A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. "architectural") Relating to structure. Also known as an exedra. Picasso. architrave (It. piers or pillars. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the lowest part of the entablature). the darker the tone). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. The adjective is apsidal. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. . architectonic (Gk. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. roofed with a half-dome. arkhitektonikos. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. but in essence the process is as follows. and Rouault. Lancet and Tudor. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. design. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. which is fused to the plate by heating. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arcade (Lat. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. In Greek and Roman literature. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. or organization. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). at the east end of a church behind the altar. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). There are several variants of the technique. including Goya. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i.A semicircular projection. arcus.e. the moulding around a window or door. Degas.

"turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.and the Comedy ." from Gk. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. In the case of martyrs. aureolus. archivolto." and Lat. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. voltus. Dante's Vita nuova . dominate. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. archeiu. aureole (Lat. usually a saint. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "golden. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "front arch. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . attribute (Lat. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. attributum. Ars Moriendi (Lat.archivolt (Ital. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "begin. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.

The actual move was made in 1309. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). that of Cardano. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. who had been residing in France since 1305. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. 'Captivity'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Six pontificates later. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. often anecdotal. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Later. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. the god of wine and fertility. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. or baldacchino (It. applied to the physically . baldachin. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. paintings of everyday life. in 1377. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology.

Alg. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. or canopy.. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and Poitiers. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and Epiphany. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. the Temple of Venus. Pentecost. or connected with. Easter. banderole (It. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Customarily. . Croatia]. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. and Nocera in Italy. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. or forecourt. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baalbek. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. beggars in rags. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Spalato [Split. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. pope between 432 and 440. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. Florence. a visual metaphor for the number eight. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. such as those at Pisa. AD 300). and abject filthy things. built by Sixtus III. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Lebanon. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. France. el Kantara. a church. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. AD 273. banderuola. seven.g. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. As eight follows the "complete" number.. Parma.

(2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. something of earlier symbolism survives. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. . a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1796-1875). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. 1811-1889). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. southeast of Paris. Constant Troyon (French. or baptismal chapels.an allusion to entering the Christian life. in its usual location near the church door . Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Rubens). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. stoa basilike. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. 1810-1865). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. in the 1840s and 1850s. Originally. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Théodore Rousseau (French. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Vermeer). which is reserved for the clergy. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. were often omitted entirely. and thus a church. In architecture. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. basilica (Gk. usually facing east. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1817-1878). Also tunnel vault.In the 10th century. barocco. and (3) everyday realism. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. "king's hall") a church building. and increasingly elaborate decoration. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Baroque (Port. 1814-1875). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Jules Dupré (French. 1807-1876). Jean-François Millet (French. baptisteries. achieved through scale. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. however. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini.

the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. which is either not yet glazed. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. especially Spanish. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. 1650 in Spain. The term was mainly used up to c. also incorrectly called bisque. however. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. and often sentimentality. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). up until the mid-17th century. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Spanish still-lifes. bodegón Image. domesticity. Book of Hours .and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. often with food and drink. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. There were. such as those by Diego Velázquez.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. or which is to be left as it is. Biscuit porcelain. Bodegónes. particularly porcelain. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. as is to be expected. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. in which still-life predominates. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. such as Waldmüller. By association. like their Dutch counterparts. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. were referred to by their specific contents.

often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bozzetto Strictly speaking. .by a variety of processes. or seasons. months. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. and the fact that it is easily workable . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work.an advantage over marble sculpture.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. varying from silverish to a rich. but can also be used for painted sketches. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. a rapid sketch in oil. coppery red. though these are more often called 'modelli'. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. days of the week.both hot and cold . buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. durability. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. See flying buttress. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. made as a study for a larger picture. By extension. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. Chantilly). illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. bozzetto(Italian.

ceramics. and Giotto. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. casson. and work in precious metals.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). camera obscura . manuscript illuminations. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. glass. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. "a chest. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. It also served to glorify the emperor. its forms highly stylized. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. mosaics. C cabinet A small. notable from Syria and Egypt. box") In architecture. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. private room where works of art. caisson (Fr. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Duccio. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. which was often allegorical. cameo Small relief made from gems.

For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. . hemp. both of which have richly carved marble panels. other materials used are cotton. capitellum." and the earliest versions. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar.Ancestor of the photographic camera. sing. The Latin name means "dark chamber. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. dating to antiquity.-N. campanile Bell tower. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. cantorie (It. Portable versions were built. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). by the 16th century. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. as an aid to drawing. usually built beside or attached to a church. usually in a church. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. cantoria. usually decorated. followed by smaller and even pocket models. only very rough effects will be obtainable. candela. "candle") A large. which isolates the fabric from the paint. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candelabrum (It. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports.) A gallery for singers or musicians. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. pl. capital (Lat. candelabra. which was usually whitened. candlestick. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. and jute. Structurally. usually with several branches or arms. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. Niepce created photography.

