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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. the moulding around a window or door. the lowest part of the entablature). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. There are several variants of the technique. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the darker the tone). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. The adjective is apsidal. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. architectonic (Gk. Degas. arkhitektonikos. arcus. arcade (Lat. Also known as an exedra. Lancet and Tudor. piers or pillars. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. at the east end of a church behind the altar. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). including Goya. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. The term applies also to a print made by this method. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Picasso. but in essence the process is as follows. which is fused to the plate by heating. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. . design. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. and Rouault. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "architectural") Relating to structure.e. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. or organization.A semicircular projection. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). In Greek and Roman literature. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. roofed with a half-dome. architrave (It. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.
"front arch. archivolto. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "begin." from Gk. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. voltus. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archeiu. Dante's Vita nuova ." and Lat. dominate. "golden. aureole (Lat. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. usually a saint. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. attributum. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. In the case of martyrs. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. attribute (Lat. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.archivolt (Ital.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. aureolus. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.and the Comedy . Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .
like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. often anecdotal. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. 'Captivity'. or baldacchino (It. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Six pontificates later.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. who had been residing in France since 1305. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. applied to the physically . The actual move was made in 1309. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). baldachin. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. that of Cardano. paintings of everyday life. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. in 1377. the god of wine and fertility. Later. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic.
In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Baalbek. Customarily. or connected with. banderole (It. Parma. As eight follows the "complete" number. AD 300). banderuola. Pentecost. Spalato [Split. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. or forecourt. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. a church. the Temple of Venus.. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. built by Sixtus III. el Kantara. set beneath a domical ciborium. and Poitiers. Lebanon. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and Nocera in Italy. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Easter. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. seven. pope between 432 and 440. Croatia]. Alg.g.. and abject filthy things. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. such as those at Pisa. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. AD 273. Florence. beggars in rags. France. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. and Epiphany. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. or canopy. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. . circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. a visual metaphor for the number eight.
1796-1875). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. 1810-1865). baptisteries. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. were often omitted entirely. something of earlier symbolism survives. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. basilica (Gk. Constant Troyon (French. which is reserved for the clergy. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. or baptismal chapels. 1814-1875). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. In architecture. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). "king's hall") a church building. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1811-1889). southeast of Paris. Also tunnel vault. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. achieved through scale. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. barocco. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration.In the 10th century. and increasingly elaborate decoration. . contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Jean-François Millet (French. usually facing east. 1817-1878). stoa basilike. Originally. Rubens). and (3) everyday realism. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Théodore Rousseau (French. Vermeer). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. however. in its usual location near the church door . and thus a church. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. in the 1840s and 1850s. Baroque (Port. Jules Dupré (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. 1807-1876).
the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. The term was mainly used up to c. bodegón Image. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. which is either not yet glazed. especially Spanish. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. also incorrectly called bisque.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Spanish still-lifes. such as Waldmüller. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. in which still-life predominates. Biscuit porcelain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. like their Dutch counterparts. 1650 in Spain. By association. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. were referred to by their specific contents. often with food and drink. as is to be expected. domesticity. There were. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. particularly porcelain. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Bodegónes. Book of Hours . Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. however. or which is to be left as it is. and often sentimentality. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. up until the mid-17th century.
by a variety of processes. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. days of the week. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. . It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. Chantilly). from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bozzetto Strictly speaking.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. varying from silverish to a rich. and the fact that it is easily workable . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. coppery red. bozzetto(Italian. months. By extension. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.both hot and cold . breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. See flying buttress. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. but can also be used for painted sketches. made as a study for a larger picture. a rapid sketch in oil. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. or seasons. durability.an advantage over marble sculpture. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.
over time the term was used for the collections themselves. mosaics. Among its most distinctive products were icons. which was often allegorical. and Giotto. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. ceramics.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Duccio. casson. notable from Syria and Egypt. camera obscura . a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. C cabinet A small. glass. its forms highly stylized. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. private room where works of art. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. box") In architecture. caisson (Fr. It also served to glorify the emperor. manuscript illuminations. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. and work in precious metals. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. cameo Small relief made from gems. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. "a chest.
candela. which isolates the fabric from the paint. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. only very rough effects will be obtainable. "candle") A large. Niepce created photography. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. which was usually whitened." and the earliest versions. The Latin name means "dark chamber. candelabrum (It. by the 16th century. hemp. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. other materials used are cotton. candlestick. pl. followed by smaller and even pocket models. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. as an aid to drawing. usually with several branches or arms. cantoria. usually built beside or attached to a church. capital (Lat. cantorie (It. dating to antiquity. sing. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. both of which have richly carved marble panels. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. campanile Bell tower. Structurally.Ancestor of the photographic camera. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.) A gallery for singers or musicians. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and.-N. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. Portable versions were built. candelabra. capitellum. usually in a church. . but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually decorated. and jute.
pl. The order combines reclusive and community life. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. or fresco. the endeavour to attain true humanity. At the height of the Middle Ages. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . cartoon (It. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. or a motto. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. details of the subject. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.a humorous drawing or parody. cardinalis.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Carthusian Order (Lat. tapestry. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). cartouche . Fortitudo (Fortitude). "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Carmelites (Lat. New Charterhouses. cartellini In a painting. near Grenoble. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartellino. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics.both Italians and artists from other countries . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. and humanism. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartone. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. monasteries containing separate hermitages. In fresco painting. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. the date of the painting. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites.
