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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Lancet and Tudor. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. The adjective is apsidal. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. including Goya. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arkhitektonikos. and Rouault. the moulding around a window or door. roofed with a half-dome. arcus. the darker the tone). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. The term applies also to a print made by this method. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Picasso. design. arcade (Lat.A semicircular projection. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). at the east end of a church behind the altar. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. or organization. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. There are several variants of the technique. In Greek and Roman literature. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. . It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. which is fused to the plate by heating. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. the lowest part of the entablature). piers or pillars. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. "architectural") Relating to structure. but in essence the process is as follows. Degas. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.e. architectonic (Gk. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). architrave (It. Also known as an exedra.
Dante's Vita nuova . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). attributum. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.archivolt (Ital.and the Comedy . drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. voltus." from Gk. In the case of martyrs. "begin. aureolus.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "front arch. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "golden. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. aureole (Lat. dominate. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography ." and Lat. archivolto. archeiu. usually a saint. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. attribute (Lat. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat.
the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. who had been residing in France since 1305. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. that of Cardano. the god of wine and fertility. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. in 1377. Six pontificates later. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Later. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). paintings of everyday life. often anecdotal. baldachin. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. 'Captivity'. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. or baldacchino (It. The actual move was made in 1309. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Bambocciati Group of relatively small.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. applied to the physically .
el Kantara. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Lebanon. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and Nocera in Italy. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and abject filthy things. the Temple of Venus. Easter. a visual metaphor for the number eight. or canopy. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Florence. As eight follows the "complete" number. a church. .. seven. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. or forecourt. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. AD 273. Customarily. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. or connected with. pope between 432 and 440. Parma. Spalato [Split. and Poitiers. France. AD 300). The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. Baalbek. banderuola. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. beggars in rags." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Pentecost. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. such as those at Pisa.g. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. built by Sixtus III. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. set beneath a domical ciborium. banderole (It. Croatia]. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning.. and Epiphany. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Alg. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style.
1811-1889). In architecture. 1807-1876). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. baptisteries. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. were often omitted entirely. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. 1814-1875). in the 1840s and 1850s. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Also tunnel vault. Baroque (Port. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. usually facing east. Constant Troyon (French. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. southeast of Paris. 1810-1865). 1817-1878). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1796-1875). Vermeer). the dramatic use of light and shadow. something of earlier symbolism survives. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Jules Dupré (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts.an allusion to entering the Christian life. in its usual location near the church door . Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.In the 10th century. . there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Théodore Rousseau (French. Jean-François Millet (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. which is reserved for the clergy. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. stoa basilike. or baptismal chapels. basilica (Gk. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Originally. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and increasingly elaborate decoration. achieved through scale. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. and thus a church. however. barocco. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Rubens). "king's hall") a church building. and (3) everyday realism.
Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. like their Dutch counterparts. Bodegónes.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Book of Hours . domesticity. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Biscuit porcelain. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. which is either not yet glazed. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. such as those by Diego Velázquez. particularly porcelain. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. such as Waldmüller. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. bodegón Image. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. however. as is to be expected. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). also incorrectly called bisque. were referred to by their specific contents. 1650 in Spain. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. It takes its name from its grainy texture. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). often with food and drink. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. up until the mid-17th century. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. The term was mainly used up to c. or which is to be left as it is. especially Spanish. By association. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. and often sentimentality. in which still-life predominates. Spanish still-lifes. There were.
and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . months. varying from silverish to a rich. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. By extension. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. days of the week. See flying buttress. though these are more often called 'modelli'. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. durability.both hot and cold . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. but can also be used for painted sketches. coppery red.an advantage over marble sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. or seasons. bozzetto Strictly speaking. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. and the fact that it is easily workable . The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bozzetto(Italian. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.by a variety of processes. Chantilly). bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. a rapid sketch in oil. made as a study for a larger picture. . The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.
from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. C cabinet A small. glass. casson. "a chest. Among its most distinctive products were icons. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. which was often allegorical. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Based largely on Roman and Greek art. private room where works of art. box") In architecture. ceramics. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. manuscript illuminations. Duccio.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. and Giotto. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). camera obscura . caisson (Fr. It also served to glorify the emperor. its forms highly stylized. notable from Syria and Egypt. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. mosaics. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. and work in precious metals. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. cameo Small relief made from gems. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure.
candlestick. capitellum. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). as an aid to drawing. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. Niepce created photography. campanile Bell tower. Structurally. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. by the 16th century." and the earliest versions. pl. and jute. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. usually built beside or attached to a church. sing.) A gallery for singers or musicians. capital (Lat. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. other materials used are cotton. candela. which was usually whitened. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. both of which have richly carved marble panels. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. only very rough effects will be obtainable.Ancestor of the photographic camera. cantoria. usually with several branches or arms. Portable versions were built. candelabrum (It. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means.-N. followed by smaller and even pocket models. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. which isolates the fabric from the paint. "candle") A large. candelabra. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. usually in a church. dating to antiquity. The Latin name means "dark chamber. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. . Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. cantorie (It. hemp. usually decorated.
or fresco. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. near Grenoble. In fresco painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Carthusian Order (Lat. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. cartouche . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.both Italians and artists from other countries .a humorous drawing or parody. cartellini In a painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartone. At the height of the Middle Ages. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cardinalis. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Carmelites (Lat. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). details of the subject. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. New Charterhouses. pl. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. or a motto.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. the date of the painting. tapestry. cartoon (It. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartellino. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. monasteries containing separate hermitages. and humanism. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. The order combines reclusive and community life.
Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. linen. Paolo Uccello. For reasons lost to time and tradition. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. or arms of the cross. palace. and many other items of her dowry. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Cascina. castello (It. caryatid (Gk. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.) "castle". of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. These lead up to the north and south transepts. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. The altar is placed at the east end. . they were also used in other countries. decorated with gilt gesso.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. a cathedral always faces west . Worked on at intervals 1504-06. They contained the bride's clothes. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. putti (cupids). and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. and swags of fruit and flowers. cathedral (cathedra. where the throne of the bishop is placed. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. or nave. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. cassone (It.toward the setting sun. In the 15th century. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. The main body. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno.
a celestial winged being with human. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. central perspective (Lat. Christian. . moral laxity in the clergy and so on). but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. animal. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. "in the centre". In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. a throne bearer of the deity. Both the statement of St. as celestial attendants of God. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. or birdlike characteristics. Relative to the observer. landscapes. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. and Islamic literature. in accordance with their distance from the observer. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. buildings and figures that are being depicted. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. and perspicere. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. champlevé (Fr. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. continually praise him. rather than intercessory functions. centralis.
various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Lastly. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). "light dark") In painting. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). reserved for the clergy to pray together. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church.chiaroscuro (It. the Order of the Hospital of St. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. replacing tempera. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. North of the Alps. Hans Burgkmair (1510). choir (Gk. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. or for choral singing." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Since Carolingian times. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. choros.
balustrades. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. stucco shells. undulating cornices. an architect. Very few still exist in their original positions. a massing of carved angels. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. gilded rays. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. ciborium . the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. is as typically Churrigueresque.intersect). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. further enriching the style. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. undulating lines. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. which was shaped like an inverted cone. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. became the most common motif. Sculpted clouds. The Mexico cathedral (1718). The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. reversed volutes. The Transparente (completed 1732). and garlands. and repetition of pattern. and the Churrigueresque column.
They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Without being members of a guild. on July 22. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. combers. Then. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. or achieve political representation. Their economic condition worsened. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. who were raised to the status of a guild. High Renaissance). the wool carder Michele di Lando. but self-employed. placing one of their members.and post-medieval Italy. They were forbidden to form a trade association. ciompi. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. as also were those in the associated. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. craft of dyeing. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. In reaction to this revolutionary . Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. etc. beaters. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Quattrocento (1400s.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. The new government. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. controlled by the minor guilds. including the ciompi. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Members of the lower classes. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana.
together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. philosophy and art . in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. except in cases where . classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).episode. scholars patiently finding.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. resembling a lyre. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.) An ancient musical instrument. the ciompi guild was abolished. philosophy. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and politics. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. cithara (Gk. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). however. clair-obscur (Fr. on which strings were plucked. In the 15th century Greek literature. Concepts of the classical. literature. . with Italian scholars. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. writers. the black contours usually with a special line plate. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. changed greatly from one period to the next. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.
Green and red. concetto. [hora] completa. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). the church service at which these prayers are said. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. literature or music. concetti (It. intensify one another.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. when set side by side. condottiere. pl. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. or "contract. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Coffered ceilings. terrorized the country. compline (Lat. cognoscente (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. those with refined tastes. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. as well as from the Bible. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. sing. The name was derived from the condotta. blue and orange. condottieri (It. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. cognoscenti. a work's underlying theme." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. arch or ceiling. pl. occasionally made of wood. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. .
these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. i. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and German--the condottieri. in the service of Perugia. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. disappeared. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. scuole. which spread in the 15th century. By the end of the 14th century. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Martino). Umbria. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Carmagnola. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. and his rival Braccio da Montone. confraternities Confraternities. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. convents of convertite. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. in Venice. Muzio's son.e. Spanish. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. flagellant confraternities. in the service of Naples. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. clergy. Francesco Sforza. By the 16th century. i. Toward the end of the 15th century. often called compagnie or.devastating Romagna. commonly called either Compagnia di S. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. who won control of Milan in 1450. primarily for syphilitics. Less fortunate was another great condottiere.e. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. and Tuscany. Mark (1432). or with the spiritual assistance of. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. . Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. With no goal beyond personal gain. often under the direction of. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri.
the highest political decision-making body in Venice. reformed prostitutes. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. 1514 in S. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. while the Venetian government.e. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. While the Doge ranked above the Council. contours were initially regular. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. flat outlines. but sometimes had their own premises. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . contour. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. in Florence. Later. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the Florentine Neri. e. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. and refuges for maidens. In medieval painting. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. "Council of Ten") established in 1310.g. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Confraternities. e.i. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. however. which accompanied condemned prisoners. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. contour (Fr.g. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). notwithstanding their location. contrapposto (It. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Dorotea in Trastevere. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. founded c. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. and those which aided imprisoned debtors.
conventiculurn. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. large cornice or other feature. whose names are inscribed on several works. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. conventicle (Lat. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. declining moral standards. aes cyprium. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. . started the process of inner reform in the Church. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. 1280). "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. 1100 and 1300. an engraving produced in this way. The style spread as far as England. Copperplate engraving (late Lat.weight on one leg. a bracket of stone. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. They are often ornamented. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. corbel In architecture. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Reform programs. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Lat. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. cuprum. did not achieve any lasting results. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c.
crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. a semi-circular vault. Constantine the Great. "small vat") In architecture. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the most famous victim of crucifixion. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. a small dome.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Death. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. after being whipped. cupola (Lat. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. or "scourged.e. Jews. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Usually. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. the condemned man. Next. cupula. Seleucids." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. An ancestor of the oboe. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the first Christian emperor. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. particularly among the Persians. D dado . Carthaginians. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. reedy sound. There were various methods of performing the execution. i.
