A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

roofed with a half-dome. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). design. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Picasso. In Greek and Roman literature. piers or pillars. Also known as an exedra.A semicircular projection. and Rouault. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Degas. or organization. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. the darker the tone). architectonic (Gk. "architectural") Relating to structure. arcus. Lancet and Tudor. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. The term applies also to a print made by this method. architrave (It. arcade (Lat. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. arkhitektonikos. which is fused to the plate by heating. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. at the east end of a church behind the altar. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. including Goya. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. There are several variants of the technique. the moulding around a window or door. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. the lowest part of the entablature). It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. but in essence the process is as follows. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture.e. The adjective is apsidal. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. .

The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "golden. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archivolto." from Gk. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "begin. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. dominate. aureole (Lat. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.archivolt (Ital. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "front arch." and Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. attributum. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. aureolus. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). voltus. Dante's Vita nuova .are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. In the case of martyrs. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. attribute (Lat. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. archeiu. usually a saint.and the Comedy . It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.

Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. the god of wine and fertility. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Six pontificates later. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The actual move was made in 1309. applied to the physically . which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. who had been residing in France since 1305. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. or baldacchino (It. made in Rome in the mid-17th century.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. that of Cardano. in 1377. baldachin. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). 'Captivity'. often anecdotal. Later. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.

the Temple of Venus. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Pentecost. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. France. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Spalato [Split. Lebanon. and Poitiers. or forecourt. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. banderole (It. Easter. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. or connected with. As eight follows the "complete" number. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. AD 273. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Customarily. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Parma. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. and abject filthy things. seven. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. such as those at Pisa. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. and Nocera in Italy. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. pope between 432 and 440. or canopy. el Kantara. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Florence.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642).. Croatia]. Alg. and Epiphany. beggars in rags. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. AD 300).. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. set beneath a domical ciborium. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription.g. . Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. built by Sixtus III. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Baalbek. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. banderuola. a church. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.

in its usual location near the church door . baptisteries. something of earlier symbolism survives. however. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Jean-François Millet (French. and (3) everyday realism. Théodore Rousseau (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Also tunnel vault. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Vermeer). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. in the 1840s and 1850s. Originally. achieved through scale. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Rubens). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. In architecture.an allusion to entering the Christian life. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. were often omitted entirely. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display.In the 10th century. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Constant Troyon (French. Jules Dupré (French. 1807-1876). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. "king's hall") a church building. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1814-1875). or baptismal chapels. stoa basilike. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. basilica (Gk. Baroque (Port. usually facing east. 1810-1865). In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. which is reserved for the clergy. 1811-1889). barocco. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1796-1875). . and thus a church. 1817-1878). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. southeast of Paris. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts.

Spanish still-lifes. up until the mid-17th century. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Book of Hours . domesticity. Biscuit porcelain. as is to be expected. such as those by Diego Velázquez. in which still-life predominates. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. often with food and drink. especially Spanish. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Bodegónes. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). biscuit Unglazed ceramic. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). bodegón Image. like their Dutch counterparts. were referred to by their specific contents. There were. such as Waldmüller. and often sentimentality. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. however. By association. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. also incorrectly called bisque. It takes its name from its grainy texture. The term was mainly used up to c. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. particularly porcelain.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. which is either not yet glazed. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. or which is to be left as it is. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. 1650 in Spain.

They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. though these are more often called 'modelli'. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. and the fact that it is easily workable . Chantilly). buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. durability. months. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. made as a study for a larger picture. By extension. or seasons. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. See flying buttress.an advantage over marble sculpture. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. varying from silverish to a rich. a rapid sketch in oil. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts .both hot and cold . coppery red. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.by a variety of processes. bozzetto Strictly speaking. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. bozzetto(Italian. days of the week. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. but can also be used for painted sketches.

a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. cameo Small relief made from gems. caisson (Fr. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). manuscript illuminations. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. camera obscura . from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. It also served to glorify the emperor. and work in precious metals.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. and Giotto. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. mosaics. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). notable from Syria and Egypt. its forms highly stylized. which was often allegorical. "a chest. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. glass. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. private room where works of art. Duccio. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. box") In architecture. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. casson. C cabinet A small. ceramics.

candelabrum (It. capital (Lat. usually in a church. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. hemp. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. which isolates the fabric from the paint.Ancestor of the photographic camera. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. capitellum.) A gallery for singers or musicians. cantoria. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. candlestick. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Structurally. usually with several branches or arms. usually decorated.-N. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. Niepce created photography. Portable versions were built. followed by smaller and even pocket models. campanile Bell tower. as an aid to drawing. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and." and the earliest versions. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. cantorie (It. candelabra. sing. candela. pl. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. by the 16th century. usually built beside or attached to a church. "candle") A large. which was usually whitened. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. only very rough effects will be obtainable. other materials used are cotton. dating to antiquity. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The Latin name means "dark chamber. and jute. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. . the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace.

and humanism.both Italians and artists from other countries . this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. near Grenoble. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cartellino. monasteries containing separate hermitages. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the endeavour to attain true humanity.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartellini In a painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. or fresco. pl. details of the subject. Carthusian Order (Lat. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).a humorous drawing or parody. or a motto. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. The order combines reclusive and community life. cardinalis. In fresco painting. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartone. cartoon (It. cartouche . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the date of the painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Carmelites (Lat. At the height of the Middle Ages. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). New Charterhouses. tapestry. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .

An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. castello (It. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. cathedral (cathedra. The altar is placed at the east end. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. linen. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. For reasons lost to time and tradition. These lead up to the north and south transepts.toward the setting sun. They contained the bride's clothes. where the throne of the bishop is placed. The main body. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. and many other items of her dowry. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Cascina. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Paolo Uccello. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. palace. or nave. and swags of fruit and flowers.) "castle". . "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. putti (cupids). The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. decorated with gilt gesso. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. a cathedral always faces west . caryatid (Gk. they were also used in other countries. In the 15th century. or arms of the cross. cassone (It.

a celestial winged being with human. buildings and figures that are being depicted. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. and Islamic literature. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Christian. continually praise him. and perspicere. animal. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. central perspective (Lat. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Both the statement of St. "in the centre". centralis. landscapes. or birdlike characteristics. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. as celestial attendants of God. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. champlevé (Fr. a throne bearer of the deity. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. rather than intercessory functions. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. . 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Relative to the observer. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and.

"light dark") In painting. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. or for choral singing. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. Lastly. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. North of the Alps. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases.chiaroscuro (It. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. the Order of the Hospital of St. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. replacing tempera. Since Carolingian times. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. choir (Gk. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). choros. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Hans Burgkmair (1510)." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century.

The Transparente (completed 1732). gilded rays. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Sculpted clouds. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. undulating lines. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. ciborium . and garlands. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style.intersect). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. a massing of carved angels. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Very few still exist in their original positions. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. undulating cornices. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. stucco shells. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and the Churrigueresque column. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. further enriching the style. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. an architect. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and repetition of pattern. balustrades. became the most common motif. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. is as typically Churrigueresque. reversed volutes. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross.

but self-employed. including the ciompi. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. combers. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. or achieve political representation. The new government. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. the wool carder Michele di Lando. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. controlled by the minor guilds. In reaction to this revolutionary . on July 22. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers.and post-medieval Italy. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. ciompi. as also were those in the associated. Members of the lower classes. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Quattrocento (1400s. who were raised to the status of a guild. placing one of their members. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Without being members of a guild. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. etc.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Their economic condition worsened. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. beaters. High Renaissance). Then. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. craft of dyeing.

episode.as in Italy these were dispensed with. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. the black contours usually with a special line plate. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. changed greatly from one period to the next. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. clair-obscur (Fr. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. on which strings were plucked. writers. . with Italian scholars. scholars patiently finding. however. and politics. cithara (Gk. except in cases where . literature. resembling a lyre. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).) An ancient musical instrument. editing and translating a wide range of texts. the ciompi guild was abolished. In the 15th century Greek literature. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. Concepts of the classical. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. philosophy and art . philosophy. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.

cognoscente (It. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. pl. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The name was derived from the condotta. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Coffered ceilings. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottieri (It. terrorized the country. [hora] completa. concetto. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. condottiere. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. or "contract. cognoscenti. concetti (It. a work's underlying theme. as well as from the Bible. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. compline (Lat. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. occasionally made of wood. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary)." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Green and red. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. literature or music. sing. intensify one another. blue and orange. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. arch or ceiling. pl. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. . when set side by side. those with refined tastes.

Carmagnola. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. primarily for syphilitics. Francesco Sforza. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Spanish. and his rival Braccio da Montone. disappeared. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. scuole. clergy. and Tuscany. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Muzio's son. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. and German--the condottieri. . The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. i. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Toward the end of the 15th century. convents of convertite. confraternities Confraternities. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Mark (1432). i. Martino). It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. often called compagnie or. By the end of the 14th century. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. or with the spiritual assistance of. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in the service of Naples. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. With no goal beyond personal gain. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. in the service of Perugia. Umbria.devastating Romagna. which spread in the 15th century. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. often under the direction of.e. commonly called either Compagnia di S. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. in Venice. who won control of Milan in 1450.e. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. By the 16th century. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. flagellant confraternities.

Dorotea in Trastevere. Confraternities. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. Later. 1514 in S.i. flat outlines. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. founded c.e.g. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. While the Doge ranked above the Council. contours were initially regular. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. contour (Fr. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. and refuges for maidens. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. e. contrapposto (It. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. which accompanied condemned prisoners.g. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. reformed prostitutes. but sometimes had their own premises. while the Venetian government. notwithstanding their location. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. contour. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. e. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. In medieval painting. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. in Florence. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. however. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the Florentine Neri.

an engraving produced in this way. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. a bracket of stone. Lat. aes cyprium. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. conventicle (Lat. large cornice or other feature. 1280). Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. They are often ornamented. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Reform programs. corbel In architecture. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. whose names are inscribed on several works. did not achieve any lasting results. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. conventiculurn. 1100 and 1300.weight on one leg. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. The style spread as far as England. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. . declining moral standards. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. cuprum. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. started the process of inner reform in the Church.

The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. i. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the first Christian emperor. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. reedy sound. a small dome. Seleucids. Carthaginians. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. D dado .e. cupula. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. particularly among the Persians. the condemned man. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Death. the most famous victim of crucifixion. after being whipped. Jews. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Constantine the Great." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. "small vat") In architecture. An ancestor of the oboe. Next. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. a semi-circular vault. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. There were various methods of performing the execution. or "scourged. cupola (Lat. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Usually.

which was help to be the basis of all art. an expressive use of nature. Deësis (Gk. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Passau.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. a favorite late medieval picture subject. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Gk. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. danse macabre The dance of death. The term stresses not the literal drawing. but the concept behind an art work. Germany. deacon (Gk. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). decorated diffrently from the upper section. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room.g. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. and Linz possessed common characteristics. diptychum. diptychos. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. usually in matching pairs. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diakonos. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. e. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. disegno (It. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. design") In Renaissance art theory. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptych (Lat. Anglican and Orthodox churches. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. "drawing. often an altarpiece. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.