toward the setting sun. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and swags of fruit and flowers. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Paolo Uccello. cathedral (cathedra. Cascina. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. For reasons lost to time and tradition. These lead up to the north and south transepts. . battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. caryatid (Gk. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. palace. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. putti (cupids). Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. a cathedral always faces west . chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. castello (It. decorated with gilt gesso. cassone (It. The main body. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. In the 15th century. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.) "castle". Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. or nave. The altar is placed at the east end. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. and many other items of her dowry. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. or arms of the cross. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. linen. They contained the bride's clothes. they were also used in other countries. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. where the throne of the bishop is placed.
centralis. and perspicere.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. rather than intercessory functions. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. landscapes. in accordance with their distance from the observer. "in the centre". cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. animal. central perspective (Lat. as celestial attendants of God. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. . Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. buildings and figures that are being depicted. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. a celestial winged being with human. Christian. Both the statement of St. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. or birdlike characteristics. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. and Islamic literature. a throne bearer of the deity. champlevé (Fr. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Relative to the observer. continually praise him. moral laxity in the clergy and so on).
chiaroscuro (It. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. "light dark") In painting. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. North of the Alps." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . When the contrast of light and dark is strong." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choir (Gk. Lastly. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Hans Burgkmair (1510). chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. replacing tempera. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. reserved for the clergy to pray together." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. choros. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. the Order of the Hospital of St. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. or for choral singing. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. Since Carolingian times. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church.
and the Churrigueresque column. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. balustrades. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. undulating cornices. The Transparente (completed 1732). ciborium . further enriching the style. undulating lines. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. stucco shells. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. which was shaped like an inverted cone. reversed volutes.intersect). is as typically Churrigueresque. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. gilded rays. and repetition of pattern. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. and garlands. became the most common motif. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Sculpted clouds. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. an architect. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. a massing of carved angels. Very few still exist in their original positions. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments.
or achieve political representation. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. etc. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers.and post-medieval Italy. on July 22. combers. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. The new government. In reaction to this revolutionary . In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Their economic condition worsened. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. who were raised to the status of a guild. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. High Renaissance). including the ciompi. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Members of the lower classes. controlled by the minor guilds. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. beaters. craft of dyeing. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. the wool carder Michele di Lando. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Then. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. but self-employed. placing one of their members. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Without being members of a guild.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Quattrocento (1400s. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. as also were those in the associated. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. ciompi.
and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. resembling a lyre. clair-obscur (Fr. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. with Italian scholars. philosophy and art . however. the ciompi guild was abolished. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. and politics. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.episode. writers. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). except in cases where . the black contours usually with a special line plate. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. . scholars patiently finding.as in Italy these were dispensed with. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. changed greatly from one period to the next. cithara (Gk. editing and translating a wide range of texts. on which strings were plucked. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.) An ancient musical instrument. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. Concepts of the classical. literature. In the 15th century Greek literature. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. philosophy.
"those who know") Connoisseurs of art. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. pl. arch or ceiling. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. cognoscenti. and yellow and violet are complementary colours.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Coffered ceilings. intensify one another. the church service at which these prayers are said. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. condottiere. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. sing. pl. condottieri (It. as well as from the Bible. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. compline (Lat. terrorized the country. literature or music. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). blue and orange. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. when set side by side. . [hora] completa. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. concetti (It. those with refined tastes. concetto. a work's underlying theme. cognoscente (It. The name was derived from the condotta. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. occasionally made of wood. or "contract. Green and red.
who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. clergy. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. or with the spiritual assistance of. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and Tuscany. often under the direction of. flagellant confraternities.e. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. . Less fortunate was another great condottiere. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. i. and German--the condottieri. Carmagnola. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. scuole. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. With no goal beyond personal gain. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. in the service of Perugia. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. in the service of Naples. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. confraternities Confraternities. Mark (1432). Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Muzio's son.e. Spanish. disappeared. often called compagnie or. Martino). came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. commonly called either Compagnia di S. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. and his rival Braccio da Montone. in Venice. Toward the end of the 15th century. which spread in the 15th century. Umbria. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. who won control of Milan in 1450. By the 16th century.devastating Romagna. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. i. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. convents of convertite. By the end of the 14th century. Francesco Sforza. primarily for syphilitics. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri.
e. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. flat outlines. Later. contrapposto (It. notwithstanding their location.g. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy.i. e. and refuges for maidens. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. In medieval painting. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . founded c. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary.g. however. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the Florentine Neri. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Confraternities. contour (Fr. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. e. 1514 in S. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contours were initially regular. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. in Florence. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. reformed prostitutes. Dorotea in Trastevere. while the Venetian government. but sometimes had their own premises. contour. While the Doge ranked above the Council. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions.
large cornice or other feature. Lat. conventiculurn. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. aes cyprium. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. The style spread as far as England. started the process of inner reform in the Church. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. an engraving produced in this way. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. conventicle (Lat. whose names are inscribed on several works. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. cuprum. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Reform programs. declining moral standards. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. a bracket of stone. They are often ornamented. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. 1100 and 1300. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. 1280). Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. did not achieve any lasting results. corbel In architecture. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer.weight on one leg. . Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c.
Seleucids. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. particularly among the Persians. cupula. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. or "scourged. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the condemned man.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. the most famous victim of crucifixion. "small vat") In architecture. the first Christian emperor. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Next. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. cupola (Lat. Usually. reedy sound. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. a small dome.e. There were various methods of performing the execution. Death. Jews. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. after being whipped. An ancestor of the oboe. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Constantine the Great. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. i. a semi-circular vault. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Carthaginians. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. D dado .
since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. deacon (Gk. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. The term stresses not the literal drawing. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). disegno (It. diptych (Lat. diptychum. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diptychos. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Passau. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. design") In Renaissance art theory. but the concept behind an art work. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. a favorite late medieval picture subject. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. often an altarpiece. Germany. danse macabre The dance of death. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. which was help to be the basis of all art. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder.g. diakonos. e. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Deësis (Gk. Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. usually in matching pairs. "drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. an expressive use of nature. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Anglican and Orthodox churches.