an expressive use of nature. which was help to be the basis of all art. Passau. decorated diffrently from the upper section. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. usually in matching pairs. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. danse macabre The dance of death. and Linz possessed common characteristics. diptychos. often an altarpiece. diptychum.g. deacon (Gk. Deësis (Gk. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Germany. but the concept behind an art work. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. "drawing. e. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. disegno (It. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. diakonos. The term stresses not the literal drawing. design") In Renaissance art theory. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Gk.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. a favorite late medieval picture subject. diptych (Lat.
usually forming a ceiling or roof. which runs on castors or wheels. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition.Thomas Aquinas. distemper (Lat. also used it on canvas. Dominicans (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). As disegno appeals to the intellect. formerly worn under armour. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs.fully realize. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. distemperare. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). dome in architecture. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ordo Praedictatorum. donor (Lat. doublet A male garment. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. is a heavy piece of furniture. "to mix. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. when painters took to working out of doors. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. though a few artists. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The studio easel. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. a 19th-century invention. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. donator. such as we still use today. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it.
en face In portraiture. "word") . bound and flogged. It consists of the architrave. and the cornice. eschatology (Gk. full face. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. the frieze. fresco. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. and logos. epitaph (Gk. ensemble (Fr. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "last". eschaton. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Hence. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. Ecce Homo (Lat. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. a depiction of Jesus. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. and architecture. John (19. sculpture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. in art. sometimes combining panel painting. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. entablature In classical architecture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil.
and also to Giulia Gonzaga. eu. "good. Vittoria Colonna. fields and livestock. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. which is called "maiolica. particularly ware made in France.death and resurrection. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. and Scandinavia. Spain. farmers. protector of shepherds. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. It developed in France in the early 16th century. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Germany." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Jerome. which is called "delftware. Saints Ambrose. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Marcantonio Flaminio. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Contarini. celebrated with bread and wine. 4500 BCE. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Eucharist (Gk. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. and of the last things. notably Cardinal Pole. Italy. which was famous for maiolica. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Augustine. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Carnesecchi and Ochino. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. which was developed in the Near East ca. and is named for Faenza. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns." and charis. . Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Giovanni Morone.
"fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. a technique known as a secco fresco. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. and these areas. a swag. can in time be seen. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful.festoni (It. 2 . The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. leaves. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. frescos in Italy . drying to a slightly different tint. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. famine and death. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin.8). fluted of a column or pillar. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. relaxed. that of the others red. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Only a small area can be painted in a day. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. such as plague. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. sword and set of balances. and flowers suspended in a loop. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. The colour of his horse is white. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. black and dun. Their attributes are the bow. war. fresco (It. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth.
blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.Save in Venice. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. the intonaco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. both in churches and in private and public palaces. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Final details. are genres of painting. for example. landscape and portraiture. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. or fresco secco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. genre In a broad sense. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . usually childish figure. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. or true fresco. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. where the atmosphere was too damp. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The technique of buon fresco. In art from the classical period onwards. G Garter. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. a person's invisible tutelary god. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. covings and ceilings.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. Genius in classical Rome.
The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Maso di Banco. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. in portraits and on tombs. as well as writers and artists. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. whether it must be connected with the public good. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. how it differed from notoriety. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. and as spurring on men of action. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Maria Gloriosa). As such. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Bernardo Daddi. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Gobelins . (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism.
In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. . Paris. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In other Italian cities. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Golden Fleece.French tapestry manufactory. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. and although it reopened in 1699. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. who appointed Lebrun Director. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. golden section (Lat. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. This ratio is approximately 8:13. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. still in existence today. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. thereafter it made only tapestries. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV.
c. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. like the cultural and commercial. 1270. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The artistic. In thinking of Nicola (d. In particular. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). Denis. from the 13th until the 17th century. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. painting. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. There is a transcendental quality. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. and lies much deeper than. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Nevertheless. In sculpture and in painting. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Amiens. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. or the influence of one building. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. that the effects are to be felt. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. 1200 and c. Gothic Gothic. . gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. painting. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the superficial particularities of form.
genius. and Morris Graves. with sable. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. These qualities. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. notably in the writings of Bellori.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Such tours often took a year or more. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Canaletto. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and Piranesi. and the great style. to white or tinted paper and card and. Dubuffet. Klee. chiefly to France. starch. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Honey. occasionally.and hog-hair brushes. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. if required. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and above all Italy. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Pannini. and taste among the English. to silk. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. without visible brush marks. are but different appellations of the same thing'. the Netherlands. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. . There was also a flourishing market in guide books. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. the beau idéal of the French. It is thinned with water for applying. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking.
From 1266 to 1268. however. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. internal factions in Florence went under other names. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. through central Italy. exclude drawing from this definition. In the context of the fine arts. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. brother of Louis IX. 1216. became an abiding feature of European politics. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. grisaille (Fr. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created.e. c. to Provence and Paris. After the War of the Eight Saints. In another sense. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. In Florence. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. however. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. including text as well as illustrations. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. and Waiblingen. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Some writers. which had recruited most of the merchant class.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. gris. usually gray. then as now. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. after this. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. . Although its palace was rebuilt c.
trades. H hatching In a drawing." from Fr. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. trade or profession (painters. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. notably Florence in the 14th century. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. for example. or professions. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In some cities. In Florence. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. such as Brescia and Vicenza. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. print or painting. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The guild also monitored standards of work. In Italy they go back a long way. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. héraut. "herald") . and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In 16th century Venice. goldsmiths. Guilds were also patrons of art. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. "[knowledge of] heraldry. as some did). In some towns. [science] héraldique. The guilds were not equal. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. heraldry (Fr. surgeons. but in time they acquired other functions. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. and provided assistance to members in need. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. and greater hostility between master and man.
similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. the followers of Juan de Valdes. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. By contrast. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. while others merged with the Waldensians.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. the Waldensian. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. from the start. head of the 'carnal Church'. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. together with brethren north of the Alps.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. with the rules governing their use. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. However. and regarded themselves as forming. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. they were condemned in 1184. one great missionary community. the Cathars were an anti-church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. as Antichrist. normative for churchmen. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. indeed. i. The main impact of the . only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. d.
