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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
the darker the tone). design. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.A semicircular projection. or organization. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arcus. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arkhitektonikos. The adjective is apsidal. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. Also known as an exedra. Lancet and Tudor. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. The term applies also to a print made by this method. which is fused to the plate by heating. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). but in essence the process is as follows. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface.e. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. In Greek and Roman literature. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. and Rouault. piers or pillars. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the lowest part of the entablature). the moulding around a window or door. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. roofed with a half-dome. . architrave (It. Degas. "architectural") Relating to structure. Picasso. including Goya. at the east end of a church behind the altar. There are several variants of the technique. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. architectonic (Gk. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. arcade (Lat. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.
these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "front arch. archeiu. voltus. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. "begin. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Ars Moriendi (Lat. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. usually a saint. aureolus. attribute (Lat." from Gk.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .and the Comedy . Dante's Vita nuova . "golden. aureole (Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.archivolt (Ital. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. In the case of martyrs. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). archivolto. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . attributum. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. dominate. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine." and Lat. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.
The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Later. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). or baldacchino (It. that of Cardano. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). often anecdotal. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. applied to the physically . was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. in 1377. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. baldachin. Six pontificates later. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Bambocciati Group of relatively small.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. 'Captivity'. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. who had been residing in France since 1305. The actual move was made in 1309. paintings of everyday life. the god of wine and fertility. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics.
banderole (It. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. built by Sixtus III. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Customarily. such as those at Pisa. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. France. seven. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Alg. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. the Temple of Venus. Florence. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and Nocera in Italy. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. a church. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. . Parma. and Epiphany. or canopy. or forecourt. pope between 432 and 440. Spalato [Split. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism.. AD 300). and abject filthy things. beggars in rags. or connected with.. el Kantara. banderuola.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. AD 273. a visual metaphor for the number eight. As eight follows the "complete" number. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Croatia]. Pentecost. and Poitiers. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Baalbek. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Easter. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants.g." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Lebanon.
and (3) everyday realism.In the 10th century. Also tunnel vault. 1811-1889). In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and increasingly elaborate decoration. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). baptisteries. stoa basilike. Constant Troyon (French. . there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. in its usual location near the church door . Jean-François Millet (French. In architecture. however. 1807-1876). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Originally. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. barocco. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. usually facing east. Jules Dupré (French. which is reserved for the clergy. "king's hall") a church building. Théodore Rousseau (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Rubens). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1814-1875). were often omitted entirely. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1810-1865). achieved through scale. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Baroque (Port. and thus a church. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. southeast of Paris. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. or baptismal chapels. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1817-1878). in the 1840s and 1850s. 1796-1875). basilica (Gk. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Vermeer).an allusion to entering the Christian life. something of earlier symbolism survives.
such as those by Diego Velázquez. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. bodegón Image. or which is to be left as it is. particularly porcelain. There were. up until the mid-17th century. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). as is to be expected. like their Dutch counterparts. were referred to by their specific contents. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. which is either not yet glazed. It takes its name from its grainy texture. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). 1650 in Spain. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes. The term was mainly used up to c. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Bodegónes. such as Waldmüller. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. often with food and drink. Book of Hours . the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. especially Spanish. By association. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. in which still-life predominates. Biscuit porcelain. and often sentimentality. however. domesticity. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. also incorrectly called bisque.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety.
By extension. though these are more often called 'modelli'. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. or seasons. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. made as a study for a larger picture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. days of the week. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.by a variety of processes. Chantilly). sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. a rapid sketch in oil. coppery red.both hot and cold . bozzetto Strictly speaking. but can also be used for painted sketches. . buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. See flying buttress. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.an advantage over marble sculpture. durability. varying from silverish to a rich.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. and the fact that it is easily workable . months. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bozzetto(Italian. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.
Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cameo Small relief made from gems. caisson (Fr. and Giotto. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Among its most distinctive products were icons. It also served to glorify the emperor. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. C cabinet A small. mosaics. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. camera obscura . "a chest. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which was often allegorical. notable from Syria and Egypt. box") In architecture. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. and work in precious metals. private room where works of art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. its forms highly stylized. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. ceramics. casson. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. glass. manuscript illuminations. Duccio.
"little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantoria. candela." and the earliest versions. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). Niepce created photography. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. as an aid to drawing. hemp. sing. and jute. pl. capital (Lat. only very rough effects will be obtainable. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. by the 16th century.-N. . Structurally. candelabra. cantorie (It. usually with several branches or arms. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. followed by smaller and even pocket models. usually built beside or attached to a church. The Latin name means "dark chamber. which isolates the fabric from the paint. other materials used are cotton. capitellum.) A gallery for singers or musicians. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. "candle") A large. dating to antiquity. both of which have richly carved marble panels. candelabrum (It. usually decorated. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. Portable versions were built. campanile Bell tower. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually in a church. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall.Ancestor of the photographic camera. which was usually whitened. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candlestick.
monasteries containing separate hermitages. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartone. details of the subject. pl. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cartellini In a painting. cardinalis. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. tapestry. or fresco. cartoon (It. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. or a motto. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). The order combines reclusive and community life. New Charterhouses. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cartouche . near Grenoble. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the date of the painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. In fresco painting. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartellino. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). the endeavour to attain true humanity. and humanism. Carmelites (Lat. the Carmelites were originally hermits. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting.a humorous drawing or parody. At the height of the Middle Ages.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Carthusian Order (Lat.
where the throne of the bishop is placed. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. linen. and swags of fruit and flowers. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. cathedral (cathedra. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). or arms of the cross. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. In the 15th century.) "castle". They contained the bride's clothes. These lead up to the north and south transepts. decorated with gilt gesso. and many other items of her dowry. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. castello (It. putti (cupids).toward the setting sun. Cascina. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. . Paolo Uccello. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. For reasons lost to time and tradition. The altar is placed at the east end. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. cassone (It. palace. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. or nave. a cathedral always faces west . taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. The main body. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. caryatid (Gk. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. they were also used in other countries.
Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. and perspicere. animal. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. or birdlike characteristics. as celestial attendants of God. central perspective (Lat. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. and Islamic literature. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. in accordance with their distance from the observer. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. a celestial winged being with human. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. rather than intercessory functions. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. "in the centre". 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. buildings and figures that are being depicted. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. centralis. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. champlevé (Fr. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. landscapes. continually praise him. Christian. Relative to the observer. a throne bearer of the deity. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. Both the statement of St. .
The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. the Order of the Hospital of St. Hans Burgkmair (1510).chiaroscuro (It. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. choir (Gk. "light dark") In painting. reserved for the clergy to pray together. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. Lastly. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. choros. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. North of the Alps. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. Since Carolingian times. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). replacing tempera. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. or for choral singing. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone.
is as typically Churrigueresque. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. stucco shells. The Mexico cathedral (1718). In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. became the most common motif. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Very few still exist in their original positions. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. gilded rays. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Sculpted clouds. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). ciborium . Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The Transparente (completed 1732). seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi.intersect). balustrades. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and the Churrigueresque column. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and garlands. an architect. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. further enriching the style. and repetition of pattern. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. undulating cornices. reversed volutes. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). a massing of carved angels. undulating lines. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches.
ciompi.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. including the ciompi. beaters. on July 22. Without being members of a guild. Members of the lower classes. craft of dyeing. In reaction to this revolutionary . It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. placing one of their members. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. but self-employed. They were forbidden to form a trade association. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Quattrocento (1400s. or achieve political representation. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. controlled by the minor guilds. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. as also were those in the associated. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. combers. the wool carder Michele di Lando. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. etc. High Renaissance). the lower classes forcibly took over the government. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Their economic condition worsened. Then. The new government. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. who were raised to the status of a guild.and post-medieval Italy. and the new government failed to implement all their demands.
writers. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. editing and translating a wide range of texts.as in Italy these were dispensed with. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. with Italian scholars.episode. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. changed greatly from one period to the next. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. the ciompi guild was abolished. In the 15th century Greek literature. except in cases where . "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. resembling a lyre. . cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). and politics.) An ancient musical instrument. scholars patiently finding. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. on which strings were plucked. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. cithara (Gk. clair-obscur (Fr. however. Concepts of the classical. philosophy and art . clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. the black contours usually with a special line plate. literature. philosophy.
Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. when set side by side. Coffered ceilings. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. arch or ceiling. [hora] completa." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. as well as from the Bible. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. concetti (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. condottiere. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The name was derived from the condotta. cognoscente (It. intensify one another.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. blue and orange. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. pl. condottieri (It. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. the church service at which these prayers are said. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. cognoscenti. sing. a work's underlying theme. occasionally made of wood. literature or music. Green and red. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). pl. . compline (Lat. or "contract. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. terrorized the country. those with refined tastes. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. concetto.
in Venice. . and his rival Braccio da Montone. scuole. and Tuscany. often under the direction of. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. By the 16th century. Umbria. which spread in the 15th century. in the service of Perugia. in the service of Naples. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. i. Mark (1432). Spanish. flagellant confraternities. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Muzio's son. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. who won control of Milan in 1450. convents of convertite. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. or with the spiritual assistance of. By the end of the 14th century. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. With no goal beyond personal gain.e. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Carmagnola. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. often called compagnie or.e. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Toward the end of the 15th century.devastating Romagna. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. commonly called either Compagnia di S. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. clergy. Martino). who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. i. primarily for syphilitics. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. disappeared. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. and German--the condottieri. confraternities Confraternities. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Francesco Sforza.
Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies.e. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . and those which aided imprisoned debtors. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. while the Venetian government. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. e. in Florence.g. however. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Dorotea in Trastevere. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. contour (Fr. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Later. contours were initially regular. founded c. While the Doge ranked above the Council. which accompanied condemned prisoners. In medieval painting. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. and refuges for maidens. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. reformed prostitutes. contrapposto (It. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Confraternities. flat outlines. 1514 in S. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi.g. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contour. the Florentine Neri. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. but sometimes had their own premises. e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them.i. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. notwithstanding their location. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.
weight on one leg. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. aes cyprium. cuprum. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Lat. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). corbel In architecture. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. conventiculurn. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. large cornice or other feature. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Reform programs. They are often ornamented. conventicle (Lat. did not achieve any lasting results. an engraving produced in this way. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. started the process of inner reform in the Church. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. declining moral standards. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. The style spread as far as England. . but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. a bracket of stone. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. 1280). 1100 and 1300. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. whose names are inscribed on several works. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso.
and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Next. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. or "scourged. There were various methods of performing the execution. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. i. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. An ancestor of the oboe. Constantine the Great. Seleucids. Usually. a semi-circular vault. a small dome. the condemned man. the most famous victim of crucifixion. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. reedy sound. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the first Christian emperor. Death. "small vat") In architecture. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages.e. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Carthaginians. particularly among the Persians. D dado . after being whipped. cupola (Lat. cupula. Jews.