An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartoon (It. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. the endeavour to attain true humanity. cartone. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Carthusian Order (Lat. near Grenoble. Carmelites (Lat. cartellino.a humorous drawing or parody. cartellini In a painting. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. At the height of the Middle Ages. monasteries containing separate hermitages. the date of the painting. cardinalis. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . and humanism. pl. The order combines reclusive and community life. details of the subject.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartouche . In fresco painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). or fresco. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. New Charterhouses. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. or a motto. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. tapestry. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century.

decorated with gilt gesso. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.toward the setting sun. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). The main body. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. In the 15th century. . The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. castello (It. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. cathedral (cathedra. For reasons lost to time and tradition. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. linen. and many other items of her dowry. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. caryatid (Gk. cassone (It. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and swags of fruit and flowers. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. a cathedral always faces west . Paolo Uccello. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. or nave. These lead up to the north and south transepts. or arms of the cross. The altar is placed at the east end. they were also used in other countries. where the throne of the bishop is placed. palace. They contained the bride's clothes. putti (cupids). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Cascina. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature.) "castle".An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written.

a throne bearer of the deity. champlevé (Fr. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. buildings and figures that are being depicted. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. continually praise him. a celestial winged being with human. centralis. moral laxity in the clergy and so on).Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. central perspective (Lat. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. . in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. animal. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. "in the centre". Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Relative to the observer. landscapes. Both the statement of St. and Islamic literature. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. as celestial attendants of God. Christian. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. and perspicere. or birdlike characteristics. rather than intercessory functions. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. in accordance with their distance from the observer.

" Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . When the contrast of light and dark is strong. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. North of the Alps. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. or for choral singing. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). replacing tempera. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. Lastly. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. choir (Gk. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. reserved for the clergy to pray together. "light dark") In painting. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry.chiaroscuro (It. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). the Order of the Hospital of St. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. Hans Burgkmair (1510). choros. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Since Carolingian times.

and garlands. stucco shells. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. further enriching the style. and repetition of pattern. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. balustrades. a massing of carved angels. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Mexico cathedral (1718). Very few still exist in their original positions. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. reversed volutes. became the most common motif. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. an architect. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). gilded rays. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. undulating lines. undulating cornices. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Sculpted clouds. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. and the Churrigueresque column. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The Transparente (completed 1732). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. is as typically Churrigueresque. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. which was shaped like an inverted cone. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. ciborium . is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque.intersect). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style.

the wool carder Michele di Lando. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. placing one of their members. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. who were raised to the status of a guild. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. craft of dyeing. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Their economic condition worsened. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Members of the lower classes. beaters. The new government. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. including the ciompi. Without being members of a guild. Then. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June.and post-medieval Italy. Quattrocento (1400s. High Renaissance). the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. controlled by the minor guilds. etc. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. as also were those in the associated.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. combers. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. on July 22. or achieve political representation. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. ciompi. but self-employed. In reaction to this revolutionary . Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. They were forbidden to form a trade association.

clair-obscur (Fr. changed greatly from one period to the next. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. philosophy. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. the black contours usually with a special line plate. except in cases where . however. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. editing and translating a wide range of texts. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. cithara (Gk. .episode.as in Italy these were dispensed with. on which strings were plucked. scholars patiently finding. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). writers.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. and politics. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). the ciompi guild was abolished. literature. Concepts of the classical. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In the 15th century Greek literature. resembling a lyre. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD.) An ancient musical instrument. philosophy and art . with Italian scholars. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.

"completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. condottiere. those with refined tastes. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Coffered ceilings. pl. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. literature or music. a work's underlying theme. terrorized the country. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary)." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. cognoscente (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. intensify one another. . composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. The name was derived from the condotta. as well as from the Bible. blue and orange. when set side by side. [hora] completa. Green and red. concetti (It. compline (Lat. occasionally made of wood. or "contract. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. condottieri (It. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. arch or ceiling. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. concetto. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. cognoscenti. sing. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces.

Umbria. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. convents of convertite. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. in Venice. often under the direction of. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. often called compagnie or. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. i. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Martino). who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. flagellant confraternities. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. disappeared. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Francesco Sforza. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities.devastating Romagna. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. confraternities Confraternities. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Muzio's son. i. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Mark (1432). developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. who won control of Milan in 1450. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Toward the end of the 15th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. and Tuscany. By the end of the 14th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. scuole. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. .e. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. which spread in the 15th century. Less fortunate was another great condottiere.e. clergy. in the service of Perugia. and his rival Braccio da Montone. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. By the 16th century. primarily for syphilitics. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Carmagnola. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. in the service of Naples. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. or with the spiritual assistance of. Spanish. and German--the condottieri. With no goal beyond personal gain. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood.

The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital.g. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. 1514 in S. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contours were initially regular. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. contour (Fr. in Florence. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contrapposto (It. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. notwithstanding their location. Later. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. but sometimes had their own premises. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. the Florentine Neri. e. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. In medieval painting. founded c. flat outlines.g. and refuges for maidens. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Dorotea in Trastevere. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. e. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. contour. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. reformed prostitutes. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Confraternities. however. while the Venetian government. While the Doge ranked above the Council.i. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .e. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds.

Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. . corbel In architecture. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. a bracket of stone. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. whose names are inscribed on several works. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. conventiculurn. 1280). The style spread as far as England. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. aes cyprium. an engraving produced in this way. 1100 and 1300. They are often ornamented. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. declining moral standards. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. cuprum. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas.weight on one leg. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. large cornice or other feature. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. conventicle (Lat. Reform programs. Lat. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. started the process of inner reform in the Church. did not achieve any lasting results.

e. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the first Christian emperor. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. cupola (Lat. after being whipped. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. cupula. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. particularly among the Persians. reedy sound. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. i. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Next. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. "small vat") In architecture. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Usually. D dado . Constantine the Great. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. a small dome. the most famous victim of crucifixion. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Jews. the condemned man. or "scourged. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. There were various methods of performing the execution. a semi-circular vault. Seleucids. An ancestor of the oboe. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Death. Carthaginians.