"human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. George Inness. history (usually classical history). Durand. its subjects considered morally elevating. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . F. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible.movement upon the laity was in southern France. humanism (Lat. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Church. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. my spouse'. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. humanus. In humanism. hortus conclusus (Lat. F. J. At the same time. S. mainly in the south. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. and. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. the emancipation of man from God took place. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. American painters were studying in Rome. Henry Inman. Kensett. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. working from 1825 to 1875. B. in his earlier work. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. and classical literature. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Jasper Cropsey. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Morse. Germany. Thomas Cole. Frederick E. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
and the ladder. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. "invention") In Renaissance art theory.g. it denominates a kind of behaviour. trecento rococo and lyrical style. For instance. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Judas' thirty pieces of silver.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. are also used in art literature. the pincers. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. there are representations of the bundle of rods. usually the donors of a work of art. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Derived from classical rhetoric. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Veronica. Human figures. the rooster of Peter's denial. the scourge that was used in the scourging. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Donatallo. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the veil of St. originality. soft style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. invention. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. beautiful style. with many further details added. investiture . inventio (It. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. In the second half of the 14th century. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. etc. the ability to create. the hammer. or of other saints. The terms court style. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. and they are also depicted on their own.
of Utrecht. bathed in a golden haze. Upon his return to Holland. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Nicolaes Berchem. and Jan Asselijn. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Jerome's writings. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. who traveled in Italy and. Both and Berchem. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. The Both brothers. Andries and Jan Both. . its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. principally Dutch. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. although they are usually called Romanists. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Italianizers Northern artists. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). generally Dutch or Flemish. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work.
The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. liberal arts . especially one at which the Bible is read. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Archbishop of Genoa. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. As their military role grew.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .as the Friars of the Hospital of St.1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. lectern A reading stand or desk. John of Jerusalem . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Legenda Aurea (Lat. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. encouraged by the Crusades. the rite of communion is based on this. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.
It is related to. together with identifying attributes (e. geometry. painting or sculptural decoration. rhetoric and dialectic. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). poetic atmosphere. then the basis of a philosophical training. "little moon") In architecture. often standing in markets and town squares.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. often sublime. Maria Novella in Florence). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Pythagoras for arithmetic. John F. . Kensett (1816-1872).g. Tubal for music). that may contain a window. through the use of aerial perspective. astronomy and music. loggia (It. a semicircular space. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure.g. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. that could be used for public ceremonies. and Frederick E.grammar. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Martin J. commemorating a marriage. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. its roof supported by columns. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. the quadrivium.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. comprising arithmetic. first the preparatory trivium . Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Heade (1819-1904). lunette (Fr. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Church (1826-1900).
especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. "almond") . and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). magna mater (Lat. mandorla (It. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. and accompaniments. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). They were influenced by the Barbizon School. particularly such ware produced in Italy. usually for the lute. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. When white is used for painting. copper green. antimony yellow. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. for example. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. but they painted genre scenes. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. being written. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. manganese purple. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. 1855–65. "great mother") A mother goddess. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. and however bright their lighting effects. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. madrigal A part song. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and iron red. originating in Italy in the 14th century. historical subjects. active mainly in Florence c. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. originally sung without accompaniment. the goddess Cybele. Specifically. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and portraits as well as landscapes.
At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. depending on the social class of the wearer. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. strong. maniera. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. ecclesiastical. Flanders. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. marked by flagellation. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. the hand-written medieval book. in a specific sense. illuminated initials and miniatures. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. El Greco and Tintoretto. Burgundy. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and crowned with thorns. mantle An overcoat. which was quarried at Mount . often ornamented with decorative borders.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. It reached to the knee or foot. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. In architecture. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. "manner. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and literary texts. complex and crowded compositions. Mannerism (It. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Parmigianino. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. worn open. bound. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. In Mannerist painting. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Bronzino. the Codex manuscriptus. more strictly. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Developing out of the Renaissance.
is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. "witness. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. an inscription running round the rim. which were beginning to be reverently collected. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. The pure white Carrara marble.Pentelicon in Attica. Carrara. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. sleek surface. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. quarried at Massa. proof") the sufferings. having finished his training. Like the finest Imperial coins. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. a different design on the reverse. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). marmi finti (It. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. medallion In architecture. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Without monetary value. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. martyrion. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. particularly by Michelangelo. the medal's purpose was commemorative. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. martyrdom (Gk. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos.
Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. a Gorgon. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. often anonymous. supposedly to petrify her enemies. . Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. c. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. who reflected them. particularly. Medusa In Greek mythology. perhaps oddly. no line drawing is employed. as it were. of the person portrayed on the other side. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. The work of these men. for landscapes and portraits. in England. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. the stress on individual character. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. This yields a soft effect in the print. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. c. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Ludwig von Siegen. In pure mezzotint. 1452-1526/27). The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. 14601528). It was. When Perseus cuts off her head. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. and of the many. even grain. The process is essentially extinct today. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). 1640. 1425-1504). And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career.round the neck. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Her head features on Minerva's shield. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. A Dutch officer. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1467-688).
not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. usually portraits. pointed headdress worn by bishops. monokhromatos. a branch of the Franciscan order. a painting executed in a single color. Many such small versions. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church..miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. saying") . motto (Ital. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Francis himself. miter A high. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Parmigianino (d. monochrome (Gk. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. e. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St.g. still exist. "word. often quite highly finished. painting in gouache on vellum or card. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. executed on a very small scale. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. "one color") Painted in a single color. ink and paint. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.
Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. The invention of personal mottos.from the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. but often insipid. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Rome. and two other members moved to Rome. . was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. named after the patron saint of painting. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). 1816-17. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. nave (from Lat. and Casino Massimo. naturalism (Fr. Pforr. Isidore. and is intersected by the transept. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. navis. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In 1810 0verbeck. In general. 1817-29). naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. often separated from it by pillars. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Nazarenes A group of young. Berlin.
Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Nymphaeum (Gk. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance.) . the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Popes. is as true as it is notorious. were usually old when elected. usually golden. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). but their ideas continued to be influential. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. moreover. nigellus. "aureole") The disc or halo. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. nimbus (Lat. niello (Lat. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. the style of the Ancien Régime. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).
ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. . and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). capital. its richness of colour. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. and its greater tonal range. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a small private chapel. and entablatures. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. obsequia. "services. orders of architecture In classical architecture. They are seen in the form of the columns.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. the Doric order. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. walnut. with a sturdy. inborn sin. Greek goddesses of Nature. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). the three basic styles of design. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. O obsequies (Lat. or poppy. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. fluted column and a plain capital. observances") Rites performed for the dead. such as linseed. The earliest. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. a more elaborate base. was the simplest.
A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. while shops came to be thought undignified. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. the Cancelleria). tradition and social structure. designed as a . palazzo (It. P pala (Ital.g. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. and the main apartments above. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. with biforate windows. and. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. standing at the foot of the Cross. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. like cities. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Palazzo Strozzi). In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Usually pointed or rounded at the top.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples.
tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. palmette. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. like the colonnaded vestibule. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Papal incentives to build. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Other cities. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Following Oriental patterns. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. panel . e. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e.g. In Venice.g. especially after the Sack of Rome. and large households. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Rich. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). cornices and abutments. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and Palladio's in Vicenza. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Movement of patrons and architects. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces.scholarly retreat. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. often built next to their titular churches. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. came to be applied all over Europe. column-caps. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Palazzo Massimi). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. behind a sober Florentine façade. like Genoa. evolved influential types. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). the architectural pace was set by the papal court. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm".
as distinct from canvas. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. as it were. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. and walnut. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. linden. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. or other rigid substance. fibre-board. In the 20th century cedar. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. As successors to St Peter. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. the. so that they might have a voice at court. and dark walnut are favourites. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. or the incidence of taxation. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. slate has occasionally been used as a support. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and other synthetic materials as supports. Then. including beech. olive. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. A number of matters. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. On a larger scale. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. metal. to influence popes in their favour. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the management of clerical dues and taxation. larch. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. The third aspect was administrative. mahogany.Term in painting for a support of wood. and spanned by a single dome.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. teak. chestnut. and modern painters have also used plywood. however. Having a circular plan. secular rulers. and the pressure and temptations . fir. To maintain their authority. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. cedar. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. enforce law and order. Many other types were used. wooden panels were the standard support in painting.
in spite of further absences from Rome. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. So onerous. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. would.as well. possess an authority which. of individuals. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. was long in doubt. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. To resolve the problem of divided authority. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . in the eyes of God. There remained. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. which met at Constance 1414-18. By then. as such. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. It was argued that such a council. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. could supersede that of a pope. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. however. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). however. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. at Avignon. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. the most appropriate . notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority.that could be applied to them. from the point of view of its religious associations. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . The identification of the Papacy with Rome. to be long delayed. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. As at Avignon. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Colonna and Caetani. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. however. if it did no serious damage to the faith. which seems so inevitable. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67).
to a world peopled by shepherds. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. less frequently pig. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. as well as a governmental one. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. nymphs. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). goat.. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. pastoral (Lat. 400-300 BC). but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and satyrs. Parrhasius (c. pastor. the creation of a cultural capital. through lavish patronage of artists.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. and other animals. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and with Zeuxis (c. However. in classical literature. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Passion . parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. scholars and men of letters. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. it has also been used for painting. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used.
include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. a prominent section of a monumental façade.) or pasticcio (It. and also the archbishop of Pisa. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. ornamental building. which focus on the Suffering Christ. patrician (Lat. such as a garden summerhouse. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. pavilion (Lat. pastiche (fr. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. the crown of thorns. Francesco Salviati. Meanwhile. patricius. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. and so on. a small. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. "butterfly. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. . Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. wealthy citizen. Portrayals of the Passion. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. 1478). but not necessarily a direct copy. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.The events leading up to Good Friday. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. a region in north-central Italy. hence tent") A lightly constructed. projecting either centrally or at both ends.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. papilio. 1478.
and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "person". The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). . and gnomon.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. perspicere. and facere. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. "nature". "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). pendant (Fr. concept or deity. in particular the face. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "to see through. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. or related elements within an art work. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. physiognomy (Gk. pergola (It. "hanging.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. personification (Lat. physis. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. persona. perspective (Lat. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays.
exemplified. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. A pier is generally larger than a column. to be expressed in painting. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. pigment (Lat. or resin to make paint. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. glue. but full of variety. but may consist of a cluster of columns. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. pigmentum. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. both real and painted. for example. . much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Peter's. remarkable for singularity.piano nobile (Ital. Pietà (Lat. curious details.) The main floor of a building. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. usually above the ground floor. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. proper to take a landscape from. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Rome. affording a good subject for a landscape. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. containing the public rooms. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output.