It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. also used it on canvas. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. The studio easel. when painters took to working out of doors. a 19th-century invention. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. "to mix. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. doublet A male garment. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. distemper (Lat. which runs on castors or wheels. Ordo Praedictatorum. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. such as we still use today. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). distemperare.Thomas Aquinas. is a heavy piece of furniture. Dominicans (Lat. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it.fully realize. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. formerly worn under armour. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). As disegno appeals to the intellect. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. donor (Lat. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. dome in architecture. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. though a few artists. donator. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c.
enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. fresco. and architecture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. entablature In classical architecture. full face. eschaton. and logos. "word") . whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. Hence. and the cornice. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. the frieze. ensemble (Fr. epitaph (Gk. eschatology (Gk. in art. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. Ecce Homo (Lat. a depiction of Jesus. en face In portraiture. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. It consists of the architrave. sometimes combining panel painting. John (19. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. bound and flogged. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "last". sculpture.
notably Cardinal Pole. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Vittoria Colonna. celebrated with bread and wine. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. which was famous for maiolica. Eucharist (Gk. and Scandinavia. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church." and charis. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion." and that made in the Netherlands and England. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. . eu. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. 4500 BCE. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Augustine. Marcantonio Flaminio. and of the last things. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which was developed in the Near East ca. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Giovanni Morone. Contarini. fields and livestock. "good. particularly ware made in France. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. farmers. which is called "maiolica. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Germany. Carnesecchi and Ochino.death and resurrection. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Italy. which is called "delftware. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Jerome.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Saints Ambrose. Spain." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. protector of shepherds. and is named for Faenza.
sword and set of balances. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. relaxed. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). 2 . fluted of a column or pillar. Their attributes are the bow.8). can in time be seen. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. black and dun. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. fresco (It. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. such as plague. and these areas. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. frescos in Italy . Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Only a small area can be painted in a day. Committed to charitable and missionary work. and flowers suspended in a loop.festoni (It. war. The colour of his horse is white. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. that of the others red. drying to a slightly different tint. leaves. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. a swag. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. a technique known as a secco fresco. famine and death. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St.
or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. The technique of buon fresco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. In art from the classical period onwards. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. G Garter. or fresco secco. are genres of painting. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Genius in classical Rome. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the intonaco. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. or true fresco.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. covings and ceilings. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. Final details. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. genre In a broad sense. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil).Save in Venice. landscape and portraiture. where the atmosphere was too damp. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. for example. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. a person's invisible tutelary god. usually childish figure.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work.
it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. as well as writers and artists. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Maria Gloriosa). and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. in portraits and on tombs. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. how it differed from notoriety. whether it must be connected with the public good. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Gobelins . Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. and as spurring on men of action. Maso di Banco.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Bernardo Daddi. As such.
and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. and although it reopened in 1699. This ratio is approximately 8:13.French tapestry manufactory. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. still in existence today. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. golden section (Lat. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In other Italian cities. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. . In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Paris. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. who appointed Lebrun Director. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. thereafter it made only tapestries. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Golden Fleece. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.
whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and lies much deeper than. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In particular. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. painting. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Nevertheless. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. . whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. the superficial particularities of form. In thinking of Nicola (d. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. In sculpture and in painting. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Amiens. painting. like the cultural and commercial. There is a transcendental quality. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. 1270. that the effects are to be felt. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. c. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Denis. Gothic Gothic. or the influence of one building. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). 1200 and c. from the 13th until the 17th century. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. The artistic. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art.
the Netherlands. and Piranesi. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. . It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. to white or tinted paper and card and. It is thinned with water for applying. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. with sable.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. These qualities. Pannini. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. the beau idéal of the French. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Dubuffet. Canaletto. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Klee. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Honey.and hog-hair brushes. if required. notably in the writings of Bellori. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. occasionally. to silk. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and taste among the English. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and Morris Graves. and the great style. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. genius. and above all Italy. starch. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). chiefly to France. without visible brush marks. Such tours often took a year or more.
In the context of the fine arts. In another sense. . drawing and the various forms of engraving. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou.e. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. After the War of the Eight Saints. grisaille (Fr. Some writers. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. 1216. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. c. exclude drawing from this definition. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. From 1266 to 1268. gris. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. which had recruited most of the merchant class. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. after this. to Provence and Paris. In Florence. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. then as now. the parties taking a multitude of local names. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. through central Italy. however. internal factions in Florence went under other names. became an abiding feature of European politics. and Waiblingen. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. however. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. including text as well as illustrations. brother of Louis IX. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Although its palace was rebuilt c. usually gray.