danse macabre The dance of death.g. often an altarpiece. diakonos. design") In Renaissance art theory. "drawing. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. e. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Anglican and Orthodox churches. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Passau. decorated diffrently from the upper section. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. and Linz possessed common characteristics. The term stresses not the literal drawing. an expressive use of nature. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. a favorite late medieval picture subject. usually in matching pairs. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Deësis (Gk. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. diptychos. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Gk. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. but the concept behind an art work. which was help to be the basis of all art. disegno (It. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Germany. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. deacon (Gk. diptych (Lat.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. diptychum. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous.

their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. doublet A male garment. donor (Lat.fully realize. though a few artists. distemper (Lat. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. is a heavy piece of furniture. As disegno appeals to the intellect. which runs on castors or wheels. also used it on canvas. a 19th-century invention. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. dome in architecture. formerly worn under armour. Ordo Praedictatorum. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. when painters took to working out of doors. Dominicans (Lat. donator. The studio easel. distemperare. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. "to mix. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. such as we still use today. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs.Thomas Aquinas.

eschatology (Gk.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. "word") . the frieze. sculpture. bound and flogged. and the cornice. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. in art. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. eschaton. "last". full face. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. fresco. ensemble (Fr. and logos. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. and architecture. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. en face In portraiture. Ecce Homo (Lat. Hence. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. It consists of the architrave. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. sometimes combining panel painting. a depiction of Jesus. John (19. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. entablature In classical architecture. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. epitaph (Gk.

which was famous for maiolica. and of the last things. notably Cardinal Pole. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Germany. Jerome. which is called "maiolica. Giovanni Morone. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. and is named for Faenza. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. protector of shepherds. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Contarini. 4500 BCE. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Vittoria Colonna. Eucharist (Gk. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. fields and livestock. farmers.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. which was developed in the Near East ca." and charis. celebrated with bread and wine. Equated with the Greek god Pan.death and resurrection. Spain." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Italy. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. "good. Marcantonio Flaminio. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther." and that made in the Netherlands and England. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. particularly ware made in France. Saints Ambrose. eu. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. and Scandinavia. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. . Augustine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Carnesecchi and Ochino. which is called "delftware.

usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. drying to a slightly different tint. Their attributes are the bow.festoni (It. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). a swag. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). war. and flowers suspended in a loop. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. black and dun. a technique known as a secco fresco. sword and set of balances. fluted of a column or pillar. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. leaves. Committed to charitable and missionary work. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. 2 . a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. that of the others red. fresco (It. Only a small area can be painted in a day. relaxed. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. such as plague. frescos in Italy . can in time be seen.8). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. The colour of his horse is white. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and these areas. famine and death. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting.

the lowranking god was depicted as a winged.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. for example. G Garter. landscape and portraiture. usually childish figure. or true fresco. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or fresco secco. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The technique of buon fresco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Final details. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Genius in classical Rome. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. the intonaco. are genres of painting. covings and ceilings. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. In art from the classical period onwards. genre In a broad sense. both in churches and in private and public palaces. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . where the atmosphere was too damp. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. a person's invisible tutelary god. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.Save in Venice. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. It was founded by Edward III in 1348.

The nature of true gloria was much discussed. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Bernardo Daddi. and as spurring on men of action. Maso di Banco. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Gobelins .such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Maria Gloriosa). as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. whether it must be connected with the public good. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. as well as writers and artists. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). As such. how it differed from notoriety. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. in portraits and on tombs. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer.

a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. who appointed Lebrun Director. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration.French tapestry manufactory. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In other Italian cities. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Paris. still in existence today. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. and although it reopened in 1699. golden section (Lat. Golden Fleece. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. . which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. This ratio is approximately 8:13. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. thereafter it made only tapestries. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia.

It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. The artistic. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. that the effects are to be felt. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. painting. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and lies much deeper than. Denis. In sculpture and in painting. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. 1200 and c. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Gothic Gothic. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. painting. or the influence of one building. the superficial particularities of form. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. In particular. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. In thinking of Nicola (d. from the 13th until the 17th century. c. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. 1270. . after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. There is a transcendental quality. Amiens. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. Nevertheless. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. like the cultural and commercial. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.

. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and Piranesi. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. and Morris Graves. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Such tours often took a year or more. and the great style. if required. starch. are but different appellations of the same thing'. to white or tinted paper and card and. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Canaletto. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. notably in the writings of Bellori. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. sometimes in the company of a tutor. without visible brush marks. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. the Netherlands. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. to silk. occasionally. Klee. with sable. the beau idéal of the French. and taste among the English. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. chiefly to France. These qualities. and above all Italy.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Dubuffet. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Honey. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. genius. Pannini. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians.and hog-hair brushes. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It is thinned with water for applying. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.

The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. and Waiblingen. including text as well as illustrations. In another sense. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. c. grisaille (Fr. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. however. exclude drawing from this definition.e. became an abiding feature of European politics. Some writers. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In Florence. the parties taking a multitude of local names. In the context of the fine arts. usually gray. After the War of the Eight Saints. From 1266 to 1268. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. then as now. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. brother of Louis IX. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. after this. gris. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. however. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. . so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. Although its palace was rebuilt c. which had recruited most of the merchant class. to Provence and Paris. 1216. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. internal factions in Florence went under other names. through central Italy. drawing and the various forms of engraving.

and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Guilds were also patrons of art. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. goldsmiths. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. trades. In Florence. print or painting. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and provided assistance to members in need. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. H hatching In a drawing. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and greater hostility between master and man. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. [science] héraldique. In Italy they go back a long way. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. or professions. In some cities. The guilds were not equal. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The guild also monitored standards of work. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. In some towns. but in time they acquired other functions. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. for example. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. "herald") . thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. surgeons. commissioning paintings for guildhalls." from Fr. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. as some did). The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In 16th century Venice. such as Brescia and Vicenza. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. notably Florence in the 14th century. heraldry (Fr. "[knowledge of] heraldry. trade or profession (painters. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. héraut.

