

war. 2 . Committed to charitable and missionary work. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Only a small area can be painted in a day. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. leaves. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. and these areas. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). black and dun. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. can in time be seen. The colour of his horse is white. Their attributes are the bow. a technique known as a secco fresco. and flowers suspended in a loop. sword and set of balances.festoni (It. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. a swag. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.8). fluted of a column or pillar. drying to a slightly different tint. frescos in Italy . and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. that of the others red. famine and death. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. such as plague. fresco (It. relaxed. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit.

Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. usually childish figure. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Final details. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. a person's invisible tutelary god. or fresco secco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. where the atmosphere was too damp. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. genre In a broad sense. are genres of painting. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or true fresco. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. G Garter. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. The technique of buon fresco. In art from the classical period onwards. for example. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. landscape and portraiture. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. both in churches and in private and public palaces. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. Genius in classical Rome.Save in Venice. covings and ceilings. the intonaco.

to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and as spurring on men of action. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. whether it must be connected with the public good. Gobelins . (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. in portraits and on tombs. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Maso di Banco. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. As such. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Maria Gloriosa). The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. as well as writers and artists. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. how it differed from notoriety. Bernardo Daddi.

The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. and although it reopened in 1699. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. . The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In other Italian cities. Paris. thereafter it made only tapestries. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. golden section (Lat. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. still in existence today. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. who appointed Lebrun Director. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Golden Fleece. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. This ratio is approximately 8:13. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew.French tapestry manufactory. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.

Amiens. c. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. . 1200 and c. or the influence of one building.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. painting. There is a transcendental quality. painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. the superficial particularities of form. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and lies much deeper than. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. like the cultural and commercial. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In sculpture and in painting. The artistic. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. from the 13th until the 17th century. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. In thinking of Nicola (d. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In particular. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). Gothic Gothic. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. that the effects are to be felt. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. Nevertheless. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Denis. 1270.

These qualities. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. and Piranesi. to silk. and above all Italy. are but different appellations of the same thing'. notably in the writings of Bellori. chiefly to France. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. if required. Dubuffet. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. . and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and Morris Graves. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Klee. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. genius. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. It is thinned with water for applying. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. and the great style. sometimes in the company of a tutor.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Honey. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Such tours often took a year or more. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. to white or tinted paper and card and. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. without visible brush marks. occasionally. Canaletto. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Pannini. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). the beau idéal of the French. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. starch. the Netherlands. with sable.and hog-hair brushes. and taste among the English.

when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. gris. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. through central Italy. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. usually gray. . From 1266 to 1268. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. brother of Louis IX. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Although its palace was rebuilt c. and Waiblingen. however. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. After the War of the Eight Saints. internal factions in Florence went under other names. grisaille (Fr. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. In the context of the fine arts. exclude drawing from this definition. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. c. drawing and the various forms of engraving. however. Some writers. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. then as now. In another sense.e. which had recruited most of the merchant class.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. In Florence. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. 1216. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. including text as well as illustrations. became an abiding feature of European politics. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. to Provence and Paris. after this. the parties taking a multitude of local names.

only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. goldsmiths. but in time they acquired other functions. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Guilds were also patrons of art. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. and greater hostility between master and man. print or painting. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In 16th century Venice. "[knowledge of] heraldry. trades. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. for example. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. héraut.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. and provided assistance to members in need. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. "herald") . H hatching In a drawing. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The guilds were not equal. trade or profession (painters. [science] héraldique. In some cities. as some did). and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. or professions. The guild also monitored standards of work. heraldry (Fr. In Italy they go back a long way. In some towns. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. notably Florence in the 14th century. In Florence. surgeons. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office." from Fr.

the followers of Juan de Valdes. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. with the rules governing their use. i. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. The main impact of the . while others merged with the Waldensians. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. one great missionary community. as Antichrist. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. d. However. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. indeed. the Waldensian. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. head of the 'carnal Church'. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. By contrast. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. from the start. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). together with brethren north of the Alps. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. and regarded themselves as forming. the Cathars were an anti-church. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. they were condemned in 1184. normative for churchmen. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati.

Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. my spouse'. Frederick E. Durand. humanus. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Jasper Cropsey. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Morse. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. F. history (usually classical history). and. Kensett. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. hortus conclusus (Lat. and classical literature. humanism (Lat. working from 1825 to 1875. George Inness. American painters were studying in Rome. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. its subjects considered morally elevating. J. in his earlier work. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Germany. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. At the same time. the emancipation of man from God took place. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. B.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. In humanism. F. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Church. mainly in the south. Henry Inman. Thomas Cole. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. S. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

g. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. usually the donors of a work of art. it denominates a kind of behaviour. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the scourge that was used in the scourging. soft style. inventio (It. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. and they are also depicted on their own. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. In the second half of the 14th century. Veronica. The terms court style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Donatallo. investiture . Human figures. invention. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the veil of St. the ability to create. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. originality. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). there are representations of the bundle of rods. For instance. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. and the ladder. Derived from classical rhetoric. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the pincers. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. or of other saints. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. etc. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. with many further details added.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. are also used in art literature. the rooster of Peter's denial. beautiful style. the hammer.

Jerome's writings. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. although they are usually called Romanists. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. and Jan Asselijn. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. who traveled in Italy and. Andries and Jan Both.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Upon his return to Holland. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. generally Dutch or Flemish. principally Dutch. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. . Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The Both brothers. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Nicolaes Berchem. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Both and Berchem. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. bathed in a golden haze. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. of Utrecht. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Italianizers Northern artists. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St.

to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Legenda Aurea (Lat.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. lectern A reading stand or desk. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. As their military role grew. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem . Archbishop of Genoa. encouraged by the Crusades. especially one at which the Bible is read. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).1519). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. the rite of communion is based on this. liberal arts .

its roof supported by columns. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). often standing in markets and town squares. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. John F. Church (1826-1900). then the basis of a philosophical training.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Maria Novella in Florence). that could be used for public ceremonies. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. first the preparatory trivium . such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. and Frederick E. astronomy and music.grammar. Heade (1819-1904). "little moon") In architecture. lunette (Fr. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Kensett (1816-1872). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. loggia (It. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. commemorating a marriage. often sublime. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. comprising arithmetic.g. the quadrivium. Martin J. rhetoric and dialectic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. . Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Tubal for music). painting or sculptural decoration. that may contain a window. poetic atmosphere.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.g. a semicircular space. geometry. It is related to. together with identifying attributes (e. through the use of aerial perspective.

it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and accompaniments. particularly such ware produced in Italy. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. "great mother") A mother goddess. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. and however bright their lighting effects. historical subjects. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originally sung without accompaniment. being written. for example. and portraits as well as landscapes. mandorla (It. Specifically. the goddess Cybele. madrigal A part song. When white is used for painting. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. originating in Italy in the 14th century. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. usually for the lute. active mainly in Florence c. but they painted genre scenes.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and iron red. manganese purple. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. 1855–65. antimony yellow. "almond") . It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. copper green. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). magna mater (Lat. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. with white provided by the tin-glaze material.

marked by flagellation. the hand-written medieval book. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. bound. which was quarried at Mount . Bronzino. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. "manner. Burgundy. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Flanders. the Codex manuscriptus. worn open. strong. in a specific sense. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. illuminated initials and miniatures. In Mannerist painting. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. depending on the social class of the wearer. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. more strictly. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. often ornamented with decorative borders. El Greco and Tintoretto. maniera. It reached to the knee or foot. mantle An overcoat. In architecture. Mannerism (It. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. complex and crowded compositions. and crowned with thorns. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and literary texts. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. ecclesiastical. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Parmigianino. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Developing out of the Renaissance. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar.

medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . This was partly because ancient Roman coins. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). a different design on the reverse. sleek surface. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Without monetary value. proof") the sufferings. "witness. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Carrara. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead).Pentelicon in Attica. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. which were beginning to be reverently collected. martyrion. quarried at Massa. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. medallion In architecture. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. the medal's purpose was commemorative. having finished his training. martyrdom (Gk. Like the finest Imperial coins. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. particularly by Michelangelo. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. an inscription running round the rim. The pure white Carrara marble. marmi finti (It.

Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Her head features on Minerva's shield. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. The work of these men. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. who reflected them. and of the many. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. It was. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. a Gorgon. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Medusa In Greek mythology. particularly. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. as it were. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Ludwig von Siegen. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. the stress on individual character. even grain. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. 1425-1504). 1467-688). A Dutch officer. in England.round the neck. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. In pure mezzotint. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. c. supposedly to petrify her enemies. The process is essentially extinct today. . for landscapes and portraits. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. of the person portrayed on the other side. This yields a soft effect in the print. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). often anonymous. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. 14601528). 1640. no line drawing is employed. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. When Perseus cuts off her head. c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. perhaps oddly. 1452-1526/27).

The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. ink and paint. miter A high. "one color") Painted in a single color. executed on a very small scale. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. often quite highly finished. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. by Tiepolo and Rubens. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.. a painting executed in a single color. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Parmigianino (d. still exist. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Many such small versions. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. monokhromatos. a branch of the Franciscan order. motto (Ital. Francis himself. painting in gouache on vellum or card. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. saying") . usually portraits. e. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. "word. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. monochrome (Gk.g.

and two other members moved to Rome. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Berlin. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). navis. naturalism (Fr. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. In general. and Casino Massimo. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. but often insipid. In 1810 0verbeck. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and is intersected by the transept. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Pforr. 1817-29). often separated from it by pillars. named after the patron saint of painting. . which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Nazarenes A group of young. Isidore. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. 1816-17. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. "ship") the main interior space of a church building.from the Middle Ages. nave (from Lat. The invention of personal mottos. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Rome. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol.

Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Popes. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. "aureole") The disc or halo. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. but their ideas continued to be influential. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. usually golden. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Nymphaeum (Gk. nimbus (Lat. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. were usually old when elected. the style of the Ancien Régime. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. moreover. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. nigellus. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). niello (Lat. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.) . is as true as it is notorious. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines.

with a sturdy. capital. "services. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. O obsequies (Lat. Greek goddesses of Nature. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. a more elaborate base. a small private chapel. orders of architecture In classical architecture. or poppy. and entablatures. such as linseed. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. . fluted column and a plain capital. obsequia. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). was the simplest. and its greater tonal range. walnut. the Doric order. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. They are seen in the form of the columns. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. its richness of colour. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. inborn sin. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. observances") Rites performed for the dead. The earliest. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. the three basic styles of design. prayer and preaching being central to their mission.

and the main apartments above. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Palazzo Strozzi). 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. like cities. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. designed as a . with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. standing at the foot of the Cross. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. the Cancelleria). tradition and social structure. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. palazzo (It. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. while shops came to be thought undignified. with biforate windows. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type.g. P pala (Ital. and. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity.

The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces.g. Rich. panel . A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. e. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. cornices and abutments. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Following Oriental patterns. Palazzo Massimi). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Papal incentives to build. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. like the colonnaded vestibule. In Venice. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. column-caps. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). evolved influential types. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and large households. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments.scholarly retreat. behind a sober Florentine façade. like Genoa. and Palladio's in Vicenza. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. palmette. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila).g. Movement of patrons and architects. came to be applied all over Europe. often built next to their titular churches. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. especially after the Sack of Rome. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Other cities. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes.

or the incidence of taxation. fibre-board. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. Having a circular plan. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. slate has occasionally been used as a support. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. enforce law and order. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Then. and walnut. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. On a larger scale. and other synthetic materials as supports. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. teak. To maintain their authority. cedar. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. Many other types were used. metal. In the 20th century cedar. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. mahogany. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. The third aspect was administrative. the. as it were. or other rigid substance. and spanned by a single dome. and the pressure and temptations . the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. fir. to influence popes in their favour. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. secular rulers. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. A number of matters. larch. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and modern painters have also used plywood. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and dark walnut are favourites. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. chestnut. including beech. linden. As successors to St Peter. as distinct from canvas. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. so that they might have a voice at court. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe.Term in painting for a support of wood. the management of clerical dues and taxation. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. olive. however.