diakonos.g. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. diptychos. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Passau. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Gk. diptych (Lat. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. an expressive use of nature. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. danse macabre The dance of death. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. The term stresses not the literal drawing. disegno (It. decorated diffrently from the upper section. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. and Linz possessed common characteristics. often an altarpiece. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. design") In Renaissance art theory. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. e. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. diptychum. a favorite late medieval picture subject. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Germany. usually in matching pairs. "drawing. but the concept behind an art work. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. which was help to be the basis of all art. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Deësis (Gk. Anglican and Orthodox churches. deacon (Gk. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928).
their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. a 19th-century invention. distemperare. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. when painters took to working out of doors. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Ordo Praedictatorum. The studio easel. "to mix. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. is a heavy piece of furniture. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. formerly worn under armour. distemper (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect.fully realize. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. doublet A male garment. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. also used it on canvas.Thomas Aquinas. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). donator. which runs on castors or wheels. such as we still use today. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. donor (Lat. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Dominicans (Lat. though a few artists. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. dome in architecture.
"Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. John (19. fresco. bound and flogged. "last". enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. and architecture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschatology (Gk. Hence. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. ensemble (Fr. epitaph (Gk. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. the frieze. Ecce Homo (Lat. and the cornice. entablature In classical architecture.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. full face. en face In portraiture. It consists of the architrave. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. sculpture. eschaton. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. sometimes combining panel painting. and logos. in art. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "word") . a depiction of Jesus.
hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Carnesecchi and Ochino.death and resurrection. . "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. which was famous for maiolica. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. notably Cardinal Pole. and is named for Faenza. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which is called "maiolica. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. fields and livestock. Jerome. Giovanni Morone. particularly ware made in France. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Augustine. Contarini. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. and Scandinavia. "good. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Marcantonio Flaminio. protector of shepherds. Saints Ambrose. which is called "delftware.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. which was developed in the Near East ca. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. eu. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Italy. and of the last things. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Germany. Equated with the Greek god Pan." and charis. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. celebrated with bread and wine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. farmers. Eucharist (Gk." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Spain. Vittoria Colonna. 4500 BCE. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy.
black and dun. Committed to charitable and missionary work. sword and set of balances. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. war. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. can in time be seen. Their attributes are the bow. and these areas. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. a technique known as a secco fresco. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. fresco (It. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.festoni (It. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. fluted of a column or pillar. frescos in Italy . leaves. relaxed. 2 . Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. The colour of his horse is white. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. famine and death. drying to a slightly different tint. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. such as plague. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. that of the others red.8). "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Only a small area can be painted in a day. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and flowers suspended in a loop. a swag. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image.
could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. genre In a broad sense.Save in Venice.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. covings and ceilings. Genius in classical Rome. The technique of buon fresco. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. or fresco secco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or true fresco. are genres of painting. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. where the atmosphere was too damp. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. landscape and portraiture. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). a person's invisible tutelary god. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Final details. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. In art from the classical period onwards. usually childish figure. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. for example. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. the intonaco.
whether it must be connected with the public good. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Maso di Banco. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. and as spurring on men of action. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maria Gloriosa). glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. as well as writers and artists. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. in portraits and on tombs. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Gobelins . Bernardo Daddi. how it differed from notoriety. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. As such. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument.
This ratio is approximately 8:13. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In other Italian cities. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. who appointed Lebrun Director. golden section (Lat. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). thereafter it made only tapestries. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. and although it reopened in 1699. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. still in existence today. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). Paris. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. . The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew.French tapestry manufactory. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Golden Fleece. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities.
whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. The artistic. 1200 and c. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In particular. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. and lies much deeper than. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In sculpture and in painting. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. There is a transcendental quality. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. the superficial particularities of form. Amiens. or the influence of one building. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. painting. that the effects are to be felt. In thinking of Nicola (d. Denis. . which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). c. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Nevertheless. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. from the 13th until the 17th century. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. 1270. Gothic Gothic. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. like the cultural and commercial. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. painting. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier.
and Morris Graves. and taste among the English. . His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. It is thinned with water for applying. with sable.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Pannini. occasionally. if required. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Such tours often took a year or more. Dubuffet. the Netherlands. and Piranesi. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and the great style. These qualities. Klee. Honey. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. chiefly to France. notably in the writings of Bellori. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael.and hog-hair brushes. to white or tinted paper and card and. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. to silk. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. the beau idéal of the French. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. starch. without visible brush marks. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. genius. and above all Italy. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Canaletto. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry.
. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. which had recruited most of the merchant class.e. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. the parties taking a multitude of local names. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. c. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. and Waiblingen. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. then as now. In Florence. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. through central Italy. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. exclude drawing from this definition. In another sense. became an abiding feature of European politics. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. grisaille (Fr. gris. usually gray. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. Some writers. however. In the context of the fine arts. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. after this. including text as well as illustrations. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. brother of Louis IX. 1216. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. drawing and the various forms of engraving. however. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. internal factions in Florence went under other names. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. From 1266 to 1268. After the War of the Eight Saints. to Provence and Paris.
such as Brescia and Vicenza. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In 16th century Venice. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. Guilds were also patrons of art. The guild also monitored standards of work. In Florence. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. notably Florence in the 14th century. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. [science] héraldique. trades. print or painting. In Italy they go back a long way. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. heraldry (Fr. but in time they acquired other functions. H hatching In a drawing. surgeons. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and provided assistance to members in need. In some towns." from Fr. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In some cities. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. goldsmiths. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. as some did). only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. "herald") . and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. and greater hostility between master and man. for example. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. trade or profession (painters. héraut. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. The guilds were not equal. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. or professions. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow.