and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. the burning of 'infected' clothing. however. moreover. for instance. more sporadic outbreaks. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Thenceforward. such as Florence and Genoa. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . plague Plague. For this reason. outside Tuscany. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. though in less widespread. since. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. a shaft. also used in Spain's American colonies. in October 1347. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. and thereafter all Europe. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. despite regional variations. it has a base. "pillar") A flat. it is difficult to find. perhaps. It is often fluted. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. During 1348 the Black Death. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. In the 15th century. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. and capital. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). pilastrum. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Rocco and Sebastian.pilaster (Lat. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. It seems probable. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture.
lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. and unified style using massive geometric forms. more severe. which lasted only a few decades. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. heraldic escutcheons. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. The second phase. Diego evolved a purer.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In contrast with Aristotle. like its successor. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Timaeus. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. and sinuous scrolls. i. A student of Socrates. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. or simply the Plateresque. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The first phase. correct classical orders became frequent. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. or appropriateness. The first phase. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. the Symposium. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones.. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate.e. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. harmonious. Phaedo. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Theatetus and the Laws. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. are the masterworks of the second style. the Renaissance-Plateresque. utilized Mudejar ornament -. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. placement. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Philebus. Phaedrus. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. composition. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form.
and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. the greatest of his ancient disciples. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Iamblichus. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). partially. A new Latin translation. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. and he utilized many other writings. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. including those of Plotinus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. near Florence. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but not completely. all of which he also translated into Latin. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Plotinus. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. for example with Symphorian Champier (c.1577) becoming particularly popular. Unlike the case of Aristotle. and the Chaldaic Oracles. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. replaced Ficino's. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French.in Plato's thought. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. and Agostino Steuco (c. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Rather unsystematic. 1472-c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus.
polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. polyptych (Gk. portico (Lat. column. where a pectoral is used to close it. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. such as processions and consecrations.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. Frequently supports a pediment. pluvial (Med. Lat. plinth (Gk. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Plato was read in the universities. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. as in classical architecture). one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. poluptukhos. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. pluviale. plinthos. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. porticus. or statue. pointed arch In architecture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses.
The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. 1328. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Florence. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Mantua.. Cathedral) by Uccello. psychologically more complex. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. decorating whole rooms. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. and only a decorative accessory to form. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the Carracci. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Group portraits. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Venice). directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The equestrian portrait. The realism of the clear. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello.e. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Maria Novella. and the . painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Gattarnelata. Desiderio da Settignano. Siena. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Florence (1486-90). include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. National Gallery). Campidoglio). was revived in the 14th century. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.sculptors such as Donatello. Colleoni. flattened image. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. inessential. Palazzo Farnese).
Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Savonarola and Musso. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Fiamma's sermons. are not florid in style. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). of the sermon as an art form. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. was versed in classical and patristic . The styles of S. bishop of Chioggia." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. and. The sermons of Visdomini. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. however. Charles Le Brun. and Peter Paul Rubens. who had as their ideal masters Titian. together with the Dominican Savonarola. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. several of whom became bishops. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishops especially. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. to discharge their preaching duties. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. abrasive even. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. primarily the mendicants. bishop of Asti. 1494). This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Correggio. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. not least those of statesmen and prelates. from the secular clergy. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. As Poussin was a Frenchman. minatory exhortations. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Borromeo.
Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Millais and Rossetti. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). however. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Louis of Toulouse (1317. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. prefiguration Typology . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. among them Holman Hunt. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. tapestries. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.g. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. though often relatively very wide . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Because of the small size of predelle .rhetoric.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Naples). this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. The New Testament references in these would. and so forth. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. predella (It. the temptations of Adam and Christ.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ.
the golden section. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. Fragonard. the Canon of Proportion. 2. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. the quadrature. projecting shelf on which to kneel. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. which uses the square . "evenness") in painting. these highly finished drawings. notably David. proportio. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. Girardon. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. proportion (Lat. profil perdu (Fr.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. 3. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). and Houdon among sculptors. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. sculpture and architecture. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The following are important: 1. intended as complete works of art in themselves. again indicative of the purpose they served. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense.
4. It was common in Roman art. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. a fifth = 2:3. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. for example). "boys") Plump naked little boys. harmonic proportions. Unlike Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. . Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus).as a unit of measurement. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. putti sing. the steward or treasurer of a church. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Ignazio. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. triangulation. provenance The origins of an art work. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. putto (It. a fourth = 3:4. and 5. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. Rome. one half the length of the other). the history of a work's ownership since its creation. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.
denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Among the . relicquiae. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). and high relief (alto rilievo). in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Donatello. Botticelli. in which figures are seen half round. refectorium) Monastic dining hall.Quattrocento (It. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. friars and nuns. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. the great orders of monks. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. in which figures are almost detached from their background. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life.g. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. e. In 16th century Europe. relic (Lat. refectory (Med. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. with the Anglican Church developing in England. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Lat. basso rilievo). relief (Lat. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. canons regular. also known as the Realist school. hermits. the object of particular veneration. or some item connected with a saint. Fra Angelico and others. in particular works by Masaccio. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Brunelleschi. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relevare. or the Jesuits.
there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Bernardino of Siena. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. After the repression of the Spirituals. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. That of S. In 1517. Founded by St Romuald c. i. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. although technically of secular canons. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. In 1504. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. which was to become the main Italian one. Giorgio in Alga. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order.e. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. The Silvestrines. At the same time. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. The Benedictines. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Padua. the most notable being S. Giustina. Benedetto. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. and their more institutionalized brethren. The Conventuals. it became the Cassinese congregation. the Conventuals. 1012. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. who had no overall organization originally. Maria di Fregonaia. the great patriarch of Venice. Venice (1404). and the generally moderate Observants. Bologna (1419). 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. was the congregation of S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Mantua. Lucca. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. various groups were fused in the latter body. The same bull . however. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Salvatore. Lorenzo Giustiniani. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries.contemplative orders. presided over by chapters general. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. S.