The identification of the Papacy with Rome. was long in doubt. possess an authority which. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. would. As at Avignon.that could be applied to them. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. There remained. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. at Avignon. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. So onerous. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. to be long delayed. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. in spite of further absences from Rome. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. in the eyes of God. the most appropriate . the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. could supersede that of a pope. which seems so inevitable. Colonna and Caetani. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. It was argued that such a council. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . however. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). if it did no serious damage to the faith. however. of individuals. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). however. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. By then. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. which met at Constance 1414-18. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. as such. To resolve the problem of divided authority.as well. from the point of view of its religious associations.

Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. it has also been used for painting. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. through lavish patronage of artists. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. to a world peopled by shepherds. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. nymphs. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. pastoral (Lat. as well as a governmental one. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. However. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. scholars and men of letters. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. less frequently pig. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry.. in classical literature. 400-300 BC). paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and with Zeuxis (c. pastor. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and satyrs. and other animals. goat. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Passion . 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Parrhasius (c. the creation of a cultural capital.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe.

beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. pastiche (fr. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. projecting either centrally or at both ends. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. a prominent section of a monumental façade. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pavilion (Lat. and also the archbishop of Pisa. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. the crown of thorns. 1478). 1478.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. patrician (Lat. Meanwhile. . through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. such as a garden summerhouse. a small. but not necessarily a direct copy. Portrayals of the Passion.The events leading up to Good Friday. wealthy citizen. Francesco Salviati. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. "butterfly. papilio. ornamental building. hence tent") A lightly constructed. and so on. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a region in north-central Italy. which focus on the Suffering Christ.) or pasticcio (It. patricius.

Peace of Augsburg A treaty. concept or deity. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. or related elements within an art work. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. perspicere. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "hanging. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "nature". in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. .) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. in particular the face. "to see through. pendant (Fr. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "person". physiognomy (Gk. perspective (Lat. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. personification (Lat.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. physis. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. persona. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. pergola (It. and gnomon. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. and facere.

A pier is generally larger than a column. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. both real and painted. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. pigmentum. remarkable for singularity. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Rome.) The main floor of a building. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. to be expressed in painting. affording a good subject for a landscape. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. glue. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. pigment (Lat. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Pietà (Lat. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). curious details. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. exemplified. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. but may consist of a cluster of columns. for example. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it.piano nobile (Ital. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. striking the imagination with the force of painting.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. containing the public rooms. Peter's. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. but full of variety. proper to take a landscape from. or resin to make paint. usually above the ground floor. .

low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. It is often fluted. and thereafter all Europe. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. perhaps. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families.pilaster (Lat. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. also used in Spain's American colonies. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. "pillar") A flat. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. however. In the 15th century. moreover. and capital. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. It seems probable. it has a base. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. despite regional variations. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. more sporadic outbreaks. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. such as Florence and Genoa. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. though in less widespread. plague Plague. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. outside Tuscany. since. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. for instance. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. a shaft. For this reason. Thenceforward. it is difficult to find. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. During 1348 the Black Death. pilastrum. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. in October 1347. Rocco and Sebastian. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work.

In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). The second phase. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Philebus. which lasted only a few decades. placement.. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. In contrast with Aristotle. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Timaeus.e. A student of Socrates. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . utilized Mudejar ornament -. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Phaedo. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). The first phase. or simply the Plateresque. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). The first phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. harmonious. composition. the Symposium. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Theatetus and the Laws. heraldic escutcheons. are the masterworks of the second style. the Renaissance-Plateresque. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Phaedrus. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. or appropriateness. correct classical orders became frequent. and sinuous scrolls. and unified style using massive geometric forms. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. more severe. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. i. like its successor. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Diego evolved a purer.

The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. near Florence. Unlike the case of Aristotle. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. A new Latin translation. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Rather unsystematic. the greatest of his ancient disciples. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and Agostino Steuco (c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 1472-c.1577) becoming particularly popular. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame.in Plato's thought. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. all of which he also translated into Latin. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. and he utilized many other writings. but not completely. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and the Chaldaic Oracles. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. partially. replaced Ficino's. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. including those of Plotinus. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Iamblichus. Plotinus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 .

the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Frequently supports a pediment. plinth (Gk. plinthos. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pluviale. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. poluptukhos. column. pointed arch In architecture. where a pectoral is used to close it. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. polyptych (Gk. portico (Lat. such as processions and consecrations. or statue. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. porticus. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. Plato was read in the universities. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. as in classical architecture). pluvial (Med. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara.

Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris..sculptors such as Donatello. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.e. The equestrian portrait. Siena. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. was revived in the 14th century. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The realism of the clear. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. 1328. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. flattened image. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Desiderio da Settignano. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Florence (1486-90). which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Mantua. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Venice). painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. and the . The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Colleoni. Gattarnelata. and only a decorative accessory to form. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Cathedral) by Uccello. Group portraits. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Florence. National Gallery). Maria Novella. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Palazzo Farnese). Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. decorating whole rooms. the Carracci. psychologically more complex. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. inessential. Campidoglio).

took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. and. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Savonarola and Musso. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. not least those of statesmen and prelates. of the sermon as an art form. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. The styles of S. 1494). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). was versed in classical and patristic . bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. abrasive even. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. who had as their ideal masters Titian. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85)." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Charles Le Brun. are not florid in style. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. from the secular clergy. bishops especially. primarily the mendicants. however. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Fiamma's sermons. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. bishop of Chioggia. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. The sermons of Visdomini. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. several of whom became bishops. minatory exhortations. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Borromeo." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. and Peter Paul Rubens. As Poussin was a Frenchman. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. together with the Dominican Savonarola. bishop of Asti. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Correggio. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. to discharge their preaching duties.

they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Millais and Rossetti.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. tapestries.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Because of the small size of predelle . and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Naples). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. The New Testament references in these would. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.rhetoric.g. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. the temptations of Adam and Christ. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. predella (It. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. though often relatively very wide . among them Holman Hunt. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). presbyterion "Council of Elders") . and so forth. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. however. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. prefiguration Typology . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Louis of Toulouse (1317.

founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. 3. Prix de Rome A scholarship. sculpture and architecture. which uses the square . the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. again indicative of the purpose they served. The following are important: 1. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. the Canon of Proportion. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. notably David. Fragonard. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. Girardon. these highly finished drawings. proportion (Lat. proportio. profil perdu (Fr. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the golden section. 2. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. intended as complete works of art in themselves. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the quadrature. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). "evenness") in painting. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. and Houdon among sculptors. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice.

most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works.as a unit of measurement. triangulation. 4. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. harmonic proportions. a fourth = 3:4. for example). It was common in Roman art. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. one half the length of the other). for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Unlike Pozzo. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Ignazio. the steward or treasurer of a church. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. . Rome. putti sing. provenance The origins of an art work. a fifth = 2:3. putto (It. "boys") Plump naked little boys. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. and 5.

friars and nuns. the object of particular veneration. the great orders of monks. or the Jesuits. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Lat. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. e. with the Anglican Church developing in England. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). also known as the Realist school. or some item connected with a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. canons regular. Brunelleschi. basso rilievo). R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relic (Lat. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. In 16th century Europe. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Among the . Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. in which figures are seen half round. in which figures are almost detached from their background. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. refectory (Med. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. relevare. relief (Lat. Botticelli. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Donatello. and high relief (alto rilievo).Quattrocento (It. relicquiae. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Fra Angelico and others. in particular works by Masaccio. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief.g. hermits.