their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. as Antichrist. i. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. By contrast.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. with the rules governing their use. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. and regarded themselves as forming.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. together with brethren north of the Alps. head of the 'carnal Church'. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. The main impact of the . These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). d. they were condemned in 1184. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. indeed. while others merged with the Waldensians. the Waldensian. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. However. one great missionary community. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. normative for churchmen. the Cathars were an anti-church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. the followers of Juan de Valdes. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. from the start.
history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. humanism (Lat. my spouse'. At the same time. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. In humanism. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. hortus conclusus (Lat. B. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. history (usually classical history). in his earlier work. Frederick E. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. its subjects considered morally elevating. J. Church. Durand. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. and. Thomas Cole.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Henry Inman. George Inness. S. Jasper Cropsey. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Germany. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. F. and classical literature. mainly in the south. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. working from 1825 to 1875. Morse. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Kensett. F. the emancipation of man from God took place. humanus. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. American painters were studying in Rome. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Human figures. originality. or of other saints. with many further details added. Veronica. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Derived from classical rhetoric. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. the rooster of Peter's denial. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. invention. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. the pincers. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Donatallo. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. investiture . the veil of St. usually the donors of a work of art. are also used in art literature. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the scourge that was used in the scourging. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. etc. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the hammer. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. and the ladder.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. In the second half of the 14th century. inventio (It. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). beautiful style. The terms court style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. and they are also depicted on their own. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the ability to create. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. For instance. trecento rococo and lyrical style.g. soft style.
The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). The Both brothers. generally Dutch or Flemish. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Nicolaes Berchem.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. who traveled in Italy and. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. of Utrecht. although they are usually called Romanists. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Both and Berchem. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Jerome's writings. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. and Jan Asselijn. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Upon his return to Holland. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Italianizers Northern artists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. . but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. principally Dutch. Andries and Jan Both.
As their military role grew.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Legenda Aurea (Lat. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). lectern A reading stand or desk. Archbishop of Genoa. the rite of communion is based on this. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.1519).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. especially one at which the Bible is read. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. liberal arts . Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). John of Jerusalem . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . encouraged by the Crusades. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
John F. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Heade (1819-1904). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. lunette (Fr. a semicircular space. often sublime. together with identifying attributes (e. the quadrivium. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. commemorating a marriage.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Church (1826-1900). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.grammar. and Frederick E. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). comprising arithmetic. rhetoric and dialectic. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Kensett (1816-1872). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Pythagoras for arithmetic.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Tubal for music). first the preparatory trivium . then the basis of a philosophical training. Martin J. poetic atmosphere. "little moon") In architecture. . Maria Novella in Florence). that may contain a window. It is related to. that could be used for public ceremonies. loggia (It. painting or sculptural decoration. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.g. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. geometry. astronomy and music. through the use of aerial perspective. often standing in markets and town squares. its roof supported by columns. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars.g.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.
active mainly in Florence c. but they painted genre scenes. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. 1855–65. madrigal A part song. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. "great mother") A mother goddess. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. particularly such ware produced in Italy. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. antimony yellow. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). originally sung without accompaniment. manganese purple. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and portraits as well as landscapes. originating in Italy in the 14th century. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. the goddess Cybele. for example. historical subjects. copper green. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. and accompaniments. mandorla (It. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. When white is used for painting. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. "almond") . Specifically. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). Silvestro Lega (1826–95). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. usually for the lute. and iron red. and however bright their lighting effects. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. being written. magna mater (Lat. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC.
Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. and literary texts. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. the hand-written medieval book. in a specific sense. depending on the social class of the wearer. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. which was quarried at Mount . but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Flanders. In architecture. Bronzino. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. marked by flagellation. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. illuminated initials and miniatures. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. maniera. Parmigianino. In Mannerist painting. Mannerism (It. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. complex and crowded compositions. strong. El Greco and Tintoretto. "manner. ecclesiastical. Burgundy. mantle An overcoat. It reached to the knee or foot. more strictly. Developing out of the Renaissance. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and crowned with thorns. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. bound. the Codex manuscriptus. worn open.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. often ornamented with decorative borders.
The pure white Carrara marble. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. sleek surface. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. martyrion. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. an inscription running round the rim. Like the finest Imperial coins. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Without monetary value. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. a different design on the reverse. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. "witness. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Carrara. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. having finished his training. medallion In architecture. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. quarried at Massa. proof") the sufferings. the medal's purpose was commemorative. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. particularly by Michelangelo. martyrdom (Gk. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. which were beginning to be reverently collected. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy.Pentelicon in Attica. marmi finti (It.
1467-688). Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. often anonymous. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. no line drawing is employed. 1425-1504). 1640. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. perhaps oddly. as it were. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. . Her head features on Minerva's shield. The process is essentially extinct today. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. and of the many. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. c. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. c. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. even grain. supposedly to petrify her enemies. In pure mezzotint. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). who reflected them. for landscapes and portraits. The work of these men. A Dutch officer. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Medusa In Greek mythology. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. When Perseus cuts off her head. Ludwig von Siegen. particularly.round the neck. of the person portrayed on the other side. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. It was. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. in England. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1452-1526/27). The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. the stress on individual character. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 14601528). L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. a Gorgon. This yields a soft effect in the print.
ink and paint. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. by Tiepolo and Rubens. saying") . Francis himself. "one color") Painted in a single color. executed on a very small scale. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. a branch of the Franciscan order. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. pointed headdress worn by bishops. monochrome (Gk. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. "word.g. often quite highly finished. e. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. usually portraits.. miter A high. a painting executed in a single color. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. monokhromatos. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. still exist. Parmigianino (d. motto (Ital.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Many such small versions. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St.
