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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
but in essence the process is as follows. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. at the east end of a church behind the altar. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. or organization. . Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. including Goya. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. architectonic (Gk. In Greek and Roman literature. Lancet and Tudor. architrave (It. Also known as an exedra. "architectural") Relating to structure. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. arcade (Lat. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. There are several variants of the technique. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Picasso. the moulding around a window or door. design. Degas.e. the lowest part of the entablature). roofed with a half-dome. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and Rouault. the darker the tone). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. which is fused to the plate by heating. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. piers or pillars. arkhitektonikos. arcus.A semicircular projection. The adjective is apsidal. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. The term applies also to a print made by this method.
attribute (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "begin. "golden. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). attributum. usually a saint.and the Comedy . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . In the case of martyrs. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. aureole (Lat. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography ." and Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli." from Gk. archeiu. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archivolto. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "front arch. voltus. aureolus. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom.archivolt (Ital. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. dominate. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Dante's Vita nuova .
balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Later. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The actual move was made in 1309. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. baldachin. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. the god of wine and fertility. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. paintings of everyday life. who had been residing in France since 1305. in 1377. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Six pontificates later. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. or baldacchino (It. 'Captivity'. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). often anecdotal. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. that of Cardano. All the popes elected at Avignon were French.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. applied to the physically .
Croatia]. Lebanon. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches.. seven. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. the Temple of Venus. or canopy. banderole (It. such as those at Pisa. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. and abject filthy things. el Kantara. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. and Poitiers. As eight follows the "complete" number. AD 300). and Epiphany. a church. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Florence. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Parma. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. beggars in rags. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Customarily. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. a baptistery was roofed with a dome.g. built by Sixtus III. Alg. AD 273. or connected with. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Easter. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. . The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). set beneath a domical ciborium. France.. or forecourt. banderuola. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. pope between 432 and 440." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Spalato [Split. a visual metaphor for the number eight. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Pentecost. and Nocera in Italy. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Baalbek.
1812-1867) was the founder of the group. stoa basilike. Rubens). Théodore Rousseau (French. 1807-1876). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Originally. usually facing east. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. which is reserved for the clergy. In architecture. "king's hall") a church building. and thus a church.an allusion to entering the Christian life. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. or baptismal chapels. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Also tunnel vault. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. baptisteries. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. barocco. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. 1814-1875). and (3) everyday realism. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir.In the 10th century. something of earlier symbolism survives. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Constant Troyon (French. . southeast of Paris. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Vermeer). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Jean-François Millet (French. Baroque (Port. basilica (Gk. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. achieved through scale. 1810-1865). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. were often omitted entirely. in its usual location near the church door . Jules Dupré (French. 1811-1889). 1817-1878). however. in the 1840s and 1850s. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. 1796-1875). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.
especially Spanish. and often sentimentality. Biscuit porcelain. also incorrectly called bisque. By association. domesticity. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. or which is to be left as it is. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. such as those by Diego Velázquez. up until the mid-17th century. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. which is either not yet glazed. Spanish still-lifes. particularly porcelain.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Book of Hours . however. were referred to by their specific contents. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. bodegón Image. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Bodegónes. like their Dutch counterparts. often with food and drink. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. 1650 in Spain. such as Waldmüller. The term was mainly used up to c. in which still-life predominates. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). as is to be expected. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. There were. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th.
bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin.both hot and cold . bozzetto Strictly speaking. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. By extension. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. made as a study for a larger picture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture.by a variety of processes. a rapid sketch in oil.an advantage over marble sculpture. coppery red. but can also be used for painted sketches. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. bozzetto(Italian. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. varying from silverish to a rich. days of the week. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. Chantilly). a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. though these are more often called 'modelli'. or seasons. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. and the fact that it is easily workable . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. months. durability. See flying buttress.
casson. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. camera obscura . Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. It also served to glorify the emperor.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Duccio. which was often allegorical. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caisson (Fr. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). glass. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. ceramics. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. mosaics. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. private room where works of art. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. "a chest. box") In architecture. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. and work in precious metals. C cabinet A small. and Giotto. notable from Syria and Egypt. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. its forms highly stylized. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). cameo Small relief made from gems. manuscript illuminations.
followed by smaller and even pocket models." and the earliest versions. capitellum. Niepce created photography. capital (Lat. as an aid to drawing. usually in a church. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. only very rough effects will be obtainable. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. . campanile Bell tower. which was usually whitened. cantoria. cantorie (It. sing.-N. Structurally. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). by the 16th century. which isolates the fabric from the paint. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. pl. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and.) A gallery for singers or musicians. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. usually built beside or attached to a church. candelabra. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. and jute. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. hemp. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. candlestick. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J.Ancestor of the photographic camera. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. Portable versions were built. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. "candle") A large. dating to antiquity. usually with several branches or arms. other materials used are cotton. both of which have richly carved marble panels. candela. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. usually decorated. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candelabrum (It. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.
Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. monasteries containing separate hermitages. pl. cardinalis. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).both Italians and artists from other countries . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). The order combines reclusive and community life.a humorous drawing or parody. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. near Grenoble. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Fortitudo (Fortitude). and humanism. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. or fresco. the Carmelites were originally hermits. details of the subject. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the date of the painting. In fresco painting. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartellino. the endeavour to attain true humanity. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartouche . In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). New Charterhouses. or a motto. cartellini In a painting.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cartone. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Carthusian Order (Lat. tapestry. At the height of the Middle Ages.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. cartoon (It. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Carmelites (Lat.
Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. caryatid (Gk. where the throne of the bishop is placed. they were also used in other countries. The main body. Cascina. For reasons lost to time and tradition. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. or arms of the cross. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. cathedral (cathedra. palace. a cathedral always faces west . the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. In the 15th century.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. The altar is placed at the east end. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. They contained the bride's clothes. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. and swags of fruit and flowers. decorated with gilt gesso. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. and many other items of her dowry. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. cassone (It. . taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno.) "castle". battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. castello (It. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. or nave. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. putti (cupids). and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. linen. Paolo Uccello.toward the setting sun.
a celestial winged being with human. in accordance with their distance from the observer. and Islamic literature. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. central perspective (Lat. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. centralis. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. buildings and figures that are being depicted. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Christian. landscapes. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). . all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Both the statement of St. champlevé (Fr. "in the centre". An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Relative to the observer. rather than intercessory functions. a throne bearer of the deity.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. and perspicere. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. as celestial attendants of God. or birdlike characteristics. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. continually praise him. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. animal. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.
the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. Lastly. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. Hans Burgkmair (1510). In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. Since Carolingian times. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. choros. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choir (Gk. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). replacing tempera. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. the Order of the Hospital of St. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro.chiaroscuro (It. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. or for choral singing." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . North of the Alps. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. "light dark") In painting.
reversed volutes. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. ciborium . balustrades. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. gilded rays. and garlands. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The Mexico cathedral (1718). and repetition of pattern. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. further enriching the style. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Very few still exist in their original positions. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. undulating cornices. an architect.intersect). most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. is as typically Churrigueresque. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. became the most common motif. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Sculpted clouds. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. stucco shells. which was shaped like an inverted cone. undulating lines. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. a massing of carved angels. The Transparente (completed 1732). and the Churrigueresque column. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross.
popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. In reaction to this revolutionary . Without being members of a guild. controlled by the minor guilds. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. including the ciompi. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Quattrocento (1400s. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. The new government. ciompi. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. combers. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Then. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Members of the lower classes. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.and post-medieval Italy. craft of dyeing. as also were those in the associated. or achieve political representation. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. on July 22. Their economic condition worsened. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. who were raised to the status of a guild. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. High Renaissance). placing one of their members. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. They were forbidden to form a trade association. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. etc. the wool carder Michele di Lando. but self-employed. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. beaters.
and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. with Italian scholars. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. writers. . clair-obscur (Fr. changed greatly from one period to the next.) An ancient musical instrument. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. cithara (Gk. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). the black contours usually with a special line plate. editing and translating a wide range of texts. philosophy. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. resembling a lyre. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. Concepts of the classical. except in cases where . in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.episode. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. the ciompi guild was abolished. on which strings were plucked. philosophy and art . In the 15th century Greek literature. however. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).as in Italy these were dispensed with. literature. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. scholars patiently finding. and politics.
the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. condottieri (It. concetti (It. as well as from the Bible. Green and red. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. those with refined tastes. Coffered ceilings. or "contract. pl. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. literature or music. the church service at which these prayers are said. compline (Lat. sing. intensify one another. . Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. arch or ceiling." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. terrorized the country. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. cognoscente (It. The name was derived from the condotta. a work's underlying theme. concetto. [hora] completa. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. occasionally made of wood. blue and orange. condottiere. when set side by side. cognoscenti.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. pl. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company.
and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. in Venice. commonly called either Compagnia di S. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Umbria. By the 16th century. primarily for syphilitics. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. confraternities Confraternities. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. flagellant confraternities.e. in the service of Perugia. often called compagnie or. . (2) Confraternite del Rosario. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. i. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. often under the direction of. in the service of Naples. Spanish. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri.devastating Romagna. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. clergy. i. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. which spread in the 15th century. Mark (1432). convents of convertite. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. disappeared. scuole.e. who won control of Milan in 1450. With no goal beyond personal gain. Francesco Sforza. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. By the end of the 14th century. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Carmagnola. Martino). developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. and German--the condottieri. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Muzio's son. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. and Tuscany. Toward the end of the 15th century. or with the spiritual assistance of. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260.
Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. founded c. In medieval painting. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . however. flat outlines. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). Confraternities.i.g. in Florence. while the Venetian government. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. e. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. reformed prostitutes. contour. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. e. Dorotea in Trastevere. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. contours were initially regular. 1514 in S. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. which accompanied condemned prisoners. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contrapposto (It. contour (Fr. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. but sometimes had their own premises. the Florentine Neri. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. and refuges for maidens. notwithstanding their location.g. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. While the Doge ranked above the Council. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Later.e.
aes cyprium. Reform programs. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. cuprum. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. conventicle (Lat. conventiculurn. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. corbel In architecture. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. . "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull.weight on one leg. The style spread as far as England. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. 1100 and 1300. started the process of inner reform in the Church. did not achieve any lasting results. whose names are inscribed on several works. an engraving produced in this way. large cornice or other feature. 1280). the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. declining moral standards. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Lat. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. They are often ornamented. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. a bracket of stone.
crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Jews." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Constantine the Great. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the first Christian emperor. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Seleucids. the condemned man. a small dome. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. particularly among the Persians. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Carthaginians. cupola (Lat. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. out of veneration for Jesus Christ.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. There were various methods of performing the execution. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. "small vat") In architecture. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. or "scourged. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. after being whipped. the most famous victim of crucifixion. D dado .e. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. An ancestor of the oboe. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Death. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. a semi-circular vault. i. reedy sound. Next. cupula. Usually.
Deësis (Gk. a favorite late medieval picture subject. an expressive use of nature. diptych (Lat. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities.g.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. but the concept behind an art work. danse macabre The dance of death. often an altarpiece. design") In Renaissance art theory. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Germany. deacon (Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. diptychum. e. diakonos. diptychos. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. disegno (It. Gk. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Passau. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. decorated diffrently from the upper section. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. usually in matching pairs. "drawing. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Anglican and Orthodox churches. The term stresses not the literal drawing. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never .
such as we still use today. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . distemper (Lat. "to mix. which runs on castors or wheels. distemperare. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. The studio easel. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Ordo Praedictatorum. doublet A male garment. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Dominicans (Lat. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. a 19th-century invention. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions.Thomas Aquinas. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). donator. is a heavy piece of furniture. dome in architecture. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. when painters took to working out of doors. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. donor (Lat. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages.fully realize. usually forming a ceiling or roof. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. also used it on canvas. formerly worn under armour. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). though a few artists.
entablature In classical architecture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Hence. fresco. bound and flogged. eschaton. and logos. Ecce Homo (Lat. and the cornice. "word") . full face. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. a depiction of Jesus. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. in art. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. ensemble (Fr. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. sculpture. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. epitaph (Gk. John (19. the frieze. It consists of the architrave. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "last". eschatology (Gk. en face In portraiture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. and architecture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. sometimes combining panel painting.
notably Cardinal Pole.death and resurrection. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. which was developed in the Near East ca. Saints Ambrose. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Germany. protector of shepherds. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Equated with the Greek god Pan. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. farmers. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and is named for Faenza. 4500 BCE. Contarini. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. which is called "delftware. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. eu." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Augustine. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. and also to Giulia Gonzaga.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. . which was famous for maiolica. which is called "maiolica. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Eucharist (Gk. and Scandinavia. It developed in France in the early 16th century." and charis. Italy. Marcantonio Flaminio. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Vittoria Colonna. Spain. Carnesecchi and Ochino." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Giovanni Morone. fields and livestock. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. and of the last things. Jerome. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. celebrated with bread and wine. particularly ware made in France. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. "good.
The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. leaves. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. war. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. fresco (It. fluted of a column or pillar. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. and flowers suspended in a loop. that of the others red. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. The colour of his horse is white. drying to a slightly different tint. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. and these areas. a swag. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. relaxed. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. 2 . frescos in Italy . black and dun. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Only a small area can be painted in a day. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. such as plague. Their attributes are the bow. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. a technique known as a secco fresco. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster.8).festoni (It. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. sword and set of balances. can in time be seen. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. famine and death.
and to a lesser extent for tapestries. both in churches and in private and public palaces.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. or fresco secco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. In art from the classical period onwards. Final details. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. the intonaco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. for example. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. G Garter. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or true fresco. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. a person's invisible tutelary god. genre In a broad sense. covings and ceilings. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. usually childish figure.Save in Venice. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). where the atmosphere was too damp. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. landscape and portraiture. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The technique of buon fresco. Genius in classical Rome. are genres of painting. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.
Maso di Banco. whether it must be connected with the public good. as well as writers and artists. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Bernardo Daddi. and as spurring on men of action. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Maria Gloriosa). gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. how it differed from notoriety. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. As such. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Gobelins . and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. in portraits and on tombs. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant.
Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. golden section (Lat. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In other Italian cities. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. This ratio is approximately 8:13. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. still in existence today. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. . In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Golden Fleece. Paris. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. who appointed Lebrun Director. and although it reopened in 1699. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. thereafter it made only tapestries.French tapestry manufactory.
It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. . Amiens. the superficial particularities of form. In sculpture and in painting. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. In particular. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. and lies much deeper than. 1270. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. There is a transcendental quality. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. from the 13th until the 17th century. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Nevertheless.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). The artistic. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. 1200 and c. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. that the effects are to be felt. like the cultural and commercial. c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. Denis. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. painting. In thinking of Nicola (d. Gothic Gothic. or the influence of one building. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. painting. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. and which then spread throughout northern Europe.
and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. It is thinned with water for applying. without visible brush marks. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and taste among the English. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Pannini. Such tours often took a year or more. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.and hog-hair brushes. Klee. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and Morris Graves. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. if required. These qualities. Dubuffet. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. chiefly to France. and Piranesi. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. notably in the writings of Bellori. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. to white or tinted paper and card and.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and the great style. Canaletto. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. the beau idéal of the French. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. to silk. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). occasionally. starch. . that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. and above all Italy. with sable. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. genius. Honey. the Netherlands. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry.
and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. exclude drawing from this definition. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. after this. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. brother of Louis IX. In the context of the fine arts. internal factions in Florence went under other names. to Provence and Paris. usually gray. became an abiding feature of European politics. 1216. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Although its palace was rebuilt c. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. however. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. . however. Some writers. including text as well as illustrations. In Florence.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. In another sense. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. From 1266 to 1268. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. c. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics.e. through central Italy. which had recruited most of the merchant class. gris. and Waiblingen. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. then as now. grisaille (Fr.
for example. trade or profession (painters. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. trades. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. but in time they acquired other functions.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In some cities. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In 16th century Venice. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers." from Fr. In Florence. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. such as Brescia and Vicenza. and greater hostility between master and man. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. goldsmiths. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. and provided assistance to members in need. The guilds were not equal. as some did). The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. "herald") . H hatching In a drawing. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. surgeons. In Italy they go back a long way. heraldry (Fr. [science] héraldique. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In some towns. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. or professions. print or painting. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. notably Florence in the 14th century. Guilds were also patrons of art. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. héraut. The guild also monitored standards of work. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. "[knowledge of] heraldry.