dome in architecture. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . formerly worn under armour. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Ordo Praedictatorum. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue.fully realize. is a heavy piece of furniture. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). such as we still use today. which runs on castors or wheels. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. though a few artists. As disegno appeals to the intellect. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Dominicans (Lat. donor (Lat.Thomas Aquinas. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). distemper (Lat. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. donator. distemperare. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. The studio easel. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. usually forming a ceiling or roof. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. also used it on canvas. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. a 19th-century invention. "to mix. doublet A male garment. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. when painters took to working out of doors.

bound and flogged. "last". whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. It consists of the architrave. epitaph (Gk. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. John (19. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. and architecture. full face. "word") . which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. and logos. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. the frieze. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. ensemble (Fr. en face In portraiture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. entablature In classical architecture. eschatology (Gk.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. Hence. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. eschaton. in art. and the cornice. Ecce Homo (Lat. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. a depiction of Jesus. sculpture. sometimes combining panel painting. fresco.

Jerome. notably Cardinal Pole. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Augustine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware." and that made in the Netherlands and England.death and resurrection. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. and Scandinavia." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Italy. protector of shepherds. celebrated with bread and wine. Marcantonio Flaminio. which is called "delftware. which was famous for maiolica. and of the last things. Carnesecchi and Ochino. particularly ware made in France. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Vittoria Colonna. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. which was developed in the Near East ca. "good. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. 4500 BCE. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Germany. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. which is called "maiolica. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. . convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Giovanni Morone. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Contarini. fields and livestock. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and is named for Faenza. Saints Ambrose. eu. farmers. Eucharist (Gk. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism." and charis. Spain. faun Ancient Roman god of nature.

Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. such as plague. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. relaxed. that of the others red. and these areas. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Only a small area can be painted in a day. Their attributes are the bow. Committed to charitable and missionary work. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. can in time be seen. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). fresco (It. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6.8). carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. a swag. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. a technique known as a secco fresco. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. black and dun. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. war. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. drying to a slightly different tint. 2 . and flowers suspended in a loop. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. sword and set of balances.festoni (It. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. famine and death. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). leaves. The colour of his horse is white. fluted of a column or pillar. frescos in Italy .

landscape and portraiture. Genius in classical Rome. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. for example. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. where the atmosphere was too damp.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . and to a lesser extent for tapestries. or fresco secco. genre In a broad sense. Final details. are genres of painting. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. a person's invisible tutelary god. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. The technique of buon fresco. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. usually childish figure. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. both in churches and in private and public palaces. G Garter. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. covings and ceilings.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. the intonaco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. or true fresco. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand.Save in Venice. In art from the classical period onwards.

while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. whether it must be connected with the public good. As such. Gobelins . gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. in portraits and on tombs. Bernardo Daddi. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Maso di Banco. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. as well as writers and artists. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Maria Gloriosa). and as spurring on men of action. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. how it differed from notoriety.

gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Golden Fleece. . which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. still in existence today. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In other Italian cities. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Paris. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. who appointed Lebrun Director. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. This ratio is approximately 8:13.French tapestry manufactory. golden section (Lat. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). thereafter it made only tapestries. and although it reopened in 1699.

In sculpture and in painting. Nevertheless. the superficial particularities of form. There is a transcendental quality. The artistic. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Denis. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. like the cultural and commercial. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. or the influence of one building. In particular. from the 13th until the 17th century. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and lies much deeper than. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. painting. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. painting. Amiens. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. 1200 and c. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. 1270. c. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. In thinking of Nicola (d. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. Gothic Gothic. that the effects are to be felt. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). . and which then spread throughout northern Europe. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries.

and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele.and hog-hair brushes.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and Morris Graves. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. the beau idéal of the French. the Netherlands. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and taste among the English. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Dubuffet. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. genius. notably in the writings of Bellori. to silk. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Such tours often took a year or more. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Canaletto. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Klee. starch. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. if required. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Honey. It is thinned with water for applying. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. sometimes in the company of a tutor. with sable. These qualities. . occasionally. and above all Italy. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. to white or tinted paper and card and. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and the great style. chiefly to France. without visible brush marks. Pannini. and Piranesi. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and.

it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. From 1266 to 1268. In another sense. exclude drawing from this definition. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. through central Italy.e. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. gris. usually gray. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. brother of Louis IX. however. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Some writers. internal factions in Florence went under other names. grisaille (Fr. 1216. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. however. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. including text as well as illustrations. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. After the War of the Eight Saints. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. drawing and the various forms of engraving. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. became an abiding feature of European politics. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. In the context of the fine arts. the parties taking a multitude of local names. c. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. In Florence. then as now. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. . when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. after this. Although its palace was rebuilt c. which had recruited most of the merchant class. to Provence and Paris. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. and Waiblingen.

In some towns. notably Florence in the 14th century. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. heraldry (Fr. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. [science] héraldique. H hatching In a drawing. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The guild also monitored standards of work. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. for example. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. "[knowledge of] heraldry. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Guilds were also patrons of art. or professions. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. as some did). surgeons. but in time they acquired other functions. héraut. and greater hostility between master and man. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence." from Fr. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. goldsmiths. trades. such as Brescia and Vicenza. print or painting. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In Florence. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In 16th century Venice. trade or profession (painters. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. In some cities. "herald") . there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. and provided assistance to members in need. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. The guilds were not equal. In Italy they go back a long way.

one great missionary community. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. from the start. the Waldensian. indeed.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. d. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. together with brethren north of the Alps. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. normative for churchmen. By contrast. The main impact of the . Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. as Antichrist. head of the 'carnal Church'. However. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. the Cathars were an anti-church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. the followers of Juan de Valdes. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. and regarded themselves as forming. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. while others merged with the Waldensians. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. they were condemned in 1184. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. with the rules governing their use. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. i.