the Theatines. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Michele in Isola. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. founded in 1535 by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. founded by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Gaetano da Thiene. a historical period. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Angela Merici. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. also. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Gerolamo Aemiliani. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. Venice. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. however. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Filippo Neri. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The first.
and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. which had begun early in the 14th century. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. however. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. however. of 'darkness'. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. and competition with. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. as well as political. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. was so vast and potent. 1875-86). of arts. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. too long forgotten glories. . the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of letters. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. increasingly. of scholarship.century. life. because its core of energy. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of an energetic revival of interest in. the historical reality of antiquity. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). All-Roundness. and his own as potentially one of light. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. For long. even Amoralism. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Thereafter.
mobilized nationalism. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. There was an early. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. let alone a uniform.with all its shabbiness . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. candlesticks. Though thus challenged. letters. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. the previous record .erased. especially in the High Gothic period. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. consist merely of a painting. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. statues. (3) There is not a true. etc. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. congruence between. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. etc. The challenges are to be accepted. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity.) was the term chosen. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. later still to Genoa. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Cathedral of SaintBavon. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). retables can be detached and.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. and is decorated with paintings. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . in the more limited sense. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. though sometimes of metal. and mass media. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. sometimes. gratefully. It is for this additional. Ghent). 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. however. and other liturgical objects. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. of industrialization.
with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. As the name suggests. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. the St. almost simultaneously. Germany. richly decorated with organic forms. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.in the 11th century. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism.France. Romanesque art. like 'Gothic'. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period.of St Mark in Venice. and architecture dominating the 18th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. and 'Romanesque'. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. retables have become extinct. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. the first style to achieve such international currency. Originally commissioned in 976. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. its mood lighthearted and witry. . Spain . rilievo (It. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Rococo A style of design. painting. is a typical product. Louis XV furniture. in several countries . Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. however. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). More usually. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. With the development of freestanding altars. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. literally. "relief") In painting. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Italy. rocaille (French.
M. Pannini and Mengs. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Orley. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. stylized design representing an open rose. they maintained. Q.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. B. Claude. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Rome. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. In addition. such as red ochre. van Heemskerk. Massys and M. the development of nationalistic pride. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. . Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The aim of painting. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Piranesi. Mabuse. usually as a result of a visit to Italy.
author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). whose Rappresentazione dei SS. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. In the . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. penance. Written primarily in ottava rima. multiple sets used in succession. Clement escaped into Castel S. Subjects were nominally sacred. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Eastern independent. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. the Eucharist. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Sacra Conversazione (It. and Protestant churches. and impoverished. and anointing of the sick. local saints. confirmation. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. when it finally left the city it had devastated. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. pious legend and hagiography. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. but others were the work of well-known figures. There were no limits on time. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Many compositions were anonymous. glance and movement . Orthodox. supported by lay confraternities. matrimony. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). holy orders. from the Old and New Testaments. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control.expressed through gesture. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . gutted. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable.greatly increased. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism.
The classical Protestant churches (i. used for drawing. which in the Gospel According to John.. the Bentivoglio. the Orthodox Church does not. the Rocca Paolina.) Hall. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. large room. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. was buried under a new fortress. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. baptism and the Eucharist. was not maintained as a sacrament. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Thus. sacraments. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Salt War. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. in principle. Lutheran. make such strict distinctions. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.early church the number of sacraments varied. The chief focus of discontent.i.e. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. chapter 13. Anglican. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. the sun of righteousness. They were still seeking aid.e. Saracens . chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place." which are called sacramentals. Hence. notably from Florence and in Germany. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Immediately following baptism. It is still practiced on special occasions." sala (Ital. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. and then face east. that the price of salt should be increased.. as in the Church of the Brethren. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. replaces the Lord's Supper. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. foot washing. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . as an excuse to revolt. the symbolic direction of Christ. strictly speaking. and sacraments. Candidates first face west. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.
c. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 45 BC). legs and horns of a goat. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism.c. sarcophagi (Gk. 270 BC). 160 . Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. satyr In Greek mythology. the god of wine. human-like woodland deities with the ears. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell.During the Middle Ages. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 360 . Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. and many others. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). are lost. whose writings. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 210 AD). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. The publication of Latin (1562. the Arabs or Muslims. pl. sarcophagus. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Little known in the Middle Ages. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. wood or terracotta. made of stone.
and therefore far more purely Italian princes. for. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. being Frenchmen. the Florentines. Louis I (d. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. 1386) and his son Ladislas. while England. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. was called Bamboccio. while devout Christians agonized. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. scholasticism . from time to time both he and his opponents. one of the early leaders. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. on the other. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. in June 1409. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. However.for example Pieter van Laer. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. than their medieval predecessors. In northern Italy. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. with France and her allies Aragon. As a result. but with little effect. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Alexander V. Charles III of Durazzo (d.they had individual Bentnames . having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. most of whom. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. on one side. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Schism. who recognized the Roman pope. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. and. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement.
theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.) . because the secco technique is much less permanent. textual scholarship. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). on one side. and theology. As such. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. (See also: fresco.moral philosophy. notably Aquinas. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. history and rhetoric . the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. moreover. university-based study. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. Christian. and Islamic literature. the plaster had to be damped before painting. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Often called the burning ones. Serenissima (Ital. if lime-water was used. as it were. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. None the less. as it is easier to add details in this way. Medieval scholars. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. It was because the central concerns of humanism .The term is ambivalent. that scholasticism was left.were different from those of medieval. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Padua.