In general. In 1810 0verbeck. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. . and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and two other members moved to Rome.from the Middle Ages. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. It may have parallel aisles on each side. nave (from Lat. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and Casino Massimo. navis. Nazarenes A group of young. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. named after the patron saint of painting. Pforr. The invention of personal mottos. 1816-17. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. often separated from it by pillars. 1817-29). naturalism (Fr. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Isidore. Berlin. but often insipid. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Rome. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and is intersected by the transept. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible.
"aureole") The disc or halo. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Nymphaeum (Gk. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. usually golden. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. the style of the Ancien Régime.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. niello (Lat.) . Popes. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. but their ideas continued to be influential. moreover. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. were usually old when elected. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. is as true as it is notorious. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). nimbus (Lat. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. nigellus. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.
or poppy. O obsequies (Lat. the Doric order. The earliest. observances") Rites performed for the dead.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. They are seen in the form of the columns. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. "services. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. its richness of colour. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. capital. obsequia. Greek goddesses of Nature. inborn sin. such as linseed. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. was the simplest. a more elaborate base. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. . It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. with a sturdy. and its greater tonal range. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. orders of architecture In classical architecture. fluted column and a plain capital. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). a small private chapel. walnut. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). the three basic styles of design. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. and entablatures.
designed as a . The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. palazzo (It. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. P pala (Ital. while shops came to be thought undignified. like cities. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. and. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. and the main apartments above. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text.g. standing at the foot of the Cross. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. the Cancelleria). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. tradition and social structure. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. Palazzo Strozzi). In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. with biforate windows. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type.
column-caps. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere).scholarly retreat. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). palmette. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. like the colonnaded vestibule.g. behind a sober Florentine façade. especially after the Sack of Rome. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. In Venice. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". like Genoa. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. came to be applied all over Europe. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. cornices and abutments. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Papal incentives to build. often built next to their titular churches. and Palladio's in Vicenza. and large households. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice.g. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Palazzo Massimi). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. panel . the architectural pace was set by the papal court. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. evolved influential types. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Following Oriental patterns. Movement of patrons and architects. e. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Rich. Other cities.
however. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. mahogany. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. or other rigid substance. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. and other synthetic materials as supports. larch. teak. as distinct from canvas. and spanned by a single dome. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. the.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. as it were. metal. the management of clerical dues and taxation. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. fir. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. fibre-board. and dark walnut are favourites. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. Having a circular plan. As successors to St Peter. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and walnut. In the 20th century cedar. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. enforce law and order. slate has occasionally been used as a support. On a larger scale. cedar. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. to influence popes in their favour. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). secular rulers. including beech. or the incidence of taxation. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. so that they might have a voice at court. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. Many other types were used. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. olive. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. linden. and the pressure and temptations . This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. The third aspect was administrative. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. To maintain their authority. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Then. A number of matters.Term in painting for a support of wood. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. and modern painters have also used plywood. chestnut. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish.
The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Colonna and Caetani. as such. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. in the eyes of God. however.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. could supersede that of a pope. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. however. however. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. So onerous. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. possess an authority which. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. was long in doubt. if it did no serious damage to the faith. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. which seems so inevitable. As at Avignon. at Avignon. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. in spite of further absences from Rome. from the point of view of its religious associations. There remained. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. which met at Constance 1414-18. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. To resolve the problem of divided authority. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . the acceptance of the city as the most practical . of individuals. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. to be long delayed. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.that could be applied to them. By then. the most appropriate . Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). would.as well. It was argued that such a council.
less frequently pig. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. pastoral (Lat. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. the creation of a cultural capital. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. as well as a governmental one. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. pastor. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry.. and other animals. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and satyrs. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. However.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. 400-300 BC). goat. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Passion . to a world peopled by shepherds. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Parrhasius (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. it has also been used for painting. in classical literature. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. nymphs. scholars and men of letters. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and with Zeuxis (c. through lavish patronage of artists. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism.
a prominent section of a monumental façade. Portrayals of the Passion. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. 1478). "butterfly. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Francesco Salviati. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. ornamental building. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.) or pasticcio (It. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. which focus on the Suffering Christ. a region in north-central Italy. . from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. Meanwhile. patrician (Lat. and also the archbishop of Pisa. the crown of thorns. papilio. but not necessarily a direct copy. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. patricius. projecting either centrally or at both ends. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. 1478. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. a small.The events leading up to Good Friday. hence tent") A lightly constructed. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. wealthy citizen. pastiche (fr. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. such as a garden summerhouse. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. pavilion (Lat. and so on. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi.
The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. or related elements within an art work. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physiognomy (Gk. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "nature". in particular the face. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "person". and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. perspective (Lat. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and gnomon.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. personification (Lat. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "hanging. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "to see through. pendant (Fr. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. physis.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concept or deity. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. pergola (It. perspicere. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. . and facere. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). persona.
affording a good subject for a landscape. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. but full of variety. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Pietà (Lat. to be expressed in painting. A pier is generally larger than a column. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. exemplified. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. containing the public rooms.) The main floor of a building. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. for example. Peter's. glue. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. curious details. . Rome. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.piano nobile (Ital. pigmentum. remarkable for singularity. proper to take a landscape from. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. or resin to make paint. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. both real and painted. pigment (Lat.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. usually above the ground floor. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. but may consist of a cluster of columns. striking the imagination with the force of painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St.