They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. while others merged with the Waldensians. the Waldensian. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. However. from the start. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. as Antichrist. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. one great missionary community. i. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. with the rules governing their use. By contrast. normative for churchmen. together with brethren north of the Alps. they were condemned in 1184. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. d. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. the Cathars were an anti-church. and regarded themselves as forming. indeed. head of the 'carnal Church'. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). The main impact of the .

There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. F. S. its subjects considered morally elevating. Germany. At the same time. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. working from 1825 to 1875. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. B. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. the emancipation of man from God took place. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. in his earlier work. J. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Henry Inman. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. George Inness. F.movement upon the laity was in southern France. history (usually classical history). in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). my spouse'. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Church. Jasper Cropsey. hortus conclusus (Lat. Thomas Cole. In humanism. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Morse. Kensett. Durand. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. American painters were studying in Rome. humanus. Frederick E. and classical literature. humanism (Lat. mainly in the south. and. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

the veil of St. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the hammer. there are representations of the bundle of rods. For instance. the ability to create. usually the donors of a work of art. Derived from classical rhetoric. trecento rococo and lyrical style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. with many further details added. Veronica. and the ladder. investiture . because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. invention. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread.g. In the second half of the 14th century. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. are also used in art literature. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Donatallo. Human figures. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the rooster of Peter's denial. it denominates a kind of behaviour. and they are also depicted on their own. The terms court style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. originality. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the pincers. beautiful style. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. or of other saints. inventio (It. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. soft style. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. etc. the scourge that was used in the scourging.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion.

Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Andries and Jan Both. principally Dutch. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Jerome's writings. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. although they are usually called Romanists. bathed in a golden haze. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Nicolaes Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. who traveled in Italy and. . The Both brothers.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. and Jan Asselijn. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. of Utrecht. Italianizers Northern artists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Both and Berchem. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Upon his return to Holland. generally Dutch or Flemish.

Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. encouraged by the Crusades.1519).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. John of Jerusalem . L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. the rite of communion is based on this. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. especially one at which the Bible is read. liberal arts . Archbishop of Genoa. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. As their military role grew. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. lectern A reading stand or desk. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.

Tubal for music). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. together with identifying attributes (e. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. loggia (It. its roof supported by columns. and Frederick E. It is related to. . characterized by effects of light in landscapes. comprising arithmetic. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Church (1826-1900).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. the quadrivium. often standing in markets and town squares. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. through the use of aerial perspective. poetic atmosphere. Heade (1819-1904). Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).g. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.grammar. lunette (Fr. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Maria Novella in Florence). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). then the basis of a philosophical training. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal.g. rhetoric and dialectic. a semicircular space. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. first the preparatory trivium . astronomy and music. that could be used for public ceremonies. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. often sublime. commemorating a marriage. painting or sculptural decoration. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. "little moon") In architecture. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. that may contain a window. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Martin J. Kensett (1816-1872). Pythagoras for arithmetic. geometry. John F.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.

usually for the lute. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. "great mother") A mother goddess. active mainly in Florence c. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. manganese purple. copper green. the goddess Cybele. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. particularly such ware produced in Italy. originating in Italy in the 14th century. originally sung without accompaniment. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. being written. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. and iron red. and accompaniments. magna mater (Lat. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. madrigal A part song. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). antimony yellow. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. Specifically. but they painted genre scenes. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. and portraits as well as landscapes. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. historical subjects. mandorla (It. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. When white is used for painting. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. "almond") . with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. for example. and however bright their lighting effects. 1855–65. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi.

and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. the Codex manuscriptus. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. more strictly. strong. Bronzino. in a specific sense. Mannerism (It. and crowned with thorns. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Flanders. and literary texts. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. In Mannerist painting. marked by flagellation. often ornamented with decorative borders. Parmigianino. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. depending on the social class of the wearer. ecclesiastical. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Burgundy. In architecture. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. illuminated initials and miniatures. maniera. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. It reached to the knee or foot. mantle An overcoat. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. bound. complex and crowded compositions. El Greco and Tintoretto. Developing out of the Renaissance. which was quarried at Mount . often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. worn open. the hand-written medieval book. "manner.

Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. quarried at Massa. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. a different design on the reverse. an inscription running round the rim. martyrdom (Gk. having finished his training. particularly by Michelangelo. "witness. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). This was partly because ancient Roman coins. marmi finti (It. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. proof") the sufferings. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. The pure white Carrara marble. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. martyrion. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Carrara. medallion In architecture. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Without monetary value. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. sleek surface. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Like the finest Imperial coins. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work.Pentelicon in Attica. the medal's purpose was commemorative. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman.

When Perseus cuts off her head. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. supposedly to petrify her enemies. even grain. This yields a soft effect in the print. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. and of the many. It was. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 14601528). The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. particularly. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. in England. The process is essentially extinct today. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. a Gorgon. 1640. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto.round the neck. 1467-688). c. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. the stress on individual character. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. c. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. of the person portrayed on the other side. perhaps oddly. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. 1425-1504). Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. for landscapes and portraits. Ludwig von Siegen. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. often anonymous. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Medusa In Greek mythology. no line drawing is employed. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. . Her head features on Minerva's shield. as it were. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. A Dutch officer. In pure mezzotint. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1452-1526/27). The work of these men. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. who reflected them.

monokhromatos. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. e. monochrome (Gk. still exist. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a branch of the Franciscan order.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. saying") . often quite highly finished. painting in gouache on vellum or card. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. a painting executed in a single color. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. by Tiepolo and Rubens. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. "word. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. Francis himself.g. executed on a very small scale. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. ink and paint. motto (Ital. Many such small versions. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Parmigianino (d. usually portraits. "one color") Painted in a single color. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. miter A high.

