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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. arcade (Lat. roofed with a half-dome. and Rouault. but in essence the process is as follows. or organization. architectonic (Gk. the darker the tone). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arcus. Also known as an exedra. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In Greek and Roman literature. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. piers or pillars.A semicircular projection. which is fused to the plate by heating. the lowest part of the entablature). and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. arkhitektonikos. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Lancet and Tudor. "architectural") Relating to structure. . There are several variants of the technique. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the moulding around a window or door. Degas. architrave (It. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Picasso. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. at the east end of a church behind the altar. The adjective is apsidal.e. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. including Goya. design.
attributum. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. usually a saint. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . archeiu.archivolt (Ital. dominate. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine." from Gk. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "begin.and the Comedy .are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. "golden. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. In the case of martyrs. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. aureole (Lat. "front arch. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. aureolus. archivolto. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Dante's Vita nuova . Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: ." and Lat. attribute (Lat. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. voltus. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.
Bambocciati Group of relatively small. often anecdotal. 'Captivity'. or baldacchino (It. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. in 1377. paintings of everyday life. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. baldachin. who had been residing in France since 1305. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. that of Cardano. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Later. The actual move was made in 1309. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). All the popes elected at Avignon were French. the god of wine and fertility. Six pontificates later. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. applied to the physically . which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411.
circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Lebanon. and Epiphany. As eight follows the "complete" number. Pentecost. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Parma. or canopy. built by Sixtus III. Baalbek. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. or forecourt. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Customarily. AD 273. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Croatia]. banderuola. of the church and were often large and richly decorated.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). banderole (It. and abject filthy things. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. seven. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. pope between 432 and 440." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. such as those at Pisa.. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. and Poitiers. set beneath a domical ciborium. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. el Kantara. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. and Nocera in Italy. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. France. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Alg. or connected with. a visual metaphor for the number eight. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. AD 300). Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. the Temple of Venus. beggars in rags. a baptistery was roofed with a dome.. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Easter. Spalato [Split. Florence. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. a church. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism.g. . The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.
and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Jean-François Millet (French. "king's hall") a church building. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Rubens). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Baroque (Port. Théodore Rousseau (French. and (3) everyday realism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. which is reserved for the clergy. something of earlier symbolism survives. Constant Troyon (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. 1807-1876). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur.In the 10th century. baptisteries. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. barocco. 1814-1875). basilica (Gk. or baptismal chapels. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. usually facing east. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. in the 1840s and 1850s. stoa basilike. in its usual location near the church door . Jules Dupré (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Vermeer). 1810-1865). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and increasingly elaborate decoration. and thus a church. however. 1796-1875). southeast of Paris. 1811-1889). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1817-1878). the dramatic use of light and shadow. Also tunnel vault. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. achieved through scale. Originally. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. . Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In architecture. were often omitted entirely.
domesticity.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Book of Hours . Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. especially Spanish.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. or which is to be left as it is. as is to be expected. however. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). biscuit Unglazed ceramic. such as Waldmüller. were referred to by their specific contents. 1650 in Spain. like their Dutch counterparts. It takes its name from its grainy texture. bodegón Image. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. in which still-life predominates. Bodegónes. Biscuit porcelain. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. such as those by Diego Velázquez. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. also incorrectly called bisque. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. The term was mainly used up to c. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. and often sentimentality. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. There were. which is either not yet glazed. particularly porcelain. Spanish still-lifes. up until the mid-17th century. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. By association. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. often with food and drink. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves).
usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts .an advantage over marble sculpture. coppery red. varying from silverish to a rich. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. bozzetto(Italian. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. though these are more often called 'modelli'.by a variety of processes. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and the fact that it is easily workable . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. made as a study for a larger picture. See flying buttress. Chantilly). . days of the week. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. a rapid sketch in oil. but can also be used for painted sketches. durability. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. months. or seasons. bozzetto Strictly speaking. By extension.both hot and cold .
a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. caisson (Fr. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. private room where works of art. Among its most distinctive products were icons. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). which was often allegorical. its forms highly stylized. manuscript illuminations. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. "a chest. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. notable from Syria and Egypt.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. and Giotto. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. C cabinet A small. box") In architecture. camera obscura . Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. casson. Duccio. mosaics. cameo Small relief made from gems. and work in precious metals. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. glass. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). It also served to glorify the emperor. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. ceramics.
capital (Lat. candela. candlestick. which isolates the fabric from the paint. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. and jute. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace." and the earliest versions. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. usually decorated. other materials used are cotton. usually built beside or attached to a church. usually in a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). only very rough effects will be obtainable. candelabrum (It. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports.) A gallery for singers or musicians. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. capitellum. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. followed by smaller and even pocket models. dating to antiquity. candelabra. as an aid to drawing.-N.Ancestor of the photographic camera. Structurally. campanile Bell tower. cantoria. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. Niepce created photography. both of which have richly carved marble panels. by the 16th century. usually with several branches or arms. pl. "candle") A large. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. which was usually whitened. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. sing. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. Portable versions were built. cantorie (It. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. . The Latin name means "dark chamber. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. hemp.
the endeavour to attain true humanity. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. In fresco painting. cartone. Carthusian Order (Lat. cardinalis. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. near Grenoble. or a motto. tapestry. cartouche . Carmelites (Lat. cartellini In a painting.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . or fresco. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartellino. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. details of the subject. Fortitudo (Fortitude). the date of the painting. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). At the height of the Middle Ages. the Carmelites were originally hermits. New Charterhouses. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. pl. and humanism.a humorous drawing or parody. The order combines reclusive and community life. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartoon (It.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St.both Italians and artists from other countries .