In the 15th century. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Thenceforward. moreover. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. For this reason. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. "pillar") A flat. outside Tuscany. perhaps. and capital. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. in October 1347. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . It is often fluted. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. plague Plague.pilaster (Lat. During 1348 the Black Death. the burning of 'infected' clothing. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Rocco and Sebastian. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. though in less widespread. more sporadic outbreaks. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. It seems probable. also used in Spain's American colonies. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. a shaft. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. it is difficult to find. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. for instance. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). however. despite regional variations. it has a base. such as Florence and Genoa. since. pilastrum. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. and thereafter all Europe.
The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. The second phase. correct classical orders became frequent.e. heraldic escutcheons. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. or simply the Plateresque. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. placement. and unified style using massive geometric forms.. which lasted only a few decades. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. are the masterworks of the second style. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Philebus. and sinuous scrolls. Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The first phase. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. In contrast with Aristotle. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. like its successor. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. utilized Mudejar ornament -. A student of Socrates. or appropriateness. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. the Symposium. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. i. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Renaissance-Plateresque. Phaedo. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Phaedrus. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Diego evolved a purer. harmonious. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). composition. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Timaeus. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. more severe.
1472-c. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. replaced Ficino's. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Plotinus. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. including those of Plotinus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Iamblichus. Unlike the case of Aristotle. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. and he utilized many other writings. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Rather unsystematic. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. systematized and added to what Plato had done. all of which he also translated into Latin. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. near Florence. and Agostino Steuco (c. but not completely. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. the greatest of his ancient disciples. partially. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. A new Latin translation.in Plato's thought. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. It was especially in a number of academies in France and .1577) becoming particularly popular. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'.
Some polyptychs were very elaborate. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. portico (Lat. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. or statue. as in classical architecture). The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. column. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Plato was read in the universities. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. plinthos. Lat. plinth (Gk. such as processions and consecrations. polyptych (Gk. porticus. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pluvial (Med.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. pointed arch In architecture. poluptukhos. pluviale. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Frequently supports a pediment. where a pectoral is used to close it.
Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Florence. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. 1328. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Palazzo Farnese). The realism of the clear.sculptors such as Donatello. Maria Novella. The 16th century portrait became generalized. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. was revived in the 14th century. and only a decorative accessory to form. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Cathedral) by Uccello. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Siena. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. flattened image. Desiderio da Settignano. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Group portraits. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Venice). The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Florence (1486-90). Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Mantua. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. psychologically more complex. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553.. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. inessential. Campidoglio). the Carracci. Gattarnelata. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s.e. decorating whole rooms. The equestrian portrait. and the . Colleoni. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. National Gallery).
Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. however. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Savonarola and Musso. and Peter Paul Rubens. from the secular clergy. The sermons of Visdomini. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. not least those of statesmen and prelates. bishop of Chioggia. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Charles Le Brun. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. bishops especially. As Poussin was a Frenchman. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. bishop of Asti. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. was versed in classical and patristic . The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). who had as their ideal masters Titian. abrasive even. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). several of whom became bishops. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. together with the Dominican Savonarola. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. minatory exhortations. primarily the mendicants. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The styles of S. Fiamma's sermons." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Correggio. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Borromeo. are not florid in style. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. 1494). of the sermon as an art form. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. and.
predella (It.rhetoric. though often relatively very wide . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Naples). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. the temptations of Adam and Christ. however. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). tapestries. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. among them Holman Hunt. presbytery (or choir) (Gk.g. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Because of the small size of predelle . Millais and Rossetti. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Such a polyptych consists of a principal. prefiguration Typology . Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. and so forth. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The New Testament references in these would. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317.
proportion (Lat. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the Canon of Proportion. Fragonard. Prix de Rome A scholarship. notably David. the golden section. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. these highly finished drawings. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. again indicative of the purpose they served. proportio. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 2. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Girardon. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. "evenness") in painting. which uses the square . Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). and Ingres among painters and Clodion. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. profil perdu (Fr. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the quadrature. sculpture and architecture. The following are important: 1. 3. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and Houdon among sculptors. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. intended as complete works of art in themselves.
Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. . putto (It. for example).as a unit of measurement. one half the length of the other). which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. It was common in Roman art. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Ignazio. harmonic proportions. a fourth = 3:4. 4. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. the steward or treasurer of a church. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. "boys") Plump naked little boys. a fifth = 2:3. provenance The origins of an art work. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Unlike Pozzo. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. triangulation. Rome. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. and 5. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. putti sing. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest.
or the Jesuits. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface.g. Brunelleschi. friars and nuns.Quattrocento (It. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Fra Angelico and others. Donatello. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in which figures are seen half round. hermits. Lat. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. with the Anglican Church developing in England. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. also known as the Realist school. in which figures are almost detached from their background. basso rilievo). canons regular. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). refectory (Med. or some item connected with a saint. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. the object of particular veneration. Among the . the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relevare. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. and high relief (alto rilievo). relicquiae. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. In 16th century Europe. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. relic (Lat. in particular works by Masaccio. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. e. Botticelli. the great orders of monks. relief (Lat.
