A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Lancet and Tudor. the moulding around a window or door. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. design. the lowest part of the entablature). the darker the tone). . an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. architrave (It. In Greek and Roman literature. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. Degas. arcus. and Rouault. There are several variants of the technique. which is fused to the plate by heating. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. but in essence the process is as follows. piers or pillars. "architectural") Relating to structure. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. arcade (Lat. roofed with a half-dome. or organization.A semicircular projection. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. arkhitektonikos.e. Also known as an exedra. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. The adjective is apsidal. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. at the east end of a church behind the altar. architectonic (Gk. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Picasso. including Goya. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). The term applies also to a print made by this method. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i.

"turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. voltus. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). In the case of martyrs. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. aureole (Lat. attribute (Lat. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. archivolto. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. aureolus. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archeiu. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum.archivolt (Ital. dominate. Dante's Vita nuova . "front arch. attributum. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. usually a saint. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements." from Gk. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.and the Comedy . "golden." and Lat. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "begin.

the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. in 1377. often anecdotal. applied to the physically . paintings of everyday life. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. 'Captivity'. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The actual move was made in 1309. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. who had been residing in France since 1305. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. baldachin. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Six pontificates later. or baldacchino (It. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the god of wine and fertility. that of Cardano. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Later. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V.

but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium.g. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. banderole (It. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Baalbek. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. such as those at Pisa. . el Kantara. built by Sixtus III. and Epiphany. Lebanon. AD 273. or canopy. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. pope between 432 and 440. and Poitiers. Parma. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Alg. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. beggars in rags. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. seven. banderuola. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. or forecourt. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. As eight follows the "complete" number. or connected with. Croatia]. Pentecost. the Temple of Venus. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. set beneath a domical ciborium. and Nocera in Italy.. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. Easter. a church. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. and abject filthy things. Florence. Customarily. France. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting.. AD 300). of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Spalato [Split. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to.

Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Also tunnel vault. baptisteries. 1810-1865). stoa basilike. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Théodore Rousseau (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Vermeer). something of earlier symbolism survives. which is reserved for the clergy. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. were often omitted entirely. in the 1840s and 1850s. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. or baptismal chapels. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. the dramatic use of light and shadow. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. in its usual location near the church door . and increasingly elaborate decoration.In the 10th century. achieved through scale. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. southeast of Paris. and (3) everyday realism. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. . however. 1811-1889). In architecture. 1817-1878). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. basilica (Gk. 1807-1876). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1814-1875).an allusion to entering the Christian life. Constant Troyon (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. barocco. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). and thus a church. Baroque (Port. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Jean-François Millet (French. usually facing east. "king's hall") a church building. 1796-1875). Jules Dupré (French. Rubens). Originally. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel.

like their Dutch counterparts. and often sentimentality.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Book of Hours . who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. By association. It takes its name from its grainy texture. also incorrectly called bisque. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. however. such as Waldmüller. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. often with food and drink. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Spanish still-lifes. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. as is to be expected. domesticity. which is either not yet glazed.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. especially Spanish. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Biscuit porcelain. There were. such as those by Diego Velázquez. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. were referred to by their specific contents. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. The term was mainly used up to c. particularly porcelain. up until the mid-17th century. Bodegónes. or which is to be left as it is. in which still-life predominates. 1650 in Spain. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). bodegón Image.

and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bozzetto(Italian. a rapid sketch in oil. . The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. Chantilly). days of the week. months.an advantage over marble sculpture. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.both hot and cold . It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. varying from silverish to a rich. but can also be used for painted sketches.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and the fact that it is easily workable . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. See flying buttress. coppery red. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. durability. or seasons.by a variety of processes. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. though these are more often called 'modelli'. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. By extension. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. made as a study for a larger picture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. bozzetto Strictly speaking.

Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. manuscript illuminations. Among its most distinctive products were icons. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. notable from Syria and Egypt. "a chest. Duccio. It also served to glorify the emperor. and Giotto. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. C cabinet A small. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. glass. box") In architecture. cameo Small relief made from gems. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. casson. its forms highly stylized. ceramics. caisson (Fr. camera obscura . over time the term was used for the collections themselves. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which was often allegorical. private room where works of art. and work in precious metals. mosaics.

The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. pl. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. dating to antiquity. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. cantoria. followed by smaller and even pocket models. . candlestick. both of which have richly carved marble panels. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. "candle") A large. candelabrum (It.Ancestor of the photographic camera. Portable versions were built. which isolates the fabric from the paint. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). capital (Lat. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. and jute.) A gallery for singers or musicians. cantorie (It. candela. which was usually whitened.-N. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. by the 16th century. usually decorated. candelabra. other materials used are cotton. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. hemp. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. capitellum. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. as an aid to drawing. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. campanile Bell tower. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. sing. usually in a church. usually built beside or attached to a church. Niepce created photography. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. only very rough effects will be obtainable." and the earliest versions. usually with several branches or arms. Structurally. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.

this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cartellino. the Carmelites were originally hermits. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Carthusian Order (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.a humorous drawing or parody. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartouche . Fortitudo (Fortitude). In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. near Grenoble. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . New Charterhouses. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. In fresco painting. the endeavour to attain true humanity. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cartoon (It. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. or fresco. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. the date of the painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. tapestry. or a motto. pl. cardinalis. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. details of the subject. cartone. and humanism. At the height of the Middle Ages. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cartellini In a painting. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Carmelites (Lat.both Italians and artists from other countries .

chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. The altar is placed at the east end. a cathedral always faces west . or arms of the cross. They contained the bride's clothes. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. putti (cupids). In the 15th century. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. and swags of fruit and flowers. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. where the throne of the bishop is placed. they were also used in other countries. These lead up to the north and south transepts. palace.) "castle". when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The main body. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. decorated with gilt gesso. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Paolo Uccello. cassone (It.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. linen. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Cascina. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. castello (It. cathedral (cathedra. and many other items of her dowry. caryatid (Gk. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). . Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli.toward the setting sun. or nave. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. For reasons lost to time and tradition.

"see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. champlevé (Fr. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). and perspicere. "in the centre". continually praise him. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. centralis. a throne bearer of the deity. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Both the statement of St. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. landscapes. a celestial winged being with human.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Relative to the observer. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. animal. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. rather than intercessory functions. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. central perspective (Lat. . but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. as celestial attendants of God. Christian. or birdlike characteristics. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. and Islamic literature. buildings and figures that are being depicted.

usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. or for choral singing. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. North of the Alps. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. "light dark") In painting. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Hans Burgkmair (1510)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. choros. choir (Gk. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. Since Carolingian times. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone.chiaroscuro (It. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. replacing tempera." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. reserved for the clergy to pray together. Lastly. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . When the contrast of light and dark is strong. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. the Order of the Hospital of St.

stucco shells. a massing of carved angels. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Sculpted clouds. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. The Transparente (completed 1732). and the Churrigueresque column. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and garlands. and repetition of pattern. Very few still exist in their original positions. The Mexico cathedral (1718). reversed volutes. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. is as typically Churrigueresque. further enriching the style. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. undulating cornices. an architect. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. gilded rays.intersect). balustrades. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. became the most common motif. undulating lines. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. ciborium . if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera.

the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. beaters. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. High Renaissance).and post-medieval Italy. but self-employed. etc. Without being members of a guild. Their economic condition worsened. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. including the ciompi. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. who were raised to the status of a guild. They were forbidden to form a trade association. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. The new government. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. as also were those in the associated. the wool carder Michele di Lando. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. or achieve political representation. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. ciompi. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. placing one of their members. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. craft of dyeing. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. In reaction to this revolutionary . popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Members of the lower classes. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. combers. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. Then. on July 22. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Quattrocento (1400s. controlled by the minor guilds.

) An ancient musical instrument. changed greatly from one period to the next. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.episode. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. however. the ciompi guild was abolished. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. scholars patiently finding. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. with Italian scholars. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. cithara (Gk. literature. In the 15th century Greek literature. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. . philosophy and art . clair-obscur (Fr. Concepts of the classical. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). philosophy. writers.as in Italy these were dispensed with. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. the black contours usually with a special line plate. and politics. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. resembling a lyre. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). on which strings were plucked. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. except in cases where . clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). editing and translating a wide range of texts.

"concept") In Renaissance art theory. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. pl. a work's underlying theme. The name was derived from the condotta. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. condottieri (It. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. those with refined tastes. cognoscenti. intensify one another. as well as from the Bible. [hora] completa. Green and red.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. cognoscente (It. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. terrorized the country. Coffered ceilings. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. arch or ceiling. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. occasionally made of wood. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). when set side by side. the church service at which these prayers are said. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. concetti (It. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. sing. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. compline (Lat. blue and orange. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. concetto. pl. . literature or music. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. condottiere. or "contract." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so.

It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Umbria.devastating Romagna. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. commonly called either Compagnia di S. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. often under the direction of. Martino). these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. disappeared. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. flagellant confraternities. By the 16th century. or with the spiritual assistance of. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. primarily for syphilitics. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. confraternities Confraternities.e. convents of convertite. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Muzio's son. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. scuole. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. clergy. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. i. who won control of Milan in 1450. i. and his rival Braccio da Montone. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Toward the end of the 15th century. and Tuscany.e. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Carmagnola. and German--the condottieri. in the service of Perugia. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. By the end of the 14th century. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. in the service of Naples. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. often called compagnie or. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. in Venice. which spread in the 15th century. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Mark (1432). The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Spanish. With no goal beyond personal gain. Francesco Sforza. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. . came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy.

tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. In medieval painting. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the Florentine Neri. While the Doge ranked above the Council.g. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . but sometimes had their own premises. founded c. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. which accompanied condemned prisoners. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. flat outlines. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contrapposto (It. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds.e. contours were initially regular. contour. e. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. notwithstanding their location. 1514 in S. in Florence. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. contour (Fr. e.i. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. however. while the Venetian government. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Dorotea in Trastevere. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. Confraternities. and refuges for maidens.g. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Later. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). reformed prostitutes. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love.

and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. did not achieve any lasting results. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. large cornice or other feature. The style spread as far as England.weight on one leg. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. started the process of inner reform in the Church. conventiculurn. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Lat. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. conventicle (Lat. declining moral standards. Reform programs. 1100 and 1300. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. 1280). They are often ornamented. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. aes cyprium. . "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. an engraving produced in this way. a bracket of stone. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. cuprum. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. whose names are inscribed on several works. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. corbel In architecture. Copperplate engraving (late Lat.

The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground.e. Next. Death. D dado . where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. i. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. or "scourged. a small dome. Seleucids. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. cupola (Lat. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. a semi-circular vault. after being whipped. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the condemned man. Carthaginians. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. "small vat") In architecture. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Usually. Constantine the Great. There were various methods of performing the execution. reedy sound. Jews. An ancestor of the oboe. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. particularly among the Persians. cupula. the most famous victim of crucifixion. the first Christian emperor.

Deësis (Gk. usually in matching pairs. an expressive use of nature. diptychos. deacon (Gk. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. "drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Anglican and Orthodox churches. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. design") In Renaissance art theory. which was help to be the basis of all art. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. and Linz possessed common characteristics. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. disegno (It. a favorite late medieval picture subject. diptychum. Gk. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. often an altarpiece. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. but the concept behind an art work.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. danse macabre The dance of death. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. diakonos. Germany. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. diptych (Lat.g. e. Passau.

that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Ordo Praedictatorum. donor (Lat. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. As disegno appeals to the intellect. also used it on canvas.fully realize. doublet A male garment. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. though a few artists. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. distemper (Lat. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. dome in architecture. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. "to mix. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. formerly worn under armour. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). donator. distemperare. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters.Thomas Aquinas. such as we still use today. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. usually forming a ceiling or roof. which runs on castors or wheels. a 19th-century invention. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). when painters took to working out of doors. Dominicans (Lat. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. The studio easel. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. is a heavy piece of furniture. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.

and architecture.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. Hence. full face. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. a depiction of Jesus. It consists of the architrave. epitaph (Gk. the frieze. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. sculpture. "word") . fresco. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. John (19. entablature In classical architecture. and logos. eschaton. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "last". a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. in art. bound and flogged. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. and the cornice. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. ensemble (Fr. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. en face In portraiture. sometimes combining panel painting. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. Ecce Homo (Lat. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschatology (Gk.

It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Contarini. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Vittoria Colonna. which is called "delftware. Eucharist (Gk. eu. Augustine. particularly ware made in France. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. and is named for Faenza. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. notably Cardinal Pole. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. protector of shepherds.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. 4500 BCE. Giovanni Morone. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Saints Ambrose." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which is called "maiolica. and Scandinavia. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Italy. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Jerome. Germany. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. which was famous for maiolica. which was developed in the Near East ca." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Marcantonio Flaminio." and charis. Equated with the Greek god Pan. fields and livestock. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and of the last things.death and resurrection. farmers. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. "good. . Spain. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. celebrated with bread and wine.

usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous.8). Committed to charitable and missionary work. and these areas. black and dun. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Only a small area can be painted in a day. a technique known as a secco fresco. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. fluted of a column or pillar. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. war. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. The colour of his horse is white. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. relaxed.festoni (It. fresco (It. a swag. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). famine and death. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. sword and set of balances. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Their attributes are the bow. frescos in Italy . 2 . drying to a slightly different tint. leaves. and flowers suspended in a loop. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. that of the others red. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. can in time be seen. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. such as plague.

and to a lesser extent for tapestries. landscape and portraiture. genre In a broad sense. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Genius in classical Rome. where the atmosphere was too damp. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. the intonaco. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. In art from the classical period onwards. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Final details. or true fresco. for example. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. covings and ceilings. G Garter. a person's invisible tutelary god. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or fresco secco. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. are genres of painting. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. both in churches and in private and public palaces. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. usually childish figure. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. The technique of buon fresco.Save in Venice. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works.

Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. how it differed from notoriety. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Gobelins . and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. and as spurring on men of action. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as well as writers and artists. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. As such. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. whether it must be connected with the public good.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. Maria Gloriosa). which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Maso di Banco. Bernardo Daddi. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. in portraits and on tombs. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person.

In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. . which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In other Italian cities. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. and although it reopened in 1699. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Golden Fleece. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters.French tapestry manufactory. who appointed Lebrun Director. thereafter it made only tapestries. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). golden section (Lat. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. This ratio is approximately 8:13. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Paris. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. still in existence today.

and which then spread throughout northern Europe. In sculpture and in painting. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. There is a transcendental quality. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. 1200 and c. c. painting. The artistic. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. from the 13th until the 17th century. Gothic Gothic. and lies much deeper than. painting. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. 1270. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. the superficial particularities of form. Denis. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. or the influence of one building. Amiens. that the effects are to be felt. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Nevertheless. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. . In particular. like the cultural and commercial. In thinking of Nicola (d. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of.

Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. genius. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Pannini. and the great style. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Honey. chiefly to France. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. These qualities. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. the beau idéal of the French. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Canaletto. notably in the writings of Bellori. without visible brush marks. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. if required. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century.and hog-hair brushes. with sable. the Netherlands. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and above all Italy. and taste among the English. . It is thinned with water for applying. Dubuffet. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Such tours often took a year or more. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and Morris Graves. to white or tinted paper and card and. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Klee. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. and Piranesi. to silk. starch. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. occasionally.

1216.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. then as now. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. however. the parties taking a multitude of local names. After the War of the Eight Saints. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. . after this. became an abiding feature of European politics. and Waiblingen. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. usually gray. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. exclude drawing from this definition. In Florence. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. c. internal factions in Florence went under other names. From 1266 to 1268. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Some writers. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Although its palace was rebuilt c. including text as well as illustrations. drawing and the various forms of engraving. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. In another sense. grisaille (Fr. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. to Provence and Paris. gris.e. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. however. In the context of the fine arts. through central Italy. brother of Louis IX.

trades. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office." from Fr. print or painting. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. as some did). The guilds were not equal. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In some cities. and greater hostility between master and man. but in time they acquired other functions. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. H hatching In a drawing. heraldry (Fr. and provided assistance to members in need.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. Guilds were also patrons of art. [science] héraldique. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In 16th century Venice. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. héraut. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. notably Florence in the 14th century. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. such as Brescia and Vicenza. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In Italy they go back a long way. The guild also monitored standards of work. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. or professions. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In Florence. surgeons. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. trade or profession (painters. goldsmiths. "herald") . In some towns. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. for example.

the followers of Juan de Valdes. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. i. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. However. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. and regarded themselves as forming. the Cathars were an anti-church. together with brethren north of the Alps. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. head of the 'carnal Church'. as Antichrist. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The main impact of the . The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. normative for churchmen. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. they were condemned in 1184. while others merged with the Waldensians. from the start. one great missionary community. indeed. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. the Waldensian. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. with the rules governing their use. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. d. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. By contrast.

hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. my spouse'. humanus. and classical literature. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. its subjects considered morally elevating. mainly in the south. hortus conclusus (Lat. J. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. F. Jasper Cropsey. and. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. In humanism. George Inness. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). S. Kensett. Henry Inman. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. working from 1825 to 1875. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. history (usually classical history). From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Frederick E. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Germany. Thomas Cole. Morse. American painters were studying in Rome. F. At the same time. Durand. B. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. humanism (Lat. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. in his earlier work. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Church. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. the emancipation of man from God took place.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. the ability to create. invention. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. are also used in art literature. or of other saints. the pincers. originality. investiture . International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. trecento rococo and lyrical style. In the second half of the 14th century. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. the scourge that was used in the scourging.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Veronica. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Derived from classical rhetoric. the hammer. beautiful style. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Donatallo. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Human figures. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the rooster of Peter's denial. with many further details added. For instance.g. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. The terms court style. soft style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. inventio (It. usually the donors of a work of art. the veil of St. it denominates a kind of behaviour. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. and the ladder. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. etc. and they are also depicted on their own. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families.

and Jan Asselijn. principally Dutch. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Jerome's writings. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Italianizers Northern artists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. generally Dutch or Flemish. who traveled in Italy and. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. . J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Upon his return to Holland. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. although they are usually called Romanists. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. of Utrecht. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Both and Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). bathed in a golden haze. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. The Both brothers. Nicolaes Berchem. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Andries and Jan Both. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn.

Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). lectern A reading stand or desk. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). the rite of communion is based on this. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Archbishop of Genoa. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. especially one at which the Bible is read. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. As their military role grew. liberal arts . John of Jerusalem . Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. encouraged by the Crusades. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Legenda Aurea (Lat.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.1519).

first the preparatory trivium . Martin J. Pythagoras for arithmetic. loggia (It. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Tubal for music). together with identifying attributes (e. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). geometry. Heade (1819-1904). that could be used for public ceremonies. painting or sculptural decoration. comprising arithmetic. commemorating a marriage. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. and Frederick E. a semicircular space. Kensett (1816-1872). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. that may contain a window. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. often sublime.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. lunette (Fr.g. often standing in markets and town squares. its roof supported by columns. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. John F. It is related to. astronomy and music. rhetoric and dialectic. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. "little moon") In architecture. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). . Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. the quadrivium. through the use of aerial perspective.grammar. then the basis of a philosophical training. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns.g. Church (1826-1900). Maria Novella in Florence). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. poetic atmosphere.

M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). When white is used for painting. and accompaniments. "almond") . copper green. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. 1855–65. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. historical subjects. active mainly in Florence c. and however bright their lighting effects. Specifically. but they painted genre scenes. antimony yellow. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. the goddess Cybele. originally sung without accompaniment. being written. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and iron red. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. mandorla (It. originating in Italy in the 14th century. particularly such ware produced in Italy. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. usually for the lute. "great mother") A mother goddess. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. manganese purple. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. magna mater (Lat. madrigal A part song. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and portraits as well as landscapes. for example. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze.

Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Flanders. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. which was quarried at Mount . more strictly. the Codex manuscriptus. El Greco and Tintoretto. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Burgundy. maniera. Parmigianino. and literary texts. Developing out of the Renaissance. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. "manner. bound. Mannerism (It. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. illuminated initials and miniatures. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. In architecture. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Bronzino. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. marked by flagellation. complex and crowded compositions. In Mannerist painting. the hand-written medieval book. often ornamented with decorative borders. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. in a specific sense. ecclesiastical. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. and crowned with thorns. worn open. depending on the social class of the wearer. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. It reached to the knee or foot. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. strong. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. mantle An overcoat.

Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). an inscription running round the rim. Like the finest Imperial coins. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Carrara. martyrdom (Gk. martyrion. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. medallion In architecture. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). proof") the sufferings. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. particularly by Michelangelo. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few.Pentelicon in Attica. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Without monetary value. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . the medal's purpose was commemorative. sleek surface. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. which were beginning to be reverently collected. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. marmi finti (It. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. having finished his training. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. "witness. The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. a different design on the reverse. quarried at Massa.

Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. When Perseus cuts off her head. c. It was.round the neck. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. particularly. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. 14601528). Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1467-688). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. c. a Gorgon. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. in England. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. 1640. 1452-1526/27). is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). as it were. for landscapes and portraits. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. The work of these men. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. . This yields a soft effect in the print. Medusa In Greek mythology. Her head features on Minerva's shield. even grain. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Ludwig von Siegen. often anonymous. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. In pure mezzotint. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. the stress on individual character. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. who reflected them. 1425-1504). sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. and of the many. of the person portrayed on the other side. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. A Dutch officer. no line drawing is employed. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. supposedly to petrify her enemies. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. perhaps oddly. The process is essentially extinct today.

monokhromatos. a painting executed in a single color. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. "word. still exist. painting in gouache on vellum or card.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. pointed headdress worn by bishops. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Parmigianino (d. saying") . mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. ink and paint. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. often quite highly finished. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a branch of the Franciscan order. "one color") Painted in a single color. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. usually portraits. e. monochrome (Gk. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.. Francis himself. by Tiepolo and Rubens. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. motto (Ital. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. miter A high. executed on a very small scale. Many such small versions.g.

and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. but often insipid. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. 1817-29). Pforr. 1816-17. naturalism (Fr. and Casino Massimo. . Rome. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. often separated from it by pillars. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and two other members moved to Rome. named after the patron saint of painting. Berlin. and is intersected by the transept. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Isidore. navis. nave (from Lat.from the Middle Ages. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. In 1810 0verbeck. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. The invention of personal mottos. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Nazarenes A group of young. In general. It may have parallel aisles on each side.

and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Popes. usually golden. is as true as it is notorious. Nymphaeum (Gk. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. nimbus (Lat. but their ideas continued to be influential.) . and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). were usually old when elected. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. niello (Lat. "aureole") The disc or halo. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. moreover. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. the style of the Ancien Régime. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nigellus. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).

Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. Greek goddesses of Nature. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). inborn sin. and entablatures. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. the Doric order. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. obsequia. . Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. observances") Rites performed for the dead. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. orders of architecture In classical architecture. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. capital. walnut. a small private chapel. The earliest. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). O obsequies (Lat. the three basic styles of design. was the simplest. They are seen in the form of the columns. its richness of colour. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. such as linseed. or poppy. with a sturdy. a more elaborate base. "services. and its greater tonal range. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. fluted column and a plain capital.

reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. Palazzo Strozzi). or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. with biforate windows. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. designed as a . while shops came to be thought undignified. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. tradition and social structure. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. and the main apartments above. the Cancelleria).1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.g. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. standing at the foot of the Cross. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. palazzo (It. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. like cities. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. P pala (Ital. and. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type.

In Venice. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. e. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Palazzo Massimi). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Rich. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and Palladio's in Vicenza. like the colonnaded vestibule. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. evolved influential types. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. Following Oriental patterns. behind a sober Florentine façade. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. palmette. especially after the Sack of Rome. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. panel . and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". came to be applied all over Europe. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. often built next to their titular churches. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. column-caps. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Papal incentives to build. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia.g. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona.scholarly retreat. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Other cities.g. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. cornices and abutments. like Genoa. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and large households. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. Movement of patrons and architects.

Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. slate has occasionally been used as a support. teak. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. larch. mahogany. to influence popes in their favour. secular rulers. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. metal. and dark walnut are favourites. however. fibre-board. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). as it were. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. the. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. fir. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. To maintain their authority. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Having a circular plan. Then. olive. Many other types were used. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. or the incidence of taxation. enforce law and order. including beech. the management of clerical dues and taxation. As successors to St Peter. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and spanned by a single dome. The third aspect was administrative. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. On a larger scale. so that they might have a voice at court. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and the pressure and temptations . and modern painters have also used plywood. cedar.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. or other rigid substance. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. and other synthetic materials as supports. A number of matters. In the 20th century cedar. and walnut. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century.Term in painting for a support of wood. as distinct from canvas. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. linden. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. chestnut. thanks to their possession of the Papal State.

Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. As at Avignon. from the point of view of its religious associations. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. if it did no serious damage to the faith. in spite of further absences from Rome. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67).as well. was long in doubt. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). as such. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . the acceptance of the city as the most practical . however. So onerous. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. There remained. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. the most appropriate . at Avignon. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). however. Colonna and Caetani. would. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. It was argued that such a council. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. which seems so inevitable. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. which met at Constance 1414-18. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. possess an authority which. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. To resolve the problem of divided authority. By then.that could be applied to them. in the eyes of God. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. to be long delayed. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. could supersede that of a pope. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. of individuals. however.

leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. as well as a governmental one. pastor. and satyrs. goat.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 400-300 BC). and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. it has also been used for painting. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and other animals. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Passion . Parrhasius (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. to a world peopled by shepherds. the creation of a cultural capital. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. through lavish patronage of artists. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and with Zeuxis (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. pastoral (Lat.. scholars and men of letters. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. nymphs. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. However. less frequently pig. in classical literature. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents.

pavilion (Lat. and also the archbishop of Pisa. projecting either centrally or at both ends. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. and so on. patrician (Lat. but not necessarily a direct copy. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi.The events leading up to Good Friday. ornamental building. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. which focus on the Suffering Christ.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. "butterfly. a small. . but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Portrayals of the Passion. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. such as a garden summerhouse. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. 1478). the crown of thorns. Meanwhile.) or pasticcio (It. papilio. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. wealthy citizen. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. pastiche (fr. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. hence tent") A lightly constructed. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. a prominent section of a monumental façade. 1478. patricius. a region in north-central Italy. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Francesco Salviati.

The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). . who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). personification (Lat. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "nature". But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. physis. "to see through. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. and gnomon. pergola (It.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "hanging. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. or related elements within an art work. concept or deity. persona. in particular the face. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "person". dependent") One of a pair of related art works. physiognomy (Gk.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. and facere. pendant (Fr. perspective (Lat. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. perspicere. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors.

the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. remarkable for singularity. pigment (Lat. both real and painted. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigmentum. Pietà (Lat. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. glue. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work.piano nobile (Ital. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. containing the public rooms. exemplified. A pier is generally larger than a column. to be expressed in painting. curious details. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. but full of variety.) The main floor of a building. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. but may consist of a cluster of columns. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. or resin to make paint. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. usually above the ground floor. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. proper to take a landscape from. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). . striking the imagination with the force of painting. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Rome. affording a good subject for a landscape. Peter's. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. for example. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period.

plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. such as Florence and Genoa. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. also used in Spain's American colonies. For this reason. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. however. plague Plague. a shaft. it is difficult to find. Thenceforward. the burning of 'infected' clothing. for instance. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. despite regional variations. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). In the 15th century. During 1348 the Black Death. and thereafter all Europe. moreover. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine.pilaster (Lat. though in less widespread. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. and capital. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Rocco and Sebastian. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. pilastrum. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. since. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It seems probable. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). in October 1347. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. perhaps. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. "pillar") A flat. it has a base. outside Tuscany. more sporadic outbreaks. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. It is often fluted.

more severe. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The second phase. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The first phase. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). In contrast with Aristotle. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. are the masterworks of the second style. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. utilized Mudejar ornament -. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Timaeus. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. i. or simply the Plateresque. harmonious. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. the Renaissance-Plateresque.. correct classical orders became frequent. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. heraldic escutcheons. or appropriateness. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. composition. placement. and sinuous scrolls. the Symposium. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Phaedrus. which lasted only a few decades. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Philebus. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. like its successor. Theatetus and the Laws. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The first phase. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Phaedo. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. A student of Socrates. and unified style using massive geometric forms.e. Diego evolved a purer. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens.

Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. but not completely. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers.1577) becoming particularly popular. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1472-c. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. and he utilized many other writings. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Iamblichus. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. A new Latin translation. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. replaced Ficino's. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Plotinus. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and the Chaldaic Oracles. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484).in Plato's thought. Rather unsystematic. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. near Florence. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. including those of Plotinus. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and Agostino Steuco (c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. the greatest of his ancient disciples. all of which he also translated into Latin. partially. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c.

polyptych (Gk. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. Plato was read in the universities. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. pluviale. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. column. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. pointed arch In architecture. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Lat. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. plinthos. plinth (Gk. portico (Lat. Frequently supports a pediment.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. porticus. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. as in classical architecture). but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. pluvial (Med. or statue. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. such as processions and consecrations. poluptukhos. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. where a pectoral is used to close it. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass.

based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Florence (1486-90). A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Palazzo Farnese). Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Gattarnelata. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. decorating whole rooms. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Maria Novella. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the Carracci. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S.sculptors such as Donatello. psychologically more complex. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Mantua. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.. Venice). Campidoglio). Colleoni. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Siena. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. flattened image. The equestrian portrait. and the . The realism of the clear. 1328. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i.e. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Cathedral) by Uccello. inessential. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Florence. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. was revived in the 14th century. and only a decorative accessory to form. Group portraits. National Gallery). Desiderio da Settignano.

As Poussin was a Frenchman. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. are not florid in style." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. several of whom became bishops. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. who had as their ideal masters Titian. from the secular clergy. minatory exhortations. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. 1494). was versed in classical and patristic . who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Charles Le Brun. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Fiamma's sermons. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. however. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. bishop of Asti. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Borromeo.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. of the sermon as an art form. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishops especially. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). The styles of S. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The sermons of Visdomini. to discharge their preaching duties. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. abrasive even. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. primarily the mendicants. Savonarola and Musso. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Correggio. and Peter Paul Rubens. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. and. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. together with the Dominican Savonarola. bishop of Chioggia. star preachers journeyed all over Italy.

The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.rhetoric.g. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. the temptations of Adam and Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. prefiguration Typology . stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. tapestries. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. Naples). Millais and Rossetti. though often relatively very wide . however. The New Testament references in these would. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. predella (It. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. among them Holman Hunt. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. and so forth. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Because of the small size of predelle .they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.

the golden section. sculpture and architecture. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The following are important: 1. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the quadrature.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Prix de Rome A scholarship. proportio. proportion (Lat. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Girardon. intended as complete works of art in themselves. Fragonard. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). these highly finished drawings. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. and Houdon among sculptors. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. profil perdu (Fr. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. again indicative of the purpose they served. projecting shelf on which to kneel. "evenness") in painting. 3. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. the Canon of Proportion. which uses the square . so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. 2. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). notably David. and Ingres among painters and Clodion.

and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. harmonic proportions. It was common in Roman art. putto (It. . the steward or treasurer of a church. putti sing. a fourth = 3:4. 4. one half the length of the other). Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. triangulation. Rome. provenance The origins of an art work. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. and 5. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. Ignazio. Unlike Pozzo. for example). which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. a fifth = 2:3.as a unit of measurement. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. "boys") Plump naked little boys. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo.

e. Among the . in which figures are seen half round. with the Anglican Church developing in England. relevare. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. In 16th century Europe. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. basso rilievo). and high relief (alto rilievo). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). canons regular. hermits. or the Jesuits. the object of particular veneration. Brunelleschi. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. the great orders of monks. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. also known as the Realist school. refectory (Med. Donatello. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relicquiae. Fra Angelico and others. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Botticelli. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relic (Lat.g. friars and nuns. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance.Quattrocento (It. relief (Lat. in particular works by Masaccio. or some item connected with a saint.

and the generally moderate Observants. Founded by St Romuald c. i. The Silvestrines. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Padua. the most notable being S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Benedetto. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. After the repression of the Spirituals. although technically of secular canons. Giorgio in Alga. S. That of S. who had no overall organization originally. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. was the congregation of S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the great patriarch of Venice. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. and their more institutionalized brethren. At the same time. Bologna (1419). developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. presided over by chapters general. which was to become the main Italian one. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Giustina. The Conventuals. Salvatore. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Lucca. In 1504. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation.contemplative orders. Venice (1404). their resources being in the hands of trustees. The same bull . whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. the Conventuals. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Benedictines. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. 1012. it became the Cassinese congregation. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism.e. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Maria di Fregonaia. Bernardino of Siena. In 1517. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. various groups were fused in the latter body. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Mantua. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. however. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals.

Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Angela Merici. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. the Theatines. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. founded in 1535 by S. The first. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . a historical period. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. however. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. S. also. Gaetano da Thiene. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. founded by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Michele in Isola. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. however. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Venice. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Filippo Neri.

1875-86). a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep.century. of scholarship. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. life. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Thereafter. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. even Amoralism. of an energetic revival of interest in. and his own as potentially one of light. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of letters. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. . because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. of 'darkness'. too long forgotten glories. as well as political. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. because its core of energy. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. which had begun early in the 14th century. increasingly. All-Roundness. For long. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. was so vast and potent. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. however. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. however. of arts. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and competition with. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). the historical reality of antiquity.

the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. candlesticks. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. consist merely of a painting. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. and other liturgical objects. later still to Genoa. The challenges are to be accepted. It is for this additional. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. let alone a uniform. etc. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. The panel is usually made of wood or stone.erased. and is decorated with paintings. sometimes. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. and mass media. (3) There is not a true. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. There was an early. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Though thus challenged. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. letters. gratefully. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. statues. mobilized nationalism. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. congruence between. the previous record . as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Ghent). etc. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. of industrialization. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole.with all its shabbiness . though sometimes of metal.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). especially in the High Gothic period.) was the term chosen. in the more limited sense.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. however. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). retables can be detached and.

Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.France. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Italy. almost simultaneously. literally. and architecture dominating the 18th century. "relief") In painting. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Rococo A style of design. rilievo (It. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. is a typical product. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. rocaille (French. Originally commissioned in 976. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. and 'Romanesque'. Spain . The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. the St. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. More usually. Louis XV furniture. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Germany. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. often considered the last stage of the Baroque.of St Mark in Venice. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. painting. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. its mood lighthearted and witry. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). With the development of freestanding altars. richly decorated with organic forms. in several countries .in the 11th century. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. . retables have become extinct. however. As the name suggests. Romanesque art. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. like 'Gothic'.

ruddle Any red-earth pigment. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. stylized design representing an open rose. . Massys and M. Rome. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. such as red ochre. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Claude. Pannini and Mengs. Mabuse. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. they maintained. the development of nationalistic pride. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Piranesi. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Heemskerk.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. In addition. Q. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. M. van Orley. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. The aim of painting. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. B. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome.

whose Rappresentazione dei SS. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Clement escaped into Castel S. matrimony. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. supported by lay confraternities. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. pious legend and hagiography. confirmation. penance. holy orders. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. glance and movement . the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). In the . the Eucharist. from the Old and New Testaments. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and impoverished. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. There were no limits on time. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. multiple sets used in succession. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and Protestant churches. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and anointing of the sick. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). when it finally left the city it had devastated. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . gutted. Sacra Conversazione (It.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). local saints. Eastern independent. Subjects were nominally sacred.greatly increased. Orthodox. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. but others were the work of well-known figures. Written primarily in ottava rima. Many compositions were anonymous.expressed through gesture.

replaces the Lord's Supper. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. The chief focus of discontent. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Immediately following baptism. notably from Florence and in Germany. Lutheran." sala (Ital.early church the number of sacraments varied. was buried under a new fortress. Thus. The theology of the Orthodox Church. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions.. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. sacraments. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Candidates first face west. was not maintained as a sacrament. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . chapter 13. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. as an excuse to revolt. the symbolic direction of Christ. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. which in the Gospel According to John." which are called sacramentals. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Salt War. make such strict distinctions. and sacraments. baptism and the Eucharist. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Saracens . in principle.e. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. strictly speaking. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. that the price of salt should be increased. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.i. and then face east. foot washing.) Hall. They were still seeking aid. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540..e. It is still practiced on special occasions. large room. the Bentivoglio. The classical Protestant churches (i. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the Rocca Paolina. the sun of righteousness. the Orthodox Church does not. Anglican. used for drawing. Hence. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. as in the Church of the Brethren. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.

satyr In Greek mythology. the god of wine. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. The publication of Latin (1562. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. and many others. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c.c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. whose writings. sarcophagus. sarcophagi (Gk. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. pl. 160 . Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. legs and horns of a goat. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. are lost. 210 AD). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 45 BC). the Arabs or Muslims. wood or terracotta. Little known in the Middle Ages. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 270 BC).c. made of stone. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.During the Middle Ages. 360 .

It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who had the support of the Avignon pope. for. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. than their medieval predecessors. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. in June 1409. with France and her allies Aragon. on the other. scholasticism . However. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. was called Bamboccio. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). and. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. while devout Christians agonized. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. most of whom. being Frenchmen. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). while England. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. In northern Italy. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). 1386) and his son Ladislas. As a result. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Alexander V.they had individual Bentnames . Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. one of the early leaders. Louis I (d. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. the Florentines. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Charles III of Durazzo (d. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement.for example Pieter van Laer. on one side. from time to time both he and his opponents. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. who recognized the Roman pope. Schism. but with little effect. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources.

theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. as it is easier to add details in this way. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. textual scholarship.The term is ambivalent. the plaster had to be damped before painting. and Islamic literature. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing.moral philosophy. notably Aquinas. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. It was because the central concerns of humanism . with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. as it were. Often called the burning ones.were different from those of medieval. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. university-based study. moreover. on one side. As such. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. if lime-water was used. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). rather than wet plaster as in fresco. history and rhetoric .) . arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). and theology. that scholasticism was left. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. (See also: fresco. because the secco technique is much less permanent. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. None the less. Padua. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Christian. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Medieval scholars.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Serenissima (Ital.

the number gradually rose to ten. in the period of classical antiquity. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "prophetess") In antiquity. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Signoria (It. sibylla. "the most serene republic of Venice"). which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. They first appear in alpine monasteries. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. sibyls (Gk. Passion and Resurrection of Christ.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. In Christian legend. Originally. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. at the same time.. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. women who could prophesy. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Servite (Lat. there was only one Sibyl. sinopia . light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. which were all identical in thickness. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in use since the Middle Ages.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Lat. usually presided over by individual families. brass. and the delicate. sfumato A technique. term. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Med.

soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). and by a sweet and playful sentiment.. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. in other words. pronounced as French. stigmata. staffage This word. soffit (Lat. Francis of Assisi. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Ital.'Beautiful Madonnas'. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . sing. brand. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. "mark. Stanze (Ital. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. It is very closely related to International Gothic. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. as the name implies. especially in the flow of drapery. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. stigma (Gk.) Wooden ceiling decoration. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. and. . "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. sotto in sù (It.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.

sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). John Milton. The vogue for the Sublime. pl. Indeed. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. with that for the Picturesque. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. supremacy . and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. stucco A type of light. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. both external and internal. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. whose verses actually fabrications . Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. In a looser sense. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. studioli (It. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). studiolo.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.

To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. was being decorated with frescoes. both for panel painting and fresco. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. then being replaced by oil paint. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. tempera (Lat. 1407). Salviati and Allori. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. his own headquarters. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. London. But the Italians did not make them. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. i. and in literature. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. or cartoons.Historically. These were imported. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). .e. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. temperare. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. into Italy. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. The subject is underexplored.and. doubtless. chiefly from Flanders. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio).

It is used for architectural features and ornaments. walls. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). topia. pl. in the architecture of ancient Rome. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. widely used form. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. model. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. figure of speech. and sculptures. and later to subdivide gable ends. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. topos. pl. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity.e. theme or motif. topiary (Gk. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. quarter face. tondi (It. topoi (Gk. terraferma (Ital. tondo. in art. i. Trajan's Column . a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. triumphal arch. "a commonplace") In literature. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. and other surfaces. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.terracotta (It. and profile. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. vessels. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "fields.

But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. tryptychos. into a number of less controversial forms. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Disseminated soon after his death.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Meanwhile. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. beside it the army of martyrs. trinitas. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. or wings.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. chastity. after 'a countless number of virgins. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. death. Trinity (Lat. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph.' Before it go the apostles. patriarchs and prophets. as it were. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. of both sexes'. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. the military triumph became sublimated. of virtues and of the arts. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. the Son and the Holy Spirit. added to the glamour of the triumph. behind it. Battista Sforza. usually an altarpiece. time and eternity. Early triptychs were often portable. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. "threefold") in Christianity. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. a car so brave'. triptych (Gk.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. the wars by which they were won . and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). fame. . most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. "threefold") A painting in three sections.

they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). often decorated with sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. "drum") In classical architecture. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. through various naturalistic devices. viscous black ink. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. typology . often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. tympanum (Lat. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tusche A thick. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. enclosed by an arch. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. first recorded in 1232. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. In medieval architecture. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. it is usually decorated with carvings. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. Dating from classical times. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. It incorporates Renaissance features.

and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .g.) The Renaissance "universal man".A system of classification. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. such as five works devoted to the senses. especially his half-length figural groups. 1610). tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.Dirck van Baburen (c. 1590-1624). knew his former patrons. each had access to his paintings. lanterns. U uomo universale (It. . Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. killer of Holofernes. slayer of Goliath. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). In Christian thought. were popular with them also. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and David. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. The numerous candles. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . where they were most accessible.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Judith. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). e. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Their subjects are frequently religious ones.

a work's richness of subject matter. and the rib vault. snuff boxes and other objects. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "evening") . often gold. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. vanitas (Lat. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. mixed in. it was used to decorate furniture. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. varietà (It.). and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. hour-glasses and clocks. Vespers (Lat. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. vesper. guttering candles. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. the groin vault. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. Parisian craftsmen. Also varietas (Lat. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. V vanishing point In perspective. overturned vessels. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. There are a wide range of forms. carriages.

and Justice. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. in which the word signifies efficacy. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Envy. Covetousness. The seven Virtues were: Faith. vite (Lat. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Temperance. vita. pl. Lust. Fortitude. for example. vimperga Of German origin. In ancient Roman dwellings. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. actual or latent. the church service at which these prayers are said. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Anger. 'Assume a virtue. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Vestibule (Lat. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. if you have it not'. "life") . The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. virtù could be used. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Hope. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. "not exposed to winds". Charity. and Sloth. Gluttony. vestibulum. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation).Prayers said in the evening. Prudence.

of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. 1478-80. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. 1482-84). as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. in fact. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. The wars from 1494 do. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.An account of someone's life and work. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. published in 1550 and 1568. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. or recovery from illness has been made. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. usually when a prayer for good fortune. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Vitruvius Pollio.g. Marcus (1st cent. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1472. protection from harm. and appalled recognition of. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. a biography. they were from the 18th century . Sculptors and Architects"). and of Ferrara. those of Volterera.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

gallery. woodcut A print made from a wood block. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. . during its subsequent history. pompous on the floor above. based on stylization of various animal forms. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Westwerk German word. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. It was intended to have a variety of functions. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor.Weltanschauung (Gr. treasury or a place where justice was administered. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. a philosophy of life. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. "world view") A comprehensive world view. "Western work of art". The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. usually restorers. usually linear. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel.

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