A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). arkhitektonikos. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the lowest part of the entablature). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. "architectural") Relating to structure.e. Picasso. architrave (It. but in essence the process is as follows. arcade (Lat. design. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. the darker the tone). was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The term applies also to a print made by this method.A semicircular projection. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. architectonic (Gk. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. There are several variants of the technique. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Also known as an exedra. or organization. roofed with a half-dome. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. and Rouault. which is fused to the plate by heating. Lancet and Tudor. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. . The adjective is apsidal. arcus. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. including Goya. the moulding around a window or door. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. In Greek and Roman literature. piers or pillars. Degas. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish.

these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. In the case of martyrs. "begin. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. attribute (Lat. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "front arch. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Dante's Vita nuova . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. voltus. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages." from Gk. archivolto. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. usually a saint. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "golden. attributum.and the Comedy . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom.archivolt (Ital. archeiu. Ars Moriendi (Lat." and Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . dominate. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). aureolus. aureole (Lat.

The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. made in Rome in the mid-17th century.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. paintings of everyday life. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. in 1377. Later. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. applied to the physically . The actual move was made in 1309. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. that of Cardano. or baldacchino (It. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. baldachin. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. often anecdotal. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. who had been residing in France since 1305. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. 'Captivity'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Six pontificates later. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. the god of wine and fertility. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.

beggars in rags. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. AD 273. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Croatia]. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. and Epiphany. el Kantara. seven. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. banderuola. Parma. or forecourt. Baalbek. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. a visual metaphor for the number eight. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. France. set beneath a domical ciborium. or connected with. and abject filthy things. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. a church. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. built by Sixtus III.g. and Poitiers." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. . Pentecost. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. Customarily. such as those at Pisa. Spalato [Split. AD 300). and the Mausoleum of Diocletian.. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. or canopy. Alg. banderole (It. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Florence. As eight follows the "complete" number.. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. and Nocera in Italy. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. the Temple of Venus.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. pope between 432 and 440. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Easter. Lebanon.

stoa basilike.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Originally. Jules Dupré (French. Constant Troyon (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. "king's hall") a church building. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Baroque (Port. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. . Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Vermeer). Jean-François Millet (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. the dramatic use of light and shadow. in the 1840s and 1850s. usually facing east. 1814-1875). southeast of Paris. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1807-1876). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1817-1878). In architecture. Théodore Rousseau (French. and thus a church. or baptismal chapels. in its usual location near the church door . baptisteries. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). achieved through scale. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts.In the 10th century. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. and increasingly elaborate decoration. barocco. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. 1810-1865). Also tunnel vault. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. and (3) everyday realism. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. however. which is reserved for the clergy. 1796-1875). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. basilica (Gk. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Rubens). something of earlier symbolism survives. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. were often omitted entirely. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1811-1889).

and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. By association. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Biscuit porcelain. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Spanish still-lifes. which is either not yet glazed. in which still-life predominates. 1650 in Spain. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. or which is to be left as it is. like their Dutch counterparts. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. such as Waldmüller. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. It takes its name from its grainy texture.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. There were. often with food and drink. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. and often sentimentality. also incorrectly called bisque. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. bodegón Image. domesticity. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Bodegónes. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. up until the mid-17th century. especially Spanish. were referred to by their specific contents. as is to be expected. particularly porcelain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. however. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. The term was mainly used up to c. Book of Hours .

often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. days of the week. varying from silverish to a rich. made as a study for a larger picture. a rapid sketch in oil. bozzetto Strictly speaking. Chantilly). coppery red. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.an advantage over marble sculpture. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. but can also be used for painted sketches.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. By extension. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. bozzetto(Italian. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. though these are more often called 'modelli'. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. durability. See flying buttress. . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. or seasons. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. months. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.by a variety of processes. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.both hot and cold . It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. and the fact that it is easily workable . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina.

a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Among its most distinctive products were icons. camera obscura . box") In architecture. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). glass. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. manuscript illuminations. notable from Syria and Egypt. cameo Small relief made from gems. and Giotto. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. which was often allegorical.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. C cabinet A small. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. ceramics. Duccio. casson. "a chest. its forms highly stylized. mosaics. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. caisson (Fr. private room where works of art. and work in precious metals. It also served to glorify the emperor. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.

canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. The Latin name means "dark chamber. capitellum. usually in a church. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. by the 16th century. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. . the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. which was usually whitened. and jute. both of which have richly carved marble panels. candlestick." and the earliest versions. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantorie (It. Niepce created photography. candela. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. hemp. campanile Bell tower. capital (Lat. cantoria. only very rough effects will be obtainable. candelabrum (It. sing. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole.-N. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. which isolates the fabric from the paint. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. Structurally.Ancestor of the photographic camera. usually decorated. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. "candle") A large. dating to antiquity. as an aid to drawing. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. other materials used are cotton.) A gallery for singers or musicians. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. pl. Portable versions were built. usually built beside or attached to a church. usually with several branches or arms. candelabra. followed by smaller and even pocket models.

Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. New Charterhouses. The order combines reclusive and community life.both Italians and artists from other countries . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartouche . and humanism. cardinalis. In fresco painting. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Carmelites (Lat. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. or fresco. details of the subject. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Fortitudo (Fortitude). At the height of the Middle Ages. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. monasteries containing separate hermitages. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . or a motto. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartellino. the date of the painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance).who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. the endeavour to attain true humanity. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. tapestry. cartoon (It. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. near Grenoble. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cartone.a humorous drawing or parody. pl. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartellini In a painting. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted.

A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. caryatid (Gk. castello (It. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. These lead up to the north and south transepts. The main body. palace.) "castle". They contained the bride's clothes. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. or arms of the cross. In the 15th century. The altar is placed at the east end. Paolo Uccello. a cathedral always faces west . they were also used in other countries.toward the setting sun. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. where the throne of the bishop is placed. putti (cupids). battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. linen. and swags of fruit and flowers. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Cascina. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and many other items of her dowry. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. cathedral (cathedra. For reasons lost to time and tradition. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). . or nave. decorated with gilt gesso.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. cassone (It.

Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Both the statement of St. a throne bearer of the deity. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. centralis. and Islamic literature. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). central perspective (Lat. champlevé (Fr. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. "in the centre". animal. continually praise him. in accordance with their distance from the observer. a celestial winged being with human. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. rather than intercessory functions. landscapes. Christian. or birdlike characteristics. as celestial attendants of God. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. and perspicere. . Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. buildings and figures that are being depicted. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Relative to the observer.

Since Carolingian times. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. North of the Alps. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. Lastly." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. reserved for the clergy to pray together. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . "light dark") In painting. choros. replacing tempera. Hans Burgkmair (1510). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). the Order of the Hospital of St. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades.chiaroscuro (It. choir (Gk. or for choral singing. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade.

a massing of carved angels. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Sculpted clouds. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. is as typically Churrigueresque. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. further enriching the style. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi.intersect). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. gilded rays. ciborium . reversed volutes. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and the Churrigueresque column. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and repetition of pattern. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Very few still exist in their original positions. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. became the most common motif. an architect. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. balustrades. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. The Transparente (completed 1732). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. undulating lines. stucco shells. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and garlands. undulating cornices. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera.

called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. They were forbidden to form a trade association. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Then. including the ciompi. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. who were raised to the status of a guild. Members of the lower classes. The new government. High Renaissance). Their economic condition worsened. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. beaters. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Without being members of a guild. ciompi. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. but self-employed. placing one of their members. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Quattrocento (1400s. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. controlled by the minor guilds. combers. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the wool carder Michele di Lando. In reaction to this revolutionary . Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. as also were those in the associated. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. craft of dyeing. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. etc. or achieve political representation. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. on July 22. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted.and post-medieval Italy.

clair-obscur (Fr. editing and translating a wide range of texts. resembling a lyre. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). philosophy. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. the black contours usually with a special line plate.episode. the ciompi guild was abolished. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. with Italian scholars. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. scholars patiently finding.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. writers. and politics. changed greatly from one period to the next. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.) An ancient musical instrument. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cithara (Gk. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. however. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. philosophy and art . classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). literature. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. . In the 15th century Greek literature. except in cases where . Concepts of the classical. on which strings were plucked.

coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. [hora] completa. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). blue and orange. when set side by side. a work's underlying theme. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. cognoscenti. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. arch or ceiling. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. Green and red. pl. cognoscente (It. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. The name was derived from the condotta. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. pl. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. concetti (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. the church service at which these prayers are said. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. condottiere. condottieri (It. sing. those with refined tastes. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Coffered ceilings. or "contract. intensify one another. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. concetto. compline (Lat. occasionally made of wood. literature or music. as well as from the Bible. terrorized the country. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. .

being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Martino). one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Francesco Sforza. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Mark (1432). and his rival Braccio da Montone. . or with the spiritual assistance of. By the end of the 14th century.e. convents of convertite. i. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. primarily for syphilitics. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Less fortunate was another great condottiere.e. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. and German--the condottieri. in Venice. often under the direction of. flagellant confraternities. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. scuole. which spread in the 15th century. in the service of Perugia. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Spanish. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Umbria. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. clergy. By the 16th century. often called compagnie or. Toward the end of the 15th century. disappeared. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. i. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. With no goal beyond personal gain. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds.devastating Romagna. and Tuscany. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Carmagnola. confraternities Confraternities. Muzio's son. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. in the service of Naples. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. who won control of Milan in 1450. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly.

and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contour. the Florentine Neri. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. flat outlines. in Florence. Confraternities. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Dorotea in Trastevere. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies.i. contours were initially regular. While the Doge ranked above the Council. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. reformed prostitutes. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. however. the Venetian parliament of noblemen.g. but sometimes had their own premises. e. 1514 in S. founded c.g. notwithstanding their location. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. e. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.e. contour (Fr. Later. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . contrapposto (It. while the Venetian government. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. In medieval painting. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. and refuges for maidens.

Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. . a bracket of stone. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. an engraving produced in this way. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. They are often ornamented. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin.weight on one leg. 1100 and 1300. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. did not achieve any lasting results. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Reform programs. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. The style spread as far as England. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. declining moral standards. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. large cornice or other feature. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventicle (Lat. whose names are inscribed on several works. started the process of inner reform in the Church. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. 1280). conventiculurn. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. corbel In architecture. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. aes cyprium. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. cuprum. Lat. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer.

" dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. i. particularly among the Persians. Jews. Next. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the first Christian emperor. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. after being whipped. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Constantine the Great. or "scourged. Death. reedy sound. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. "small vat") In architecture. the condemned man. cupula. the most famous victim of crucifixion. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground.e. Carthaginians. cupola (Lat. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. D dado . Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. a semi-circular vault. Seleucids. There were various methods of performing the execution. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. An ancestor of the oboe. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. a small dome. Usually. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof.

Gk. an expressive use of nature. disegno (It. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. which was help to be the basis of all art. usually in matching pairs. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. decorated diffrently from the upper section. and Linz possessed common characteristics. but the concept behind an art work. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. diakonos. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Passau. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. design") In Renaissance art theory. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Germany. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Anglican and Orthodox churches. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. often an altarpiece. "drawing. danse macabre The dance of death. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. deacon (Gk.g. a favorite late medieval picture subject. diptychos. The term stresses not the literal drawing. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. diptych (Lat. diptychum. e. Deësis (Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never .

Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Ordo Praedictatorum. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). when painters took to working out of doors. though a few artists. distemper (Lat. donor (Lat. doublet A male garment. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. As disegno appeals to the intellect. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. formerly worn under armour. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. such as we still use today. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. distemperare. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. is a heavy piece of furniture. dome in architecture. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Dominicans (Lat. also used it on canvas. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. a 19th-century invention. which runs on castors or wheels. The studio easel. "to mix. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour).fully realize. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries.Thomas Aquinas. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. donator.

Hence. It consists of the architrave. entablature In classical architecture. bound and flogged. en face In portraiture. full face. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. a depiction of Jesus. sometimes combining panel painting. and logos. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. ensemble (Fr. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. eschaton. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. and the cornice. "last". "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. in art. eschatology (Gk. epitaph (Gk. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. Ecce Homo (Lat. the frieze. "word") . and architecture. John (19. sculpture. fresco.

and is named for Faenza. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. It developed in France in the early 16th century. which was developed in the Near East ca. which was famous for maiolica. which is called "maiolica. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. notably Cardinal Pole. Augustine. Jerome. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. farmers. Saints Ambrose.death and resurrection." and charis. "good. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. eu. celebrated with bread and wine. Marcantonio Flaminio. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. which is called "delftware. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. particularly ware made in France.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church." and that made in the Netherlands and England. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. . they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Germany. Eucharist (Gk. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. fields and livestock. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Giovanni Morone. and Scandinavia. Spain. and of the last things. Contarini. Vittoria Colonna. Italy. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. protector of shepherds. 4500 BCE." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience.

"festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. such as plague. sword and set of balances. frescos in Italy . Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. war. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Committed to charitable and missionary work. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. and flowers suspended in a loop. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.festoni (It. drying to a slightly different tint. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. 2 . famine and death. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. relaxed. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). The colour of his horse is white. can in time be seen. that of the others red. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin.8). Only a small area can be painted in a day. fresco (It. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. fluted of a column or pillar. a technique known as a secco fresco. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Their attributes are the bow. and these areas. leaves. black and dun. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. a swag.

Final details. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. It was founded by Edward III in 1348.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. genre In a broad sense. where the atmosphere was too damp. both in churches and in private and public palaces. In art from the classical period onwards. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall.Save in Venice. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. for example. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. G Garter. are genres of painting. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. landscape and portraiture. the intonaco. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. covings and ceilings. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. or fresco secco. usually childish figure. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Genius in classical Rome. a person's invisible tutelary god. or true fresco. The technique of buon fresco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp.

The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Maria Gloriosa). Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. As such. how it differed from notoriety. as well as writers and artists. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Maso di Banco. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. The nature of true gloria was much discussed.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and as spurring on men of action. Bernardo Daddi. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. in portraits and on tombs. whether it must be connected with the public good. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Gobelins . and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia.

The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Golden Fleece. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. This ratio is approximately 8:13. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. . a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In other Italian cities. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). and although it reopened in 1699. Paris. still in existence today. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring.French tapestry manufactory. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. thereafter it made only tapestries. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. golden section (Lat. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. who appointed Lebrun Director. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.

Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). the superficial particularities of form. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. or the influence of one building. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Gothic Gothic. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. Amiens. painting.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. In thinking of Nicola (d. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. that the effects are to be felt. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. . In particular. 1200 and c. and lies much deeper than. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. like the cultural and commercial. painting. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. from the 13th until the 17th century. The artistic. In sculpture and in painting. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. c. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. There is a transcendental quality. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. 1270. Denis. Nevertheless.

to silk. with sable. sometimes in the company of a tutor. notably in the writings of Bellori. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and Morris Graves. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Dubuffet. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. if required. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Canaletto. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Klee. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. It is thinned with water for applying. Such tours often took a year or more. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. occasionally. Honey. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. and taste among the English.and hog-hair brushes. to white or tinted paper and card and.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). genius. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. the Netherlands. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Pannini. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. starch. and Piranesi. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. . the beau idéal of the French. and above all Italy. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. These qualities. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. without visible brush marks. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and the great style. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. chiefly to France.

after this. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. however. which had recruited most of the merchant class. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. . the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. From 1266 to 1268. however. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the parties taking a multitude of local names. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. through central Italy. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. In the context of the fine arts. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. and Waiblingen. drawing and the various forms of engraving. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. c. In Florence. to Provence and Paris. Some writers. including text as well as illustrations. In another sense. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. gris. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. became an abiding feature of European politics. grisaille (Fr. Although its palace was rebuilt c.e. brother of Louis IX. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. usually gray. 1216. then as now. exclude drawing from this definition. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. After the War of the Eight Saints. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire.

Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and greater hostility between master and man. notably Florence in the 14th century. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. [science] héraldique. heraldry (Fr. for example. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. Guilds were also patrons of art. goldsmiths. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In Italy they go back a long way. In some cities. The guilds were not equal. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. or professions. surgeons. In 16th century Venice. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In some towns. but in time they acquired other functions. such as Brescia and Vicenza.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. héraut. and provided assistance to members in need. as some did). The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. print or painting. In Florence. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. trades. The guild also monitored standards of work. H hatching In a drawing. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. trade or profession (painters. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow." from Fr. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. "herald") . "[knowledge of] heraldry. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state.

e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. By contrast. and regarded themselves as forming. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. d. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. i. one great missionary community. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. from the start. normative for churchmen. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the Cathars were an anti-church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. However. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. together with brethren north of the Alps. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The main impact of the . similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. while others merged with the Waldensians. indeed. as Antichrist. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. the Waldensian. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. with the rules governing their use. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. head of the 'carnal Church'. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. they were condemned in 1184. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such.

hortus conclusus (Lat. In humanism. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. and. Jasper Cropsey. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. F. Morse. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. my spouse'. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. George Inness. J. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. American painters were studying in Rome. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. and classical literature. B.movement upon the laity was in southern France. history (usually classical history). Durand. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Germany. Frederick E. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. working from 1825 to 1875. humanus. Thomas Cole. humanism (Lat. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. in his earlier work. At the same time. Church. its subjects considered morally elevating. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. F. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Henry Inman. mainly in the south. Kensett. S. the emancipation of man from God took place. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

Judas' thirty pieces of silver. are also used in art literature. the scourge that was used in the scourging. the veil of St. originality. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. and they are also depicted on their own.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. the ability to create. investiture . International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Veronica. inventio (It.g. the hammer. trecento rococo and lyrical style. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. the pincers. soft style. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. beautiful style. Donatallo. Derived from classical rhetoric. or of other saints. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Human figures. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. The terms court style. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the rooster of Peter's denial. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. For instance. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). there are representations of the bundle of rods. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. with many further details added. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. invention. etc. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. and the ladder. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. usually the donors of a work of art. In the second half of the 14th century.

bathed in a golden haze. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Upon his return to Holland. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. . Andries and Jan Both. of Utrecht. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianizers Northern artists. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Both and Berchem. The Both brothers. and Jan Asselijn. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Nicolaes Berchem. principally Dutch. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jerome's writings. although they are usually called Romanists. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. generally Dutch or Flemish. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. who traveled in Italy and.

"golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. As their military role grew. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. lectern A reading stand or desk.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). John of Jerusalem . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. encouraged by the Crusades. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.1519). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. the rite of communion is based on this. liberal arts . In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. especially one at which the Bible is read.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Archbishop of Genoa.

Tubal for music).g. astronomy and music. together with identifying attributes (e. its roof supported by columns. Pythagoras for arithmetic.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Maria Novella in Florence). rhetoric and dialectic. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. through the use of aerial perspective. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. a semicircular space. and Frederick E. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). "little moon") In architecture. first the preparatory trivium .g. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. loggia (It. poetic atmosphere. often sublime.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. often standing in markets and town squares.grammar. the quadrivium. Martin J. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. comprising arithmetic. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. painting or sculptural decoration. lunette (Fr. geometry. Heade (1819-1904). Church (1826-1900). then the basis of a philosophical training. . John F. that could be used for public ceremonies. It is related to. commemorating a marriage. that may contain a window. Kensett (1816-1872). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.

"great mother") A mother goddess. being written. manganese purple. and iron red. magna mater (Lat. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. originally sung without accompaniment. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and however bright their lighting effects. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. Specifically. madrigal A part song. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. active mainly in Florence c. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. usually for the lute. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. historical subjects. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. 1855–65. "almond") . Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. antimony yellow. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. and portraits as well as landscapes. When white is used for painting. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. copper green. the goddess Cybele. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and accompaniments. particularly such ware produced in Italy. but they painted genre scenes. for example. mandorla (It.

Parmigianino. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. marked by flagellation. the hand-written medieval book. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Developing out of the Renaissance. Bronzino. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. El Greco and Tintoretto. Flanders. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Burgundy. depending on the social class of the wearer. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. It reached to the knee or foot. which was quarried at Mount . ecclesiastical. strong. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. "manner. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. complex and crowded compositions. more strictly. worn open. in a specific sense. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. mantle An overcoat. In Mannerist painting. maniera.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and literary texts. often ornamented with decorative borders. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. illuminated initials and miniatures. bound. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. the Codex manuscriptus. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and crowned with thorns. In architecture. Mannerism (It.

sleek surface. gained the rank of'master' in his guild.Pentelicon in Attica. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. proof") the sufferings. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Like the finest Imperial coins. Carrara. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). the medal's purpose was commemorative. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The pure white Carrara marble. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medallion In architecture. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. martyrion. which were beginning to be reverently collected. an inscription running round the rim. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . martyrdom (Gk. quarried at Massa. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. particularly by Michelangelo. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. marmi finti (It. Without monetary value. "witness. having finished his training. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. a different design on the reverse.

in England. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless.round the neck. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. When Perseus cuts off her head. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. for landscapes and portraits. even grain. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. who reflected them. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. In pure mezzotint. 1467-688). often anonymous. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Ludwig von Siegen. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. as it were. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. perhaps oddly. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. and of the many. c. Medusa In Greek mythology. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1452-1526/27). c. 1640. 14601528). of the person portrayed on the other side. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. A Dutch officer. It was. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1425-1504). The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The work of these men. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. particularly. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. This yields a soft effect in the print. a Gorgon. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. no line drawing is employed. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Her head features on Minerva's shield. . the stress on individual character. supposedly to petrify her enemies. The process is essentially extinct today.

though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. monokhromatos.g. "one color") Painted in a single color.. saying") . Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. still exist. often quite highly finished. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. miter A high. Parmigianino (d. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. painting in gouache on vellum or card. "word. Many such small versions. e. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. ink and paint. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. monochrome (Gk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. usually portraits. pointed headdress worn by bishops. motto (Ital. a branch of the Franciscan order. Francis himself. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. a painting executed in a single color. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. by Tiepolo and Rubens. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. executed on a very small scale.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings.

often separated from it by pillars. and is intersected by the transept. The invention of personal mottos.from the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. nave (from Lat. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In general. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. but often insipid. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. navis. Nazarenes A group of young. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. and Casino Massimo. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and two other members moved to Rome. Rome. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. 1816-17. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. . The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). In 1810 0verbeck. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. naturalism (Fr. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Isidore. Berlin. named after the patron saint of painting. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Pforr. 1817-29).

It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.) . and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. were usually old when elected. Popes. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. nigellus. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. is as true as it is notorious. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. "aureole") The disc or halo. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Nymphaeum (Gk. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. but their ideas continued to be influential. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. niello (Lat. nimbus (Lat. moreover. the style of the Ancien Régime. usually golden.

the three basic styles of design. Greek goddesses of Nature. . having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). capital. and entablatures. a more elaborate base. and its greater tonal range.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. the Doric order. such as linseed. was the simplest. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. They are seen in the form of the columns. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. a small private chapel. inborn sin. its richness of colour. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). "services. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. O obsequies (Lat. walnut. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. obsequia. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. with a sturdy. The earliest. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. orders of architecture In classical architecture. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. fluted column and a plain capital. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. observances") Rites performed for the dead. or poppy. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities.

On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). with biforate windows. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. like cities. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. palazzo (It. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. designed as a . reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Palazzo Strozzi). although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. P pala (Ital. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. tradition and social structure. the Cancelleria). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court.g. and. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). while shops came to be thought undignified. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and the main apartments above. standing at the foot of the Cross.

In Venice. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. e. column-caps. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. cornices and abutments.g. palmette.g. evolved influential types. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and Palladio's in Vicenza. often built next to their titular churches. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. came to be applied all over Europe. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Following Oriental patterns. Rich. especially after the Sack of Rome. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. behind a sober Florentine façade. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Movement of patrons and architects. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions.scholarly retreat. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Papal incentives to build. and large households. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Other cities. like Genoa. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. panel . Palazzo Massimi). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. like the colonnaded vestibule. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements.

papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and walnut. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). the. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. or other rigid substance. As successors to St Peter. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. A number of matters. chestnut. larch. or the incidence of taxation. secular rulers. linden. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. The third aspect was administrative. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. mahogany. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. To maintain their authority. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. enforce law and order. Many other types were used. to influence popes in their favour.Term in painting for a support of wood. metal. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the management of clerical dues and taxation. On a larger scale. and modern painters have also used plywood. and spanned by a single dome. as it were. and dark walnut are favourites. olive. teak. Having a circular plan. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. In the 20th century cedar. fibre-board. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. Then.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and the pressure and temptations . including beech. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. fir. so that they might have a voice at court. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. slate has occasionally been used as a support. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. cedar. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. however. as distinct from canvas. and other synthetic materials as supports.

was long in doubt. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . possess an authority which. however. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. It was argued that such a council. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. So onerous. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. however. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. in spite of further absences from Rome. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. would. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. at Avignon. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. the most appropriate .that could be applied to them. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. in the eyes of God. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. of individuals.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. which met at Constance 1414-18. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). which seems so inevitable. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed.as well. To resolve the problem of divided authority. however. As at Avignon. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. if it did no serious damage to the faith. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. from the point of view of its religious associations. to be long delayed. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. could supersede that of a pope. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Colonna and Caetani. as such. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. There remained. By then. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual.

pastor. and other animals. 400-300 BC). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and satyrs. less frequently pig. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. goat.. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. nymphs. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. it has also been used for painting. However. scholars and men of letters. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). through lavish patronage of artists. as well as a governmental one. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. in classical literature. Parrhasius (c. pastoral (Lat. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. the creation of a cultural capital. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and with Zeuxis (c. to a world peopled by shepherds. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Passion .

projecting either centrally or at both ends. a prominent section of a monumental façade. which focus on the Suffering Christ. ornamental building. pavilion (Lat. 1478). hence tent") A lightly constructed. Meanwhile.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. patricius. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi.) or pasticcio (It. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. papilio. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Francesco Salviati. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. and also the archbishop of Pisa. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form.The events leading up to Good Friday. "butterfly. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. 1478. Portrayals of the Passion. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. . include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. a small. a region in north-central Italy. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. and so on. pastiche (fr. but not necessarily a direct copy. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. wealthy citizen. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. the crown of thorns. patrician (Lat. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. such as a garden summerhouse.

concept or deity. physis.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "nature". that settled the religious conflict in the German states. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. perspective (Lat. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. or related elements within an art work. "person". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. and facere. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. . "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. physiognomy (Gk. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "hanging. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). pendant (Fr. Peace of Augsburg A treaty.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. perspicere. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. in particular the face. personification (Lat. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. persona. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. and gnomon. "to see through. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. pergola (It. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century.

exemplified. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. pigmentum. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. . Developing in Germany in the 14th century. for example. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. but full of variety. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. to be expressed in painting. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. pigment (Lat. or resin to make paint. proper to take a landscape from. but may consist of a cluster of columns. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Rome. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. both real and painted. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St.piano nobile (Ital. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'.) The main floor of a building. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. affording a good subject for a landscape. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. striking the imagination with the force of painting. curious details. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. usually above the ground floor. Peter's. remarkable for singularity. containing the public rooms. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Pietà (Lat.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. glue. A pier is generally larger than a column.

Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. in October 1347. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. for instance. perhaps. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. and thereafter all Europe. despite regional variations. pilastrum. the burning of 'infected' clothing. though in less widespread. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. plague Plague. it has a base. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. For this reason. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. moreover. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. and capital. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s.pilaster (Lat. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It seems probable. Thenceforward. more sporadic outbreaks. It is often fluted. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Rocco and Sebastian. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. a shaft. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. since. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. "pillar") A flat. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . also used in Spain's American colonies. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. In the 15th century. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. it is difficult to find. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. such as Florence and Genoa. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. During 1348 the Black Death. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. however. outside Tuscany. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). The plague's social effects are an object of controversy.

Thus empirical science does not have a central role . 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Philebus. Diego evolved a purer. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. A student of Socrates. Phaedo. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. correct classical orders became frequent. heraldic escutcheons. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Symposium. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. The second phase. The first phase. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Theatetus and the Laws. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Phaedrus. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. placement. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. harmonious. like its successor. The first phase. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. more severe. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. which lasted only a few decades. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. are the masterworks of the second style. In contrast with Aristotle. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. and sinuous scrolls..e. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. or appropriateness.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. i. or simply the Plateresque. Timaeus. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. the Renaissance-Plateresque. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. composition. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale.

Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. but not completely. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . and the Chaldaic Oracles.in Plato's thought. partially. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Rather unsystematic. including those of Plotinus. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. replaced Ficino's. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. the greatest of his ancient disciples. systematized and added to what Plato had done. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. 1472-c. Plotinus. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important.1577) becoming particularly popular. near Florence. Iamblichus. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and Agostino Steuco (c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. and he utilized many other writings. Unlike the case of Aristotle. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. A new Latin translation. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . all of which he also translated into Latin.

such as processions and consecrations. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Lat. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. pointed arch In architecture. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. pluviale. Frequently supports a pediment. pluvial (Med. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. poluptukhos. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. plinthos. porticus. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. plinth (Gk. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Plato was read in the universities. as in classical architecture). polyptych (Gk. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. portico (Lat. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. or statue. column. where a pectoral is used to close it. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture.

directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Desiderio da Settignano. National Gallery). decorating whole rooms. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Siena. and the . whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. inessential.e. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Mantua. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Cathedral) by Uccello. Venice). was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Palazzo Farnese). Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436.sculptors such as Donatello. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Gattarnelata. and only a decorative accessory to form. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The 16th century portrait became generalized. psychologically more complex. was revived in the 14th century. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Florence. 1328. the Carracci. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Group portraits. Campidoglio). Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The realism of the clear. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Florence (1486-90). based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553.. Colleoni. flattened image. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The equestrian portrait. Maria Novella. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers.

The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. was versed in classical and patristic . Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. bishop of Asti. minatory exhortations. however. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. abrasive even. not least those of statesmen and prelates. from the secular clergy. several of whom became bishops. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Fiamma's sermons. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Savonarola and Musso. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). and Peter Paul Rubens. Borromeo. together with the Dominican Savonarola. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. bishops especially. Correggio. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. by contrast with the mendicant preachers." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. are not florid in style. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. of the sermon as an art form. primarily the mendicants. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. The styles of S. 1494). As Poussin was a Frenchman. and. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. bishop of Chioggia. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. The sermons of Visdomini. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Charles Le Brun. Cornelio Musso (1511-74).

g. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Louis of Toulouse (1317. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Because of the small size of predelle .rhetoric. The New Testament references in these would. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. among them Holman Hunt. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Millais and Rossetti. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. the temptations of Adam and Christ. prefiguration Typology . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. predella (It. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. tapestries. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. however. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. though often relatively very wide . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. and so forth. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). presbyterion "Council of Elders") . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament .they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Naples).

presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The following are important: 1. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. profil perdu (Fr. proportio. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. 2.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. 3. and Houdon among sculptors. projecting shelf on which to kneel. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. which uses the square . "evenness") in painting. sculpture and architecture. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). Fragonard. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the golden section. the quadrature. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. the Canon of Proportion. proportion (Lat. Girardon. notably David. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Prix de Rome A scholarship. intended as complete works of art in themselves. these highly finished drawings. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. again indicative of the purpose they served. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723.

the history of a work's ownership since its creation. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. putti sing. for example). many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. 4. a fourth = 3:4. Rome. It was common in Roman art. a fifth = 2:3. . and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. triangulation. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size.as a unit of measurement. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. harmonic proportions. the steward or treasurer of a church. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Ignazio. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Unlike Pozzo. "boys") Plump naked little boys. and 5. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. provenance The origins of an art work. one half the length of the other). for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. putto (It.

R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the object of particular veneration. refectory (Med. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo).Quattrocento (It. Fra Angelico and others. Among the . friars and nuns. in particular works by Masaccio. Brunelleschi. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. also known as the Realist school. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. the great orders of monks. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. or the Jesuits. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relicquiae. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. basso rilievo). Donatello. e. relic (Lat. with the Anglican Church developing in England. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relevare. Botticelli. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall.g. or some item connected with a saint. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. In 16th century Europe. in which figures are seen half round. Lat. and high relief (alto rilievo). hermits. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. relief (Lat. canons regular.

and their more institutionalized brethren. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The same bull . whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Silvestrines. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. In 1504. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Padua. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo.contemplative orders. Bernardino of Siena. The Benedictines. and the generally moderate Observants. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. presided over by chapters general. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Benedetto. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Founded by St Romuald c. Giustina. In 1517. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Giorgio in Alga. Lucca. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. it became the Cassinese congregation. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. 1012. although technically of secular canons. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks.e. Maria di Fregonaia. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Mantua. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. After the repression of the Spirituals. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. i. various groups were fused in the latter body. Venice (1404). they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. That of S. the great patriarch of Venice. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Salvatore. the most notable being S. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. who had no overall organization originally. however. which was to become the main Italian one. Bologna (1419). The Conventuals. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. At the same time. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. S. the Conventuals. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. was the congregation of S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty.

an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Gaetano da Thiene. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. however. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. a historical period. the Theatines. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. founded in 1535 by S. also. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Gerolamo Aemiliani. founded by S. Angela Merici. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Venice. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. The first. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Filippo Neri. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Michele in Isola.

man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. was so vast and potent.century. even Amoralism. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. All-Roundness. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. life. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. of arts. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. For long. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). too long forgotten glories. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. which had begun early in the 14th century. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. because its core of energy. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. 1875-86). of scholarship. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. . culture was linked to personality and behaviour. however. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. the historical reality of antiquity. of an energetic revival of interest in. as well as political. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and his own as potentially one of light. of letters. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. and competition with. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. increasingly. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. however. Thereafter. of 'darkness'.

gratefully. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Ghent). the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. sometimes. The challenges are to be accepted. consist merely of a painting. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). later still to Genoa. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. and mass media. of industrialization.) was the term chosen. and other liturgical objects.with all its shabbiness . or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. statues. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. however. Though thus challenged. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. congruence between. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. though sometimes of metal. etc. let alone a uniform. retables can be detached and. There was an early. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. (3) There is not a true. the previous record . Cathedral of SaintBavon. mobilized nationalism. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. It is for this additional. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. letters.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). etc.erased. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. candlesticks. especially in the High Gothic period. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. and is decorated with paintings. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. in the more limited sense.

Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. however. Italy. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Originally commissioned in 976. is a typical product. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Germany. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. More usually. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. painting. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Rococo A style of design. Romanesque art. Spain . the St. richly decorated with organic forms. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.in the 11th century. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. like 'Gothic'. retables have become extinct. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. With the development of freestanding altars. the first style to achieve such international currency.France. "relief") In painting. in several countries . rocaille (French. often considered the last stage of the Baroque.of St Mark in Venice. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. literally. rilievo (It. its mood lighthearted and witry. As the name suggests. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. and 'Romanesque'. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Louis XV furniture. almost simultaneously. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. .

van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Mabuse. such as red ochre. Piranesi. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. van Heemskerk. Q. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Rome. . and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Pannini and Mengs. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. stylized design representing an open rose. Claude. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. B. In addition. they maintained. M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. The aim of painting. Massys and M. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the development of nationalistic pride. van Orley. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular.

supported by lay confraternities. local saints. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. There were no limits on time. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Subjects were nominally sacred. confirmation. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the Eucharist.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . and impoverished. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. when it finally left the city it had devastated. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). penance. multiple sets used in succession. gutted.expressed through gesture. In the . matrimony. from the Old and New Testaments. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic.greatly increased. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and Protestant churches. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). pious legend and hagiography. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. and anointing of the sick. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. glance and movement . but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Clement escaped into Castel S. Orthodox. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. holy orders. but others were the work of well-known figures. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Many compositions were anonymous. Written primarily in ottava rima. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Sacra Conversazione (It. Eastern independent.

though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Immediately following baptism. large room. Lutheran. Anglican. sacraments. replaces the Lord's Supper. that the price of salt should be increased. was not maintained as a sacrament. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.e. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.e.early church the number of sacraments varied. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Saracens . and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. chapter 13. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. which in the Gospel According to John. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. was buried under a new fortress. Thus. foot washing.." which are called sacramentals.i. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and sacraments. as an excuse to revolt.) Hall. used for drawing. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. in principle. the symbolic direction of Christ. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Hence. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Salt War. baptism and the Eucharist." sala (Ital. notably from Florence and in Germany. The classical Protestant churches (i. It is still practiced on special occasions. the Rocca Paolina. make such strict distinctions. the Bentivoglio. strictly speaking. the Orthodox Church does not. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. and then face east. the sun of righteousness. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.. They were still seeking aid. The chief focus of discontent. Candidates first face west.

Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). 160 . Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. the god of wine. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. pl. satyr In Greek mythology. sarcophagi (Gk. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 270 BC). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). whose writings. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. wood or terracotta. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. are lost.c. the Arabs or Muslims. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and many others. 360 . 45 BC). Little known in the Middle Ages. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. The publication of Latin (1562. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. made of stone. 210 AD). Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). sarcophagus. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. legs and horns of a goat.During the Middle Ages.

As a result. Alexander V. who had the support of the Avignon pope. on the other. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. while England. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome.for example Pieter van Laer. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. on one side. Louis I (d. for. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. one of the early leaders. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. while devout Christians agonized. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. However. in June 1409. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. being Frenchmen. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. In northern Italy. was called Bamboccio. most of whom. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. and.they had individual Bentnames . the Florentines. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. with France and her allies Aragon. from time to time both he and his opponents. than their medieval predecessors. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). but with little effect. who recognized the Roman pope. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. scholasticism . Schism.

the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. as it were. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. and Islamic literature. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio).moral philosophy. on one side. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. As such. history and rhetoric . the plaster had to be damped before painting.) .) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. university-based study. notably Aquinas. because the secco technique is much less permanent.were different from those of medieval. None the less. textual scholarship. as it is easier to add details in this way. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). It was because the central concerns of humanism . In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. (See also: fresco. Often called the burning ones. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. if lime-water was used. and theology. moreover. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Christian. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Medieval scholars. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. that scholasticism was left. Serenissima (Ital. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.The term is ambivalent. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Padua.

In Christian legend. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sibyls (Gk. women who could prophesy. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sfumato A technique. brass. sinopia .) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. "prophetess") In antiquity. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. at the same time. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Servite (Lat. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. which were all identical in thickness. Signoria (It. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Lat.. there was only one Sibyl. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. usually presided over by individual families. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Originally. the number gradually rose to ten. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. They first appear in alpine monasteries. in the period of classical antiquity. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. in use since the Middle Ages. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Med. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sibylla. term. and the delicate. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12.

in other words. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. as the name implies.. stigmata. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. Stanze (Ital. soffit (Lat. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. staffage This word. especially in the flow of drapery. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . pronounced as French. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.'Beautiful Madonnas'. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.) Wooden ceiling decoration. brand. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. "mark. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. sotto in sù (It. stigma (Gk. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. sing. It is very closely related to International Gothic. . tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Ital. and. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. Francis of Assisi.

In a looser sense. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. John Milton. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). supremacy . the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). The vogue for the Sublime. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. studioli (It. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. studiolo. whose verses actually fabrications . Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. with that for the Picturesque. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. both external and internal. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Indeed. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). stucco A type of light. pl. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century.

temperare.e. London. But the Italians did not make them. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. . Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. Salviati and Allori. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio).and. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. The subject is underexplored. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. and in literature. chiefly from Flanders. his own headquarters. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. These were imported. tempera (Lat. or cartoons. into Italy. then being replaced by oil paint. both for panel painting and fresco. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. was being decorated with frescoes. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. 1407). doubtless. i.Historically. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling.

gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. vessels. pl. in art.terracotta (It. tondo. and sculptures. and later to subdivide gable ends. widely used form. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "a commonplace") In literature. tondi (It. walls. i. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. in the architecture of ancient Rome. model. theme or motif. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. figure of speech. triumphal arch. and other surfaces. topia. "fields. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. pl. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. and profile. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. topos. Trajan's Column . terraferma (Ital. quarter face. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topoi (Gk. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. topiary (Gk. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted.e. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen).

or wings. Trinity (Lat. the Son and the Holy Spirit. usually an altarpiece. "threefold") in Christianity. Disseminated soon after his death. fame.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. death. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . into a number of less controversial forms. . as it were. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. added to the glamour of the triumph. Early triptychs were often portable. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. a car so brave'.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. of virtues and of the arts. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. tryptychos. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. chastity. time and eternity. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the military triumph became sublimated. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Meanwhile. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. "threefold") A painting in three sections. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). of both sexes'. Battista Sforza. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. patriarchs and prophets. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. beside it the army of martyrs.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. the wars by which they were won . Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. after 'a countless number of virgins. triptych (Gk. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel.' Before it go the apostles. trinitas. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. behind it.

though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. it is usually decorated with carvings. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. through various naturalistic devices. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. first recorded in 1232. In medieval architecture. viscous black ink. "drum") In classical architecture. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Dating from classical times. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tusche A thick. tromp l'oeil (Fr. typology . In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tympanum (Lat. often decorated with sculptures. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. enclosed by an arch. It incorporates Renaissance features. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I).

killer of Holofernes. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). 1610). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . lanterns. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. especially his half-length figural groups. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. where they were most accessible. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. slayer of Goliath.g. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. . a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.Dirck van Baburen (c. and David. such as five works devoted to the senses.) The Renaissance "universal man". were popular with them also. The numerous candles. U uomo universale (It.A system of classification. In Christian thought. e. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. each had access to his paintings. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. knew his former patrons. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Judith. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. 1590-1624).

Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. overturned vessels.). including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. varietà (It. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. and the rib vault. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. mixed in. Parisian craftsmen. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Also varietas (Lat. There are a wide range of forms. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. a work's richness of subject matter. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. carriages. and even flowers (which will soon fade).Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. the groin vault. it was used to decorate furniture. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "evening") . Vespers (Lat. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. snuff boxes and other objects. hour-glasses and clocks. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vanitas (Lat. V vanishing point In perspective. guttering candles. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. often gold. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. vesper.

Gluttony. Vestibule (Lat. Fortitude. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vestibulum. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Lust. Anger. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. for example. virtù could be used. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). the church service at which these prayers are said. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Envy. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. In ancient Roman dwellings. pl. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Covetousness. in which the word signifies efficacy. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. actual or latent. vimperga Of German origin. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. vita. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Hope. 'Assume a virtue. Temperance. and Justice. Prudence. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. vite (Lat. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The seven Virtues were: Faith. and Sloth.Prayers said in the evening. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Charity. "not exposed to winds". if you have it not'. "life") .

The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1482-84). whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. a biography. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Marcus (1st cent. The wars from 1494 do. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. protection from harm. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Sculptors and Architects"). AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1478-80. those of Volterera. 1472. published in 1550 and 1568. Vitruvius Pollio. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. they were from the 18th century . or recovery from illness has been made. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for.g. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. and appalled recognition of. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. and of Ferrara. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454.An account of someone's life and work. in fact. usually when a prayer for good fortune.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

woodcut A print made from a wood block. during its subsequent history. a philosophy of life. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. usually linear. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. treasury or a place where justice was administered. It was intended to have a variety of functions.Weltanschauung (Gr. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. gallery. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. . "Western work of art". They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. based on stylization of various animal forms. Westwerk German word. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. "world view") A comprehensive world view. pompous on the floor above. usually restorers.

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