He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. which was to become the main Italian one. At the same time. Giustina. Venice (1404). having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. The Conventuals. presided over by chapters general. it became the Cassinese congregation. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. The Silvestrines. however. was the congregation of S. the Conventuals. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. although technically of secular canons.e. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Giorgio in Alga. Padua. In 1504. S. and their more institutionalized brethren. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. and the generally moderate Observants. i. Salvatore. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Maria di Fregonaia. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Bernardino of Siena. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. the great patriarch of Venice. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. In 1517. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Bologna (1419). their resources being in the hands of trustees. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Benedetto. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. the most notable being S. Lucca. 1012. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. whose friaries were technically non-property owning.contemplative orders. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Benedictines. That of S. Founded by St Romuald c. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Mantua. various groups were fused in the latter body. After the repression of the Spirituals. who had no overall organization originally. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. The same bull .
and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Venice. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Angela Merici. however. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. S. Michele in Isola.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. founded in 1535 by S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. The first. however. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. a historical period. the Theatines. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Gaetano da Thiene. founded by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Filippo Neri. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. also. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work.
which had begun early in the 14th century. as well as political.century. and his own as potentially one of light. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. because its core of energy. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). of arts. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. however. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of an energetic revival of interest in. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). For long. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. of letters. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. of scholarship. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. the historical reality of antiquity. . of 'darkness'. however. and competition with. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. was so vast and potent. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. 1875-86). because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. All-Roundness. even Amoralism. life. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. too long forgotten glories. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. increasingly. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Thereafter.
mobilized nationalism. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. statues. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. The challenges are to be accepted. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. though sometimes of metal. and mass media. sometimes. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. etc. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). let alone a uniform. later still to Genoa. gratefully. candlesticks. retables can be detached and. Cathedral of SaintBavon. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. There was an early. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. (3) There is not a true. and is decorated with paintings. especially in the High Gothic period. consist merely of a painting. however. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century.with all its shabbiness . Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. and other liturgical objects. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. Though thus challenged. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. the previous record .) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. of industrialization. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. in the more limited sense.) was the term chosen. letters. etc. Ghent). It is for this additional. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. congruence between. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.erased. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.
. and architecture dominating the 18th century. the first style to achieve such international currency. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Italy.in the 11th century. richly decorated with organic forms. Romanesque art. retables have become extinct. "relief") In painting. the St.of St Mark in Venice. rocaille (French. rilievo (It. With the development of freestanding altars. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). is a typical product. painting. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Germany. like 'Gothic'. Originally commissioned in 976. and 'Romanesque'. Spain . with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.France. literally. however. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. in several countries . has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Rococo A style of design. almost simultaneously. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. As the name suggests. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Louis XV furniture. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. More usually. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. its mood lighthearted and witry. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200.
the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Pannini and Mengs. van Heemskerk. stylized design representing an open rose. Mabuse. Piranesi. they maintained.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. M. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. van Orley. such as red ochre. The aim of painting. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. B. In addition. Rome. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the development of nationalistic pride. Q. . Claude. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Massys and M. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity.
supported by lay confraternities. and Protestant churches. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. from the Old and New Testaments. Orthodox. multiple sets used in succession. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . matrimony. and anointing of the sick. Clement escaped into Castel S. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Many compositions were anonymous. confirmation. Written primarily in ottava rima. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. and impoverished. Sacra Conversazione (It. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. holy orders.greatly increased. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control.expressed through gesture. when it finally left the city it had devastated. There were no limits on time. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). pious legend and hagiography. glance and movement . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. In the . it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). the Eucharist. gutted. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. but others were the work of well-known figures. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. penance. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Eastern independent. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Subjects were nominally sacred. local saints.
used for drawing.i. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Lutheran. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. that the price of salt should be increased.. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Candidates first face west. Immediately following baptism. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. baptism and the Eucharist. The chief focus of discontent. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Anglican. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. The classical Protestant churches (i. Hence. was not maintained as a sacrament. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . It is still practiced on special occasions.e. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. strictly speaking. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.early church the number of sacraments varied. and sacraments." which are called sacramentals. as an excuse to revolt. the Bentivoglio. sacraments. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the Rocca Paolina. The theology of the Orthodox Church. in principle. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. chapter 13. was buried under a new fortress. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. foot washing. the symbolic direction of Christ. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Salt War. the sun of righteousness. large room. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. as in the Church of the Brethren.e. the Orthodox Church does not.) Hall. They were still seeking aid. Thus. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Saracens . The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and then face east.. replaces the Lord's Supper. make such strict distinctions." sala (Ital. which in the Gospel According to John. notably from Florence and in Germany. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.
Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. human-like woodland deities with the ears. the god of wine. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. satyr In Greek mythology.c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. pl. wood or terracotta. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Little known in the Middle Ages. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. legs and horns of a goat.c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). 360 . 160 . the Arabs or Muslims. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 45 BC). sarcophagus. The publication of Latin (1562. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. sarcophagi (Gk. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. are lost. 210 AD).During the Middle Ages. 270 BC). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. and many others. made of stone. whose writings. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).
Schism. on the other. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. one of the early leaders. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). being Frenchmen. for. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII).for example Pieter van Laer. and. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. who had the support of the Avignon pope. while devout Christians agonized. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. than their medieval predecessors. with France and her allies Aragon. However. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). from time to time both he and his opponents. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Charles III of Durazzo (d. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. on one side. but with little effect. Alexander V. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. while England. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. scholasticism . Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. in June 1409. Louis I (d. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages.they had individual Bentnames . who recognized the Roman pope. most of whom. was called Bamboccio. the Florentines. In northern Italy. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. As a result. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense.
with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. Often called the burning ones. that scholasticism was left. Christian. Padua. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. moreover. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. As such. notably Aquinas. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.) . None the less. and theology. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. It was because the central concerns of humanism . a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. on one side. textual scholarship. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers.were different from those of medieval. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest.The term is ambivalent. and Islamic literature. (See also: fresco. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). rather than wet plaster as in fresco. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. as it were. if lime-water was used. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.moral philosophy. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. the plaster had to be damped before painting. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Serenissima (Ital. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. because the secco technique is much less permanent. history and rhetoric . university-based study. Medieval scholars. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. as it is easier to add details in this way. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire).