There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. B. Germany. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. my spouse'. humanus. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Frederick E.movement upon the laity was in southern France. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. and classical literature. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Henry Inman. and. Church. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. In humanism. George Inness. Thomas Cole. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. the emancipation of man from God took place. in his earlier work. history (usually classical history). hortus conclusus (Lat. J. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . mainly in the south. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Durand. S. its subjects considered morally elevating. Kensett. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. American painters were studying in Rome. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. working from 1825 to 1875. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. F. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Morse. F. humanism (Lat. Jasper Cropsey. At the same time. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. In the second half of the 14th century. Donatallo. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. with many further details added. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. originality. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. The terms court style. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. and the ladder. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. usually the donors of a work of art. the rooster of Peter's denial. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Veronica. Derived from classical rhetoric. or of other saints. the veil of St. soft style. the hammer. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. For instance.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Human figures. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. invention.g. are also used in art literature. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. investiture . beautiful style. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. inventio (It. the scourge that was used in the scourging. and they are also depicted on their own. the ability to create. etc. the pincers. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts.

Jerome's writings. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Both and Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. The Both brothers. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Italianizers Northern artists. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Ignatius Loyola in 1534.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Andries and Jan Both. of Utrecht. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. who traveled in Italy and. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. although they are usually called Romanists. generally Dutch or Flemish. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Upon his return to Holland. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. and Jan Asselijn. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. principally Dutch. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Nicolaes Berchem. . Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. bathed in a golden haze. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters.

Emperor Maximilian I (1459. especially one at which the Bible is read.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Archbishop of Genoa. John of Jerusalem . the rite of communion is based on this. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.1519). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. lectern A reading stand or desk. Legenda Aurea (Lat. encouraged by the Crusades. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. liberal arts . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. As their military role grew. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.

lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Tubal for music).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. loggia (It. Kensett (1816-1872). comprising arithmetic. Pythagoras for arithmetic. a semicircular space. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). commemorating a marriage. that may contain a window. It is related to. then the basis of a philosophical training. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. geometry. together with identifying attributes (e. Church (1826-1900).) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. painting or sculptural decoration.g. rhetoric and dialectic. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. often sublime. Heade (1819-1904). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. . first the preparatory trivium . astronomy and music.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. "little moon") In architecture. and Frederick E.g. Maria Novella in Florence). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. the quadrivium. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Martin J. poetic atmosphere. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. often standing in markets and town squares. through the use of aerial perspective.grammar. that could be used for public ceremonies. lunette (Fr. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. its roof supported by columns. John F. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.

The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. antimony yellow. usually for the lute. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. manganese purple. being written. and iron red. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and portraits as well as landscapes. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). madrigal A part song. for example. 1855–65. originating in Italy in the 14th century. "almond") . magna mater (Lat. copper green. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. When white is used for painting. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). mandorla (It. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and however bright their lighting effects. but they painted genre scenes. active mainly in Florence c. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. particularly such ware produced in Italy. the goddess Cybele. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originally sung without accompaniment. historical subjects. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Specifically. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. with secular texts replacing sacred ones.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. and accompaniments. "great mother") A mother goddess. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).

more strictly. and crowned with thorns. maniera. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. In architecture. which was quarried at Mount . depending on the social class of the wearer. El Greco and Tintoretto. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. marked by flagellation. in a specific sense. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. illuminated initials and miniatures. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Mannerism (It. the Codex manuscriptus. Developing out of the Renaissance. It reached to the knee or foot. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Bronzino. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. In Mannerist painting. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. the hand-written medieval book. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. strong. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. complex and crowded compositions. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. mantle An overcoat. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. "manner. bound. often ornamented with decorative borders. Burgundy. Parmigianino. and literary texts. worn open. ecclesiastical. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Flanders.

who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. particularly by Michelangelo. The pure white Carrara marble. the medal's purpose was commemorative. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. proof") the sufferings. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. marmi finti (It. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. which were beginning to be reverently collected. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . a different design on the reverse. martyrdom (Gk. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. an inscription running round the rim. Like the finest Imperial coins.Pentelicon in Attica. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. martyrion. having finished his training. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. "witness. Without monetary value. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). medallion In architecture. quarried at Massa. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. sleek surface.

It was. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 1467-688). and of the many. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. the stress on individual character. no line drawing is employed. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. . Her head features on Minerva's shield. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. When Perseus cuts off her head. who reflected them. This yields a soft effect in the print. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. in England. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. a Gorgon. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. c. supposedly to petrify her enemies. as it were. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. particularly. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. 14601528). Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. In pure mezzotint. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 1640. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Medusa In Greek mythology. of the person portrayed on the other side. often anonymous. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre.round the neck. perhaps oddly. 1452-1526/27). Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. 1425-1504). hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. A Dutch officer. even grain. The process is essentially extinct today. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Ludwig von Siegen. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. for landscapes and portraits. The work of these men.

monochrome (Gk. motto (Ital. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators.. monokhromatos. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. executed on a very small scale. saying") . pointed headdress worn by bishops. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Francis himself. Many such small versions. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a branch of the Franciscan order. "one color") Painted in a single color. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. a painting executed in a single color. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. e. still exist. often quite highly finished. by Tiepolo and Rubens. "word. ink and paint. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. miter A high. usually portraits. Parmigianino (d.g.

as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Pforr. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. but often insipid. Nazarenes A group of young. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches.from the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. In 1810 0verbeck. Isidore. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. often separated from it by pillars. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Berlin. 1816-17. In general. named after the patron saint of painting. The invention of personal mottos. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and two other members moved to Rome. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. navis. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Rome. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. naturalism (Fr. and Casino Massimo. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. nave (from Lat. 1817-29). One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and is intersected by the transept. .