. Pforr. Isidore. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. The invention of personal mottos. and Casino Massimo. In 1810 0verbeck. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. navis. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. 1816-17. naturalism (Fr.from the Middle Ages. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. It may have parallel aisles on each side. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Berlin. In general. Rome. but often insipid. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and is intersected by the transept. and two other members moved to Rome. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. nave (from Lat. Nazarenes A group of young. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. 1817-29). named after the patron saint of painting. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. often separated from it by pillars.

Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Popes. nimbus (Lat. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. usually golden. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). but their ideas continued to be influential. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries.) . were usually old when elected. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Nymphaeum (Gk. moreover. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. is as true as it is notorious. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. the style of the Ancien Régime. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. nigellus. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. "aureole") The disc or halo. niello (Lat. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s.

The earliest. "services. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). capital. orders of architecture In classical architecture. a more elaborate base. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. . fluted column and a plain capital. such as linseed. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. and entablatures. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. inborn sin. observances") Rites performed for the dead. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. the three basic styles of design. They are seen in the form of the columns. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. and its greater tonal range. the Doric order. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. its richness of colour. obsequia. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. with a sturdy. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. was the simplest. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. a small private chapel. O obsequies (Lat. or poppy. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. Greek goddesses of Nature. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. walnut.

Usually pointed or rounded at the top. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. like cities. and the main apartments above. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. the Cancelleria). Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Palazzo Strozzi). Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. palazzo (It. standing at the foot of the Cross. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. tradition and social structure. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. P pala (Ital. while shops came to be thought undignified. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy.g. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). designed as a . of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. with biforate windows. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles.

and large households. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). originally evolved in response to specific conditions. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. like Genoa. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. e. like the colonnaded vestibule.g. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. panel . the architectural pace was set by the papal court.g. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Rich. and Palladio's in Vicenza. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Palazzo Massimi). Other cities. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. evolved influential types. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. came to be applied all over Europe. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. column-caps. cornices and abutments. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Papal incentives to build. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. palmette. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Movement of patrons and architects. Following Oriental patterns. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy.scholarly retreat. behind a sober Florentine façade. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". often built next to their titular churches. In Venice. especially after the Sack of Rome.

could lead to conflict with secular authorities. As successors to St Peter. cedar. In the 20th century cedar. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. or other rigid substance. Many other types were used. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. enforce law and order. as distinct from canvas. A number of matters. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. Having a circular plan. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. On a larger scale. and the pressure and temptations . extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. metal. fir. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and other synthetic materials as supports. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and walnut. larch. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. teak. fibre-board. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. olive. including beech. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. mahogany. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. chestnut. secular rulers. to influence popes in their favour. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. or the incidence of taxation. the management of clerical dues and taxation. and spanned by a single dome. and modern painters have also used plywood. and dark walnut are favourites. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. as it were. The third aspect was administrative. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. linden.Term in painting for a support of wood. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. To maintain their authority. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. Then.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. so that they might have a voice at court. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. however. the.

of individuals. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. would. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. to be long delayed. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. the most appropriate . from the point of view of its religious associations. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. As at Avignon. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . To resolve the problem of divided authority. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). was long in doubt. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. By then. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. however. could supersede that of a pope.as well. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. possess an authority which. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. which met at Constance 1414-18. Colonna and Caetani. if it did no serious damage to the faith. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual.that could be applied to them. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. however. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. which seems so inevitable. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. There remained. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. however. as such. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. in the eyes of God. It was argued that such a council. at Avignon. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. So onerous. in spite of further absences from Rome. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith.

Passion . as well as a governmental one.. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. to a world peopled by shepherds. goat. and with Zeuxis (c. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. However. pastoral (Lat. through lavish patronage of artists. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and other animals. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and satyrs. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. in classical literature. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. Parrhasius (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. 425 BC) and Apelles (c.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. less frequently pig. the creation of a cultural capital. 400-300 BC). but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. pastor. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. nymphs. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). scholars and men of letters. it has also been used for painting.

the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Francesco Salviati. pavilion (Lat. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a prominent section of a monumental façade. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pastiche (fr. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. a region in north-central Italy. patrician (Lat. and so on.The events leading up to Good Friday. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. the crown of thorns.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. and also the archbishop of Pisa. wealthy citizen. projecting either centrally or at both ends. patricius. ornamental building. Portrayals of the Passion. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. 1478. "butterfly. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. a small. Meanwhile. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.) or pasticcio (It. . include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. but not necessarily a direct copy. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. which focus on the Suffering Christ. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. such as a garden summerhouse. 1478). But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. papilio.

perspicere. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "nature". "to see through.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and facere. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "person". in particular the face. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. persona. perspective (Lat. "hanging. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. pendant (Fr. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. personification (Lat. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. . Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. physiognomy (Gk. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. and gnomon. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective).) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. or related elements within an art work. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). physis. pergola (It. concept or deity.

striking the imagination with the force of painting. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. usually above the ground floor. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. to be expressed in painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St.piano nobile (Ital. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. containing the public rooms. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. A pier is generally larger than a column. pigmentum. glue. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. pigment (Lat. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. curious details. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.) The main floor of a building. or resin to make paint. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. both real and painted. proper to take a landscape from. for example. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. affording a good subject for a landscape. but may consist of a cluster of columns. exemplified. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Pietà (Lat. Peter's. . Rome. remarkable for singularity. but full of variety.