At the same time. Bologna (1419). Venice (1404). The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars.contemplative orders. the great patriarch of Venice. In 1504. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Lucca. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. it became the Cassinese congregation. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. and their more institutionalized brethren. Giustina. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. That of S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Lorenzo Giustiniani. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. 1012. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. however. Benedetto. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. although technically of secular canons. The Benedictines. Giorgio in Alga. the Conventuals. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Maria di Fregonaia. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. and the generally moderate Observants. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Founded by St Romuald c. The Conventuals. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Mantua. S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. i. their resources being in the hands of trustees. various groups were fused in the latter body. The Silvestrines. In 1517. Bernardino of Siena. Salvatore. The same bull . was the congregation of S.e. who had no overall organization originally. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. After the repression of the Spirituals. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. presided over by chapters general. Padua. the most notable being S. which was to become the main Italian one.

Other orders of Friars were the Minims. The first. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Filippo Neri. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th .provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Venice. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Gerolamo Aemiliani. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. also. S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. a historical period. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Michele in Isola. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded in 1535 by S. Gaetano da Thiene. Angela Merici. however. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. however. the Theatines. founded by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work.

increasingly. and his own as potentially one of light. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long.century. . For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). as well as political. however. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. For long. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. the historical reality of antiquity. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. of an energetic revival of interest in. was so vast and potent. All-Roundness. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. life. of letters. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. 1875-86). Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of arts. of scholarship. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. of 'darkness'. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. however. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. and competition with. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Thereafter. even Amoralism. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. too long forgotten glories. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. which had begun early in the 14th century. because its core of energy. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and.

Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. in the more limited sense. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. gratefully.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. of industrialization. let alone a uniform. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. and mass media. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Ghent). subjective reason a term to be used with caution. letters.with all its shabbiness . Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. statues. later still to Genoa. (3) There is not a true. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. retables can be detached and. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. especially in the High Gothic period. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. consist merely of a painting. congruence between. and other liturgical objects. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. mobilized nationalism. etc. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. though sometimes of metal. There was an early. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. candlesticks. The challenges are to be accepted. etc. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.erased. Cathedral of SaintBavon. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. and is decorated with paintings. the previous record . the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.) was the term chosen. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. It is for this additional. however. sometimes. Though thus challenged. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.

Romanesque art. "relief") In painting. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. the first style to achieve such international currency. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. like 'Gothic'. the St. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past.France. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious.in the 11th century. Rococo A style of design. literally. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Spain . its mood lighthearted and witry. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. retables have become extinct. rocaille (French. is a typical product.of St Mark in Venice. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. richly decorated with organic forms. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. More usually. With the development of freestanding altars. Germany. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. . however. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Italy. painting. rilievo (It. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. almost simultaneously. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). the impression that an object is three-dimensional. in several countries . Louis XV furniture. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Originally commissioned in 976. As the name suggests. and 'Romanesque'. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form.

van Heemskerk. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. B. In addition. Rome. Mabuse. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Q. Pannini and Mengs. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. . Claude.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. stylized design representing an open rose. Massys and M. The aim of painting. M. Piranesi. van Orley. the development of nationalistic pride. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. such as red ochre. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. they maintained. usually as a result of a visit to Italy.

glance and movement . multiple sets used in succession. holy orders. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. supported by lay confraternities. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). the Eucharist. Written primarily in ottava rima. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. when it finally left the city it had devastated. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. matrimony. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and Lorenzo de' Medici. but others were the work of well-known figures. Subjects were nominally sacred. Orthodox. penance. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. and anointing of the sick. There were no limits on time. and impoverished. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. pious legend and hagiography. Eastern independent. Clement escaped into Castel S. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. whose Rappresentazione dei SS.expressed through gesture. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Many compositions were anonymous. gutted. Sacra Conversazione (It. confirmation. and Protestant churches. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. local saints. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .greatly increased. In the . from the Old and New Testaments. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature.

in principle. as in the Church of the Brethren. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Lutheran. and sacraments. The classical Protestant churches (i. baptism and the Eucharist. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church." sala (Ital. the sun of righteousness. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. was not maintained as a sacrament. sacraments. which in the Gospel According to John. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.e. The theology of the Orthodox Church. The chief focus of discontent. make such strict distinctions. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. that the price of salt should be increased. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. foot washing. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Salt War. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. and then face east. strictly speaking. Immediately following baptism. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. large room. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. They were still seeking aid. the symbolic direction of Christ. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. It is still practiced on special occasions. Thus. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . used for drawing. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. was buried under a new fortress. the Orthodox Church does not. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. Hence. the Rocca Paolina. Anglican.e. chapter 13." which are called sacramentals. as an excuse to revolt. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Candidates first face west. notably from Florence and in Germany.i. replaces the Lord's Supper. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. the Bentivoglio. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors..) Hall.early church the number of sacraments varied. Saracens .

1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. sarcophagus.c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.During the Middle Ages. legs and horns of a goat. Little known in the Middle Ages. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 270 BC). wood or terracotta. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 360 . sarcophagi (Gk. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. The publication of Latin (1562. human-like woodland deities with the ears. 210 AD). pl. satyr In Greek mythology. 45 BC). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. made of stone. the god of wine. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). the Arabs or Muslims. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. are lost. whose writings. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). and many others. 160 .c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and .

from time to time both he and his opponents. one of the early leaders. on the other. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). However. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Louis I (d.for example Pieter van Laer. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. while devout Christians agonized. who had the support of the Avignon pope. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. being Frenchmen. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. scholasticism . 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. most of whom. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. 1386) and his son Ladislas.they had individual Bentnames . on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Alexander V. As a result. was called Bamboccio. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. but with little effect. and. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Schism. than their medieval predecessors. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. in June 1409. Charles III of Durazzo (d. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. with France and her allies Aragon. while England. on one side. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. for. In northern Italy. the Florentines. who recognized the Roman pope.

In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. Padua. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. because the secco technique is much less permanent. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. (See also: fresco. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. None the less. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). as it is easier to add details in this way. Serenissima (Ital. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. notably Aquinas. as it were. Medieval scholars. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.The term is ambivalent. university-based study. if lime-water was used. As such. It was because the central concerns of humanism . and Islamic literature. on one side. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Christian. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. rather than wet plaster as in fresco.were different from those of medieval. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.) . the plaster had to be damped before painting. history and rhetoric . with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. moreover. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). that scholasticism was left. textual scholarship. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. Often called the burning ones. and theology.moral philosophy. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire).

Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Sibyls foretold the Birth. Signoria (It. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. at the same time. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. term. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Med. which were all identical in thickness. sibyls (Gk. "the most serene republic of Venice"). "prophetess") In antiquity. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Servite (Lat. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. brass. usually presided over by individual families. in use since the Middle Ages. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sibylla. Originally. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. In Christian legend. there was only one Sibyl. and the delicate. They first appear in alpine monasteries.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Lat. sfumato A technique. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. women who could prophesy. sinopia . the number gradually rose to ten. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. in the period of classical antiquity. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci.. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.

the red chalk used to make such a drawing. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. and. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. . stigmata. Ital.'Beautiful Madonnas'. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Stanze (Ital. soffit (Lat. sing. sotto in sù (It. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). as the name implies. pronounced as French. brand. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Francis of Assisi. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault.. in other words. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .) Wooden ceiling decoration. especially in the flow of drapery. "mark. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. staffage This word. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. It is very closely related to International Gothic. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. stigma (Gk. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.

The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studiolo. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. studioli (It.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. with that for the Picturesque. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. In a looser sense. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. stucco A type of light. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The vogue for the Sublime. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. supremacy . both external and internal. pl. Indeed. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. whose verses actually fabrications . notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. John Milton.

But the Italians did not make them. or cartoons. then being replaced by oil paint. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). These were imported. chiefly from Flanders. was being decorated with frescoes. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns.and.Historically.e. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. temperare. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. into Italy. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. i. tempera (Lat. London. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. and in literature. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. both for panel painting and fresco. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. . The subject is underexplored. 1407). doubtless. Salviati and Allori. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. his own headquarters.

Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face.e. pl. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. pl. widely used form. vessels. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "fields. and profile. topia. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. quarter face. figure of speech. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. and sculptures. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. terraferma (Ital. topoi (Gk. and other surfaces. walls. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. in art. and later to subdivide gable ends. i. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topiary (Gk. in the architecture of ancient Rome. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. "a commonplace") In literature. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Trajan's Column . three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. topos. theme or motif. triumphal arch. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child.terracotta (It. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). model. tondo. tondi (It.

Trinity (Lat. added to the glamour of the triumph. fame. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. after 'a countless number of virgins. of virtues and of the arts. death. Meanwhile. time and eternity. tryptychos.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. triptych (Gk. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. "threefold") in Christianity. a car so brave'. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. behind it. the wars by which they were won . Disseminated soon after his death. Early triptychs were often portable. trinitas. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'.' Before it go the apostles. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). into a number of less controversial forms. or wings. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. . chastity. "threefold") A painting in three sections. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. usually an altarpiece. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Battista Sforza. beside it the army of martyrs. as it were. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. of both sexes'. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. the Son and the Holy Spirit. patriarchs and prophets. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the military triumph became sublimated. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph.

tusche A thick. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. enclosed by an arch. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I).triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. In medieval architecture. "drum") In classical architecture. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. viscous black ink. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. often decorated with sculptures. typology . Dating from classical times. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. first recorded in 1232. tympanum (Lat. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. through various naturalistic devices. it is usually decorated with carvings. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. It incorporates Renaissance features. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tromp l'oeil (Fr.

lanterns. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. 1610). e. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. U uomo universale (It. and David. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). The numerous candles. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Judith. were popular with them also. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. especially his half-length figural groups. each had access to his paintings. . killer of Holofernes. knew his former patrons. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). 1590-1624).) The Renaissance "universal man". Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. such as five works devoted to the senses. slayer of Goliath. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . In Christian thought. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.Dirck van Baburen (c. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).g. where they were most accessible. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor.A system of classification.

with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. carriages. mixed in. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death.). formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. guttering candles. vanitas (Lat. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Parisian craftsmen. overturned vessels. often gold. vesper. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and even flowers (which will soon fade). formed when two barrel vaults intersect. it was used to decorate furniture. "evening") . There are a wide range of forms. the groin vault. Vespers (Lat. varietà (It. Also varietas (Lat. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. a work's richness of subject matter. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. snuff boxes and other objects. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. hour-glasses and clocks. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. V vanishing point In perspective. and the rib vault. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.

'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vimperga Of German origin. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Anger. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Lust. Vestibule (Lat. Hope. "life") . Temperance. In ancient Roman dwellings. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vite (Lat. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows.Prayers said in the evening. "not exposed to winds". the church service at which these prayers are said. Prudence. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. 'Assume a virtue. in which the word signifies efficacy. Charity. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. for example. and Sloth. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. pl. vita. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. and Justice. vestibulum. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Covetousness. actual or latent. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Envy. if you have it not'. virtù could be used. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Fortitude. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Gluttony. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'.

The wars from 1494 do. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1482-84). protection from harm. Marcus (1st cent. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. Vitruvius Pollio. a biography. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and of Ferrara. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Sculptors and Architects"). by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. published in 1550 and 1568. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. usually when a prayer for good fortune. 1472. 1478-80. or recovery from illness has been made. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. and appalled recognition of. those of Volterera. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte.An account of someone's life and work. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559.g. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. they were from the 18th century . The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. in fact.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. woodcut A print made from a wood block. Westwerk German word. treasury or a place where justice was administered. gallery. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. a philosophy of life. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. pompous on the floor above. "Western work of art". leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. during its subsequent history.Weltanschauung (Gr. It was intended to have a variety of functions. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. usually restorers. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. usually linear. "world view") A comprehensive world view. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. .

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