In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. trade or profession (painters. or professions. such as Brescia and Vicenza. and greater hostility between master and man. In some towns. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In some cities. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. "herald") .guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. goldsmiths. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and provided assistance to members in need. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. print or painting." from Fr. In 16th century Venice. notably Florence in the 14th century. héraut. but in time they acquired other functions. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. trades. In Italy they go back a long way. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. In Florence. H hatching In a drawing. The guilds were not equal. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. as some did). and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. [science] héraldique. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. for example. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. "[knowledge of] heraldry. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. Guilds were also patrons of art. heraldry (Fr. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. surgeons. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. The guild also monitored standards of work. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office.
normative for churchmen. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. head of the 'carnal Church'. indeed.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. as Antichrist. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. By contrast. with the rules governing their use. while others merged with the Waldensians. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. i. together with brethren north of the Alps. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. the followers of Juan de Valdes. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. d. from the start. The main impact of the . However. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. one great missionary community. they were condemned in 1184. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. the Cathars were an anti-church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. the Waldensian. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. and regarded themselves as forming.
the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Church. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Germany. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. F. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Henry Inman. humanus. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. humanism (Lat. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. In humanism. Thomas Cole. George Inness. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Jasper Cropsey. F. Durand. in his earlier work. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. S. Frederick E. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. mainly in the south. American painters were studying in Rome. B. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. my spouse'. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. and. its subjects considered morally elevating. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. the emancipation of man from God took place. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. J. Morse. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. hortus conclusus (Lat. working from 1825 to 1875. At the same time. and classical literature. history (usually classical history). Kensett. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery .
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
with many further details added. For instance. Donatallo. and the ladder. invention.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Derived from classical rhetoric. The terms court style. beautiful style. or of other saints. there are representations of the bundle of rods. etc. the ability to create. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. and they are also depicted on their own. the hammer. it denominates a kind of behaviour. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Judas' thirty pieces of silver.g. Human figures. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. usually the donors of a work of art. investiture . are also used in art literature. the scourge that was used in the scourging. inventio (It. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the pincers. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Veronica. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. originality. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. soft style. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the rooster of Peter's denial. the veil of St. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. In the second half of the 14th century.
Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Upon his return to Holland. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianizers Northern artists. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. . who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. although they are usually called Romanists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. and Jan Asselijn. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Nicolaes Berchem. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Jerome's writings. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Both and Berchem. principally Dutch.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. of Utrecht. generally Dutch or Flemish. The Both brothers. bathed in a golden haze. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. who traveled in Italy and. Andries and Jan Both.
Legenda Aurea (Lat. As their military role grew.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem . and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. liberal arts . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. especially one at which the Bible is read. encouraged by the Crusades. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Archbishop of Genoa. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.1519). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. lectern A reading stand or desk. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. the rite of communion is based on this.
Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Church (1826-1900). often sublime. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. often standing in markets and town squares. astronomy and music. and Frederick E. It is related to. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. its roof supported by columns. poetic atmosphere. "little moon") In architecture. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. that may contain a window. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. a semicircular space. commemorating a marriage.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e.g.g. Kensett (1816-1872). through the use of aerial perspective. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). geometry.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. rhetoric and dialectic. Pythagoras for arithmetic. first the preparatory trivium . or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). loggia (It. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. together with identifying attributes (e. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. John F. lunette (Fr. painting or sculptural decoration. Tubal for music). Heade (1819-1904). then the basis of a philosophical training. that could be used for public ceremonies.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. . Martin J. comprising arithmetic. Maria Novella in Florence). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.grammar. the quadrivium. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.
Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. Specifically. and accompaniments. originally sung without accompaniment. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. usually for the lute. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. particularly such ware produced in Italy. mandorla (It. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. magna mater (Lat. "almond") . copper green. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and however bright their lighting effects. and iron red. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. for example. the goddess Cybele. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. active mainly in Florence c. and portraits as well as landscapes. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). being written. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. madrigal A part song. 1855–65. When white is used for painting. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. but they painted genre scenes. manganese purple. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. "great mother") A mother goddess. originating in Italy in the 14th century. antimony yellow. historical subjects. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze.
In architecture. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. illuminated initials and miniatures. marked by flagellation. In Mannerist painting. worn open. Parmigianino. the Codex manuscriptus. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. strong. complex and crowded compositions. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. maniera. Developing out of the Renaissance. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. El Greco and Tintoretto. Mannerism (It. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. bound.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. mantle An overcoat. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. and crowned with thorns. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and literary texts. "manner. ecclesiastical. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. It reached to the knee or foot. Flanders. depending on the social class of the wearer. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Burgundy. in a specific sense. Bronzino. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. which was quarried at Mount . often ornamented with decorative borders. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. the hand-written medieval book. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. more strictly.
Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. particularly by Michelangelo. Like the finest Imperial coins. "witness. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings.Pentelicon in Attica. marmi finti (It. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. quarried at Massa. a different design on the reverse. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. proof") the sufferings. which were beginning to be reverently collected. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. having finished his training. an inscription running round the rim. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). sleek surface. martyrdom (Gk. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Carrara. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Without monetary value. martyrion. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. the medal's purpose was commemorative. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). This was partly because ancient Roman coins. The pure white Carrara marble. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . medallion In architecture.
Ludwig von Siegen. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. . it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. In pure mezzotint. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. c. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. the stress on individual character. 1640. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. in England. The work of these men. 1467-688). Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. c. of the person portrayed on the other side. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. 14601528). is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. as it were. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. and of the many. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. often anonymous. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. a Gorgon. It was. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. for landscapes and portraits. A Dutch officer. 1452-1526/27). Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. When Perseus cuts off her head. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable.round the neck. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). perhaps oddly. Medusa In Greek mythology. even grain. supposedly to petrify her enemies. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. who reflected them. This yields a soft effect in the print. particularly. The process is essentially extinct today. 1425-1504). L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Her head features on Minerva's shield. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. no line drawing is employed.
miter A high. by Tiepolo and Rubens. "word. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch.g. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. "one color") Painted in a single color. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. a branch of the Franciscan order. often quite highly finished. ink and paint. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Parmigianino (d. painting in gouache on vellum or card. usually portraits.. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. still exist. a painting executed in a single color. monokhromatos. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. saying") . Francis himself. monochrome (Gk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. executed on a very small scale. e. motto (Ital. Many such small versions. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators.