Thenceforward. For this reason. though in less widespread. it has a base. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. the burning of 'infected' clothing. in October 1347. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . perhaps. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves.pilaster (Lat. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Rocco and Sebastian. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. since. It seems probable. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. and thereafter all Europe. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. however. outside Tuscany. also used in Spain's American colonies. plague Plague. more sporadic outbreaks. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. "pillar") A flat. During 1348 the Black Death. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. a shaft. It is often fluted. and capital. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. for instance. In the 15th century. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. it is difficult to find. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. moreover. pilastrum. despite regional variations. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. such as Florence and Genoa. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture.

harmonious. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . or simply the Plateresque. correct classical orders became frequent. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. In contrast with Aristotle. The first phase. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases.e. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. more severe. and unified style using massive geometric forms. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Theatetus and the Laws. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. are the masterworks of the second style. the Symposium. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. or appropriateness. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Timaeus. like its successor. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Philebus. Diego evolved a purer. Phaedo. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Phaedrus.. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. i. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The second phase. The first phase. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. which lasted only a few decades. heraldic escutcheons. placement. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. composition. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). A student of Socrates. and sinuous scrolls. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. utilized Mudejar ornament -. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis.

There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance.in Plato's thought. and Agostino Steuco (c. replaced Ficino's. Unlike the case of Aristotle.1577) becoming particularly popular. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. including those of Plotinus. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. A new Latin translation. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . systematized and added to what Plato had done. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. 1472-c. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Rather unsystematic. but not completely. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Iamblichus. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. and he utilized many other writings. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. the greatest of his ancient disciples. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Plotinus. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. partially. all of which he also translated into Latin. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. near Florence. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400.

Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. column. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Plato was read in the universities. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. plinthos. porticus. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. such as processions and consecrations. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . as in classical architecture). Some polyptychs were very elaborate. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. or statue. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. poluptukhos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. portico (Lat. where a pectoral is used to close it. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. plinth (Gk. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. pluviale. pointed arch In architecture. polyptych (Gk. pluvial (Med. Frequently supports a pediment. Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints.

Venice). psychologically more complex. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Siena. The realism of the clear. decorating whole rooms. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Florence (1486-90). Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. flattened image. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Desiderio da Settignano. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. inessential. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Palazzo Farnese). Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. and the .e. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Maria Novella. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.. Campidoglio). The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. 1328. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. and only a decorative accessory to form. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. the Carracci. Mantua. The 16th century portrait became generalized.sculptors such as Donatello. National Gallery). Gattarnelata. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The equestrian portrait. Florence. Cathedral) by Uccello. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. was revived in the 14th century. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Colleoni. Group portraits. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface.

from the secular clergy. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. 1494). and Peter Paul Rubens. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Borromeo. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Savonarola and Musso. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. not least those of statesmen and prelates. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. bishop of Chioggia. abrasive even. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. are not florid in style. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. was versed in classical and patristic . Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. however. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. minatory exhortations. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Correggio. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). As Poussin was a Frenchman. of the sermon as an art form. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. several of whom became bishops. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Fiamma's sermons. The styles of S." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Charles Le Brun.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. bishop of Asti. The sermons of Visdomini. to discharge their preaching duties. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. primarily the mendicants. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. bishops especially. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. and. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy.

the temptations of Adam and Christ. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. presbyterion "Council of Elders") .the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.rhetoric. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The New Testament references in these would. Naples). tapestries. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. predella (It. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Because of the small size of predelle . stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. though often relatively very wide .they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. among them Holman Hunt. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Millais and Rossetti. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. prefiguration Typology . and so forth. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. however.g. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.

the golden section. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 2. Girardon. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). notably David. Prix de Rome A scholarship. proportio. proportion (Lat. sculpture and architecture. profil perdu (Fr. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. the quadrature. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. "evenness") in painting. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. again indicative of the purpose they served. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Fragonard. these highly finished drawings. projecting shelf on which to kneel. and Houdon among sculptors. which uses the square . the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the Canon of Proportion. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. 3. The following are important: 1.

a fifth = 2:3. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). putto (It. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. It was common in Roman art. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Rome. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. Ignazio. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. the steward or treasurer of a church. Unlike Pozzo. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. 4. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. for example). was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. one half the length of the other). provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. . triangulation. provenance The origins of an art work. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putti sing. a fourth = 3:4. "boys") Plump naked little boys. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. and 5. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works.as a unit of measurement. harmonic proportions.

Among the . It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. in which figures are almost detached from their background. also known as the Realist school. Brunelleschi. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. refectory (Med. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. relic (Lat. Fra Angelico and others. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. with the Anglican Church developing in England. or the Jesuits. friars and nuns. In 16th century Europe. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance.g. the object of particular veneration. and high relief (alto rilievo). hermits. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. e. basso rilievo). in which figures are seen half round. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. canons regular. the great orders of monks. relicquiae. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. or some item connected with a saint. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in particular works by Masaccio. relief (Lat. Lat. relevare. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Botticelli. Donatello. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects.Quattrocento (It.

the Conventuals. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. i. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. it became the Cassinese congregation. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. although technically of secular canons. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Bologna (1419). In 1504. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. In 1517. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. and the generally moderate Observants. The Benedictines. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Lucca.e. S. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Benedetto. and their more institutionalized brethren. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Padua. Salvatore. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the most notable being S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. After the repression of the Spirituals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Bernardino of Siena. Maria di Fregonaia. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Giustina. At the same time. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Giorgio in Alga. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the great patriarch of Venice. which was to become the main Italian one. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Venice (1404). however.contemplative orders. Founded by St Romuald c. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. 1012. presided over by chapters general. Mantua. The same bull . they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. was the congregation of S. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. That of S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Conventuals. The Silvestrines. who had no overall organization originally. their resources being in the hands of trustees. various groups were fused in the latter body.

most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The first. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the Theatines. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. however. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Gaetano da Thiene. Venice. Angela Merici. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Filippo Neri. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. a historical period. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Michele in Isola. founded by S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. founded in 1535 by S. also. however. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century.

Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. life. even Amoralism. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). of scholarship. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. was so vast and potent. and his own as potentially one of light.century. and competition with. of arts. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. For long. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). increasingly. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Thereafter. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. of an energetic revival of interest in. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. . man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. because its core of energy. however. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. 1875-86). culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of letters. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. of 'darkness'. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. however. too long forgotten glories. which had begun early in the 14th century. as well as political. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. All-Roundness. the historical reality of antiquity. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them.

retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. retables can be detached and. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Though thus challenged. congruence between. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. later still to Genoa. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. though sometimes of metal. sometimes. The challenges are to be accepted. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. especially in the High Gothic period. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. however. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. let alone a uniform. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. It is for this additional. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . letters. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. mobilized nationalism. (3) There is not a true. subjective reason a term to be used with caution.) was the term chosen. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. There was an early. Ghent). etc. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. and is decorated with paintings. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. the previous record . 'culture' and 'history' during the period. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.with all its shabbiness .erased. etc. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Cathedral of SaintBavon. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. and mass media. statues. candlesticks. gratefully. of industrialization. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. and other liturgical objects. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). in the more limited sense.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. consist merely of a painting. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts.

Rococo A style of design. Originally commissioned in 976. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Louis XV furniture. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. painting. Romanesque art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. the St. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. rocaille (French. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. and 'Romanesque'. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. like 'Gothic'. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Spain . As the name suggests.in the 11th century. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. With the development of freestanding altars. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. More usually. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Italy. "relief") In painting. retables have become extinct. richly decorated with organic forms. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. . is a typical product. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. its mood lighthearted and witry. Germany. however. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized.France. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and architecture dominating the 18th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. in several countries .of St Mark in Venice. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. almost simultaneously. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. literally. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). rilievo (It.

and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. the development of nationalistic pride. van Heemskerk. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. van Orley. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Claude.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Mabuse. The aim of painting. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Massys and M. Piranesi. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Q. M. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. stylized design representing an open rose. . usually as a result of a visit to Italy. In addition. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. such as red ochre. Rome. B. Pannini and Mengs. they maintained. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator.

gutted. Subjects were nominally sacred. and Lorenzo de' Medici. pious legend and hagiography. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Orthodox. glance and movement . and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. local saints. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. penance. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Many compositions were anonymous. and anointing of the sick. matrimony.expressed through gesture. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). and impoverished. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Sacra Conversazione (It. the Eucharist. Written primarily in ottava rima. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Clement escaped into Castel S. when it finally left the city it had devastated. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. In the . the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. and Protestant churches. confirmation. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). holy orders.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. but others were the work of well-known figures. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. supported by lay confraternities. Eastern independent. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . multiple sets used in succession. There were no limits on time. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army.greatly increased. from the Old and New Testaments. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work.

and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.. the sun of righteousness. in principle. the Bentivoglio. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology.early church the number of sacraments varied. chapter 13. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. Lutheran. which in the Gospel According to John. The theology of the Orthodox Church. strictly speaking. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Rocca Paolina. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12." which are called sacramentals. Hence.e. Salt War. the symbolic direction of Christ. that the price of salt should be increased. and then face east.) Hall. Immediately following baptism.. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Candidates first face west. replaces the Lord's Supper. The chief focus of discontent. large room. Saracens . The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not." sala (Ital.i. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. The classical Protestant churches (i. and sacraments. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.e. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. They were still seeking aid. foot washing. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. notably from Florence and in Germany. the Orthodox Church does not. make such strict distinctions. as an excuse to revolt. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. used for drawing. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. baptism and the Eucharist. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. was not maintained as a sacrament. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. sacraments. Thus. Anglican. was buried under a new fortress. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. It is still practiced on special occasions.

and many others. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 45 BC).c.During the Middle Ages. the Arabs or Muslims. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the god of wine. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 160 . sarcophagus. whose writings. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. are lost. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades.c. 210 AD). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 270 BC). human-like woodland deities with the ears. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 360 . Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. satyr In Greek mythology. made of stone. wood or terracotta. pl. legs and horns of a goat. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. The publication of Latin (1562. Little known in the Middle Ages. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. sarcophagi (Gk.

Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. one of the early leaders. from time to time both he and his opponents.they had individual Bentnames . with France and her allies Aragon. on the other. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. was called Bamboccio. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Schism. and. Louis I (d. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. in June 1409. for. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). However. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. In northern Italy. Charles III of Durazzo (d. the Florentines. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. than their medieval predecessors. who recognized the Roman pope. who had the support of the Avignon pope. on one side. but with little effect. 1386) and his son Ladislas. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Alexander V. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. while devout Christians agonized. scholasticism . the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. As a result. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. being Frenchmen.for example Pieter van Laer. while England. most of whom. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.