The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The main impact of the . Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). head of the 'carnal Church'. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. However. indeed. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. d. the Waldensian. and regarded themselves as forming. from the start. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. as Antichrist. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. normative for churchmen. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. with the rules governing their use. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. the Cathars were an anti-church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. one great missionary community. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. i. they were condemned in 1184. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. By contrast. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. while others merged with the Waldensians. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. together with brethren north of the Alps.
Durand. Frederick E. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Kensett. history (usually classical history). may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. the emancipation of man from God took place. humanism (Lat. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . hortus conclusus (Lat. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper.movement upon the laity was in southern France. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. In humanism. J. Jasper Cropsey. mainly in the south. Henry Inman. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. F. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Germany. working from 1825 to 1875. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and classical literature. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Church. my spouse'. B. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. At the same time. Thomas Cole. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. in his earlier work. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Morse. S. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. George Inness. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. its subjects considered morally elevating. American painters were studying in Rome. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). humanus. F. and.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the hammer. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Veronica. the rooster of Peter's denial. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Derived from classical rhetoric. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. originality. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Donatallo. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. investiture . soft style. In the second half of the 14th century. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. usually the donors of a work of art. are also used in art literature. etc. or of other saints. and they are also depicted on their own. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Human figures. the scourge that was used in the scourging. trecento rococo and lyrical style. with many further details added. inventio (It. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck).g. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. For instance. the ability to create. invention. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the veil of St. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the pincers. beautiful style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. and the ladder. The terms court style. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400.
a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. generally Dutch or Flemish. and Jan Asselijn. bathed in a golden haze. of Utrecht. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Italianizers Northern artists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. who traveled in Italy and. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Nicolaes Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Both and Berchem. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). . Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. although they are usually called Romanists. Upon his return to Holland. Jerome's writings. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The Both brothers. Andries and Jan Both. principally Dutch. Jesuits The Society of Jesus.
L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. the rite of communion is based on this. encouraged by the Crusades. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). lectern A reading stand or desk. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.1519). As their military role grew. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Legenda Aurea (Lat. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Archbishop of Genoa. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. liberal arts . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. John of Jerusalem . especially one at which the Bible is read. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.
Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Kensett (1816-1872). often standing in markets and town squares. comprising arithmetic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Pythagoras for arithmetic.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Martin J.g. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Church (1826-1900). Heade (1819-1904). a semicircular space. that could be used for public ceremonies. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. John F. Maria Novella in Florence). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. then the basis of a philosophical training. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal.g. and Frederick E.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. together with identifying attributes (e. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). "little moon") In architecture. the quadrivium. astronomy and music. through the use of aerial perspective. rhetoric and dialectic. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.grammar. often sublime. It is related to. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). first the preparatory trivium . . its roof supported by columns. painting or sculptural decoration. commemorating a marriage. lunette (Fr. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). poetic atmosphere. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. loggia (It. that may contain a window. geometry. Tubal for music).
The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. originating in Italy in the 14th century. usually for the lute. 1855–65. the goddess Cybele. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. madrigal A part song. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. being written. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. When white is used for painting. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. particularly such ware produced in Italy. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). manganese purple. and however bright their lighting effects. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and iron red. Specifically. historical subjects. copper green. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. originally sung without accompaniment. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). for example. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. "great mother") A mother goddess. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. active mainly in Florence c. mandorla (It. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. "almond") . antimony yellow. magna mater (Lat. and portraits as well as landscapes. and accompaniments. but they painted genre scenes. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware.
there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. which was quarried at Mount . style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. illuminated initials and miniatures. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. the Codex manuscriptus. and crowned with thorns. and literary texts. more strictly. often ornamented with decorative borders. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Parmigianino. mantle An overcoat. "manner. bound. marked by flagellation. worn open. In Mannerist painting. Burgundy. strong. in a specific sense. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. complex and crowded compositions. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. El Greco and Tintoretto. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Developing out of the Renaissance. the hand-written medieval book. maniera. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. It reached to the knee or foot. Flanders. Mannerism (It. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Bronzino. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. depending on the social class of the wearer. In architecture. ecclesiastical. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar.
particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. martyrion. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Like the finest Imperial coins. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Without monetary value. The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. sleek surface. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman.Pentelicon in Attica. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . the medal's purpose was commemorative. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a different design on the reverse. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. medallion In architecture. proof") the sufferings. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. quarried at Massa. martyrdom (Gk. having finished his training. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. "witness. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Carrara. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. which were beginning to be reverently collected. an inscription running round the rim. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. marmi finti (It. particularly by Michelangelo.
Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread.round the neck. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. a Gorgon. A Dutch officer. This yields a soft effect in the print. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). particularly. 1425-1504). in England. 14601528). more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. c. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. of the person portrayed on the other side. the stress on individual character. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. no line drawing is employed. Her head features on Minerva's shield. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. who reflected them. as it were. In pure mezzotint. 1467-688). The work of these men. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. c. It was. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. 1640. even grain. for landscapes and portraits. When Perseus cuts off her head. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. perhaps oddly. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Ludwig von Siegen. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. and of the many. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. . is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. The process is essentially extinct today. Medusa In Greek mythology. 1452-1526/27). The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. supposedly to petrify her enemies. often anonymous.
"one color") Painted in a single color. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. painting in gouache on vellum or card. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. a painting executed in a single color. a branch of the Franciscan order. executed on a very small scale. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. ink and paint. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. by Tiepolo and Rubens. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. miter A high. monokhromatos. usually portraits. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. monochrome (Gk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. e. Parmigianino (d. often quite highly finished. motto (Ital. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. "word. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.. still exist. pointed headdress worn by bishops.g. Francis himself. Many such small versions. saying") .
often separated from it by pillars. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages.from the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. In 1810 0verbeck. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. navis. and Casino Massimo. In general. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. but often insipid. . naturalism (Fr. Isidore. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Rome. and two other members moved to Rome. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. 1817-29). Berlin. and is intersected by the transept. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. It may have parallel aisles on each side. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. nave (from Lat. The invention of personal mottos. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. named after the patron saint of painting. Pforr. 1816-17. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Nazarenes A group of young.
It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. is as true as it is notorious. "aureole") The disc or halo. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. were usually old when elected. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. nimbus (Lat. Popes. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). the style of the Ancien Régime. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. Nymphaeum (Gk. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.) . and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). usually golden. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. but their ideas continued to be influential. niello (Lat. moreover.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. nigellus. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.
Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. fluted column and a plain capital. a small private chapel. . original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. They are seen in the form of the columns. the three basic styles of design. Greek goddesses of Nature. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. and its greater tonal range.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. a more elaborate base. O obsequies (Lat. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). its richness of colour. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. the Doric order. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. observances") Rites performed for the dead. capital. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). such as linseed. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. orders of architecture In classical architecture. The earliest. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. "services. walnut. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. with a sturdy. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. and entablatures. was the simplest. obsequia. or poppy. inborn sin. The Corinthian order was the most ornate.
Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. while shops came to be thought undignified. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and the main apartments above. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. the Cancelleria). although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. designed as a . On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. palazzo (It. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. standing at the foot of the Cross. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. with biforate windows. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. P pala (Ital. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. tradition and social structure. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. like cities. Palazzo Strozzi).g.
lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Other cities. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. like the colonnaded vestibule.scholarly retreat. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. and large households. came to be applied all over Europe. Following Oriental patterns. palmette.g. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. column-caps. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In Venice. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Palazzo Massimi). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Rich. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Papal incentives to build. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. often built next to their titular churches. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. panel . Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. evolved influential types.g. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Movement of patrons and architects. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. cornices and abutments. especially after the Sack of Rome. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). behind a sober Florentine façade. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. e. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. like Genoa.
fibre-board. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. as distinct from canvas. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. to influence popes in their favour. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. or other rigid substance. larch. slate has occasionally been used as a support. so that they might have a voice at court. and walnut. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. In the 20th century cedar. As successors to St Peter. and spanned by a single dome. On a larger scale. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. or the incidence of taxation. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. olive. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. mahogany. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. including beech. cedar. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. Then. A number of matters. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. chestnut. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. as it were. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. metal. Having a circular plan. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law.Term in painting for a support of wood. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and dark walnut are favourites. secular rulers. enforce law and order. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. linden. and other synthetic materials as supports. the management of clerical dues and taxation. To maintain their authority. The third aspect was administrative. and the pressure and temptations . fir. however. Many other types were used. teak. and modern painters have also used plywood. the. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar.
the most appropriate . This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.as well. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. however. in spite of further absences from Rome. however. from the point of view of its religious associations. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. in the eyes of God. To resolve the problem of divided authority. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. As at Avignon. to be long delayed. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. There remained. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). possess an authority which. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. could supersede that of a pope. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. which seems so inevitable. would. if it did no serious damage to the faith.that could be applied to them. as such. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. So onerous. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. which met at Constance 1414-18. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. of individuals. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). was long in doubt. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . By then. at Avignon. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Colonna and Caetani. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. It was argued that such a council. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and.
Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. as well as a governmental one. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Passion . but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. pastoral (Lat.. pastor. Parrhasius (c. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. to a world peopled by shepherds. through lavish patronage of artists. nymphs. However.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. it has also been used for painting. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. the creation of a cultural capital. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. less frequently pig. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and with Zeuxis (c. goat. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and satyrs. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. in classical literature. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and other animals. 400-300 BC). scholars and men of letters.
"butterfly. 1478. ornamental building. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. such as a garden summerhouse. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.) or pasticcio (It. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. pavilion (Lat. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. 1478). papilio. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model.The events leading up to Good Friday. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and also the archbishop of Pisa. . a prominent section of a monumental façade. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. patricius. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Francesco Salviati. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a small. a region in north-central Italy. but not necessarily a direct copy. wealthy citizen. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. Portrayals of the Passion. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. projecting either centrally or at both ends. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. which focus on the Suffering Christ. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. and so on. patrician (Lat. pastiche (fr. Meanwhile. hence tent") A lightly constructed. the crown of thorns.
physis. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. concept or deity. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. persona. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. perspective (Lat. "nature". physiognomy (Gk. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. or related elements within an art work. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. personification (Lat. and gnomon. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. pendant (Fr. perspicere. . though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "person". "hanging. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). and facere. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. pergola (It. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. "to see through. in particular the face. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.
the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. usually above the ground floor. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. proper to take a landscape from.piano nobile (Ital. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Peter's. . curious details. pigment (Lat. but full of variety. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Rome. affording a good subject for a landscape. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. to be expressed in painting. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. pigmentum. A pier is generally larger than a column. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. remarkable for singularity. or resin to make paint. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Pietà (Lat. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. both real and painted. striking the imagination with the force of painting.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. glue. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. exemplified. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape.) The main floor of a building. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. for example. containing the public rooms.
Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. In the 15th century. It is often fluted. Thenceforward. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). it has a base. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. however. since. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Rocco and Sebastian. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. also used in Spain's American colonies. For this reason. It seems probable. a shaft. though in less widespread. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. moreover. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. for instance. more sporadic outbreaks. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. it is difficult to find. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. despite regional variations. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. plague Plague. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. and capital. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. pilastrum. the burning of 'infected' clothing. outside Tuscany. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who.pilaster (Lat. "pillar") A flat. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. During 1348 the Black Death. such as Florence and Genoa. in October 1347. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. and thereafter all Europe. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. perhaps.
termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. composition. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Timaeus. and unified style using massive geometric forms. utilized Mudejar ornament -. the Renaissance-Plateresque. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Phaedrus. like its successor. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). harmonious. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). the Symposium.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. i. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. A student of Socrates. correct classical orders became frequent. are the masterworks of the second style.e. heraldic escutcheons. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. or appropriateness. The first phase. which lasted only a few decades. placement. and sinuous scrolls. Phaedo. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Theatetus and the Laws. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In contrast with Aristotle.. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. The first phase. Philebus. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Diego evolved a purer. The second phase. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. more severe. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. or simply the Plateresque. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases.
1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Plotinus. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Unlike the case of Aristotle. and the Chaldaic Oracles. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. all of which he also translated into Latin. Iamblichus. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. and Agostino Steuco (c. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance.1577) becoming particularly popular. including those of Plotinus. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. systematized and added to what Plato had done. the greatest of his ancient disciples.in Plato's thought. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. partially. Rather unsystematic. replaced Ficino's. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. A new Latin translation. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. near Florence. and he utilized many other writings. but not completely. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1472-c. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved.
porticus. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. pluviale. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. pointed arch In architecture. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. portico (Lat. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Plato was read in the universities. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. poluptukhos. column. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. such as processions and consecrations. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. plinthos. where a pectoral is used to close it. Frequently supports a pediment. or statue. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. Lat. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. pluvial (Med. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. as in classical architecture). polyptych (Gk. plinth (Gk.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together.
Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Siena. the Carracci. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. National Gallery). Maria Novella. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome.. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Palazzo Farnese). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Cathedral) by Uccello. Florence (1486-90). Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Campidoglio). Group portraits. 1328. Venice). The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. The realism of the clear. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground.sculptors such as Donatello. Mantua. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. was revived in the 14th century. The 16th century portrait became generalized. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Florence. inessential. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. flattened image. and only a decorative accessory to form. psychologically more complex.e. decorating whole rooms. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The equestrian portrait. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. and the . whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Desiderio da Settignano. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Colleoni. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Gattarnelata. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface.
Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. and Peter Paul Rubens. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. was versed in classical and patristic . by contrast with the mendicant preachers.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. bishop of Chioggia. not least those of statesmen and prelates. who had as their ideal masters Titian. The sermons of Visdomini. however. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. abrasive even. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. 1494). For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Fiamma's sermons. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). bishop of Asti. The styles of S. Borromeo. to discharge their preaching duties. bishops especially. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). from the secular clergy. Charles Le Brun. and. of the sermon as an art form. As Poussin was a Frenchman. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. primarily the mendicants. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. together with the Dominican Savonarola." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. minatory exhortations. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Savonarola and Musso. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. are not florid in style. several of whom became bishops. Correggio. Cornelio Musso (1511-74)." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders.
they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Naples). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. though often relatively very wide . prefiguration Typology . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Louis of Toulouse (1317.g. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. predella (It. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Millais and Rossetti. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Because of the small size of predelle . tapestries. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. however.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. The New Testament references in these would.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. and so forth. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.rhetoric. among them Holman Hunt.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Such a polyptych consists of a principal. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.
proportio. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. 3. The following are important: 1. sculpture and architecture. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. and Houdon among sculptors. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. which uses the square . notably David. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. profil perdu (Fr. again indicative of the purpose they served. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. the Canon of Proportion. the quadrature. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Girardon. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Fragonard. "evenness") in painting. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. the golden section. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. proportion (Lat. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. 2. these highly finished drawings. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work.
and 5. in whose celebrated ceiling in S.as a unit of measurement. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. It was common in Roman art. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. provenance The origins of an art work. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. "boys") Plump naked little boys. . for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. 4. harmonic proportions. putti sing. Ignazio. putto (It. Rome. for example). architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Unlike Pozzo. the steward or treasurer of a church. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. one half the length of the other). triangulation. a fourth = 3:4. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. a fifth = 2:3. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo.
In 16th century Europe. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. with the Anglican Church developing in England. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. or some item connected with a saint. friars and nuns. Lat.Quattrocento (It. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in which figures are almost detached from their background. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. hermits. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. relief (Lat. Brunelleschi. also known as the Realist school. in which figures are seen half round. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. or the Jesuits. basso rilievo). There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Botticelli.g. canons regular. the object of particular veneration. and high relief (alto rilievo). in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. relevare. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. the great orders of monks. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. in particular works by Masaccio. Fra Angelico and others. refectory (Med. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. e. relicquiae. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Among the . relic (Lat. Donatello.
The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. In 1504. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. was the congregation of S. Lucca. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. The Conventuals. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Benedetto. In 1517. Maria di Fregonaia. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Bernardino of Siena. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Giorgio in Alga. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Salvatore. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Benedictines. Lorenzo Giustiniani. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. the Conventuals. That of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. i. and their more institutionalized brethren. Venice (1404).contemplative orders. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The same bull . they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. At the same time. The Silvestrines. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Padua. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Founded by St Romuald c. and the generally moderate Observants. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. presided over by chapters general.e. Mantua. S. who had no overall organization originally. the great patriarch of Venice. it became the Cassinese congregation. 1012. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Bologna (1419). they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. the most notable being S. although technically of secular canons. Giustina. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. After the repression of the Spirituals. various groups were fused in the latter body. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. however. which was to become the main Italian one.
this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. founded by S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Filippo Neri. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. the Theatines. a historical period. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Gaetano da Thiene. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. however. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Venice. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Michele in Isola. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. also. The first. Angela Merici. however. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. founded in 1535 by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner.
Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. and his own as potentially one of light. was so vast and potent. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). the historical reality of antiquity. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. of arts. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. For long. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. however. because its core of energy. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. of letters. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. 1875-86). All-Roundness. however. of 'darkness'. which had begun early in the 14th century. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of an energetic revival of interest in. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. too long forgotten glories. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. even Amoralism.century. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. increasingly. Thereafter. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. and competition with. of scholarship. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. life. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. . as well as political.
etc.with all its shabbiness . though sometimes of metal. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. of industrialization. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. in the more limited sense. especially in the High Gothic period. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Though thus challenged. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. congruence between. and other liturgical objects. the previous record .erased. It is for this additional. sometimes. gratefully. however. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. let alone a uniform.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. etc. later still to Genoa. mobilized nationalism. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). and mass media. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Ghent).) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. letters. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. statues. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. retables can be detached and. The challenges are to be accepted. Cathedral of SaintBavon. and is decorated with paintings.) was the term chosen. candlesticks. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. consist merely of a painting. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. (3) There is not a true. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. There was an early.
in several countries . The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. and 'Romanesque'. literally.France. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. retables have become extinct. Romanesque art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. painting. the St. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. rilievo (It. is a typical product. its mood lighthearted and witry. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. however. Louis XV furniture. "relief") In painting. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753).of St Mark in Venice. . As the name suggests. rocaille (French. With the development of freestanding altars. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Originally commissioned in 976. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Germany. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Italy. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Spain . richly decorated with organic forms. the first style to achieve such international currency. almost simultaneously. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. More usually. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Rococo A style of design. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. like 'Gothic'. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.in the 11th century.
van Heemskerk. Rome. the development of nationalistic pride. Mabuse. van Orley.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. such as red ochre. In addition. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. . Piranesi. M. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). stylized design representing an open rose. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Claude. B. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. they maintained. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Pannini and Mengs. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Q. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Massys and M. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The aim of painting.
author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. pious legend and hagiography. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Clement escaped into Castel S. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. holy orders. matrimony. gutted. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. local saints. the Eucharist. supported by lay confraternities. from the Old and New Testaments. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Many compositions were anonymous. and impoverished.expressed through gesture. Subjects were nominally sacred. glance and movement . though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). penance. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Sacra Conversazione (It. In the .greatly increased. when it finally left the city it had devastated. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. but others were the work of well-known figures. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. multiple sets used in succession. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. and anointing of the sick. Eastern independent. Written primarily in ottava rima. and Protestant churches. and Lorenzo de' Medici. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. There were no limits on time. confirmation. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Orthodox. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature.
early church the number of sacraments varied. Anglican. sacraments. strictly speaking." which are called sacramentals. Salt War. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Immediately following baptism. which in the Gospel According to John. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. The theology of the Orthodox Church. the sun of righteousness. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Thus. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.. Saracens . The chief focus of discontent. Candidates first face west. foot washing. and then face east. was buried under a new fortress.. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540.e. the Bentivoglio. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. in principle. It is still practiced on special occasions. as in the Church of the Brethren. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . the Rocca Paolina. large room. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. was not maintained as a sacrament. make such strict distinctions. Hence. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. as an excuse to revolt. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge." sala (Ital.i.e. that the price of salt should be increased. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the Orthodox Church does not. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. the symbolic direction of Christ. replaces the Lord's Supper. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The classical Protestant churches (i. notably from Florence and in Germany. They were still seeking aid. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. and sacraments. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. used for drawing.) Hall. chapter 13. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. baptism and the Eucharist. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Lutheran.
in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 45 BC). The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. and many others. whose writings. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. the Arabs or Muslims. The publication of Latin (1562. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. legs and horns of a goat. Little known in the Middle Ages. the god of wine. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 160 . along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. satyr In Greek mythology. wood or terracotta. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.During the Middle Ages. sarcophagus. made of stone. human-like woodland deities with the ears. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. pl. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 210 AD).c. 360 . sarcophagi (Gk. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades.c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. are lost. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 270 BC).
1384) and Louis II of Anjou. in June 1409. but with little effect. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. However. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). As a result. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement.for example Pieter van Laer. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Charles III of Durazzo (d. for. on one side. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples.they had individual Bentnames . Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Alexander V. Louis I (d. Schism. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). who recognized the Roman pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. while England. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. than their medieval predecessors. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. and. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). In northern Italy. on the other. scholasticism . being Frenchmen. while devout Christians agonized. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. from time to time both he and his opponents. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. 1386) and his son Ladislas. was called Bamboccio. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. the Florentines. with France and her allies Aragon. who had the support of the Avignon pope. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. most of whom. one of the early leaders. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources.