were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. women who could prophesy. brass. "the most serene republic of Venice"). made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. In Christian legend. in use since the Middle Ages. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. in the period of classical antiquity. Servite (Lat. term. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. usually presided over by individual families. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sinopia . or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Sibyls foretold the Birth. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. sfumato A technique. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibylla. "prophetess") In antiquity..Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Signoria (It. Lat. sibyls (Gk. there was only one Sibyl. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. and the delicate. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. which were all identical in thickness. the number gradually rose to ten. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Originally. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Med. at the same time.
and by a sweet and playful sentiment. especially in the flow of drapery. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. Stanze (Ital. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. stigma (Gk. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. sing. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). soffit (Lat. stigmata. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.) Wooden ceiling decoration. "mark. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. staffage This word. Francis of Assisi. and. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint.'Beautiful Madonnas'. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case..The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. brand. in other words. as the name implies. pronounced as French. Ital. . It is very closely related to International Gothic. sotto in sù (It. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.
stucco A type of light. studiolo. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. both external and internal. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). whose verses actually fabrications . and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. John Milton. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. The vogue for the Sublime. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. Indeed. In a looser sense. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. pl. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. studioli (It. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). with that for the Picturesque. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. supremacy . and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art.
when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.e. or cartoons. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. both for panel painting and fresco. doubtless. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. tempera (Lat. These were imported. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. London. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. then being replaced by oil paint. into Italy. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . his own headquarters.Historically. The subject is underexplored. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). i. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. 1407). The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. Salviati and Allori. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. . those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. But the Italians did not make them. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. was being decorated with frescoes. chiefly from Flanders. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.and. and in literature. temperare. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns.
"fields. in the architecture of ancient Rome. quarter face. tondo. model. i. figure of speech. widely used form. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tondi (It. triumphal arch. vessels. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. pl. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. theme or motif. and profile. "a commonplace") In literature. and sculptures. topos. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). pl. topia. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows.terracotta (It. Trajan's Column . in art. topiary (Gk. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.e. and other surfaces. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. walls. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topoi (Gk. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. terraferma (Ital. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. and later to subdivide gable ends. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon.
triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). chastity. beside it the army of martyrs. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. tryptychos. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. triptych (Gk. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. or wings. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. . usually an altarpiece. the military triumph became sublimated. "threefold") A painting in three sections. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. "threefold") in Christianity. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . after 'a countless number of virgins. Trinity (Lat. as it were. Disseminated soon after his death. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. the Son and the Holy Spirit. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. a car so brave'. added to the glamour of the triumph.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. fame. time and eternity.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Battista Sforza. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. of virtues and of the arts. behind it. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. of both sexes'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. patriarchs and prophets. death.' Before it go the apostles. the wars by which they were won . Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Early triptychs were often portable. trinitas. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Meanwhile. into a number of less controversial forms. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain.
The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. typology . though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Dating from classical times. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). it is usually decorated with carvings. "drum") In classical architecture. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. often decorated with sculptures. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In medieval architecture. enclosed by an arch. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. through various naturalistic devices. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. first recorded in 1232. tympanum (Lat. Tudor An obscure Welsh family.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. viscous black ink. tromp l'oeil (Fr. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. tusche A thick.
and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.g. such as five works devoted to the senses. 1610). In Christian thought. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. U uomo universale (It. e. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). where they were most accessible.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. especially his half-length figural groups. each had access to his paintings. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano.) The Renaissance "universal man". and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . 1590-1624). killer of Holofernes. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. slayer of Goliath. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. lanterns. The numerous candles. were popular with them also.A system of classification. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. knew his former patrons.Dirck van Baburen (c. . From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Judith. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and David. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).
consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. V vanishing point In perspective. guttering candles. often gold. mixed in. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. the groin vault. vesper. Parisian craftsmen. it was used to decorate furniture. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. hour-glasses and clocks. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and even flowers (which will soon fade). vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. snuff boxes and other objects. carriages. varietà (It. and the rib vault. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. Also varietas (Lat. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. a work's richness of subject matter. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. There are a wide range of forms. Vespers (Lat.). formed when two barrel vaults intersect. overturned vessels. vanitas (Lat. "evening") . "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.
"forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Charity. Lust. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Envy. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. vimperga Of German origin. pl. in which the word signifies efficacy. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. 'Assume a virtue. virtù could be used. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. for example. "not exposed to winds". The seven Virtues were: Faith. Hope. "life") . to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. In ancient Roman dwellings. Temperance. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Covetousness. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Fortitude. vita. Vestibule (Lat. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. if you have it not'. Prudence. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vite (Lat. the church service at which these prayers are said. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. and Justice. vestibulum. actual or latent. Gluttony. Anger.Prayers said in the evening. and Sloth. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna.
An account of someone's life and work. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. a biography. those of Volterera. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. published in 1550 and 1568. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1478-80. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. usually when a prayer for good fortune. or recovery from illness has been made. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. protection from harm.g. Marcus (1st cent. they were from the 18th century . The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. Sculptors and Architects"). the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1482-84). Vitruvius Pollio. in fact. The wars from 1494 do. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. and of Ferrara. 1472. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. and appalled recognition of. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. based on stylization of various animal forms. Westwerk German word. usually linear. woodcut A print made from a wood block. usually restorers. . While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. gallery. It was intended to have a variety of functions. during its subsequent history. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. a philosophy of life.Weltanschauung (Gr. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "Western work of art". they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. "world view") A comprehensive world view. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. treasury or a place where justice was administered. pompous on the floor above.
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