In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Christian. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. history and rhetoric . the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. if lime-water was used. textual scholarship. university-based study. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. notably Aquinas. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. because the secco technique is much less permanent. and theology.moral philosophy. (See also: fresco.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Often called the burning ones. that scholasticism was left. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. and Islamic literature. as it is easier to add details in this way. Medieval scholars. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. moreover. Serenissima (Ital. on one side. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. as it were. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.were different from those of medieval. It was because the central concerns of humanism . a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.The term is ambivalent. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. None the less. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio).) . As such. Padua. the plaster had to be damped before painting. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.

just as the male prophets of the Bible did. term. there was only one Sibyl. and the delicate. in the period of classical antiquity. usually presided over by individual families. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sfumato A technique. Sibyls foretold the Birth. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. brass. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. which were all identical in thickness. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. "prophetess") In antiquity. In Christian legend. women who could prophesy. Lat. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. the number gradually rose to ten. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament.. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sibylla. in use since the Middle Ages. Originally. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sinopia . They first appear in alpine monasteries. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Servite (Lat. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Signoria (It. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Med. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. sibyls (Gk.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. at the same time.

stigma (Gk. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. pronounced as French. . stigmata. in other words. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. and. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. the red chalk used to make such a drawing.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. sing. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. "mark. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .) Wooden ceiling decoration.'Beautiful Madonnas'. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. Francis of Assisi. brand. as the name implies. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. It is very closely related to International Gothic. sotto in sù (It. staffage This word. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. especially in the flow of drapery. Stanze (Ital. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Ital. soffit (Lat. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.

supremacy . helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. whose verses actually fabrications . Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. studiolo. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. In a looser sense. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. both external and internal. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. pl.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. studioli (It. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. John Milton. with that for the Picturesque. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. stucco A type of light. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The vogue for the Sublime. Indeed. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.

and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. then being replaced by oil paint. i. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .and. temperare. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. or cartoons. doubtless. . "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. The subject is underexplored. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. both for panel painting and fresco. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. But the Italians did not make them. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.e. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. his own headquarters. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. was being decorated with frescoes. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 1407). were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. tempera (Lat. These were imported. Salviati and Allori. into Italy. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. and in literature. London. chiefly from Flanders. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source.Historically.

pl.e. in art. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "a commonplace") In literature. pl. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. model. tondo. tondi (It. topos. figure of speech. "fields. topoi (Gk. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. i. vessels. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. walls. and profile. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. theme or motif. and other surfaces. topia. and sculptures. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. Trajan's Column . and later to subdivide gable ends. in the architecture of ancient Rome. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen).terracotta (It. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. widely used form. terraferma (Ital. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. triumphal arch. quarter face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. topiary (Gk.

This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'.' Before it go the apostles. fame. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. the Son and the Holy Spirit. into a number of less controversial forms. the military triumph became sublimated. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. added to the glamour of the triumph. usually an altarpiece. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. chastity. "threefold") in Christianity. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Disseminated soon after his death. beside it the army of martyrs. time and eternity. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). as it were. patriarchs and prophets.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. death. Battista Sforza. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. triptych (Gk. Early triptychs were often portable. trinitas. of both sexes'. Trinity (Lat. .poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. behind it. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. or wings. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. "threefold") A painting in three sections. after 'a countless number of virgins. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. of virtues and of the arts. a car so brave'. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Meanwhile. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. the wars by which they were won . tryptychos. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.

the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. it is usually decorated with carvings. Dating from classical times. tympanum (Lat. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tusche A thick. through various naturalistic devices. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. "drum") In classical architecture. enclosed by an arch. tromp l'oeil (Fr. In medieval architecture. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. first recorded in 1232. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. often decorated with sculptures. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. It incorporates Renaissance features. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. viscous black ink. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I).triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. typology .

Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. e.) The Renaissance "universal man". lanterns. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. In Christian thought. and David.Dirck van Baburen (c. slayer of Goliath. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.g. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. killer of Holofernes. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. such as five works devoted to the senses. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). knew his former patrons. . U uomo universale (It. each had access to his paintings. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.A system of classification. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). where they were most accessible. 1590-1624). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. especially his half-length figural groups. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. were popular with them also. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. 1610). The numerous candles. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Judith. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters .

mixed in. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. V vanishing point In perspective. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. carriages. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. varietà (It. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Also varietas (Lat. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vesper. vanitas (Lat. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. a work's richness of subject matter. it was used to decorate furniture. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. "evening") . and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. guttering candles.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and the rib vault. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. hour-glasses and clocks. overturned vessels. often gold. Parisian craftsmen. Vespers (Lat. There are a wide range of forms. snuff boxes and other objects. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. and even flowers (which will soon fade).). The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. the groin vault.

but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. vite (Lat. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Envy. "life") . vestibulum. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. and Justice. the church service at which these prayers are said. "not exposed to winds". and Sloth. Lust. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Gluttony. vita. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Fortitude. 'Assume a virtue. Hope. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Charity. for example. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. in which the word signifies efficacy. pl.Prayers said in the evening. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Anger. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. actual or latent. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Prudence. In ancient Roman dwellings. virtù could be used. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. vimperga Of German origin. Covetousness. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Vestibule (Lat. The seven Virtues were: Faith. if you have it not'. Temperance.

they were from the 18th century . scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. and of Ferrara. protection from harm. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte.g. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. Marcus (1st cent. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. those of Volterera. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. in fact. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. usually when a prayer for good fortune. a biography. Vitruvius Pollio. The wars from 1494 do. and appalled recognition of. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Sculptors and Architects"). came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1478-80.An account of someone's life and work. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. or recovery from illness has been made. 1472. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. 1482-84). published in 1550 and 1568.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

treasury or a place where justice was administered.Weltanschauung (Gr. a philosophy of life. pompous on the floor above. gallery. woodcut A print made from a wood block. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. usually linear. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. . It was intended to have a variety of functions. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "Western work of art". Westwerk German word. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. based on stylization of various animal forms. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. "world view") A comprehensive world view. during its subsequent history. usually restorers.

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