or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). . taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. They contained the bride's clothes. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. linen.toward the setting sun. These lead up to the north and south transepts.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. or arms of the cross. castello (It. The main body. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. a cathedral always faces west . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. In the 15th century. decorated with gilt gesso. putti (cupids). this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. For reasons lost to time and tradition. palace. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. and swags of fruit and flowers. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. caryatid (Gk.) "castle". Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. or nave. Paolo Uccello. Cascina. and many other items of her dowry. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. they were also used in other countries. cassone (It. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. cathedral (cathedra. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. The altar is placed at the east end.
as celestial attendants of God. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. "in the centre". Relative to the observer. a throne bearer of the deity. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. landscapes. a celestial winged being with human.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Both the statement of St. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. centralis. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. rather than intercessory functions. champlevé (Fr. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. Christian. and perspicere. buildings and figures that are being depicted. . central perspective (Lat. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. animal. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. or birdlike characteristics. in accordance with their distance from the observer. and Islamic literature. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. continually praise him. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist.
Hans Burgkmair (1510). which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. or for choral singing. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. choir (Gk. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. North of the Alps. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land.chiaroscuro (It. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. choros. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. Lastly. the Order of the Hospital of St. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. "light dark") In painting. Since Carolingian times. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). replacing tempera. When the contrast of light and dark is strong.
became the most common motif. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Sculpted clouds. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. balustrades. Very few still exist in their original positions. and the Churrigueresque column. gilded rays. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The Transparente (completed 1732). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. and repetition of pattern. undulating cornices. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). undulating lines. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. which was shaped like an inverted cone. a massing of carved angels. and garlands. reversed volutes. is as typically Churrigueresque. an architect. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano.intersect). The Mexico cathedral (1718). In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. stucco shells. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. ciborium . further enriching the style. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that.
the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. beaters. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Quattrocento (1400s. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino.and post-medieval Italy. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. The new government. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. controlled by the minor guilds. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. who were raised to the status of a guild. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. or achieve political representation. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. High Renaissance). revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Their economic condition worsened. including the ciompi. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Without being members of a guild. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. on July 22. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. the wool carder Michele di Lando. but self-employed. as also were those in the associated. ciompi. Members of the lower classes. Then. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. placing one of their members. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. In reaction to this revolutionary . craft of dyeing. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. etc. combers.
clair-obscur (Fr. philosophy. Concepts of the classical. with Italian scholars. and politics. the ciompi guild was abolished. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. In the 15th century Greek literature. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. .episode. however. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. philosophy and art . and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. the black contours usually with a special line plate.) An ancient musical instrument. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). resembling a lyre. writers.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. on which strings were plucked. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. changed greatly from one period to the next. literature. editing and translating a wide range of texts. except in cases where . cithara (Gk. scholars patiently finding. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity).
sing. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. pl. concetto. when set side by side. blue and orange. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. as well as from the Bible. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. cognoscente (It. cognoscenti. arch or ceiling. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. a work's underlying theme. occasionally made of wood. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. condottiere. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. pl. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. those with refined tastes. The name was derived from the condotta. compline (Lat. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Coffered ceilings. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. concetti (It. Green and red. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottieri (It.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. . intensify one another. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. or "contract. terrorized the country. [hora] completa. literature or music.
By the end of the 14th century. Mark (1432). Carmagnola.devastating Romagna. in the service of Naples. convents of convertite. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. primarily for syphilitics. in Venice. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Muzio's son. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. who won control of Milan in 1450. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. which spread in the 15th century. often called compagnie or. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. i. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Spanish. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. With no goal beyond personal gain. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Umbria. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. i. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. and German--the condottieri. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. or with the spiritual assistance of. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Martino). in the service of Perugia. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. disappeared. scuole. . these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Francesco Sforza. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. often under the direction of.e. confraternities Confraternities. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. Less fortunate was another great condottiere.e. flagellant confraternities. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Toward the end of the 15th century. By the 16th century. and Tuscany. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. clergy.
e. however. Later. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Dorotea in Trastevere. notwithstanding their location. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the Florentine Neri. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). in Florence. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. while the Venetian government. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. reformed prostitutes. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. flat outlines. 1514 in S. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic.e. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Confraternities. which accompanied condemned prisoners. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor.g. but sometimes had their own premises. In medieval painting. While the Doge ranked above the Council. contours were initially regular. contrapposto (It. e.g. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contour. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .i. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. and refuges for maidens. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. founded c. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. contour (Fr. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate.
Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas.weight on one leg. cuprum. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. large cornice or other feature. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. corbel In architecture. did not achieve any lasting results. declining moral standards. an engraving produced in this way. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. aes cyprium. a bracket of stone. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Lat. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Reform programs. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. . who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. conventiculurn. The style spread as far as England. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventicle (Lat. 1100 and 1300. whose names are inscribed on several works. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. They are often ornamented. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. 1280). brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society.
or "scourged. a small dome. "small vat") In architecture. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Constantine the Great. reedy sound. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. cupola (Lat. i. There were various methods of performing the execution.e. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. a semi-circular vault. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. D dado . usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Seleucids. the condemned man. after being whipped. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. the first Christian emperor. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. particularly among the Persians. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Death. cupula. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Next. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Usually. the most famous victim of crucifixion. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Jews. Carthaginians. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. An ancestor of the oboe. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.
Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. danse macabre The dance of death. Anglican and Orthodox churches. diptychos. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. disegno (It. deacon (Gk. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Passau. Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. and Linz possessed common characteristics. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. diptychum. diakonos. which was help to be the basis of all art. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. usually in matching pairs. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. often an altarpiece. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. e. diptych (Lat. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Germany.g. Deësis (Gk. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. an expressive use of nature. "drawing. design") In Renaissance art theory. but the concept behind an art work. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. The term stresses not the literal drawing. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. decorated diffrently from the upper section. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg.
and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Dominicans (Lat. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue.fully realize. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Ordo Praedictatorum. donor (Lat. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. when painters took to working out of doors. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. distemperare. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. a 19th-century invention. such as we still use today. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. is a heavy piece of furniture. "to mix. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). dome in architecture. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. though a few artists. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. formerly worn under armour. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. also used it on canvas. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. The studio easel. donator. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). doublet A male garment.Thomas Aquinas. which runs on castors or wheels. distemper (Lat. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c.
forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. "word") . whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. epitaph (Gk. eschaton. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. Ecce Homo (Lat. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. sometimes combining panel painting. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. fresco. sculpture. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. ensemble (Fr. and the cornice. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. eschatology (Gk. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. John (19. en face In portraiture. bound and flogged. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. entablature In classical architecture. Hence. and architecture. and logos. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. in art. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. full face. a depiction of Jesus. the frieze. It consists of the architrave. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "last". 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds.
Vittoria Colonna. and is named for Faenza. Spain. which was developed in the Near East ca." and that made in the Netherlands and England. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Germany. Eucharist (Gk. Saints Ambrose. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. and Scandinavia. which is called "delftware. Marcantonio Flaminio. and of the last things. Contarini. "good. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. notably Cardinal Pole. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. particularly ware made in France. fields and livestock. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. . convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Italy." and charis. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. farmers. eu. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world.death and resurrection. 4500 BCE. which is called "maiolica. Giovanni Morone. Augustine. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Jerome. celebrated with bread and wine. which was famous for maiolica. Equated with the Greek god Pan. protector of shepherds.
The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. drying to a slightly different tint. leaves. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. such as plague. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. 2 . fresco (It. can in time be seen. that of the others red.8). well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. and flowers suspended in a loop. a swag. and these areas. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Only a small area can be painted in a day. relaxed. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. sword and set of balances. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). war. fluted of a column or pillar. black and dun. The colour of his horse is white. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. famine and death.festoni (It. frescos in Italy . a technique known as a secco fresco. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Committed to charitable and missionary work. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Their attributes are the bow.
landscape and portraiture. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. usually childish figure. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. or true fresco. a person's invisible tutelary god. The technique of buon fresco. where the atmosphere was too damp. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. In art from the classical period onwards. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. for example. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. or fresco secco. both in churches and in private and public palaces.Save in Venice. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Final details. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. the intonaco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). G Garter. are genres of painting. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. genre In a broad sense. covings and ceilings. Genius in classical Rome.
where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Gobelins . and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Maso di Banco. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. As such.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. whether it must be connected with the public good. how it differed from notoriety. Bernardo Daddi. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. and as spurring on men of action. Maria Gloriosa). The nature of true gloria was much discussed. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. in portraits and on tombs. as well as writers and artists. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness.
In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). golden section (Lat.French tapestry manufactory. In other Italian cities. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. who appointed Lebrun Director. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. thereafter it made only tapestries. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Paris. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Golden Fleece. still in existence today. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. This ratio is approximately 8:13. . In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. and although it reopened in 1699. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art.
1200 and c. The artistic.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. In thinking of Nicola (d. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. from the 13th until the 17th century. like the cultural and commercial. There is a transcendental quality. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. In sculpture and in painting. Amiens. that the effects are to be felt. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. In particular. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Gothic Gothic. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. the superficial particularities of form. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. and lies much deeper than. Denis. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. . the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. painting. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). or the influence of one building. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. painting. c. Nevertheless. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. 1270. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ.
sometimes in the company of a tutor. chiefly to France. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. and taste among the English. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Klee. without visible brush marks.and hog-hair brushes. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. It is thinned with water for applying. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. the beau idéal of the French. starch. occasionally. Honey. .gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and Piranesi. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and the great style. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and above all Italy. and Morris Graves. if required. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Such tours often took a year or more. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. These qualities. Dubuffet. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. notably in the writings of Bellori. the Netherlands. to silk. to white or tinted paper and card and. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Pannini. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. genius. with sable. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Canaletto.
gris. then as now. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. and Waiblingen. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. drawing and the various forms of engraving. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. 1216. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Some writers. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. grisaille (Fr. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. which had recruited most of the merchant class. through central Italy. c. however. .graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. brother of Louis IX. after this. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. In Florence. including text as well as illustrations. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. From 1266 to 1268. became an abiding feature of European politics. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. In the context of the fine arts. Although its palace was rebuilt c. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. usually gray. to Provence and Paris. In another sense. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry.e. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. exclude drawing from this definition. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour.
and greater hostility between master and man. In 16th century Venice. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. goldsmiths. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In Florence. The guild also monitored standards of work. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. héraut. and provided assistance to members in need. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. or professions. "herald") . print or painting. In some towns. but in time they acquired other functions. trade or profession (painters. The guilds were not equal." from Fr. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. surgeons. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. trades. H hatching In a drawing. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. such as Brescia and Vicenza. as some did). In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. [science] héraldique.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. heraldry (Fr. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. Guilds were also patrons of art. In Italy they go back a long way. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. notably Florence in the 14th century. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. for example. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In some cities.
following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. together with brethren north of the Alps.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. d. while others merged with the Waldensians. By contrast. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. the Cathars were an anti-church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. they were condemned in 1184. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). the followers of Juan de Valdes. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The main impact of the . with the rules governing their use. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. indeed. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. normative for churchmen. the Waldensian. However. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. as Antichrist. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. one great missionary community. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. and regarded themselves as forming. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. head of the 'carnal Church'. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. from the start. i. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks.