and two other members moved to Rome. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Berlin. Nazarenes A group of young. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others.from the Middle Ages. In general. Rome. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. named after the patron saint of painting. Pforr. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. nave (from Lat. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. often separated from it by pillars. 1816-17. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and is intersected by the transept. naturalism (Fr. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. The invention of personal mottos. but often insipid. Isidore. In 1810 0verbeck. . "ship") the main interior space of a church building. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. navis. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and Casino Massimo. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. 1817-29). was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches.
its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. nimbus (Lat. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.) . confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. were usually old when elected. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. is as true as it is notorious. "aureole") The disc or halo. the style of the Ancien Régime. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Popes. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Nymphaeum (Gk. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). but their ideas continued to be influential. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. niello (Lat. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nigellus. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. usually golden. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. moreover.
the three basic styles of design. walnut. orders of architecture In classical architecture. "services. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. was the simplest. They are seen in the form of the columns. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). observances") Rites performed for the dead. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. a small private chapel. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. . prayer and preaching being central to their mission. or poppy. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The earliest. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. the Doric order. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. obsequia. its richness of colour. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Greek goddesses of Nature. fluted column and a plain capital. a more elaborate base. and entablatures. and its greater tonal range. with a sturdy. such as linseed. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. inborn sin. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. capital. O obsequies (Lat. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus).
reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. designed as a . In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. while shops came to be thought undignified. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples.g. like cities. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). with biforate windows. palazzo (It. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. the Cancelleria). a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. tradition and social structure. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Palazzo Strozzi). The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and. P pala (Ital. standing at the foot of the Cross.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and the main apartments above. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion.
originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". palmette. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. and Palladio's in Vicenza. and large households. In Venice. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Papal incentives to build. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. like Genoa. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Rich. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Palazzo Massimi). where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Following Oriental patterns. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. panel . often built next to their titular churches. behind a sober Florentine façade. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. came to be applied all over Europe. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Movement of patrons and architects. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. column-caps. e. evolved influential types.g. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). cornices and abutments.scholarly retreat. especially after the Sack of Rome.g. Other cities. like the colonnaded vestibule. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes.
however. thanks to their possession of the Papal State.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. including beech. and other synthetic materials as supports. fibre-board. Many other types were used. On a larger scale. to influence popes in their favour. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and modern painters have also used plywood. the management of clerical dues and taxation. cedar. and the pressure and temptations . extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. slate has occasionally been used as a support. Having a circular plan. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. enforce law and order. chestnut. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. larch. secular rulers. metal. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. As successors to St Peter. To maintain their authority. the. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. or the incidence of taxation. olive. or other rigid substance. and dark walnut are favourites. fir. In the 20th century cedar.Term in painting for a support of wood. teak. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. as it were. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. The third aspect was administrative. linden. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. A number of matters. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and walnut. and spanned by a single dome. as distinct from canvas. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. mahogany. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. Then. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). so that they might have a voice at court.
criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. if it did no serious damage to the faith. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. So onerous. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.as well. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. of individuals. which met at Constance 1414-18. could supersede that of a pope. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. however. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). By then. however. was long in doubt. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. possess an authority which. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. in the eyes of God. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. As at Avignon. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Colonna and Caetani. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). the most appropriate . two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. in spite of further absences from Rome. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. from the point of view of its religious associations. to be long delayed. There remained. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. at Avignon. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. as such. which seems so inevitable. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). It was argued that such a council.that could be applied to them. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . however. To resolve the problem of divided authority. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). would. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily.
and with Zeuxis (c. Parrhasius (c. and other animals. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. pastoral (Lat. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. as well as a governmental one. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). it has also been used for painting. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Passion . and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. nymphs. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). scholars and men of letters. to a world peopled by shepherds. goat. through lavish patronage of artists. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. the creation of a cultural capital. However. pastor. less frequently pig.. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. in classical literature. and satyrs. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 400-300 BC). but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. 425 BC) and Apelles (c.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe.
through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. a region in north-central Italy. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. Meanwhile. . a prominent section of a monumental façade. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. projecting either centrally or at both ends. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a small. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. pastiche (fr. ornamental building. "butterfly. hence tent") A lightly constructed. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. Francesco Salviati. patricius.) or pasticcio (It. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. but not necessarily a direct copy. such as a garden summerhouse. and so on. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. wealthy citizen. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. papilio. pavilion (Lat. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. patrician (Lat.The events leading up to Good Friday. 1478). and also the archbishop of Pisa. 1478.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. the crown of thorns. Portrayals of the Passion. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. which focus on the Suffering Christ.
. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. personification (Lat. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. perspective (Lat. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. pendant (Fr. physiognomy (Gk. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. persona. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "person". "hanging. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. perspicere. pergola (It. and facere. physis. or related elements within an art work. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. in particular the face. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. concept or deity. "to see through. and gnomon. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "nature".The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth.
A pier is generally larger than a column. affording a good subject for a landscape. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. curious details. Peter's. pigment (Lat. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. striking the imagination with the force of painting. containing the public rooms. glue. Pietà (Lat.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. proper to take a landscape from. both real and painted. but may consist of a cluster of columns. or resin to make paint. to be expressed in painting. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). for example. Rome. usually above the ground floor. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. but full of variety. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. .piano nobile (Ital. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. exemplified. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. remarkable for singularity. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.) The main floor of a building. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. pigmentum.
such as Florence and Genoa. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. and thereafter all Europe. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. It is often fluted.pilaster (Lat. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. During 1348 the Black Death. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. outside Tuscany. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. In the 15th century. Rocco and Sebastian. the burning of 'infected' clothing. in October 1347. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). for instance. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and capital. pilastrum. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. also used in Spain's American colonies. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. a shaft. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. though in less widespread. Thenceforward. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. despite regional variations. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. since. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. moreover. more sporadic outbreaks. For this reason. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. it has a base. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. it is difficult to find. plague Plague. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. however. "pillar") A flat. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . It seems probable. perhaps.
which lasted only a few decades. correct classical orders became frequent. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. In contrast with Aristotle. more severe. composition. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Philebus. placement. The first phase. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Phaedo. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic.e. A student of Socrates. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. i. the Symposium. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Theatetus and the Laws. are the masterworks of the second style.. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. like its successor. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. heraldic escutcheons. or appropriateness. harmonious. utilized Mudejar ornament -. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Diego evolved a purer. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Phaedrus. Timaeus. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. the Renaissance-Plateresque. and sinuous scrolls. The first phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The second phase. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and unified style using massive geometric forms. or simply the Plateresque. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.
1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c.in Plato's thought. near Florence. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. partially. including those of Plotinus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 1472-c. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and Agostino Steuco (c. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Iamblichus. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). and he utilized many other writings. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. the greatest of his ancient disciples. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition.1577) becoming particularly popular. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. but not completely. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. all of which he also translated into Latin. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Rather unsystematic. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. replaced Ficino's. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Plotinus. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved.
such as processions and consecrations. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. portico (Lat. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. pluviale. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. or statue. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluvial (Med. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. polyptych (Gk. Plato was read in the universities. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Frequently supports a pediment. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. porticus. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. poluptukhos. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. plinthos. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pointed arch In architecture. plinth (Gk. where a pectoral is used to close it.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Lat. as in classical architecture). column.
The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. decorating whole rooms. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Desiderio da Settignano. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. 1328. Siena. the Carracci. The realism of the clear. Florence. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Mantua. and the . Colleoni. Maria Novella. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. was revived in the 14th century. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Cathedral) by Uccello. inessential.. Palazzo Farnese). Campidoglio). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. National Gallery). The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Group portraits. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.e. psychologically more complex. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. and only a decorative accessory to form. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Florence (1486-90). Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Venice). The 16th century portrait became generalized. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. flattened image. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Gattarnelata. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface.sculptors such as Donatello. The equestrian portrait. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places.
however. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. abrasive even. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85)." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. from the secular clergy. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. The styles of S. together with the Dominican Savonarola. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Borromeo. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Charles Le Brun. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. and. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. are not florid in style. Fiamma's sermons. minatory exhortations. who had as their ideal masters Titian. several of whom became bishops. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. 1494). The sermons of Visdomini. to discharge their preaching duties. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Correggio. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. bishops especially. was versed in classical and patristic . in their appeals for communal religious renewal." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. of the sermon as an art form.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. bishop of Chioggia. and Peter Paul Rubens. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. As Poussin was a Frenchman. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. bishop of Asti. Savonarola and Musso. primarily the mendicants. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino.
The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. tapestries. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . however. Louis of Toulouse (1317. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). predella (It. Millais and Rossetti.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Because of the small size of predelle . among them Holman Hunt. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. the temptations of Adam and Christ. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. presbytery (or choir) (Gk.rhetoric. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. though often relatively very wide .they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. and so forth.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Naples).g. prefiguration Typology . The New Testament references in these would. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.
Fragonard. Prix de Rome A scholarship. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. proportion (Lat. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. the Canon of Proportion. profil perdu (Fr. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. sculpture and architecture. 2. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the golden section. which uses the square . They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. notably David. these highly finished drawings. Girardon. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). proportio. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "evenness") in painting. intended as complete works of art in themselves. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. The following are important: 1. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the quadrature. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. 3. and Houdon among sculptors. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. again indicative of the purpose they served.
4. for example).as a unit of measurement. putti sing. Unlike Pozzo. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. and 5. Rome. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. . which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. putto (It. the steward or treasurer of a church. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. It was common in Roman art. one half the length of the other). "boys") Plump naked little boys. a fifth = 2:3. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. provenance The origins of an art work. triangulation. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. a fourth = 3:4. harmonic proportions. Ignazio. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works.
"to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in which figures are almost detached from their background. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). basso rilievo). or the Jesuits. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Botticelli. Donatello. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. the great orders of monks. refectory (Med. relief (Lat. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message.Quattrocento (It. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. and high relief (alto rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Fra Angelico and others. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relic (Lat. friars and nuns. Among the . It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. In 16th century Europe. Brunelleschi. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. canons regular.g. relicquiae. in which figures are seen half round. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relevare. also known as the Realist school. in particular works by Masaccio. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. the object of particular veneration. with the Anglican Church developing in England. hermits. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Lat. or some item connected with a saint. e.
they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. The Benedictines. At the same time. Bologna (1419). the Conventuals. After the repression of the Spirituals. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. presided over by chapters general. 1012. Bernardino of Siena. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. and the generally moderate Observants. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Lorenzo Giustiniani.e. the great patriarch of Venice. Venice (1404). The Silvestrines. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Founded by St Romuald c. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. various groups were fused in the latter body. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. In 1517. In 1504. was the congregation of S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. The Conventuals. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. who had no overall organization originally. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The same bull . He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. however. That of S. Lucca. Mantua. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century.contemplative orders. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Padua. their resources being in the hands of trustees. which was to become the main Italian one. and their more institutionalized brethren. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Giorgio in Alga. it became the Cassinese congregation. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Maria di Fregonaia. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. the most notable being S. i. Salvatore. although technically of secular canons. Benedetto. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Giustina. S. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations.
Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Gaetano da Thiene. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. founded by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. a historical period. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Venice. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Filippo Neri. however. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Gerolamo Aemiliani. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Michele in Isola. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. The first. the Theatines. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Angela Merici. however. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. also.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. founded in 1535 by S.
. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of 'darkness'. because its core of energy. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. which had begun early in the 14th century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. 1875-86). Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. and competition with. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. even Amoralism.century. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. and his own as potentially one of light. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of an energetic revival of interest in. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. For long. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. of scholarship. Thereafter. however. All-Roundness. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. the historical reality of antiquity. of letters. of arts. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. was so vast and potent. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. however. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. too long forgotten glories. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. as well as political. increasingly. life. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them.
Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. candlesticks. letters. gratefully. let alone a uniform. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. etc. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. (3) There is not a true. the previous record . both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Though thus challenged. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. of industrialization. There was an early. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . however. though sometimes of metal. Ghent). Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. and is decorated with paintings.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside.) was the term chosen.erased. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. The challenges are to be accepted. later still to Genoa. consist merely of a painting. retables can be detached and. statues. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. etc. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. It is for this additional. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Cathedral of SaintBavon. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. especially in the High Gothic period. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. congruence between. in the more limited sense. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. sometimes.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). and mass media. and other liturgical objects.with all its shabbiness . (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. mobilized nationalism. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church.
More usually. in several countries . which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Germany. Originally commissioned in 976. and 'Romanesque'. almost simultaneously. As the name suggests. the St. however. . literally. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Rococo A style of design. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Louis XV furniture. rilievo (It.of St Mark in Venice. "relief") In painting. retables have become extinct. With the development of freestanding altars. richly decorated with organic forms. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. and architecture dominating the 18th century. like 'Gothic'. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. its mood lighthearted and witry. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Spain . is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.France. Italy. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. is a typical product. painting. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. rocaille (French.in the 11th century. Romanesque art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806).
The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Q. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. In addition. M. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. stylized design representing an open rose. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. the development of nationalistic pride. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Mabuse. Claude.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. van Orley. van Heemskerk. Piranesi. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. such as red ochre. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). B. The aim of painting. they maintained. . Massys and M. Rome. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Pannini and Mengs. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists.
The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. pious legend and hagiography. and Protestant churches. the Eucharist.greatly increased.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. There were no limits on time. Eastern independent. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). gutted. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. glance and movement . author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Sacra Conversazione (It. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. matrimony. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. confirmation. and anointing of the sick. Written primarily in ottava rima. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. but others were the work of well-known figures. when it finally left the city it had devastated. local saints. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). from the Old and New Testaments. supported by lay confraternities. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. In the . holy orders. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.expressed through gesture. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Subjects were nominally sacred. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). multiple sets used in succession. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. penance. Orthodox. and impoverished. Clement escaped into Castel S. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Many compositions were anonymous. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault.
" which are called sacramentals. baptism and the Eucharist. replaces the Lord's Supper. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. and then face east. foot washing. The chief focus of discontent. Lutheran. Saracens . Salt War. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. was not maintained as a sacrament. Immediately following baptism. strictly speaking. as an excuse to revolt. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12.. large room. Hence. They were still seeking aid. in principle.early church the number of sacraments varied. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. which in the Gospel According to John.) Hall. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts." sala (Ital. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Bentivoglio. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Thus. used for drawing. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. make such strict distinctions.i. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. notably from Florence and in Germany. the Orthodox Church does not. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. the symbolic direction of Christ. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.e. sacraments. the sun of righteousness. and sacraments. Anglican. The classical Protestant churches (i. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Candidates first face west. chapter 13. It is still practiced on special occasions. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.e. the Rocca Paolina. was buried under a new fortress.. The theology of the Orthodox Church. that the price of salt should be increased.
whose writings. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. sarcophagi (Gk. the Arabs or Muslims. human-like woodland deities with the ears.c. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). pl. wood or terracotta. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and .c. 210 AD). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.During the Middle Ages. made of stone. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 270 BC). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. satyr In Greek mythology. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. and many others. The publication of Latin (1562. are lost. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Little known in the Middle Ages. 360 . The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. legs and horns of a goat. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. sarcophagus. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. the god of wine. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. 160 . Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 45 BC).
on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. on one side. who recognized the Roman pope. and. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. scholasticism . 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Louis I (d. one of the early leaders. However. the Florentines. Alexander V. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. while England. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. As a result. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31).they had individual Bentnames . It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. being Frenchmen. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. 1386) and his son Ladislas. but with little effect. on the other. from time to time both he and his opponents. for. Schism. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. In northern Italy. with France and her allies Aragon. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. was called Bamboccio. Charles III of Durazzo (d. in June 1409. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. most of whom.for example Pieter van Laer. while devout Christians agonized. than their medieval predecessors. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII).
) . on one side. Serenissima (Ital. as it is easier to add details in this way. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. moreover. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). university-based study. None the less. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. It was because the central concerns of humanism . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. that scholasticism was left. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. textual scholarship. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. (See also: fresco. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). as it were. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.moral philosophy.were different from those of medieval. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. if lime-water was used. history and rhetoric .) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Medieval scholars. As such.The term is ambivalent. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. and theology. and Islamic literature. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. Christian. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Padua. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. the plaster had to be damped before painting. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. notably Aquinas. Often called the burning ones. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. because the secco technique is much less permanent.
) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. and the delicate. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. brass. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. They first appear in alpine monasteries. there was only one Sibyl. Originally. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sibylla. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "the most serene republic of Venice"). "prophetess") In antiquity. Med. Signoria (It. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. In Christian legend. Sibyls foretold the Birth. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. usually presided over by individual families. term. at the same time. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Lat. Servite (Lat. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sinopia . sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. which were all identical in thickness. sibyls (Gk. in the period of classical antiquity. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sfumato A technique. in use since the Middle Ages. women who could prophesy. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. the number gradually rose to ten. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12.
and.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigma (Gk. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. brand. pronounced as French. Stanze (Ital. sing. staffage This word. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. as the name implies. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . . is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. soffit (Lat. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Ital. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. especially in the flow of drapery. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. "mark. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. Francis of Assisi. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). stigmata. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint.) Wooden ceiling decoration. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. sotto in sù (It. It is very closely related to International Gothic. in other words..'Beautiful Madonnas'.
Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The vogue for the Sublime. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. John Milton. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. stucco A type of light. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. supremacy .stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. whose verses actually fabrications . By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. studiolo. In a looser sense. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. both external and internal. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. pl. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studioli (It. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. Indeed. with that for the Picturesque. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.
the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now.e. or cartoons. Salviati and Allori. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. doubtless. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. his own headquarters. and in literature. into Italy. chiefly from Flanders. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. . Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. These were imported. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . both for panel painting and fresco. temperare.and. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. tempera (Lat. was being decorated with frescoes. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The subject is underexplored. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. then being replaced by oil paint. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). Tempera colors are bright and translucent. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. 1407).Historically. i. But the Italians did not make them. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. London.
pl. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. triumphal arch. tondi (It. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. figure of speech. tondo. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. theme or motif. topiary (Gk. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. vessels. and later to subdivide gable ends. "a commonplace") In literature. widely used form. and sculptures. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. topia. topos. and other surfaces. topoi (Gk. pl. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. in art. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. in the architecture of ancient Rome. quarter face. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. terraferma (Ital.e. i. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "fields. Trajan's Column . The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. model. and profile. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. walls. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen).terracotta (It.
death.' Before it go the apostles. added to the glamour of the triumph. Trinity (Lat. behind it. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Meanwhile. trinitas. "threefold") in Christianity. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. "threefold") A painting in three sections. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the military triumph became sublimated. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. the Son and the Holy Spirit. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. the wars by which they were won . as it were. beside it the army of martyrs.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. usually an altarpiece. chastity. fame. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. patriarchs and prophets. of both sexes'. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. or wings.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. triptych (Gk. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . into a number of less controversial forms. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. . a car so brave'. after 'a countless number of virgins. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. time and eternity. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. tryptychos. Battista Sforza. Disseminated soon after his death. Early triptychs were often portable. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. of virtues and of the arts.
trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tusche A thick. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. "drum") In classical architecture. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. it is usually decorated with carvings.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. enclosed by an arch. In medieval architecture. tympanum (Lat. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). first recorded in 1232. often decorated with sculptures. typology . In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. It incorporates Renaissance features. through various naturalistic devices. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Dating from classical times. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. viscous black ink.
Judith. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. were popular with them also.g. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . where they were most accessible.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. killer of Holofernes. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). lanterns. especially his half-length figural groups.Dirck van Baburen (c. slayer of Goliath. U uomo universale (It. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters .A system of classification. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. e. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and David. . In Christian thought. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. 1590-1624). The numerous candles.) The Renaissance "universal man". and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). such as five works devoted to the senses. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. knew his former patrons. each had access to his paintings. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. 1610). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.
The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "evening") . mixed in. V vanishing point In perspective. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Parisian craftsmen. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. and the rib vault. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. the groin vault. There are a wide range of forms. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. varietà (It.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Vespers (Lat. "variety") In Renaissance art theory.). veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. often gold. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. a work's richness of subject matter. Also varietas (Lat. vanitas (Lat. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. snuff boxes and other objects. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vesper. guttering candles. carriages. hour-glasses and clocks. overturned vessels. it was used to decorate furniture.
vimperga Of German origin. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Temperance.Prayers said in the evening. Vestibule (Lat. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. In ancient Roman dwellings. if you have it not'. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Hope. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vite (Lat. Envy. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. "life") . virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. The seven Virtues were: Faith. in which the word signifies efficacy. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Anger. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Charity. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vita. 'Assume a virtue. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. "not exposed to winds". to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. and Justice. the church service at which these prayers are said. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Gluttony. actual or latent. vestibulum. Covetousness. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. for example. pl. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Lust. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Prudence. virtù could be used. and Sloth. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Fortitude. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art.
those of Volterera. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Marcus (1st cent. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. 1472. 1478-80. they were from the 18th century . protection from harm. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and of Ferrara. or recovery from illness has been made. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. published in 1550 and 1568. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. a biography. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. and appalled recognition of. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables.g. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. usually when a prayer for good fortune. 1482-84). in fact. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Sculptors and Architects"). Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. The wars from 1494 do.An account of someone's life and work. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Vitruvius Pollio.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. usually linear. "Western work of art". they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. a philosophy of life. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. gallery. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. "world view") A comprehensive world view.Weltanschauung (Gr. . pompous on the floor above. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. based on stylization of various animal forms. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. woodcut A print made from a wood block. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. during its subsequent history. Westwerk German word. usually restorers. It was intended to have a variety of functions. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting.