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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. . was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). architrave (It. In Greek and Roman literature. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The term applies also to a print made by this method. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. architectonic (Gk. arcade (Lat. the lowest part of the entablature). or organization. roofed with a half-dome. piers or pillars. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arkhitektonikos. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. the darker the tone). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. The adjective is apsidal. There are several variants of the technique. Picasso. Lancet and Tudor. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. including Goya. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface.e. "architectural") Relating to structure. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. but in essence the process is as follows. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. which is fused to the plate by heating.A semicircular projection. at the east end of a church behind the altar. design. Degas. and Rouault. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. arcus. Also known as an exedra. the moulding around a window or door.
Ars Moriendi (Lat. archivolto. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. dominate. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person." from Gk. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. attribute (Lat. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.archivolt (Ital. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Dante's Vita nuova . drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "golden. usually a saint. voltus. "the art of dying well") a small book on death." and Lat. attributum.and the Comedy . autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. archeiu. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "begin. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. In the case of martyrs. aureole (Lat. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "front arch. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . aureolus. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements.
that of Cardano. Later. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The actual move was made in 1309. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. in 1377. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. baldachin. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Six pontificates later. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. often anecdotal. paintings of everyday life. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). 'Captivity'. or baldacchino (It. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. applied to the physically . The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. the god of wine and fertility. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. All the popes elected at Avignon were French.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. who had been residing in France since 1305. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). made in Rome in the mid-17th century.
banderole (It. such as those at Pisa. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. seven. Lebanon." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. pope between 432 and 440. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or canopy. Baalbek. and abject filthy things. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and Poitiers. or forecourt. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Parma.. a visual metaphor for the number eight. AD 300). a church. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. the Temple of Venus. beggars in rags. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. banderuola. and Epiphany. el Kantara. Florence. a baptistery was roofed with a dome.g. and Nocera in Italy. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Pentecost. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. set beneath a domical ciborium. Alg.. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. France. Customarily. . or connected with. Spalato [Split. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. built by Sixtus III. As eight follows the "complete" number. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. AD 273.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Easter. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Croatia]. The baptismal font was usually octagonal.
it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. stoa basilike. Originally. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. which is reserved for the clergy. Constant Troyon (French. in its usual location near the church door . 1807-1876). 1811-1889). In architecture. basilica (Gk. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. something of earlier symbolism survives. baptisteries. and (3) everyday realism. Théodore Rousseau (French. and thus a church. Rubens).an allusion to entering the Christian life. Baroque (Port. Vermeer). however. usually facing east. Jean-François Millet (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). or baptismal chapels. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. Jules Dupré (French. "king's hall") a church building. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. . achieved through scale. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. in the 1840s and 1850s. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. southeast of Paris. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1817-1878). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building.In the 10th century. 1796-1875). 1810-1865). were often omitted entirely. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). and increasingly elaborate decoration. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. the dramatic use of light and shadow. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. 1814-1875). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. barocco. Also tunnel vault. and the growth of absolutist monarchies.
By association. or which is to be left as it is. and often sentimentality. especially Spanish. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. 1650 in Spain. as is to be expected. were referred to by their specific contents. such as Waldmüller. Spanish still-lifes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Biscuit porcelain. There were. however. often with food and drink. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. which is either not yet glazed. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. up until the mid-17th century. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. also incorrectly called bisque. in which still-life predominates. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). particularly porcelain. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Book of Hours . bodegón Image. like their Dutch counterparts. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Bodegónes. It takes its name from its grainy texture. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The term was mainly used up to c. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. domesticity.
but can also be used for painted sketches. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. bozzetto Strictly speaking. made as a study for a larger picture. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. months. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. By extension. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. durability. though these are more often called 'modelli'. or seasons. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. days of the week. and the fact that it is easily workable . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. See flying buttress. Chantilly). sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. coppery red. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. varying from silverish to a rich. bozzetto(Italian. .both hot and cold . a rapid sketch in oil.by a variety of processes.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.an advantage over marble sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.
Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). "a chest. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. C cabinet A small. which was often allegorical. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. and work in precious metals. mosaics. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. cameo Small relief made from gems. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. manuscript illuminations. caisson (Fr. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). box") In architecture. It also served to glorify the emperor. camera obscura . notable from Syria and Egypt.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. its forms highly stylized. Duccio. private room where works of art. and Giotto. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. ceramics. Among its most distinctive products were icons. glass. casson. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.
It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. Niepce created photography. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. pl. by the 16th century. capital (Lat. and jute. usually built beside or attached to a church. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. only very rough effects will be obtainable. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up." and the earliest versions. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. hemp. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall.) A gallery for singers or musicians. which was usually whitened. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. candlestick. as an aid to drawing. usually in a church. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). both of which have richly carved marble panels. candela. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. candelabrum (It. Structurally. usually decorated. "candle") A large.Ancestor of the photographic camera. sing. dating to antiquity.-N. followed by smaller and even pocket models. other materials used are cotton. candelabra. . Portable versions were built. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. The Latin name means "dark chamber. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. which isolates the fabric from the paint. cantoria. campanile Bell tower. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. cantorie (It. usually with several branches or arms. capitellum.
the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. details of the subject. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Carthusian Order (Lat. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartouche . cardinalis. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartellini In a painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. tapestry. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). At the height of the Middle Ages. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". pl. Fortitudo (Fortitude). Cardinal Virtues (Lat. monasteries containing separate hermitages. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. New Charterhouses. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. The order combines reclusive and community life. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cartellino.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. the Carmelites were originally hermits. near Grenoble. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. cartone. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. and humanism. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. In fresco painting. or a motto. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.both Italians and artists from other countries . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). cartoon (It.a humorous drawing or parody.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Carmelites (Lat. or fresco. the date of the painting.
Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. and swags of fruit and flowers. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. linen. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. cassone (It. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. castello (It. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Paolo Uccello. In the 15th century. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and many other items of her dowry. They contained the bride's clothes. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. For reasons lost to time and tradition. putti (cupids). Cascina. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. These lead up to the north and south transepts. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. The altar is placed at the east end. they were also used in other countries.toward the setting sun. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. . a cathedral always faces west . or nave. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. decorated with gilt gesso. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular.) "castle". "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. palace. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. cathedral (cathedra. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. caryatid (Gk. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. or arms of the cross. The main body.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written.
Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. rather than intercessory functions. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. in accordance with their distance from the observer. or birdlike characteristics. a celestial winged being with human. Both the statement of St. buildings and figures that are being depicted. central perspective (Lat. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. centralis. landscapes. "in the centre". in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Christian. a throne bearer of the deity. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. animal. . In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. and perspicere. champlevé (Fr. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Relative to the observer. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). and Islamic literature. as celestial attendants of God. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. continually praise him.
for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. choros." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Hans Burgkmair (1510). the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights.chiaroscuro (It. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "light dark") In painting. reserved for the clergy to pray together. Lastly. Since Carolingian times. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. replacing tempera. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. choir (Gk. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. or for choral singing. North of the Alps. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. the Order of the Hospital of St. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling.
Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. The Transparente (completed 1732). and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. and the Churrigueresque column. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. and repetition of pattern. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. which was shaped like an inverted cone. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. balustrades. stucco shells. and garlands. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. a massing of carved angels. ciborium . seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. reversed volutes. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. became the most common motif. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches.intersect). The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). further enriching the style. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. undulating cornices. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Sculpted clouds. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. undulating lines. gilded rays. an architect. Very few still exist in their original positions. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. is as typically Churrigueresque.
was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. craft of dyeing. etc. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. beaters. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. who were raised to the status of a guild. High Renaissance). and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. They were forbidden to form a trade association. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Members of the lower classes. combers. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. The new government.and post-medieval Italy. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. ciompi. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Their economic condition worsened. Then. the wool carder Michele di Lando. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. or achieve political representation. on July 22. Without being members of a guild. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Quattrocento (1400s. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. but self-employed. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. controlled by the minor guilds. including the ciompi. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. placing one of their members. In reaction to this revolutionary . ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. as also were those in the associated. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them.
writers. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the ciompi guild was abolished. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. however. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. . in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. philosophy and art .together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. cithara (Gk. clair-obscur (Fr. Concepts of the classical. with Italian scholars. literature. except in cases where . on which strings were plucked. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. resembling a lyre. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). the black contours usually with a special line plate. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. editing and translating a wide range of texts. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate.) An ancient musical instrument. and politics. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. scholars patiently finding. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. In the 15th century Greek literature. philosophy. changed greatly from one period to the next.episode.as in Italy these were dispensed with.
pl. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. pl. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. a work's underlying theme. cognoscenti.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. terrorized the country." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. Green and red. condottieri (It. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. . the church service at which these prayers are said. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. intensify one another. concetti (It. compline (Lat. those with refined tastes. literature or music. as well as from the Bible. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. occasionally made of wood. cognoscente (It. Coffered ceilings. arch or ceiling. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. when set side by side. or "contract. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. condottiere. [hora] completa. blue and orange. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). concetto. sing. The name was derived from the condotta.
and his rival Braccio da Montone. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. By the end of the 14th century. With no goal beyond personal gain. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. often under the direction of. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. or with the spiritual assistance of. disappeared. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Toward the end of the 15th century. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. often called compagnie or. Francesco Sforza. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St.devastating Romagna. Spanish. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. convents of convertite. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. clergy. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. and German--the condottieri. i. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'.e. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Carmagnola. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. in the service of Perugia. Mark (1432). which spread in the 15th century. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Martino). confraternities Confraternities.e. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. who won control of Milan in 1450. and Tuscany. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Muzio's son. flagellant confraternities. scuole. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Umbria. in Venice. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. commonly called either Compagnia di S. in the service of Naples. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. By the 16th century. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. i. primarily for syphilitics. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. .
The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. while the Venetian government. Confraternities.g. reformed prostitutes. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. contours were initially regular. e. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.g. contour. in Florence. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. but sometimes had their own premises. however. founded c. the Florentine Neri. 1514 in S. contour (Fr. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. notwithstanding their location. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. contrapposto (It. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. flat outlines. Dorotea in Trastevere. e. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Later. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. and refuges for maidens. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. In medieval painting. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order.i. While the Doge ranked above the Council. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. which accompanied condemned prisoners.e.
did not achieve any lasting results. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. large cornice or other feature. They are often ornamented. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. an engraving produced in this way. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. a bracket of stone. corbel In architecture. started the process of inner reform in the Church. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. conventiculurn. whose names are inscribed on several works. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. cuprum. Lat. Reform programs. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. The style spread as far as England. . aes cyprium. declining moral standards. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. 1280). "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. conventicle (Lat. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. 1100 and 1300.weight on one leg. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which.
a small dome.e. There were various methods of performing the execution. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. a semi-circular vault. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Seleucids. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Next. D dado . An ancestor of the oboe. Jews. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. cupula. Death. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. reedy sound. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. particularly among the Persians. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. after being whipped. "small vat") In architecture. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Usually. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. the most famous victim of crucifixion. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. the first Christian emperor. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. the condemned man." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. i.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Carthaginians. Constantine the Great. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. cupola (Lat. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. or "scourged.
"servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. which was help to be the basis of all art. a favorite late medieval picture subject. diakonos. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. decorated diffrently from the upper section. danse macabre The dance of death.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. often an altarpiece. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Deësis (Gk. "drawing. e. Germany. The term stresses not the literal drawing. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). disegno (It. an expressive use of nature. deacon (Gk. Passau. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Gk. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. usually in matching pairs. but the concept behind an art work. diptychos. diptych (Lat. and Linz possessed common characteristics. diptychum. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Anglican and Orthodox churches. design") In Renaissance art theory. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber.g. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them.
dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. distemperare. which runs on castors or wheels. Dominicans (Lat. distemper (Lat. donator. also used it on canvas.Thomas Aquinas. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. is a heavy piece of furniture. donor (Lat. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. such as we still use today. "to mix. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Ordo Praedictatorum. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. The studio easel. a 19th-century invention.fully realize. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. though a few artists. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. usually forming a ceiling or roof. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. formerly worn under armour. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. dome in architecture. doublet A male garment. when painters took to working out of doors. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). As disegno appeals to the intellect.
bound and flogged. "last". 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. a depiction of Jesus.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. en face In portraiture. eschatology (Gk. fresco. Ecce Homo (Lat. ensemble (Fr. It consists of the architrave. and the cornice. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. sculpture. in art. and logos. Hence. and architecture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. the frieze. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. John (19. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "word") . The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschaton. sometimes combining panel painting. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. entablature In classical architecture. full face. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. epitaph (Gk. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point.
particularly ware made in France. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. protector of shepherds. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica." and charis. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Jerome. which is called "maiolica. 4500 BCE. Spain. farmers. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Saints Ambrose.death and resurrection. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. notably Cardinal Pole. Eucharist (Gk. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. fields and livestock. Augustine. and of the last things. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. eu. which is called "delftware. It developed in France in the early 16th century." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. "good. and is named for Faenza. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. celebrated with bread and wine. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. which was developed in the Near East ca. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Contarini. .the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. which was famous for maiolica. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Marcantonio Flaminio. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Germany. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Italy. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. and Scandinavia. Vittoria Colonna. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Giovanni Morone. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle.
The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. famine and death. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. frescos in Italy . can in time be seen. drying to a slightly different tint. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Only a small area can be painted in a day. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. a technique known as a secco fresco. and these areas. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. fluted of a column or pillar. such as plague. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. leaves. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. war. sword and set of balances.8). Their attributes are the bow. relaxed. The colour of his horse is white. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. that of the others red. Committed to charitable and missionary work. 2 . The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind.festoni (It. fresco (It. and flowers suspended in a loop. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. a swag. black and dun. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance.
The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Genius in classical Rome. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. covings and ceilings. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. both in churches and in private and public palaces. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. The technique of buon fresco. or true fresco. landscape and portraiture. usually childish figure.Save in Venice. G Garter. a person's invisible tutelary god. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. where the atmosphere was too damp. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or fresco secco. are genres of painting. for example. In art from the classical period onwards. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Final details. genre In a broad sense. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. the intonaco. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work.
The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Bernardo Daddi. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Maso di Banco. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. As such. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). in portraits and on tombs. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. and as spurring on men of action. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Gobelins . Maria Gloriosa).such artists as Pieter Bruegel. as well as writers and artists. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. whether it must be connected with the public good. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. how it differed from notoriety. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive.
Paris. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. . sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. who appointed Lebrun Director. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. thereafter it made only tapestries. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Golden Fleece. This ratio is approximately 8:13. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. In other Italian cities. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts.French tapestry manufactory. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). golden section (Lat. still in existence today. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. and although it reopened in 1699. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century.
Gothic Gothic. In particular. In thinking of Nicola (d. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. There is a transcendental quality. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. that the effects are to be felt. painting. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. 1200 and c. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. painting. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. the superficial particularities of form.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. from the 13th until the 17th century. or the influence of one building. like the cultural and commercial. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. The artistic. and lies much deeper than. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). Denis. 1270. c. Amiens. In sculpture and in painting. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Nevertheless. . whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.
starch. without visible brush marks. occasionally. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Klee. if required. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. the beau idéal of the French. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. chiefly to France. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Such tours often took a year or more. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Canaletto. and above all Italy.and hog-hair brushes. notably in the writings of Bellori. are but different appellations of the same thing'. and Morris Graves. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. . and the great style. to silk. and Piranesi. Pannini. Dubuffet. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. genius. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and taste among the English. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. to white or tinted paper and card and. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Honey. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. the Netherlands. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771).gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. These qualities. with sable. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. sometimes in the company of a tutor. It is thinned with water for applying.
usually gray. then as now. and Waiblingen. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. From 1266 to 1268. . In another sense. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. became an abiding feature of European politics. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218.e. c. after this. After the War of the Eight Saints. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. Some writers. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. however. through central Italy. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. to Provence and Paris. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the parties taking a multitude of local names. 1216. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In the context of the fine arts. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. which had recruited most of the merchant class. however. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. exclude drawing from this definition. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. In Florence. gris. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. grisaille (Fr. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Although its palace was rebuilt c. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. brother of Louis IX. including text as well as illustrations.
notably Florence in the 14th century. Guilds were also patrons of art. H hatching In a drawing. print or painting. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. [science] héraldique. In Italy they go back a long way. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. heraldry (Fr. or professions. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. trade or profession (painters. and provided assistance to members in need. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. goldsmiths. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. but in time they acquired other functions.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft." from Fr. and greater hostility between master and man. The guilds were not equal. The guild also monitored standards of work. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. surgeons. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In 16th century Venice. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. for example. such as Brescia and Vicenza. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In some cities. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. héraut. In some towns. "herald") . including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. In Florence. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. trades. as some did). and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers.
indeed. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. i. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. By contrast. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. the Waldensian. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. head of the 'carnal Church'. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. the Cathars were an anti-church. one great missionary community. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. the followers of Juan de Valdes. with the rules governing their use. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. and regarded themselves as forming. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. they were condemned in 1184.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. However. normative for churchmen. from the start. while others merged with the Waldensians. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. as Antichrist. d. together with brethren north of the Alps.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. The main impact of the . 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons.
history (usually classical history). humanism (Lat. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. B. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Germany. George Inness. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. F. its subjects considered morally elevating. J. and classical literature. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. the emancipation of man from God took place. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Church. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. and. F. Thomas Cole. my spouse'. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. humanus. hortus conclusus (Lat. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Frederick E. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. American painters were studying in Rome. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. in his earlier work. In humanism. Jasper Cropsey. At the same time. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Henry Inman. working from 1825 to 1875. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. mainly in the south. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Durand. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Kensett. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. S. Morse. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles.movement upon the laity was in southern France.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
the hammer. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. soft style. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. etc. trecento rococo and lyrical style. The terms court style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. In the second half of the 14th century. beautiful style. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. and the ladder. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. the pincers. the ability to create. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. inventio (It. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. and they are also depicted on their own. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. For instance. Donatallo. are also used in art literature. there are representations of the bundle of rods. investiture . The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). originality. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Veronica.g. the rooster of Peter's denial. with many further details added. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the veil of St. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. the scourge that was used in the scourging. Human figures. usually the donors of a work of art. Derived from classical rhetoric. invention. or of other saints.
but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. who traveled in Italy and. Both and Berchem. of Utrecht. The Both brothers. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Jerome's writings. principally Dutch. . although they are usually called Romanists. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. and Jan Asselijn. Ignatius Loyola in 1534.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Italianizers Northern artists. Andries and Jan Both. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. generally Dutch or Flemish. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. bathed in a golden haze. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Nicolaes Berchem. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Upon his return to Holland. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem.
As their military role grew. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Legenda Aurea (Lat. the rite of communion is based on this. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. liberal arts .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. especially one at which the Bible is read.1519). These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. John of Jerusalem . Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). encouraged by the Crusades. Archbishop of Genoa. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. lectern A reading stand or desk. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. then the basis of a philosophical training. a semicircular space. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). lunette (Fr.g. "little moon") In architecture. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. astronomy and music. commemorating a marriage. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. that could be used for public ceremonies. and Frederick E. the quadrivium. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Maria Novella in Florence). its roof supported by columns. Tubal for music).grammar. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. often standing in markets and town squares. Martin J. Heade (1819-1904). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. rhetoric and dialectic. Pythagoras for arithmetic. John F. that may contain a window. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. often sublime. loggia (It. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Kensett (1816-1872).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Church (1826-1900). poetic atmosphere. . geometry. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.g. first the preparatory trivium . It is related to.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. together with identifying attributes (e. through the use of aerial perspective. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. painting or sculptural decoration. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. comprising arithmetic.
The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. and accompaniments. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. "great mother") A mother goddess. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). When white is used for painting. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. but they painted genre scenes. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and portraits as well as landscapes. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. being written.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and however bright their lighting effects. manganese purple. 1855–65. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. active mainly in Florence c. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. originating in Italy in the 14th century. the goddess Cybele. "almond") . antimony yellow. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. Specifically. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. mandorla (It. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. originally sung without accompaniment. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. madrigal A part song. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. copper green. historical subjects. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. magna mater (Lat. and iron red. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. usually for the lute. particularly such ware produced in Italy. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. for example.
illuminated initials and miniatures. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Mannerism (It. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Burgundy. more strictly. mantle An overcoat. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. the Codex manuscriptus. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. depending on the social class of the wearer. maniera. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. It reached to the knee or foot. Bronzino. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. ecclesiastical. Flanders. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. worn open. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. strong. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. El Greco and Tintoretto. Developing out of the Renaissance. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. "manner. and literary texts. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. bound. and crowned with thorns. which was quarried at Mount . Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. often ornamented with decorative borders. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. in a specific sense. marked by flagellation. In Mannerist painting. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. In architecture. Parmigianino. the hand-written medieval book. complex and crowded compositions.
sleek surface. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). This was partly because ancient Roman coins. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). which were beginning to be reverently collected. a different design on the reverse. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Carrara. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. martyrdom (Gk. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. quarried at Massa. having finished his training. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. "witness. an inscription running round the rim. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. medallion In architecture. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. The pure white Carrara marble. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. Like the finest Imperial coins.Pentelicon in Attica. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. martyrion. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by Michelangelo. Without monetary value. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. marmi finti (It. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman.
c. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. of the person portrayed on the other side. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread.round the neck. and of the many. a Gorgon. no line drawing is employed. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). A Dutch officer. for landscapes and portraits. 1425-1504). the stress on individual character. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. in England. even grain. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Her head features on Minerva's shield. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. This yields a soft effect in the print. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Ludwig von Siegen. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1467-688). the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. The work of these men. who reflected them. perhaps oddly. 1452-1526/27). as it were. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Medusa In Greek mythology. 1640. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. c. It was. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 14601528). Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. In pure mezzotint. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. often anonymous. . A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. The process is essentially extinct today. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. When Perseus cuts off her head. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. particularly. supposedly to petrify her enemies. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone.
Many such small versions. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. usually portraits. e. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. "one color") Painted in a single color. motto (Ital. a branch of the Franciscan order. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. a painting executed in a single color. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. miter A high. executed on a very small scale. saying") . monokhromatos. "word. by Tiepolo and Rubens. pointed headdress worn by bishops.g.. ink and paint. monochrome (Gk. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Francis himself. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. still exist. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. often quite highly finished. Parmigianino (d. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.
from the Middle Ages. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. In general. and two other members moved to Rome. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Rome. naturalism (Fr. and is intersected by the transept. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Isidore. In 1810 0verbeck. and Casino Massimo. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. It may have parallel aisles on each side. but often insipid. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. nave (from Lat. Pforr. Nazarenes A group of young. . 1817-29). modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. 1816-17. Berlin. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. The invention of personal mottos. named after the patron saint of painting. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. navis. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. often separated from it by pillars. where they occupied the disused monastery of S.
nimbus (Lat. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. moreover. usually golden. were usually old when elected. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. the style of the Ancien Régime. "aureole") The disc or halo. nigellus. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. niello (Lat. is as true as it is notorious. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Nymphaeum (Gk. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. but their ideas continued to be influential.) . that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Popes.
The earliest. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. "services. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. capital. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). O obsequies (Lat. walnut. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. obsequia. the Doric order. fluted column and a plain capital. with a sturdy. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. observances") Rites performed for the dead. was the simplest. and its greater tonal range. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. They are seen in the form of the columns. orders of architecture In classical architecture.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. a more elaborate base. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. the three basic styles of design. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. inborn sin. a small private chapel. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. or poppy. such as linseed. Greek goddesses of Nature. and entablatures. . prayer and preaching being central to their mission. its richness of colour.
Alberti described the palace as a city in little. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. standing at the foot of the Cross. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. designed as a . with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. the Cancelleria). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. like cities. P pala (Ital. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and.g. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. palazzo (It. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. while shops came to be thought undignified. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). and large windows appeared on the ground floor. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. Palazzo Strozzi). and the main apartments above. with biforate windows. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. tradition and social structure.
Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and large households. column-caps. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Papal incentives to build. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). palmette. often built next to their titular churches. Palazzo Massimi). Movement of patrons and architects. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). In Venice. panel . cornices and abutments.g. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Other cities. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. came to be applied all over Europe. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning.g. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Following Oriental patterns. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. like the colonnaded vestibule. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. e. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. like Genoa. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves.scholarly retreat. evolved influential types. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Rich. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and Palladio's in Vicenza. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. behind a sober Florentine façade. especially after the Sack of Rome. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks.
larch. The third aspect was administrative. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. secular rulers. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. olive. teak. however. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. As successors to St Peter. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. or other rigid substance.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. enforce law and order. metal. to influence popes in their favour. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. linden. On a larger scale. and the pressure and temptations . For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. or the incidence of taxation. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Then. and other synthetic materials as supports. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Many other types were used. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. fibre-board. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. and modern painters have also used plywood. chestnut. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. slate has occasionally been used as a support. A number of matters. and dark walnut are favourites. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. so that they might have a voice at court. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the. To maintain their authority. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. and walnut. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the management of clerical dues and taxation. mahogany. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. cedar. including beech. as distinct from canvas. fir. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. and spanned by a single dome. In the 20th century cedar. as it were. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Having a circular plan. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome.Term in painting for a support of wood.
and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. So onerous. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. It was argued that such a council. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. if it did no serious damage to the faith. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. in the eyes of God. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. would. in spite of further absences from Rome. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. at Avignon. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. possess an authority which. could supersede that of a pope. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. As at Avignon. which met at Constance 1414-18. which seems so inevitable. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . By then. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate.as well. from the point of view of its religious associations. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences).that could be applied to them. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. was long in doubt. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. to be long delayed. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. the most appropriate . however. however. There remained. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Colonna and Caetani.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. of individuals. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. as such. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. To resolve the problem of divided authority. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. however. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'.
and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. to a world peopled by shepherds. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life.. less frequently pig. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Parrhasius (c. scholars and men of letters. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and satyrs. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. through lavish patronage of artists. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. However. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. it has also been used for painting. goat. in classical literature. as well as a governmental one. pastor. nymphs. the creation of a cultural capital. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. pastoral (Lat. and other animals. and with Zeuxis (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. 400-300 BC). Passion . leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.
patricius. Meanwhile. . a prominent section of a monumental façade. wealthy citizen. which focus on the Suffering Christ. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Portrayals of the Passion. ornamental building. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. patrician (Lat. projecting either centrally or at both ends. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.) or pasticcio (It. a region in north-central Italy. such as a garden summerhouse. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. and also the archbishop of Pisa. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. and so on. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pastiche (fr.The events leading up to Good Friday. hence tent") A lightly constructed. papilio. 1478. "butterfly. Francesco Salviati. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. 1478).) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. pavilion (Lat. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. but not necessarily a direct copy. the crown of thorns. a small. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26.
concept or deity. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. personification (Lat. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "person". "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. pendant (Fr. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. pergola (It.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). in particular the face. perspicere. persona. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and facere. "hanging. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. perspective (Lat. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "to see through. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. . or related elements within an art work. "nature". The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. physis. and gnomon. physiognomy (Gk.
Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. affording a good subject for a landscape. proper to take a landscape from. exemplified. A pier is generally larger than a column. pigment (Lat. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. but full of variety.) The main floor of a building. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands.piano nobile (Ital. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Rome. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Peter's. . containing the public rooms. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. curious details. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. for example. both real and painted. to be expressed in painting. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. pigmentum. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Pietà (Lat. remarkable for singularity. usually above the ground floor. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. glue. or resin to make paint.
moreover. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. During 1348 the Black Death. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. pilastrum. such as Florence and Genoa. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. since. in October 1347. though in less widespread. also used in Spain's American colonies. outside Tuscany. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. more sporadic outbreaks. a shaft. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. perhaps. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. "pillar") A flat. For this reason. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. despite regional variations. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and capital. and thereafter all Europe. It seems probable. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. Thenceforward. It is often fluted. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). however. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Rocco and Sebastian. plague Plague. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. for instance. the burning of 'infected' clothing. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. it has a base.pilaster (Lat. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. In the 15th century. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. it is difficult to find. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith.
termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. utilized Mudejar ornament -.. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The second phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Diego evolved a purer. the Symposium. harmonious. like its successor. or appropriateness. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. placement. or simply the Plateresque. The first phase. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. the Renaissance-Plateresque.e. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). are the masterworks of the second style. which lasted only a few decades. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. correct classical orders became frequent. more severe. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Philebus. Phaedrus. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Timaeus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. heraldic escutcheons. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. In contrast with Aristotle. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Phaedo. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. and sinuous scrolls. A student of Socrates. i. composition.
all of which he also translated into Latin. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. A new Latin translation. and the Chaldaic Oracles. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. and Agostino Steuco (c. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Rather unsystematic. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. partially. 1472-c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Plotinus. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484).in Plato's thought.1577) becoming particularly popular. Iamblichus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. and he utilized many other writings. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. systematized and added to what Plato had done. including those of Plotinus. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Unlike the case of Aristotle. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. replaced Ficino's. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. near Florence. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. but not completely. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople.
Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. plinthos. plinth (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. such as processions and consecrations. Lat. portico (Lat. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pointed arch In architecture. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. porticus. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pluvial (Med. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. column. pluviale. as in classical architecture). if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. poluptukhos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. or statue. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. polyptych (Gk. Plato was read in the universities. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. where a pectoral is used to close it. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints.
. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. flattened image. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. was revived in the 14th century. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the Carracci. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.e. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Mantua. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Colleoni. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Group portraits.sculptors such as Donatello. Venice). as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Campidoglio). Florence. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The equestrian portrait. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The realism of the clear. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. and the . psychologically more complex. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. and only a decorative accessory to form. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo Farnese). The 16th century portrait became generalized. Maria Novella. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. decorating whole rooms. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Cathedral) by Uccello. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Desiderio da Settignano. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Gattarnelata. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Siena. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. inessential. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. National Gallery). Florence (1486-90). 1328. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436.
was versed in classical and patristic . sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. not least those of statesmen and prelates. bishop of Chioggia. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The styles of S. Correggio. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. minatory exhortations. but 16th century ones were more cautious here." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. and. are not florid in style. As Poussin was a Frenchman. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The sermons of Visdomini. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. abrasive even.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. from the secular clergy. Savonarola and Musso." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. several of whom became bishops. bishop of Asti. however. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). 1494). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. primarily the mendicants. who had as their ideal masters Titian. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and Peter Paul Rubens. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. to discharge their preaching duties. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. of the sermon as an art form. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Fiamma's sermons. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Borromeo. bishops especially. Charles Le Brun.
presbytery (or choir) (Gk.rhetoric. among them Holman Hunt. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. prefiguration Typology .g. Millais and Rossetti. Naples).they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Because of the small size of predelle . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. and so forth. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. though often relatively very wide . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. tapestries. presbyterion "Council of Elders") .the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The New Testament references in these would. predella (It. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). however. Louis of Toulouse (1317. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.
again indicative of the purpose they served. proportion (Lat. Prix de Rome A scholarship. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. proportio. sculpture and architecture. 3. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. the golden section. The following are important: 1. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the Canon of Proportion. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. these highly finished drawings. profil perdu (Fr. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. 2. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Girardon. Fragonard. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. and Houdon among sculptors. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. and Ingres among painters and Clodion.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. which uses the square . so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. notably David. the quadrature. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. "evenness") in painting. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries.
a fifth = 2:3. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. one half the length of the other). harmonic proportions. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. provenance The origins of an art work. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries.as a unit of measurement. triangulation. putti sing. Rome. a fourth = 3:4. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. . putto (It. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. for example). Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. It was common in Roman art. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Unlike Pozzo. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. the steward or treasurer of a church. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. and 5. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. 4. Ignazio. "boys") Plump naked little boys. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity.
or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. in which figures are almost detached from their background. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. hermits. In 16th century Europe. relief (Lat. in particular works by Masaccio. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. basso rilievo). the great orders of monks. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. with the Anglican Church developing in England. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Brunelleschi. relevare. canons regular. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Lat. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. refectory (Med. in which figures are seen half round. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.Quattrocento (It. Botticelli. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relicquiae. relic (Lat. also known as the Realist school. or the Jesuits. friars and nuns. Donatello. Among the . Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. the object of particular veneration. e.g. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Fra Angelico and others. and high relief (alto rilievo). or some item connected with a saint.
In 1517. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. although technically of secular canons. which was to become the main Italian one. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. it became the Cassinese congregation. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. however. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Salvatore. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. The Silvestrines. i. various groups were fused in the latter body. At the same time. the great patriarch of Venice. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. the most notable being S. and their more institutionalized brethren.e. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. After the repression of the Spirituals. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. That of S.contemplative orders. Padua. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Lucca. the Conventuals. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Mantua. S. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The same bull . Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. In 1504. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. 1012. Benedetto. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Giustina. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Maria di Fregonaia. Giorgio in Alga. Venice (1404). Founded by St Romuald c. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. presided over by chapters general. The Benedictines. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Bologna (1419). who had no overall organization originally. The Conventuals. and the generally moderate Observants. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. was the congregation of S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Bernardino of Siena. the great issue of contention being the strict observance.