The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Christian. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Serenissima (Ital. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. and Islamic literature. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. on one side. and theology. None the less. that scholasticism was left. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Padua. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. As such. if lime-water was used. as it is easier to add details in this way. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. moreover. as it were. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. university-based study. history and rhetoric . 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). It was because the central concerns of humanism .moral philosophy. (See also: fresco. such passages have frequently flaked off with time.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Medieval scholars.The term is ambivalent. Often called the burning ones. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. because the secco technique is much less permanent.were different from those of medieval. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. textual scholarship. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). notably Aquinas.) . secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. the plaster had to be damped before painting.
in use since the Middle Ages. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. brass. In Christian legend. Med. in the period of classical antiquity. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. "prophetess") In antiquity. sfumato A technique. there was only one Sibyl. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. "the most serene republic of Venice"). sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Signoria (It. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. the number gradually rose to ten. sibyls (Gk. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. and the delicate. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Servite (Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. They first appear in alpine monasteries. at the same time. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper.. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Sibyls foretold the Birth. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. sibylla. women who could prophesy. Originally. term. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. usually presided over by individual families. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. which were all identical in thickness. sinopia . the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Lat.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.
stigmata. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . in other words. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries.) Wooden ceiling decoration.'Beautiful Madonnas'. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. and. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Ital. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. brand. especially in the flow of drapery. pronounced as French. It is very closely related to International Gothic. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. "mark. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.. . "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. sing. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Stanze (Ital. as the name implies. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. staffage This word. sotto in sù (It.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigma (Gk. soffit (Lat. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. Francis of Assisi.
The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). with that for the Picturesque. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. pl. stucco A type of light. Indeed. supremacy . usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. In a looser sense. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. both external and internal. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. studioli (It. studiolo. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. whose verses actually fabrications . The vogue for the Sublime. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. John Milton. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).
when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. doubtless. But the Italians did not make them. temperare. Tempera colors are bright and translucent.e. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass.Historically. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. was being decorated with frescoes. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. and in literature. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. 1407). . his own headquarters. The subject is underexplored. chiefly from Flanders. then being replaced by oil paint. i. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Salviati and Allori. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. London. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. These were imported. into Italy. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. both for panel painting and fresco. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino.and. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. or cartoons. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. tempera (Lat.
It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topoi (Gk. widely used form. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. quarter face. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). pl. in art. tondi (It. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. and profile. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. topiary (Gk. "a commonplace") In literature. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. triumphal arch. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tondo. Trajan's Column . i. "fields. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. theme or motif. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. vessels.e.terracotta (It. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topia. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. terraferma (Ital. model. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. walls. topos. figure of speech. and later to subdivide gable ends. and other surfaces. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. and sculptures.
time and eternity. into a number of less controversial forms. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. beside it the army of martyrs. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ.' Before it go the apostles. a car so brave'. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Early triptychs were often portable.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. chastity. usually an altarpiece. added to the glamour of the triumph. as it were. fame. the Son and the Holy Spirit. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. after 'a countless number of virgins. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. the military triumph became sublimated. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. of virtues and of the arts. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Trinity (Lat.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. death. triptych (Gk. . Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. "threefold") in Christianity. Disseminated soon after his death. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. the wars by which they were won . Battista Sforza. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Meanwhile. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. "threefold") A painting in three sections. patriarchs and prophets. behind it. trinitas. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. or wings. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. of both sexes'. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. tryptychos. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.
In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Dating from classical times. often decorated with sculptures. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. "drum") In classical architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. typology . they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tympanum (Lat. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tusche A thick. It incorporates Renaissance features. In medieval architecture. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. through various naturalistic devices. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. it is usually decorated with carvings. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. enclosed by an arch. viscous black ink. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. first recorded in 1232. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I).
killer of Holofernes. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. where they were most accessible. and David. lanterns. . e.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. each had access to his paintings. U uomo universale (It. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. The numerous candles. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. 1610). Their subjects are frequently religious ones. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. In Christian thought. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). such as five works devoted to the senses. slayer of Goliath. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. were popular with them also. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. 1590-1624). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio.) The Renaissance "universal man".Dirck van Baburen (c. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). especially his half-length figural groups. Judith.g. knew his former patrons.A system of classification. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).
). painting at both the Dutch and English courts. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. hour-glasses and clocks. it was used to decorate furniture. Vespers (Lat. vesper. There are a wide range of forms. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. mixed in. guttering candles. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. the groin vault. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. a work's richness of subject matter. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. snuff boxes and other objects. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. vanitas (Lat. and the rib vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. Also varietas (Lat. often gold. Parisian craftsmen. overturned vessels. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. V vanishing point In perspective. "evening") . and even flowers (which will soon fade). varietà (It.
to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. in which the word signifies efficacy. vita. and Justice. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. "not exposed to winds". The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity.Prayers said in the evening. if you have it not'. and Sloth. the church service at which these prayers are said. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. vestibulum. In ancient Roman dwellings. Anger. Temperance. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Covetousness. actual or latent. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Hope. vimperga Of German origin. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Fortitude. Prudence. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. for example. "life") . 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Envy. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. virtù could be used. 'Assume a virtue. Charity. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Lust. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Gluttony. pl. Vestibule (Lat. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. vite (Lat. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house.
they were from the 18th century .An account of someone's life and work. and appalled recognition of. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Marcus (1st cent. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. published in 1550 and 1568. Vitruvius Pollio. or recovery from illness has been made. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. 1472. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. protection from harm. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. usually when a prayer for good fortune. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. in fact. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. The wars from 1494 do. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. a biography. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1482-84). Sculptors and Architects"). and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. those of Volterera. 1478-80. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and of Ferrara.g.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Westwerk German word. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. woodcut A print made from a wood block. during its subsequent history. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. a philosophy of life. usually restorers. It was intended to have a variety of functions. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. gallery. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. . "world view") A comprehensive world view. based on stylization of various animal forms. pompous on the floor above. "Western work of art". The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist.Weltanschauung (Gr. treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually linear. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out.
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