Originally. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. usually presided over by individual families. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sinopia . "the most serene republic of Venice"). Signoria (It. sibylla. They first appear in alpine monasteries.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. and the delicate. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. In Christian legend. brass. the number gradually rose to ten. in the period of classical antiquity. Med.. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "prophetess") In antiquity. Lat. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. there was only one Sibyl. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Servite (Lat. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Sibyls foretold the Birth. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. in use since the Middle Ages. women who could prophesy. term. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibyls (Gk. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. which were all identical in thickness. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sfumato A technique. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. at the same time. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is.
"up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. stigmata. soffit (Lat. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. It is very closely related to International Gothic. in other words. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. brand. "mark. stigma (Gk. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). and. Francis of Assisi. Stanze (Ital. as the name implies. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. pronounced as French.. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. staffage This word. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. . Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Ital. sing. especially in the flow of drapery.'Beautiful Madonnas'. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.) Wooden ceiling decoration. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. sotto in sù (It.
studioli (It. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. In a looser sense. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. supremacy . with that for the Picturesque.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. The vogue for the Sublime. Indeed. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. whose verses actually fabrications . and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. John Milton. stucco A type of light. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. studiolo. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. pl. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. both external and internal.
the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. both for panel painting and fresco. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. chiefly from Flanders. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. The subject is underexplored.and. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. tempera (Lat. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534.e. These were imported. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. into Italy. . and in literature. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. London. or cartoons. then being replaced by oil paint. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . temperare. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence.Historically. was being decorated with frescoes. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. i. 1407). The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. doubtless. Salviati and Allori. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. his own headquarters. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. But the Italians did not make them.
The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tondo. theme or motif. "fields. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. in art. Trajan's Column .terracotta (It. widely used form. pl. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. model. topos. vessels. figure of speech. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and profile. i. topoi (Gk. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). and other surfaces. triumphal arch. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tondi (It. "a commonplace") In literature. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. walls. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. and later to subdivide gable ends. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. quarter face. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. in the architecture of ancient Rome.e. and sculptures. pl. terraferma (Ital. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. topia. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. topiary (Gk.
of virtues and of the arts. beside it the army of martyrs. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. . "threefold") in Christianity. Battista Sforza. time and eternity. tryptychos. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Trinity (Lat. added to the glamour of the triumph. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. behind it. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. a car so brave'. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. of both sexes'. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .' Before it go the apostles. the Son and the Holy Spirit. usually an altarpiece.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. as it were. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. the wars by which they were won . Early triptychs were often portable. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. or wings. death. into a number of less controversial forms. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. trinitas. Meanwhile. Disseminated soon after his death. fame. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. triptych (Gk. chastity. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. the military triumph became sublimated. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. patriarchs and prophets. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. after 'a countless number of virgins. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.
that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. through various naturalistic devices. In medieval architecture. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Dating from classical times. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. "drum") In classical architecture. first recorded in 1232. tympanum (Lat. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. viscous black ink. often decorated with sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. enclosed by an arch. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. It incorporates Renaissance features. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. it is usually decorated with carvings. tusche A thick. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). typology . tromp l'oeil (Fr.
1590-1624). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. such as five works devoted to the senses. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).) The Renaissance "universal man". U uomo universale (It. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . where they were most accessible. knew his former patrons. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. In Christian thought.Dirck van Baburen (c. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. The numerous candles. were popular with them also.A system of classification. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. killer of Holofernes. . and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. each had access to his paintings. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .g. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. especially his half-length figural groups. and David. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. slayer of Goliath. Judith. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. 1610). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). lanterns. e. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.
and even flowers (which will soon fade). Parisian craftsmen. "evening") . and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. Also varietas (Lat. guttering candles. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. There are a wide range of forms. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Vespers (Lat. mixed in. hour-glasses and clocks. overturned vessels. it was used to decorate furniture. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. vesper. and the rib vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. carriages.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. V vanishing point In perspective. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. the groin vault. snuff boxes and other objects. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. often gold. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art.). vanitas (Lat. varietà (It. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. a work's richness of subject matter. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.
Covetousness. virtù could be used. vimperga Of German origin. Gluttony. Lust. Envy. actual or latent. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vestibulum. Fortitude. Anger. "life") . The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Vestibule (Lat. and Sloth. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Charity. for example.Prayers said in the evening. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). the church service at which these prayers are said. 'Assume a virtue. if you have it not'. vite (Lat. in which the word signifies efficacy. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. pl. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. In ancient Roman dwellings. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. and Justice. The seven Virtues were: Faith. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Hope. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. "not exposed to winds". vita. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Temperance. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Prudence. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices.
1472. protection from harm. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. or recovery from illness has been made. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. a biography. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. The wars from 1494 do. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. in fact. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Vitruvius Pollio.An account of someone's life and work. 1482-84). The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and appalled recognition of. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Marcus (1st cent. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Sculptors and Architects"). and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. those of Volterera. 1478-80. published in 1550 and 1568.g. usually when a prayer for good fortune. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. and of Ferrara. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. they were from the 18th century .
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
treasury or a place where justice was administered. Westwerk German word. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. based on stylization of various animal forms. woodcut A print made from a wood block. usually restorers. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. usually linear. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist.Weltanschauung (Gr. a philosophy of life. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. "Western work of art". It was intended to have a variety of functions. gallery. "world view") A comprehensive world view. . While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. during its subsequent history. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. pompous on the floor above.
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