American painters were studying in Rome. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Germany. working from 1825 to 1875. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. history (usually classical history). hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. Church. Henry Inman. Jasper Cropsey. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Thomas Cole. J. B. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Morse. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. humanus. In humanism. and classical literature. hortus conclusus (Lat. F. humanism (Lat. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. At the same time. F. Frederick E. my spouse'. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Durand. mainly in the south. George Inness. the emancipation of man from God took place. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. in his earlier work. and. S. Kensett. its subjects considered morally elevating.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Derived from classical rhetoric. the scourge that was used in the scourging.g. Donatallo. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. and they are also depicted on their own. Veronica. the veil of St. or of other saints. beautiful style. the rooster of Peter's denial. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. inventio (It. there are representations of the bundle of rods. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the ability to create. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). invention. with many further details added. the pincers. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Human figures. usually the donors of a work of art. For instance. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. investiture . Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. etc. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. soft style.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. The terms court style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. the hammer. are also used in art literature. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. it denominates a kind of behaviour. In the second half of the 14th century. originality. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. and the ladder.
its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. generally Dutch or Flemish. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. who traveled in Italy and. of Utrecht. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Upon his return to Holland. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jerome's writings. Andries and Jan Both. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. and Jan Asselijn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianizers Northern artists.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The Both brothers. . Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. although they are usually called Romanists. Both and Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. principally Dutch.
published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Legenda Aurea (Lat. liberal arts . they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Archbishop of Genoa. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. lectern A reading stand or desk. John of Jerusalem . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . especially one at which the Bible is read.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). encouraged by the Crusades.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. the rite of communion is based on this. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). As their military role grew.
loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. loggia (It. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Pythagoras for arithmetic. often sublime. painting or sculptural decoration. poetic atmosphere. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). commemorating a marriage. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Kensett (1816-1872). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). geometry. through the use of aerial perspective.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Maria Novella in Florence). Church (1826-1900).g. and Frederick E. its roof supported by columns. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. . together with identifying attributes (e. Martin J. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. "little moon") In architecture. first the preparatory trivium . Heade (1819-1904). lunette (Fr. astronomy and music. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. John F. a semicircular space. comprising arithmetic. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. that may contain a window. rhetoric and dialectic. the quadrivium. often standing in markets and town squares.g. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal.grammar. then the basis of a philosophical training. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. that could be used for public ceremonies. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Tubal for music). It is related to.
but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. originating in Italy in the 14th century. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. Specifically. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. being written. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. usually for the lute. historical subjects. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. magna mater (Lat. the goddess Cybele. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. "almond") . active mainly in Florence c. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). and iron red. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. madrigal A part song. mandorla (It. originally sung without accompaniment. particularly such ware produced in Italy. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). antimony yellow. copper green. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. "great mother") A mother goddess. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. 1855–65. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. and however bright their lighting effects. but they painted genre scenes. When white is used for painting. manganese purple. and portraits as well as landscapes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. for example. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and accompaniments. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. with secular texts replacing sacred ones.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters.
Developing out of the Renaissance. complex and crowded compositions. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. It reached to the knee or foot. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. strong. In architecture. and literary texts. "manner. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. often ornamented with decorative borders. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Flanders. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Bronzino. in a specific sense. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. In Mannerist painting. marked by flagellation. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Mannerism (It. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Parmigianino. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. worn open. El Greco and Tintoretto. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. and crowned with thorns. depending on the social class of the wearer. which was quarried at Mount . and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. the Codex manuscriptus. Burgundy. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. mantle An overcoat. maniera. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. more strictly. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. bound. the hand-written medieval book. ecclesiastical. illuminated initials and miniatures.
a large ornamental plaquc or disc. marmi finti (It. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). The pure white Carrara marble. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. having finished his training. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. particularly by Michelangelo. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. a different design on the reverse. an inscription running round the rim. Carrara. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. martyrdom (Gk.Pentelicon in Attica. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. sleek surface. quarried at Massa. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings. Without monetary value. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. medallion In architecture. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Like the finest Imperial coins. "witness. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. martyrion. which were beginning to be reverently collected. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere.
of the person portrayed on the other side. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. 1467-688). particularly. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. who reflected them. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. often anonymous. It was. c. The work of these men. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Medusa In Greek mythology. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. In pure mezzotint. supposedly to petrify her enemies. A Dutch officer. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. When Perseus cuts off her head. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Ludwig von Siegen. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. in England. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. 1425-1504). the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. and of the many. c. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. the stress on individual character. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 14601528). no line drawing is employed. . This yields a soft effect in the print. The process is essentially extinct today. perhaps oddly. for landscapes and portraits. 1640. 1452-1526/27).round the neck. Her head features on Minerva's shield. a Gorgon. as it were. even grain.
miter A high. monokhromatos. often quite highly finished. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Parmigianino (d. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. executed on a very small scale.g. pointed headdress worn by bishops. "one color") Painted in a single color. e. usually portraits. by Tiepolo and Rubens.. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. painting in gouache on vellum or card. still exist. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. Francis himself. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. monochrome (Gk. Many such small versions. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. "word. saying") . mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. a branch of the Franciscan order. a painting executed in a single color. motto (Ital. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. ink and paint.
The invention of personal mottos. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Isidore. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Rome. 1817-29). where they occupied the disused monastery of S. . idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and two other members moved to Rome. 1816-17. Nazarenes A group of young. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. navis. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder).from the Middle Ages. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. In 1810 0verbeck. and Casino Massimo. nave (from Lat. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. It may have parallel aisles on each side. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and is intersected by the transept. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Berlin. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. but often insipid. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. named after the patron saint of painting. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. In general. naturalism (Fr. Pforr. often separated from it by pillars. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages.
Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. moreover. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. niello (Lat. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. is as true as it is notorious. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. were usually old when elected. Nymphaeum (Gk. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. but their ideas continued to be influential. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nimbus (Lat. the style of the Ancien Régime.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. "aureole") The disc or halo.) . Popes. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. nigellus. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. usually golden. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.
The Corinthian order was the most ornate. the Doric order. observances") Rites performed for the dead. walnut. such as linseed. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and its greater tonal range. a more elaborate base. capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. obsequia. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. the three basic styles of design. and entablatures. The earliest. "services.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. or poppy. fluted column and a plain capital. Greek goddesses of Nature. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. was the simplest. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. with a sturdy. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. . original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. orders of architecture In classical architecture. inborn sin. O obsequies (Lat. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. its richness of colour. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. a small private chapel.
with biforate windows. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. standing at the foot of the Cross. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. palazzo (It. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and the main apartments above. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.g. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. P pala (Ital. Palazzo Strozzi). Alberti described the palace as a city in little. the Cancelleria). watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. while shops came to be thought undignified. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. designed as a . "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. and. tradition and social structure. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. like cities.
with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. came to be applied all over Europe. Movement of patrons and architects. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). originally evolved in response to specific conditions. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Palazzo Massimi). and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e.g. especially after the Sack of Rome. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. like the colonnaded vestibule. cornices and abutments. evolved influential types. Following Oriental patterns. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. and Palladio's in Vicenza. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Rich. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Other cities. often built next to their titular churches. Papal incentives to build. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes.g.scholarly retreat. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. column-caps. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). behind a sober Florentine façade. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). panel . and large households. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. like Genoa. palmette. e. In Venice. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning.
papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. including beech. A number of matters. Having a circular plan. cedar. the management of clerical dues and taxation. to influence popes in their favour. so that they might have a voice at court. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. as distinct from canvas. or other rigid substance. however. or the incidence of taxation. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. and the pressure and temptations . mahogany. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. and modern painters have also used plywood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies.Term in painting for a support of wood. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and walnut. secular rulers. fibre-board. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. enforce law and order. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. larch. Many other types were used. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). teak. fir.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Then. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. and other synthetic materials as supports. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and spanned by a single dome. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. On a larger scale. slate has occasionally been used as a support. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and dark walnut are favourites. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. As successors to St Peter. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. linden. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. as it were. the. The third aspect was administrative. chestnut. metal. In the 20th century cedar. To maintain their authority. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. olive.
in spite of further absences from Rome. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. would. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). which seems so inevitable. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. So onerous. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. however. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. There remained. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. possess an authority which. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. in the eyes of God. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). which met at Constance 1414-18. was long in doubt. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. To resolve the problem of divided authority. at Avignon. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. if it did no serious damage to the faith. from the point of view of its religious associations. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. could supersede that of a pope. the most appropriate .as well. however. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. By then. Colonna and Caetani. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. however. as such. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. As at Avignon. It was argued that such a council. to be long delayed.that could be applied to them. of individuals.
it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. nymphs. to a world peopled by shepherds. and satyrs.. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. scholars and men of letters.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Parrhasius (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. the creation of a cultural capital. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). However. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Passion . not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. in classical literature. less frequently pig. through lavish patronage of artists. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and with Zeuxis (c. pastor. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. as well as a governmental one. pastoral (Lat. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. it has also been used for painting. goat. 400-300 BC). 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and other animals. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths.
which focus on the Suffering Christ. and also the archbishop of Pisa. pastiche (fr. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. the crown of thorns. a prominent section of a monumental façade.) or pasticcio (It. 1478). Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Portrayals of the Passion. but not necessarily a direct copy. a region in north-central Italy. projecting either centrally or at both ends. wealthy citizen. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. "butterfly. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss.The events leading up to Good Friday. 1478. Francesco Salviati. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. a small. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. such as a garden summerhouse. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. . ornamental building. patrician (Lat. papilio. hence tent") A lightly constructed. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. patricius. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. Meanwhile. and so on. pavilion (Lat.
"hanging.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. and facere. physiognomy (Gk. or related elements within an art work. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. persona. physis. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "to see through. "person". "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. perspective (Lat. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. . perspicere. and gnomon. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. in particular the face. personification (Lat. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "nature". Peace of Augsburg A treaty. concept or deity. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). pendant (Fr. pergola (It. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. dependent") One of a pair of related art works.
It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. both real and painted. pigmentum. Rome. affording a good subject for a landscape. glue. curious details. usually above the ground floor. . proper to take a landscape from. A pier is generally larger than a column. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. but may consist of a cluster of columns. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Pietà (Lat. for example. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. remarkable for singularity. containing the public rooms. but full of variety.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. pigment (Lat. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Peter's. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.) The main floor of a building. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet.piano nobile (Ital. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. exemplified. to be expressed in painting. or resin to make paint.
moreover. pilastrum. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. in October 1347. In the 15th century. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. and capital. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. outside Tuscany. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). It seems probable. Rocco and Sebastian. the burning of 'infected' clothing. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. it is difficult to find. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. more sporadic outbreaks. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts.pilaster (Lat. Thenceforward. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. For this reason. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. "pillar") A flat. During 1348 the Black Death. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. such as Florence and Genoa. plague Plague. also used in Spain's American colonies. since. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). for instance. a shaft. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. it has a base. however. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. though in less widespread. It is often fluted. despite regional variations. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. perhaps. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. and thereafter all Europe.
surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Timaeus. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. and sinuous scrolls. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). or appropriateness. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. or simply the Plateresque. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. like its successor. are the masterworks of the second style. Phaedrus. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. composition. i. The second phase. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). correct classical orders became frequent. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character.e. which lasted only a few decades. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Philebus. and unified style using massive geometric forms. placement. In contrast with Aristotle. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. A student of Socrates. the Symposium. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The first phase. heraldic escutcheons. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. more severe. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Phaedo. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Diego evolved a purer. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. The first phase. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. harmonious. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.
though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. including those of Plotinus. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Iamblichus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. and the Chaldaic Oracles. replaced Ficino's. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'.1577) becoming particularly popular. and he utilized many other writings. and Agostino Steuco (c. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1472-c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. near Florence. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. systematized and added to what Plato had done. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Rather unsystematic. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. all of which he also translated into Latin. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Unlike the case of Aristotle. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. but not completely.in Plato's thought. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. partially. Plotinus. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century.
polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pointed arch In architecture. where a pectoral is used to close it. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . as in classical architecture). It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. column. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. poluptukhos. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. polyptych (Gk. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. plinth (Gk. Frequently supports a pediment. such as processions and consecrations. portico (Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. or statue. pluviale. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. plinthos. Lat. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Plato was read in the universities. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pluvial (Med. porticus.
based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. psychologically more complex. Mantua. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Gattarnelata. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. was revived in the 14th century. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The realism of the clear. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Campidoglio). Colleoni. The equestrian portrait. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553.sculptors such as Donatello. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Palazzo Farnese). include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Cathedral) by Uccello. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Florence. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris.e. National Gallery). Siena.. flattened image. Maria Novella. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Desiderio da Settignano. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. decorating whole rooms. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. 1328. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. inessential. Florence (1486-90). Venice). as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Group portraits. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. and only a decorative accessory to form. and the . The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. the Carracci. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers.
by contrast with the mendicant preachers. of the sermon as an art form. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and Peter Paul Rubens. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Charles Le Brun. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. abrasive even. Fiamma's sermons. As Poussin was a Frenchman. however. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Savonarola and Musso. Correggio. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. minatory exhortations. was versed in classical and patristic . who had as their ideal masters Titian. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). 1494). bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. The styles of S. bishop of Chioggia. from the secular clergy. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. together with the Dominican Savonarola. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. bishop of Asti.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. are not florid in style. not least those of statesmen and prelates. primarily the mendicants. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. and. The sermons of Visdomini. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. bishops especially. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Borromeo. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. several of whom became bishops. to discharge their preaching duties.
g.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. and so forth. however. among them Holman Hunt. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Naples). Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.rhetoric. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament .had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Millais and Rossetti. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Louis of Toulouse (1317. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. prefiguration Typology . the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Because of the small size of predelle . The New Testament references in these would. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). tapestries.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. predella (It. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. though often relatively very wide . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.
prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. Girardon. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. 3. which uses the square . Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. 2. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the Canon of Proportion. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The following are important: 1. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. the quadrature. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666).The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. and Houdon among sculptors. profil perdu (Fr. sculpture and architecture. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. notably David. the golden section. "evenness") in painting. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. these highly finished drawings. proportion (Lat. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. again indicative of the purpose they served. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. Fragonard. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. proportio.
quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. 4. the steward or treasurer of a church. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. putti sing. a fifth = 2:3. Rome. provenance The origins of an art work. Ignazio. harmonic proportions. and 5. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo.as a unit of measurement. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. triangulation. Unlike Pozzo. It was common in Roman art. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. putto (It. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. . for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. "boys") Plump naked little boys. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. a fourth = 3:4. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. for example). one half the length of the other). They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space.
refectorium) Monastic dining hall. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). hermits. in which figures are seen half round. Among the .g. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. relicquiae. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. relief (Lat. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or the Jesuits. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in particular works by Masaccio. In 16th century Europe. refectory (Med. e. relic (Lat. the object of particular veneration. the great orders of monks. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Brunelleschi. basso rilievo). relevare. friars and nuns. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Lat. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. and high relief (alto rilievo). Donatello. or some item connected with a saint. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. also known as the Realist school. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. with the Anglican Church developing in England. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. canons regular. Botticelli.Quattrocento (It. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Fra Angelico and others. in which figures are almost detached from their background. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century.
At the same time. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo.e. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. i. After the repression of the Spirituals. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Padua. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Salvatore. Giustina. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. their resources being in the hands of trustees. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery.contemplative orders. That of S. the most notable being S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the Conventuals. Mantua. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. although technically of secular canons. Lucca. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The same bull . Maria di Fregonaia. Venice (1404). Lorenzo Giustiniani. In 1517. was the congregation of S. The Benedictines. Founded by St Romuald c. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Bernardino of Siena. it became the Cassinese congregation. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. who had no overall organization originally. 1012. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. S. Benedetto. The Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. presided over by chapters general. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. which was to become the main Italian one. In 1504. and their more institutionalized brethren. and the generally moderate Observants. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Bologna (1419). however. various groups were fused in the latter body. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Giorgio in Alga. the great patriarch of Venice. The Silvestrines. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal.
S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Angela Merici. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. a historical period. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the Theatines. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. however. Venice. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Michele in Isola. Gaetano da Thiene. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. also. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Filippo Neri. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. founded by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. The first. founded in 1535 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. however. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Gerolamo Aemiliani. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18).
this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. because its core of energy. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Thereafter. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. and competition with. as well as political. and his own as potentially one of light. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. of an energetic revival of interest in. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. For long. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. . increasingly. was so vast and potent. of letters. of scholarship. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of arts. life. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. of 'darkness'. the historical reality of antiquity. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. All-Roundness. which had begun early in the 14th century. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long.century. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. however. 1875-86). 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. however. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. too long forgotten glories. even Amoralism. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride.
because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal.) was the term chosen. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.with all its shabbiness .erased. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. mobilized nationalism. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . especially in the High Gothic period. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. The challenges are to be accepted. and mass media. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. of industrialization. etc. etc. gratefully. candlesticks. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. and other liturgical objects. There was an early. It is for this additional. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. letters. later still to Genoa. consist merely of a painting. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Ghent). the previous record . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. sometimes. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (3) There is not a true. Cathedral of SaintBavon. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. congruence between. let alone a uniform. statues. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt').A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. and is decorated with paintings. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. though sometimes of metal. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. in the more limited sense. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Though thus challenged. however. retables can be detached and. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject.
Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century.France. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Louis XV furniture. like 'Gothic'. Originally commissioned in 976. . With the development of freestanding altars. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. and 'Romanesque'. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism.in the 11th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. rocaille (French. literally. Rococo A style of design. the St. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Italy. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. More usually. is a typical product. almost simultaneously. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. "relief") In painting. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Spain . and architecture dominating the 18th century. richly decorated with organic forms. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. the first style to achieve such international currency. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. in several countries . Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Germany. however.of St Mark in Venice. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. retables have become extinct. Romanesque art. its mood lighthearted and witry. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. As the name suggests. rilievo (It. painting.
and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Massys and M. Claude. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. van Heemskerk. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Mabuse. The aim of painting. stylized design representing an open rose. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. In addition. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. B.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. van Orley. M. Q. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the development of nationalistic pride. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. . The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Piranesi. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Pannini and Mengs. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. they maintained. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). such as red ochre. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rome. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution.
the Eucharist. when it finally left the city it had devastated. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Eastern independent. Subjects were nominally sacred. There were no limits on time. multiple sets used in succession. and impoverished. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Orthodox. and anointing of the sick. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Sacra Conversazione (It. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. confirmation. supported by lay confraternities.greatly increased. In the . Written primarily in ottava rima. Clement escaped into Castel S. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. holy orders. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. local saints. penance. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista.expressed through gesture. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. matrimony. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. pious legend and hagiography. and Lorenzo de' Medici. and Protestant churches. glance and movement . Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. from the Old and New Testaments. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. but others were the work of well-known figures. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Many compositions were anonymous. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. gutted. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).
as an excuse to revolt. the Orthodox Church does not. The chief focus of discontent. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Anglican. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. and then face east. replaces the Lord's Supper. Candidates first face west. large room. It is still practiced on special occasions. in principle. foot washing.i. Saracens . the Rocca Paolina.early church the number of sacraments varied.e. Lutheran. and sacraments. the Bentivoglio. They were still seeking aid." sala (Ital. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. that the price of salt should be increased. The theology of the Orthodox Church. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.e. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Hence. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. strictly speaking.. Immediately following baptism. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the sun of righteousness. as in the Church of the Brethren. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Thus.) Hall. used for drawing. the symbolic direction of Christ. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. sacraments. Salt War. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not." which are called sacramentals. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. was not maintained as a sacrament. chapter 13. baptism and the Eucharist. notably from Florence and in Germany. make such strict distinctions. was buried under a new fortress. which in the Gospel According to John. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. The classical Protestant churches (i.
wood or terracotta. whose writings. 160 . 360 . 210 AD). human-like woodland deities with the ears. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).c. pl. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. sarcophagus. 45 BC). the god of wine. and many others. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Little known in the Middle Ages. The publication of Latin (1562. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. made of stone. sarcophagi (Gk. the Arabs or Muslims.During the Middle Ages. are lost. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.c. 270 BC). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. satyr In Greek mythology. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. legs and horns of a goat. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy.
In northern Italy. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Schism. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. scholasticism . having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. while England. was called Bamboccio. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. on one side. Louis I (d. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. from time to time both he and his opponents. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. As a result. for.for example Pieter van Laer. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. who recognized the Roman pope. 1386) and his son Ladislas. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. one of the early leaders. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). with France and her allies Aragon. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. most of whom. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Alexander V.they had individual Bentnames . while devout Christians agonized. However. the Florentines. than their medieval predecessors. being Frenchmen. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. in June 1409. Charles III of Durazzo (d. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. but with little effect. who had the support of the Avignon pope. on the other. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. and.
notably Aquinas. Serenissima (Ital. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. that scholasticism was left. moreover. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.moral philosophy.were different from those of medieval. Often called the burning ones. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries.) . textual scholarship. history and rhetoric . were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. and theology. as it were. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. as it is easier to add details in this way. Christian. (See also: fresco. if lime-water was used.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Medieval scholars. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. As such. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). None the less. and Islamic literature. university-based study. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. the plaster had to be damped before painting. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. on one side. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God.The term is ambivalent. because the secco technique is much less permanent. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Padua.
They first appear in alpine monasteries. term. sibyls (Gk.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. "prophetess") In antiquity. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. at the same time. In Christian legend. there was only one Sibyl. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. in the period of classical antiquity. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. Sibyls foretold the Birth. usually presided over by individual families. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. which were all identical in thickness. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. sibylla. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. women who could prophesy. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Lat. and the delicate. "the most serene republic of Venice"). in use since the Middle Ages. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. sinopia . sfumato A technique. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. the number gradually rose to ten. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Originally. Signoria (It. Med. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Servite (Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. brass.
rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. pronounced as French. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. sing.'Beautiful Madonnas'. sotto in sù (It. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Francis of Assisi. especially in the flow of drapery. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms..) Wooden ceiling decoration. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. in other words. staffage This word. . spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). as the name implies. soffit (Lat. It is very closely related to International Gothic. brand. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Ital. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. stigma (Gk. stigmata. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. "mark. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Stanze (Ital. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. and.
The vogue for the Sublime.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. pl. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. whose verses actually fabrications . with that for the Picturesque. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. studioli (It.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. both external and internal. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). supremacy . and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. John Milton. In a looser sense. studiolo. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. Indeed. stucco A type of light. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.
e. chiefly from Flanders. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. The subject is underexplored. tempera (Lat. or cartoons. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. was being decorated with frescoes. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. These were imported. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. doubtless. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. London. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. i. and in literature. . 1407). graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. temperare. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. into Italy. his own headquarters. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.and.Historically. Salviati and Allori. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). both for panel painting and fresco. But the Italians did not make them. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. then being replaced by oil paint.
e. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. pl. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. theme or motif. vessels. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. and profile. figure of speech. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. and sculptures. in the architecture of ancient Rome. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tondi (It. "fields. terraferma (Ital. Trajan's Column . they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topiary (Gk. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "a commonplace") In literature. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. and other surfaces. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. i. topia.terracotta (It. triumphal arch. topoi (Gk. topos. widely used form. quarter face. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. pl. and later to subdivide gable ends. tondo. model. in art. walls. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted.
beside it the army of martyrs. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. time and eternity. . Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. of virtues and of the arts. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. tryptychos. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. patriarchs and prophets. after 'a countless number of virgins. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. or wings. chastity. the wars by which they were won . fame. into a number of less controversial forms. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. death. as it were. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. of both sexes'. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. the military triumph became sublimated. a car so brave'. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Trinity (Lat. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets.' Before it go the apostles. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. Meanwhile. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Early triptychs were often portable. added to the glamour of the triumph. "threefold") in Christianity. Disseminated soon after his death. usually an altarpiece. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Battista Sforza. triptych (Gk. behind it. "threefold") A painting in three sections. trinitas.
the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. viscous black ink. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). tympanum (Lat. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. tromp l'oeil (Fr. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. it is usually decorated with carvings. tusche A thick. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. through various naturalistic devices. typology . the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. "drum") In classical architecture. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. It incorporates Renaissance features. Dating from classical times. enclosed by an arch. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. often decorated with sculptures. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. first recorded in 1232. In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting.
.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.) The Renaissance "universal man". Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. were popular with them also. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). 1610). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and David. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). In Christian thought. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. especially his half-length figural groups. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. 1590-1624). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. U uomo universale (It. each had access to his paintings. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. such as five works devoted to the senses. The numerous candles. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. slayer of Goliath. lanterns. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. killer of Holofernes. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano.Dirck van Baburen (c. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).g. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. where they were most accessible. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). e. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Judith. knew his former patrons. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.A system of classification. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.
"variety") In Renaissance art theory. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. guttering candles. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Parisian craftsmen. "evening") . with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. it was used to decorate furniture. mixed in. carriages. and the rib vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade).). The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Vespers (Lat. often gold. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. V vanishing point In perspective. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. hour-glasses and clocks. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. snuff boxes and other objects. overturned vessels. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. There are a wide range of forms. Also varietas (Lat. vesper. varietà (It. the groin vault. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vanitas (Lat. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. a work's richness of subject matter.
'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Lust. actual or latent. Envy. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. and Sloth. Temperance. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. The seven Virtues were: Faith. vita. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. 'Assume a virtue. vimperga Of German origin. Vestibule (Lat. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Fortitude. In ancient Roman dwellings. Hope. Covetousness. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. in which the word signifies efficacy. "not exposed to winds". Gluttony. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha.Prayers said in the evening. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Anger. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Charity. Prudence. virtù could be used. if you have it not'. "life") . The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. for example. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. pl. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. the church service at which these prayers are said. and Justice. vite (Lat. vestibulum.
the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. and of Ferrara.An account of someone's life and work. The wars from 1494 do. 1482-84). a biography. 1478-80. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. those of Volterera.g. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. published in 1550 and 1568. in fact. or recovery from illness has been made. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1472. Sculptors and Architects"). votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. protection from harm. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. they were from the 18th century . came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. Vitruvius Pollio. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Marcus (1st cent. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. and appalled recognition of. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. usually when a prayer for good fortune. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. during its subsequent history. pompous on the floor above. a philosophy of life. usually linear. based on stylization of various animal forms. "Western work of art".Weltanschauung (Gr. . X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually restorers. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. Westwerk German word. gallery. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. It was intended to have a variety of functions. woodcut A print made from a wood block. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. "world view") A comprehensive world view. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed.
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