To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty.) . is as true as it is notorious. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. moreover. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Popes. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. were usually old when elected. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. niello (Lat. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. nimbus (Lat. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. the style of the Ancien Régime. nigellus. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. usually golden. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Nymphaeum (Gk. but their ideas continued to be influential. "aureole") The disc or halo. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).

a more elaborate base. the Doric order. or poppy. a small private chapel. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. the three basic styles of design. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. They are seen in the form of the columns. and entablatures. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. its richness of colour. walnut. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. Greek goddesses of Nature. capital. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. inborn sin. orders of architecture In classical architecture. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. observances") Rites performed for the dead. fluted column and a plain capital. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus).Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The earliest. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. "services. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. such as linseed. O obsequies (Lat. and its greater tonal range. was the simplest. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. . obsequia. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. with a sturdy.

Usually pointed or rounded at the top.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. with biforate windows. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. standing at the foot of the Cross. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). designed as a .g. and. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. like cities. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. palazzo (It. Palazzo Strozzi). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. tradition and social structure. the Cancelleria). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and the main apartments above. P pala (Ital. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. while shops came to be thought undignified. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes.

palmette. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Papal incentives to build. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. often built next to their titular churches.g. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). evolved influential types. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Following Oriental patterns. and Palladio's in Vicenza. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. column-caps. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Movement of patrons and architects. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. especially after the Sack of Rome. and large households. Other cities. In Venice. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). cornices and abutments. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. panel . Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. like the colonnaded vestibule. behind a sober Florentine façade. like Genoa. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Rich. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. came to be applied all over Europe.scholarly retreat. e. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila).g. Palazzo Massimi).

so that they might have a voice at court. secular rulers. slate has occasionally been used as a support.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. mahogany. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. linden. Many other types were used. and dark walnut are favourites. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. or the incidence of taxation. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). panel painting Painting on wooden panels. however. and the pressure and temptations . Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and other synthetic materials as supports. Then. chestnut. In the 20th century cedar. metal. The third aspect was administrative. On a larger scale. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. or other rigid substance. as it were. A number of matters. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. To maintain their authority. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. larch. As successors to St Peter. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and walnut. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. fir. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and modern painters have also used plywood. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. fibre-board. Having a circular plan. enforce law and order. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and spanned by a single dome. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the management of clerical dues and taxation. teak. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. as distinct from canvas. including beech. olive.Term in painting for a support of wood. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. the. to influence popes in their favour. cedar.

various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. Colonna and Caetani. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. the most appropriate . prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . would. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. So onerous. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). was long in doubt. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.that could be applied to them. could supersede that of a pope. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority.as well. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . which seems so inevitable. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. however. as such. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. There remained. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. in the eyes of God. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. possess an authority which. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). To resolve the problem of divided authority. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. if it did no serious damage to the faith. in spite of further absences from Rome. of individuals.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. however. As at Avignon. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. By then. from the point of view of its religious associations. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). to be long delayed. at Avignon. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. It was argued that such a council. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. which met at Constance 1414-18. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was.

. 400-300 BC). and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. to a world peopled by shepherds. as well as a governmental one. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. goat. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Passion . pastoral (Lat. nymphs. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). scholars and men of letters. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and with Zeuxis (c. the creation of a cultural capital. in classical literature. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. less frequently pig. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. However. Parrhasius (c. and satyrs.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. pastor. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. through lavish patronage of artists. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and other animals. it has also been used for painting.

In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. "butterfly. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. 1478). the crown of thorns. such as a garden summerhouse. patrician (Lat. projecting either centrally or at both ends. but not necessarily a direct copy.) or pasticcio (It. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. a prominent section of a monumental façade. a small. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. which focus on the Suffering Christ. a region in north-central Italy. 1478. wealthy citizen.The events leading up to Good Friday. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. hence tent") A lightly constructed. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Portrayals of the Passion. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. papilio. patricius. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. ornamental building. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. and so on. Francesco Salviati. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. pastiche (fr. pavilion (Lat. and also the archbishop of Pisa. Meanwhile. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. .

The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. pendant (Fr. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. pergola (It. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. persona. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "hanging. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. physiognomy (Gk. and gnomon. and facere. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. personification (Lat. in particular the face. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. perspective (Lat. or related elements within an art work. "nature". "to see through. . The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). physis. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. perspicere. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "person". They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. concept or deity.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown.

or resin to make paint. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Pietà (Lat. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Peter's. containing the public rooms. affording a good subject for a landscape. . and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. for example. but full of variety. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigment (Lat. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. curious details. glue.) The main floor of a building. Rome.piano nobile (Ital. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pigmentum. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. but may consist of a cluster of columns. usually above the ground floor.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. proper to take a landscape from. striking the imagination with the force of painting. remarkable for singularity. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. A pier is generally larger than a column. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. both real and painted. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. to be expressed in painting. exemplified. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery.

since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . since. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. During 1348 the Black Death. despite regional variations. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. it is difficult to find. outside Tuscany. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). For this reason. It is often fluted. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. such as Florence and Genoa. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. "pillar") A flat. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. a shaft. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. though in less widespread. perhaps. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). and thereafter all Europe. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. It seems probable. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. for instance. and capital. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness.pilaster (Lat. plague Plague. Thenceforward. moreover. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. it has a base. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. In the 15th century. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Rocco and Sebastian. more sporadic outbreaks. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. the burning of 'infected' clothing. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. however. in October 1347. also used in Spain's American colonies. pilastrum.

The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). and unified style using massive geometric forms. the Renaissance-Plateresque. placement. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. correct classical orders became frequent.e.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Diego evolved a purer. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Timaeus. like its successor. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. A student of Socrates. The first phase. Philebus. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In contrast with Aristotle. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. utilized Mudejar ornament -. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Phaedrus. more severe. which lasted only a few decades. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. the Symposium. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. heraldic escutcheons. are the masterworks of the second style. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Phaedo. The second phase. i. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. harmonious. composition. or appropriateness. and sinuous scrolls. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain.. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. or simply the Plateresque. Thus empirical science does not have a central role .

though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. A new Latin translation. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. and he utilized many other writings. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. and Agostino Steuco (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. 1472-c. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Plotinus. and the Chaldaic Oracles. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. replaced Ficino's. all of which he also translated into Latin. Rather unsystematic. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato.in Plato's thought. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. partially. near Florence. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion.1577) becoming particularly popular. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. including those of Plotinus. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. systematized and added to what Plato had done. the greatest of his ancient disciples. but not completely. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Iamblichus. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century.

Some polyptychs were very elaborate. porticus. or statue. Lat. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. poluptukhos. pluviale. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pluvial (Med. Plato was read in the universities. portico (Lat. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. column. as in classical architecture). polyptych (Gk. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . where a pectoral is used to close it. plinthos. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. pointed arch In architecture. such as processions and consecrations. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. plinth (Gk. Frequently supports a pediment. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass.

painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Florence (1486-90). Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Colleoni. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Maria Novella. The equestrian portrait. Group portraits. and the . Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.e. decorating whole rooms. flattened image. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Florence. Campidoglio). Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Desiderio da Settignano. The realism of the clear. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. was revived in the 14th century. Gattarnelata. Mantua. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Siena. and only a decorative accessory to form.sculptors such as Donatello. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. inessential.. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. National Gallery). Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. 1328. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. psychologically more complex. Cathedral) by Uccello. Palazzo Farnese). the Carracci. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Venice).

abrasive even. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Borromeo. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. are not florid in style. bishop of Asti. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. As Poussin was a Frenchman. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. and Peter Paul Rubens. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). to discharge their preaching duties. Correggio. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. of the sermon as an art form. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. several of whom became bishops. Charles Le Brun. however. who had as their ideal masters Titian. bishop of Chioggia. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The styles of S. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. primarily the mendicants.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. The sermons of Visdomini. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. minatory exhortations. Fiamma's sermons. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. 1494). was versed in classical and patristic . Cornelio Musso (1511-74)." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. bishops especially. and." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. from the secular clergy. Savonarola and Musso.

as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.g. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. though often relatively very wide .rhetoric.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Naples).they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. prefiguration Typology .the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. predella (It. Louis of Toulouse (1317. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. among them Holman Hunt. however. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. tapestries. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. The New Testament references in these would. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and so forth. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Because of the small size of predelle . and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Millais and Rossetti. the temptations of Adam and Christ. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.

again indicative of the purpose they served. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. "evenness") in painting. Girardon. projecting shelf on which to kneel. sculpture and architecture. proportio. notably David. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). the golden section. proportion (Lat. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. the quadrature. the Canon of Proportion. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. 3. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Prix de Rome A scholarship. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The following are important: 1. profil perdu (Fr. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Fragonard. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). intended as complete works of art in themselves. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. which uses the square . That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. these highly finished drawings. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. 2. and Houdon among sculptors.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low.

Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. the steward or treasurer of a church. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. putto (It. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. 4. It was common in Roman art. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. triangulation. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. one half the length of the other). Rome. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). a fifth = 2:3. "boys") Plump naked little boys. putti sing. . was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. provenance The origins of an art work. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. a fourth = 3:4. for example).as a unit of measurement. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. harmonic proportions. Ignazio. Unlike Pozzo. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. and 5. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.

or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or some item connected with a saint. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the great orders of monks. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Donatello. Among the . "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. In 16th century Europe. friars and nuns. basso rilievo). the object of particular veneration. and high relief (alto rilievo). relicquiae. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. relief (Lat. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo).g. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists.Quattrocento (It. hermits. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. in particular works by Masaccio. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. canons regular. relic (Lat. refectory (Med. Fra Angelico and others. Lat. in which figures are seen half round. Brunelleschi. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Botticelli. relevare. or the Jesuits. also known as the Realist school. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. e.

the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. presided over by chapters general. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. i. Padua. the great patriarch of Venice. although technically of secular canons. In 1504. After the repression of the Spirituals. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines.contemplative orders. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Bernardino of Siena. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. however. and the generally moderate Observants. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Founded by St Romuald c. who had no overall organization originally. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. The same bull . their resources being in the hands of trustees. Salvatore. which was to become the main Italian one. 1012. the Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. and their more institutionalized brethren. Mantua. That of S. Bologna (1419). was the congregation of S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. various groups were fused in the latter body. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Benedetto. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Silvestrines. Lucca. Giustina. S. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. In 1517. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Venice (1404). whose friaries were corporate property-owners. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. it became the Cassinese congregation. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. The Conventuals. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. the most notable being S. Maria di Fregonaia. The Benedictines. At the same time. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries.e. Giorgio in Alga.

a historical period. Angela Merici. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Gaetano da Thiene. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Filippo Neri. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. however. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Michele in Isola. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded in 1535 by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. also. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The first. Venice. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the Theatines. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. founded by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. however. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Gerolamo Aemiliani. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love.

All-Roundness. even Amoralism. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. because its core of energy. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. and his own as potentially one of light. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). the historical reality of antiquity. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). as well as political. which had begun early in the 14th century. and competition with. of arts. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. For long. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. however. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. increasingly. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. of letters. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. of an energetic revival of interest in. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. of 'darkness'. too long forgotten glories. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. . because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. was so vast and potent. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. however. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon.century. of scholarship. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. life. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. 1875-86). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Thereafter. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep.

(2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. let alone a uniform. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. though sometimes of metal. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. The challenges are to be accepted. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. of industrialization. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. etc. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. consist merely of a painting. in the more limited sense. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts.with all its shabbiness . etc.) was the term chosen. Ghent). and other liturgical objects. and mass media. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. letters. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. There was an early. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). mobilized nationalism. candlesticks. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Cathedral of SaintBavon. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. however. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. later still to Genoa. especially in the High Gothic period. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. and is decorated with paintings. gratefully. statues. sometimes. Though thus challenged. (3) There is not a true. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity.erased. congruence between. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. the previous record .A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. retables can be detached and. It is for this additional. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.

. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. however. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. rilievo (It. With the development of freestanding altars. the first style to achieve such international currency. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. retables have become extinct. Louis XV furniture. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. is a typical product. "relief") In painting. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. painting. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. almost simultaneously. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. in several countries . More usually. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. rocaille (French. Germany. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. literally. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). and 'Romanesque'. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Originally commissioned in 976. richly decorated with organic forms.in the 11th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. like 'Gothic'.France. Spain . for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Rococo A style of design. As the name suggests. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. the St. Romanesque art. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). its mood lighthearted and witry. Italy. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.of St Mark in Venice. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.

rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. van Heemskerk. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Rome. In addition. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. stylized design representing an open rose. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. M. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Mabuse. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Massys and M. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Piranesi. . ruddle Any red-earth pigment. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Q. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Claude. Pannini and Mengs. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The aim of painting.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the development of nationalistic pride. they maintained. van Orley. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. such as red ochre. B.

confirmation. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and Protestant churches. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. matrimony. Clement escaped into Castel S. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Eastern independent. Orthodox.expressed through gesture.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. local saints. and impoverished. Sacra Conversazione (It. but others were the work of well-known figures. from the Old and New Testaments. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. penance. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable.greatly increased. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. In the . A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. There were no limits on time. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. supported by lay confraternities. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. glance and movement . Written primarily in ottava rima. and anointing of the sick. holy orders. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). pious legend and hagiography. Subjects were nominally sacred. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). whose Rappresentazione dei SS. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . when it finally left the city it had devastated. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Many compositions were anonymous. and Lorenzo de' Medici. gutted. the Eucharist. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). multiple sets used in succession.

and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. the sun of righteousness. the symbolic direction of Christ. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. The chief focus of discontent. The theology of the Orthodox Church..early church the number of sacraments varied. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. in principle. notably from Florence and in Germany. and sacraments. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. as an excuse to revolt. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence. the Rocca Paolina. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.) Hall. The classical Protestant churches (i. make such strict distinctions. and then face east.i. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place." sala (Ital. used for drawing. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. the Orthodox Church does not. replaces the Lord's Supper. Saracens . Thus. Salt War. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. chapter 13. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. It is still practiced on special occasions. baptism and the Eucharist. strictly speaking. the Bentivoglio. which in the Gospel According to John." which are called sacramentals.. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. that the price of salt should be increased. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. was buried under a new fortress. foot washing. They were still seeking aid.e. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.e. Candidates first face west. was not maintained as a sacrament. Immediately following baptism. Anglican. large room. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. sacraments. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Lutheran.

270 BC). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. are lost. whose writings. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 360 . particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. the god of wine. 210 AD). Little known in the Middle Ages. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c.c. made of stone. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. sarcophagi (Gk. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. pl. satyr In Greek mythology. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. sarcophagus. human-like woodland deities with the ears. 160 . legs and horns of a goat. and many others.c. the Arabs or Muslims.During the Middle Ages. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. wood or terracotta. 45 BC). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. The publication of Latin (1562. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).

and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. who recognized the Roman pope. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. As a result. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. one of the early leaders. in June 1409. on the other. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. However. In northern Italy. most of whom. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. on one side. for. Schism. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. with France and her allies Aragon. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. was called Bamboccio.for example Pieter van Laer. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). than their medieval predecessors. Louis I (d. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Alexander V. scholasticism . the Florentines. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. being Frenchmen. but with little effect. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. who had the support of the Avignon pope. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. while England. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban.they had individual Bentnames . thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). while devout Christians agonized. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. from time to time both he and his opponents. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. and. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.

if lime-water was used. (See also: fresco. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. university-based study. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Padua. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. as it is easier to add details in this way. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. and Islamic literature. the plaster had to be damped before painting. It was because the central concerns of humanism . As such. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Serenissima (Ital.were different from those of medieval. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. moreover. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). notably Aquinas.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. on one side. Often called the burning ones. Christian. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. because the secco technique is much less permanent. as it were. textual scholarship.The term is ambivalent. Medieval scholars. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. history and rhetoric . and theology. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. None the less. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.moral philosophy. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers.) . that scholasticism was left. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.

term. "prophetess") In antiquity. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Sibyls foretold the Birth. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. and the delicate. Originally.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. at the same time. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. sibyls (Gk. sibylla. the number gradually rose to ten. sfumato A technique. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. there was only one Sibyl. Servite (Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. They first appear in alpine monasteries. in use since the Middle Ages. Med. Lat. which were all identical in thickness. just as the male prophets of the Bible did.. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. "the most serene republic of Venice"). In Christian legend. women who could prophesy. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. sinopia . brass. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. in the period of classical antiquity. usually presided over by individual families. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Signoria (It.

so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. pronounced as French. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. and. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. It is very closely related to International Gothic. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. sing. . Stanze (Ital. stigma (Gk. stigmata. "mark. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries..The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. Francis of Assisi. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case.) Wooden ceiling decoration. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. especially in the flow of drapery. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. staffage This word. soffit (Lat. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. Ital. brand. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. as the name implies. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. sotto in sù (It. in other words.

were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). pl. The vogue for the Sublime. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. John Milton. both external and internal. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studioli (It. with that for the Picturesque. stucco A type of light. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. whose verses actually fabrications . usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. supremacy . the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. studiolo. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. In a looser sense. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). Indeed.

the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. was being decorated with frescoes. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. i. temperare. doubtless. . tempera (Lat. or cartoons. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. into Italy. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. then being replaced by oil paint. and in literature. his own headquarters.and. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. 1407). Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. both for panel painting and fresco. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The subject is underexplored. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. These were imported. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them.Historically. London. Salviati and Allori. But the Italians did not make them. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. chiefly from Flanders.e. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534.

and sculptures. terraferma (Ital. tondo. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. figure of speech. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. "a commonplace") In literature. topiary (Gk. quarter face. and other surfaces. walls.e. "fields. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. topia. pl. model. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. topos. theme or motif. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. vessels.terracotta (It. i. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. topoi (Gk. widely used form. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). and later to subdivide gable ends. pl. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. in art. and profile. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. in the architecture of ancient Rome. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. tondi (It. triumphal arch. Trajan's Column . "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture.

that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. . added to the glamour of the triumph. Trinity (Lat. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. the wars by which they were won . triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. "threefold") A painting in three sections. or wings. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. a car so brave'. usually an altarpiece.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. chastity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self.' Before it go the apostles. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). time and eternity. into a number of less controversial forms. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. behind it. the Son and the Holy Spirit. the military triumph became sublimated. after 'a countless number of virgins. fame. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. of virtues and of the arts. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. patriarchs and prophets. "threefold") in Christianity. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. as it were. tryptychos. triptych (Gk. Meanwhile. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. of both sexes'. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . loot and prisoners was given sparingly. beside it the army of martyrs. Disseminated soon after his death. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. trinitas.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Early triptychs were often portable. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. death. Battista Sforza.

Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). In medieval architecture. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. It incorporates Renaissance features. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. Dating from classical times. tympanum (Lat. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "drum") In classical architecture. first recorded in 1232. viscous black ink. tromp l'oeil (Fr. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. it is usually decorated with carvings. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. enclosed by an arch. through various naturalistic devices. typology . often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tusche A thick. often decorated with sculptures.

From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. e. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.) The Renaissance "universal man". Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). such as five works devoted to the senses. In Christian thought. killer of Holofernes. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.g.Dirck van Baburen (c. and David. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . The numerous candles. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . lanterns. 1590-1624). each had access to his paintings. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Judith. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. knew his former patrons. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). where they were most accessible. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. especially his half-length figural groups. slayer of Goliath. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. U uomo universale (It.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. . of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1610). were popular with them also. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.A system of classification. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.

). and the rib vault. guttering candles. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Vespers (Lat. hour-glasses and clocks. Parisian craftsmen. vanitas (Lat. it was used to decorate furniture. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. Also varietas (Lat. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. a work's richness of subject matter. "evening") . often gold. There are a wide range of forms.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. snuff boxes and other objects. V vanishing point In perspective. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. mixed in. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. carriages. vesper. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. varietà (It. overturned vessels. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the groin vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque.

Anger. Gluttony. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. and Sloth. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. vita. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and Justice. virtù could be used. "not exposed to winds". but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. vestibulum. for example. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. The seven Virtues were: Faith. 'Assume a virtue. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Envy. Vestibule (Lat. Hope. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. vite (Lat. in which the word signifies efficacy. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. actual or latent. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. "life") . vimperga Of German origin. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. In ancient Roman dwellings. if you have it not'. Fortitude. Covetousness. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Charity. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Prudence. Lust. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary.Prayers said in the evening. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Temperance. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs.

came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and appalled recognition of. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. 1482-84). and of Ferrara. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. The wars from 1494 do. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Sculptors and Architects"). whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. protection from harm. usually when a prayer for good fortune.g. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. or recovery from illness has been made. 1472. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. 1478-80. those of Volterera. Vitruvius Pollio. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. they were from the 18th century . the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena.An account of someone's life and work. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. a biography. published in 1550 and 1568. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Marcus (1st cent. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. in fact.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. "world view") A comprehensive world view. usually restorers. Westwerk German word. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. It was intended to have a variety of functions. "Western work of art". a philosophy of life. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. based on stylization of various animal forms.Weltanschauung (Gr. woodcut A print made from a wood block. usually linear. during its subsequent history. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. . treasury or a place where justice was administered. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. pompous on the floor above. gallery. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.

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