The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Angela Merici. founded in 1535 by S. also. Venice. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Gerolamo Aemiliani. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Filippo Neri. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Gaetano da Thiene. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. founded by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. a historical period. the Theatines. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. however. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Michele in Isola. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. however. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th .provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. The first.
a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. increasingly. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. of arts. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of letters. For long. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. All-Roundness. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and.century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. of scholarship. too long forgotten glories. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. which had begun early in the 14th century. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Thereafter. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. however. and competition with. 1875-86). as well as political. . Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). culture was linked to personality and behaviour. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. even Amoralism. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. however. life. was so vast and potent. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of 'darkness'. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. the historical reality of antiquity. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. of an energetic revival of interest in. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. and his own as potentially one of light. because its core of energy. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative.
the previous record . (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Though thus challenged. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. and is decorated with paintings.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). let alone a uniform. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. letters. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. subjective reason a term to be used with caution.erased. etc. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. The challenges are to be accepted. congruence between. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. statues. retables can be detached and. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. etc. though sometimes of metal. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. consist merely of a painting. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. especially in the High Gothic period. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. (3) There is not a true. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. mobilized nationalism. There was an early. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. It is for this additional. Cathedral of SaintBavon. sometimes. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. however. candlesticks. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism.) was the term chosen. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. gratefully. and mass media. later still to Genoa. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. of industrialization. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Ghent). in the more limited sense. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.with all its shabbiness . the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. and other liturgical objects. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance').
the St. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. rocaille (French. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Rococo A style of design. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.France. painting. Italy. As the name suggests. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). almost simultaneously. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. With the development of freestanding altars. however. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. literally. is a typical product.in the 11th century. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. . its mood lighthearted and witry. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). and architecture dominating the 18th century. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. and 'Romanesque'. the first style to achieve such international currency. Germany. like 'Gothic'. richly decorated with organic forms. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. rilievo (It. More usually. Spain . Originally commissioned in 976. Romanesque art. retables have become extinct. "relief") In painting. Louis XV furniture. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. in several countries . which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism.of St Mark in Venice.
Q. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Claude. In addition. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. van Heemskerk. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Piranesi. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Massys and M. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. . they maintained. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. stylized design representing an open rose.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rome. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. B. Pannini and Mengs. The aim of painting. the development of nationalistic pride. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. M. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Mabuse. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Orley. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. such as red ochre. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious.
Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. and Protestant churches. when it finally left the city it had devastated. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. holy orders. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. and impoverished. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. In the . and anointing of the sick. supported by lay confraternities. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Eastern independent. Many compositions were anonymous. gutted. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic.greatly increased. the Eucharist. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. penance. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. There were no limits on time. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Sacra Conversazione (It. glance and movement . confirmation. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. but others were the work of well-known figures. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Orthodox. from the Old and New Testaments. Subjects were nominally sacred. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and Lorenzo de' Medici. matrimony. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. local saints. Written primarily in ottava rima. Clement escaped into Castel S.expressed through gesture. pious legend and hagiography. multiple sets used in succession.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84).
when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. sacraments. and sacraments. the sun of righteousness. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Anglican.. The theology of the Orthodox Church. chapter 13. that the price of salt should be increased. the Rocca Paolina. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . as in the Church of the Brethren. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Thus. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. The chief focus of discontent. the Bentivoglio. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Immediately following baptism. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology..e. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. large room. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.e. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. the symbolic direction of Christ. strictly speaking. the Orthodox Church does not. It is still practiced on special occasions. was not maintained as a sacrament. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. They were still seeking aid. baptism and the Eucharist.) Hall. make such strict distinctions. replaces the Lord's Supper." which are called sacramentals. in principle. foot washing. Candidates first face west.i. Salt War. was buried under a new fortress. The classical Protestant churches (i. and then face east. Saracens . Lutheran. as an excuse to revolt. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. which in the Gospel According to John. notably from Florence and in Germany.early church the number of sacraments varied." sala (Ital. Hence. used for drawing. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.
Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. are lost. 360 . and many others. whose writings. wood or terracotta.c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). legs and horns of a goat.c. sarcophagi (Gk. satyr In Greek mythology. pl. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 270 BC). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . sarcophagus. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. made of stone. The publication of Latin (1562. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 45 BC). the god of wine. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 160 . along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 210 AD). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). the Arabs or Muslims. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Little known in the Middle Ages.During the Middle Ages.
Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. being Frenchmen. 1386) and his son Ladislas. on one side. and. most of whom. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). for. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. who recognized the Roman pope. but with little effect. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. scholasticism . This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. from time to time both he and his opponents. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. However. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. was called Bamboccio. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. In northern Italy. the Florentines. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). while devout Christians agonized. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Alexander V. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy.they had individual Bentnames . with France and her allies Aragon.for example Pieter van Laer. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. who had the support of the Avignon pope. on the other. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. As a result. Louis I (d. Charles III of Durazzo (d. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. than their medieval predecessors. Schism. while England. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. in June 1409. one of the early leaders.
Often called the burning ones. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio).) . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. textual scholarship. None the less. Christian. Padua. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. on one side. the plaster had to be damped before painting. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.were different from those of medieval. (See also: fresco. and Islamic literature. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. notably Aquinas. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. because the secco technique is much less permanent. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. if lime-water was used. Medieval scholars. moreover. that scholasticism was left. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). As such. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. as it is easier to add details in this way. and theology.moral philosophy.The term is ambivalent. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. history and rhetoric . it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. Serenissima (Ital. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. as it were. university-based study. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought.
Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Signoria (It. at the same time. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sfumato A technique. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. which were all identical in thickness. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. usually presided over by individual families. and the delicate. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. there was only one Sibyl. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. sibyls (Gk. "prophetess") In antiquity. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Sibyls foretold the Birth. Originally. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sinopia . in use since the Middle Ages. term. sibylla. in the period of classical antiquity. Lat. In Christian legend. brass. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.. Med. the number gradually rose to ten. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Servite (Lat. women who could prophesy. They first appear in alpine monasteries.
"mark. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Francis of Assisi. and. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. staffage This word. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. as the name implies. stigmata.'Beautiful Madonnas'. stigma (Gk.. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). sotto in sù (It. It is very closely related to International Gothic.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. Stanze (Ital. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. especially in the flow of drapery. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. sing. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. in other words. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. pronounced as French. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. soffit (Lat. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. brand. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.) Wooden ceiling decoration. Ital. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. . hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .
Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. pl. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. with that for the Picturesque. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. studiolo. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. whose verses actually fabrications . Indeed. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). both external and internal. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. studioli (It. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). stucco A type of light. John Milton. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. In a looser sense. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. supremacy . The vogue for the Sublime.
into Italy. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk).e. . was being decorated with frescoes. doubtless. These were imported. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The subject is underexplored.Historically. 1407). the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. both for panel painting and fresco. London. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. chiefly from Flanders. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. then being replaced by oil paint. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. temperare. or cartoons. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . But the Italians did not make them. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. Salviati and Allori. and in literature.and. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. tempera (Lat. his own headquarters. i.
though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. figure of speech. and profile. tondi (It. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. and sculptures. vessels.terracotta (It. topiary (Gk. topos. i. and later to subdivide gable ends. walls. "a commonplace") In literature. theme or motif. terraferma (Ital. in art. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. pl. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. pl. and other surfaces. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. Trajan's Column . the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). triumphal arch. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. quarter face. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topia.e. "fields. widely used form. topoi (Gk. in the architecture of ancient Rome. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. model. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tondo. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes.
in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. behind it. trinitas. or wings. Early triptychs were often portable.' Before it go the apostles. death. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. the wars by which they were won . added to the glamour of the triumph. as it were. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. tryptychos. of virtues and of the arts. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. "threefold") A painting in three sections. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. beside it the army of martyrs. the military triumph became sublimated. Battista Sforza.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. patriarchs and prophets. fame.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Meanwhile. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. chastity. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. into a number of less controversial forms. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Disseminated soon after his death. after 'a countless number of virgins. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . usually an altarpiece.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. "threefold") in Christianity. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the Son and the Holy Spirit. time and eternity. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Trinity (Lat. . The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. a car so brave'. of both sexes'. triptych (Gk. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.
tromp l'oeil (Fr. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. tympanum (Lat. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. typology . marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. It incorporates Renaissance features.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. In medieval architecture. Dating from classical times. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Tudor An obscure Welsh family. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tusche A thick. through various naturalistic devices. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. first recorded in 1232. "drum") In classical architecture. it is usually decorated with carvings. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. often decorated with sculptures. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. enclosed by an arch. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. viscous black ink.
killer of Holofernes. each had access to his paintings. 1610). 1590-1624). slayer of Goliath.A system of classification. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. In Christian thought. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. e. lanterns. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Judith. U uomo universale (It. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and David. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). such as five works devoted to the senses. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano.) The Renaissance "universal man". especially his half-length figural groups. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor.g. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). where they were most accessible. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. The numerous candles. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. knew his former patrons.Dirck van Baburen (c. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. . Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. were popular with them also. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.
with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. and the rib vault. it was used to decorate furniture. often gold. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. overturned vessels. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Vespers (Lat. a work's richness of subject matter. There are a wide range of forms. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. V vanishing point In perspective. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. hour-glasses and clocks.). vesper. mixed in. guttering candles. Also varietas (Lat. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. "evening") . Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. the groin vault. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. varietà (It. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. vanitas (Lat. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. Parisian craftsmen. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. snuff boxes and other objects. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault.
"not exposed to winds". for example. Hope. vimperga Of German origin. actual or latent. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Vestibule (Lat. in which the word signifies efficacy. Anger. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Gluttony. Covetousness.Prayers said in the evening. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. pl. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Charity. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vestibulum. vite (Lat. vita. the church service at which these prayers are said. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. virtù could be used. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Lust. Temperance. Fortitude. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Envy. and Justice. if you have it not'. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. and Sloth. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. In ancient Roman dwellings. "life") . 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Prudence. The seven Virtues were: Faith. 'Assume a virtue.
provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. those of Volterera. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559.An account of someone's life and work. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. 1482-84). scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. a biography. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. The wars from 1494 do. 1478-80. Sculptors and Architects"). usually when a prayer for good fortune. published in 1550 and 1568. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. and of Ferrara. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before.g. in fact. 1472. protection from harm. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. or recovery from illness has been made. Vitruvius Pollio. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. they were from the 18th century . W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and appalled recognition of. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Marcus (1st cent.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually restorers. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. It was intended to have a variety of functions. pompous on the floor above. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. based on stylization of various animal forms. a philosophy of life. "world view") A comprehensive world view. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. "Western work of art". X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. Westwerk German word. . leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. during its subsequent history. woodcut A print made from a wood block. usually linear. gallery.Weltanschauung (Gr. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist.