A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

the lowest part of the entablature). Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. or organization. but in essence the process is as follows. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. at the east end of a church behind the altar. arcade (Lat. The term applies also to a print made by this method. and Rouault. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. arcus. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). . design. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. There are several variants of the technique. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. including Goya. Degas. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface.A semicircular projection.e. Also known as an exedra. arkhitektonikos. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). "architectural") Relating to structure. piers or pillars. which is fused to the plate by heating. In Greek and Roman literature. the moulding around a window or door. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. The adjective is apsidal. architrave (It. roofed with a half-dome. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the darker the tone). It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. Lancet and Tudor. architectonic (Gk. Picasso. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i.

attributum. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "golden. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "front arch. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom." from Gk. dominate. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. archivolto. archeiu. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "begin. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Ars Moriendi (Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. aureole (Lat. In the case of martyrs. usually a saint.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum." and Lat. voltus. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.archivolt (Ital. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. aureolus. Dante's Vita nuova .and the Comedy . "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attribute (Lat.

the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. often anecdotal. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. baldachin. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). the god of wine and fertility. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The actual move was made in 1309. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. who had been residing in France since 1305. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Later. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. 'Captivity'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. applied to the physically . paintings of everyday life. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. that of Cardano. or baldacchino (It. Six pontificates later. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. in 1377.

"small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and Nocera in Italy. Croatia]. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Parma. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. or canopy. France. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous.. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and abject filthy things. of the church and were often large and richly decorated.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). Florence. el Kantara. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. As eight follows the "complete" number. Lebanon. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. banderuola. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. AD 273. Customarily. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Easter. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. built by Sixtus III. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. such as those at Pisa.g. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Alg.. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. or connected with. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. set beneath a domical ciborium. and Poitiers. Pentecost. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. . or forecourt. and Epiphany. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. a visual metaphor for the number eight. beggars in rags. AD 300). Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. the Temple of Venus. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. banderole (It. seven. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Spalato [Split. Baalbek. a church. pope between 432 and 440.

barocco. and (3) everyday realism. Constant Troyon (French. Jules Dupré (French. or baptismal chapels. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Jean-François Millet (French. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Also tunnel vault. in the 1840s and 1850s. achieved through scale. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. In architecture. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. southeast of Paris. the dramatic use of light and shadow. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Rubens). stoa basilike. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750.In the 10th century. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Vermeer).an allusion to entering the Christian life. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1810-1865). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. and thus a church. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. 1811-1889). "king's hall") a church building. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Théodore Rousseau (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). baptisteries. . and Charles-François Daubigny (French. were often omitted entirely. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. 1817-1878). usually facing east. 1796-1875). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. 1807-1876). in its usual location near the church door . The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Originally. 1814-1875). which is reserved for the clergy. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. however. basilica (Gk. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Baroque (Port. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. and the growth of absolutist monarchies.

It takes its name from its grainy texture. Spanish still-lifes. There were. and often sentimentality. domesticity. like their Dutch counterparts. up until the mid-17th century. particularly porcelain. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. as is to be expected. such as Waldmüller. By association. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. were referred to by their specific contents. 1650 in Spain. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. bodegón Image. The term was mainly used up to c. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. or which is to be left as it is. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Book of Hours . which is either not yet glazed. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Biscuit porcelain. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. in which still-life predominates. also incorrectly called bisque. especially Spanish. such as those by Diego Velázquez. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). often with food and drink. Bodegónes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. however.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins.

durability. bozzetto(Italian. coppery red. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. . or seasons. but can also be used for painted sketches. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. See flying buttress. days of the week. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. months. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. varying from silverish to a rich. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. a rapid sketch in oil. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bozzetto Strictly speaking.by a variety of processes. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. By extension. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. made as a study for a larger picture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin.both hot and cold . and the fact that it is easily workable .an advantage over marble sculpture. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. Chantilly).

from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which was often allegorical. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. C cabinet A small. mosaics. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. its forms highly stylized. glass. cameo Small relief made from gems. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. ceramics. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. casson. private room where works of art. and Giotto. Duccio. caisson (Fr. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Among its most distinctive products were icons.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. and work in precious metals. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Based largely on Roman and Greek art. manuscript illuminations. notable from Syria and Egypt. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. box") In architecture. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. "a chest. camera obscura . It also served to glorify the emperor.

only very rough effects will be obtainable. candlestick.-N. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J." and the earliest versions. as an aid to drawing. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar.) A gallery for singers or musicians. usually decorated. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. usually with several branches or arms. capital (Lat. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. usually built beside or attached to a church. candelabra. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. The Latin name means "dark chamber. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. pl. dating to antiquity. usually in a church. cantoria. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. campanile Bell tower. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. other materials used are cotton. capitellum. . both of which have richly carved marble panels. candelabrum (It. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace.Ancestor of the photographic camera. sing. Niepce created photography. by the 16th century. Portable versions were built. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. and jute. "candle") A large. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. hemp. which was usually whitened. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). cantorie (It. candela. Structurally. which isolates the fabric from the paint.

Carmelites (Lat. cardinalis. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the date of the painting. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . cartone. Carthusian Order (Lat. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). New Charterhouses. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended.both Italians and artists from other countries . Fortitudo (Fortitude).a humorous drawing or parody. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartellini In a painting. pl. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the endeavour to attain true humanity.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). At the height of the Middle Ages. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartouche . cartellino. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. In fresco painting. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. monasteries containing separate hermitages. The order combines reclusive and community life. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. or fresco. tapestry. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartoon (It. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. details of the subject. or a motto. near Grenoble. and humanism. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse.

and many other items of her dowry. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. . linen. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. decorated with gilt gesso. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. caryatid (Gk. palace.toward the setting sun. cassone (It. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Cascina. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Paolo Uccello. For reasons lost to time and tradition. or nave. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. or arms of the cross. a cathedral always faces west .An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. castello (It. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. cathedral (cathedra. and swags of fruit and flowers. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. They contained the bride's clothes.) "castle". Worked on at intervals 1504-06. where the throne of the bishop is placed. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. putti (cupids). In the 15th century. The main body. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. they were also used in other countries. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). The altar is placed at the east end. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon.

and perspicere. and Islamic literature. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. animal. centralis. "in the centre". these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. buildings and figures that are being depicted. champlevé (Fr. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. a throne bearer of the deity. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. landscapes. or birdlike characteristics. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Relative to the observer.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. rather than intercessory functions. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Christian. as celestial attendants of God. a celestial winged being with human. . "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. continually praise him. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. in accordance with their distance from the observer. central perspective (Lat. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. Both the statement of St.

"group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Since Carolingian times. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. choros. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. North of the Alps. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. reserved for the clergy to pray together. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. "light dark") In painting. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. Lastly. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. choir (Gk. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . replacing tempera. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). the Order of the Hospital of St. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. or for choral singing.chiaroscuro (It. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. notably Lucas Cranach (1506).

The Mexico cathedral (1718). and garlands. stucco shells. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. balustrades. and repetition of pattern. is as typically Churrigueresque. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. ciborium . is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. undulating lines. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. undulating cornices. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. a massing of carved angels. reversed volutes. Very few still exist in their original positions. Sculpted clouds. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). became the most common motif. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco.intersect). The Transparente (completed 1732). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and the Churrigueresque column. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. an architect. gilded rays. further enriching the style.

The new government. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Without being members of a guild. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. Members of the lower classes. Their economic condition worsened. Quattrocento (1400s. High Renaissance). combers. as also were those in the associated. on July 22. controlled by the minor guilds. or achieve political representation. including the ciompi. etc. placing one of their members. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.and post-medieval Italy. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. beaters. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. They were forbidden to form a trade association. craft of dyeing. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. In reaction to this revolutionary . They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the wool carder Michele di Lando. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Then. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. who were raised to the status of a guild. ciompi. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. but self-employed. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers.

together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. resembling a lyre. with Italian scholars. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. the ciompi guild was abolished. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. philosophy and art . editing and translating a wide range of texts. the black contours usually with a special line plate. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). except in cases where . and politics. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). scholars patiently finding. . In the 15th century Greek literature. philosophy. however. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. literature.episode.as in Italy these were dispensed with. writers. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). Concepts of the classical.) An ancient musical instrument. changed greatly from one period to the next. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. cithara (Gk. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. clair-obscur (Fr. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. on which strings were plucked.

[hora] completa. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. Green and red." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. a work's underlying theme. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. pl. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. concetto. . Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. literature or music. Coffered ceilings. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. those with refined tastes. or "contract. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. intensify one another. cognoscenti. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. as well as from the Bible. blue and orange. when set side by side. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. compline (Lat. condottiere. The name was derived from the condotta. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. pl. condottieri (It. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. cognoscente (It. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. terrorized the country.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. concetti (It. arch or ceiling. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. occasionally made of wood. sing. the church service at which these prayers are said.

these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. By the end of the 14th century. By the 16th century. Carmagnola. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. convents of convertite. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. in the service of Naples. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. commonly called either Compagnia di S.e. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Spanish. Martino). was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Umbria. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. and Tuscany. in the service of Perugia. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Francesco Sforza. flagellant confraternities. With no goal beyond personal gain. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. i. confraternities Confraternities. disappeared.e. clergy. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Toward the end of the 15th century. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. which spread in the 15th century. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. or with the spiritual assistance of. . in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases.devastating Romagna. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. i. often called compagnie or. primarily for syphilitics. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Mark (1432). Italians began to raise mercenary armies. who won control of Milan in 1450. in Venice. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. often under the direction of. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and German--the condottieri. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Muzio's son. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. scuole. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'.

relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. contour (Fr. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. flat outlines. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Later. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. and refuges for maidens. however.e.i. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. but sometimes had their own premises. e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. notwithstanding their location. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. While the Doge ranked above the Council. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Dorotea in Trastevere.g. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in Florence. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.g. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. reformed prostitutes. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. 1514 in S. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. contour. the Florentine Neri. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. contours were initially regular. founded c. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . In medieval painting. contrapposto (It. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. which accompanied condemned prisoners. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. e. while the Venetian government. Confraternities.

cuprum. The style spread as far as England. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. did not achieve any lasting results. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. corbel In architecture. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. They are often ornamented. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. conventicle (Lat. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. 1280). aes cyprium. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. conventiculurn. large cornice or other feature. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Reform programs. started the process of inner reform in the Church. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). a bracket of stone. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. an engraving produced in this way. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. whose names are inscribed on several works. 1100 and 1300. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. declining moral standards. Lat. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages.weight on one leg. .

crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. i. Usually. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. a semi-circular vault. cupola (Lat. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. There were various methods of performing the execution. the first Christian emperor. "small vat") In architecture. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. or "scourged. D dado . Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. a small dome. the most famous victim of crucifixion. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Carthaginians.e. cupula. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Constantine the Great. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. reedy sound. Jews. particularly among the Persians. the condemned man. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. after being whipped. Next. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. An ancestor of the oboe. Seleucids. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Death.

"drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. which was help to be the basis of all art. usually in matching pairs. an expressive use of nature. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. The term stresses not the literal drawing. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. e. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Germany.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. diptych (Lat. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. often an altarpiece.g. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). design") In Renaissance art theory. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Passau. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. but the concept behind an art work. diptychos. diakonos. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. disegno (It. and Linz possessed common characteristics. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. deacon (Gk. danse macabre The dance of death. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Anglican and Orthodox churches. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diptychum. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Deësis (Gk. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre.

Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. As disegno appeals to the intellect. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). when painters took to working out of doors. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. a 19th-century invention. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. distemperare. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. is a heavy piece of furniture. The studio easel. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. though a few artists. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. also used it on canvas. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. dome in architecture. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). donor (Lat. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety.fully realize. formerly worn under armour. such as we still use today. doublet A male garment. usually forming a ceiling or roof. donator. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. "to mix. which runs on castors or wheels. Dominicans (Lat. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. distemper (Lat.Thomas Aquinas. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Ordo Praedictatorum. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St.

enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. It consists of the architrave. Hence. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschaton. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. "word") . "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. entablature In classical architecture. sometimes combining panel painting. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. a depiction of Jesus. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. John (19. Ecce Homo (Lat. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. ensemble (Fr. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. and the cornice. eschatology (Gk. and logos. full face. "last". a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. the frieze. epitaph (Gk. and architecture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. in art. sculpture. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. bound and flogged. fresco. en face In portraiture.

Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. farmers. 4500 BCE. particularly ware made in France. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Jerome. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. eu. Marcantonio Flaminio. "good. and is named for Faenza. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Contarini." and that made in the Netherlands and England." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Spain. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. It developed in France in the early 16th century.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Saints Ambrose.death and resurrection. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. celebrated with bread and wine. which was developed in the Near East ca. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. fields and livestock. . Germany. which was famous for maiolica. Eucharist (Gk. notably Cardinal Pole. protector of shepherds. which is called "delftware. Vittoria Colonna. Italy." and charis. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. which is called "maiolica. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Giovanni Morone. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and Scandinavia. and of the last things. Augustine. Equated with the Greek god Pan.

Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and flowers suspended in a loop. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. and these areas. 2 . Only a small area can be painted in a day. drying to a slightly different tint. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous.8). In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. war. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. sword and set of balances. leaves. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.festoni (It. famine and death. Committed to charitable and missionary work. relaxed. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. fresco (It. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. black and dun. can in time be seen. fluted of a column or pillar. such as plague. a swag. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. a technique known as a secco fresco. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. frescos in Italy . Their attributes are the bow. The colour of his horse is white. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. that of the others red. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment.

Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. a person's invisible tutelary god. usually childish figure. Final details. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . covings and ceilings. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. both in churches and in private and public palaces. or true fresco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women.Save in Venice. for example. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the intonaco. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. In art from the classical period onwards. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. where the atmosphere was too damp. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. G Garter. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. or fresco secco. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Genius in classical Rome. genre In a broad sense. landscape and portraiture. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. are genres of painting. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The technique of buon fresco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.

to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Bernardo Daddi. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Gobelins . how it differed from notoriety. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). As such. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Maso di Banco.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Maria Gloriosa). gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. and as spurring on men of action. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. in portraits and on tombs. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. as well as writers and artists. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. whether it must be connected with the public good. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position.

for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. still in existence today. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. golden section (Lat. and although it reopened in 1699. This ratio is approximately 8:13. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Paris. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. thereafter it made only tapestries. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). . In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. who appointed Lebrun Director. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Golden Fleece.French tapestry manufactory. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In other Italian cities. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters.

In particular. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Denis. There is a transcendental quality. The artistic. that the effects are to be felt. and lies much deeper than. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. or the influence of one building. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. painting. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. like the cultural and commercial. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. 1270. Gothic Gothic. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. the superficial particularities of form. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. Nevertheless. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. 1200 and c. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. . c. painting. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. from the 13th until the 17th century. In thinking of Nicola (d. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Amiens. In sculpture and in painting. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another.

Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. the Netherlands. with sable. . that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. and Morris Graves. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry.and hog-hair brushes. Dubuffet. Canaletto. It is thinned with water for applying. Klee. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. genius. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. if required. notably in the writings of Bellori. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and taste among the English. These qualities. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and Piranesi. and the great style. Such tours often took a year or more. and above all Italy. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. to silk. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Honey. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. occasionally. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Pannini. are but different appellations of the same thing'. without visible brush marks. chiefly to France. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. starch. to white or tinted paper and card and. the beau idéal of the French. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner.

the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. and Waiblingen. through central Italy. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. usually gray. internal factions in Florence went under other names. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. which had recruited most of the merchant class. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. then as now. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. grisaille (Fr. to Provence and Paris. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Although its palace was rebuilt c. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. . Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the parties taking a multitude of local names.e. In the context of the fine arts. gris. In another sense. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. after this. including text as well as illustrations. 1216. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. became an abiding feature of European politics. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. From 1266 to 1268. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. c. however. brother of Louis IX.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. however. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Some writers. exclude drawing from this definition. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. After the War of the Eight Saints. In Florence.

The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. such as Brescia and Vicenza. as some did). outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. H hatching In a drawing. for example. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. "[knowledge of] heraldry. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In 16th century Venice. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. but in time they acquired other functions. In some cities. surgeons. The guilds were not equal. In some towns. [science] héraldique. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. notably Florence in the 14th century. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and greater hostility between master and man. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and provided assistance to members in need. or professions. In Florence. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna." from Fr. The guild also monitored standards of work. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. In Italy they go back a long way. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. héraut. trades. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. print or painting. Guilds were also patrons of art. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. "herald") . guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. heraldry (Fr. goldsmiths. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. trade or profession (painters. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft.

only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. they were condemned in 1184. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. The main impact of the . Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. from the start. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. while others merged with the Waldensians. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. one great missionary community. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the Waldensian. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. indeed. i. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. normative for churchmen. head of the 'carnal Church'. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. together with brethren north of the Alps. as Antichrist.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. d. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. and regarded themselves as forming. the Cathars were an anti-church. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. with the rules governing their use. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. By contrast. However.

movement upon the laity was in southern France. Germany. its subjects considered morally elevating. mainly in the south. and. working from 1825 to 1875. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. George Inness. Frederick E. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. humanism (Lat. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. J. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. the emancipation of man from God took place. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Kensett. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Thomas Cole. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. in his earlier work. American painters were studying in Rome. hortus conclusus (Lat. and classical literature. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Henry Inman. Durand. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. F. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . F. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. S. my spouse'. In humanism. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Morse. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Church. humanus. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. At the same time. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. B. Jasper Cropsey. history (usually classical history). in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life).

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the scourge that was used in the scourging. are also used in art literature.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. or of other saints. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. usually the donors of a work of art. For instance. the veil of St. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). trecento rococo and lyrical style. the rooster of Peter's denial. invention. the ability to create. soft style. Donatallo. Derived from classical rhetoric. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. and they are also depicted on their own. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Human figures. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. with many further details added. the pincers. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. originality. and the ladder. In the second half of the 14th century. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. inventio (It. The terms court style. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Veronica. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the hammer. beautiful style. it denominates a kind of behaviour.g. investiture . etc.

Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. bathed in a golden haze. Both and Berchem. principally Dutch. and Jan Asselijn. Italianizers Northern artists. generally Dutch or Flemish. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Ignatius Loyola in 1534.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. of Utrecht. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. The Both brothers. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Jerome's writings. who traveled in Italy and. Nicolaes Berchem. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Upon his return to Holland. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Andries and Jan Both. although they are usually called Romanists. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. . J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St.

John of Jerusalem . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.1519). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). liberal arts . As their military role grew. Archbishop of Genoa. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. lectern A reading stand or desk. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. the rite of communion is based on this. encouraged by the Crusades. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . especially one at which the Bible is read. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Legenda Aurea (Lat. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.

"little moon") In architecture. Kensett (1816-1872). that may contain a window. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. astronomy and music.g. through the use of aerial perspective. Heade (1819-1904). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. poetic atmosphere. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Tubal for music). Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). together with identifying attributes (e. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. It is related to. and Frederick E. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. a semicircular space. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. often sublime. John F. first the preparatory trivium . the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. painting or sculptural decoration. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.g.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Pythagoras for arithmetic.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. then the basis of a philosophical training. commemorating a marriage. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). rhetoric and dialectic. loggia (It. Church (1826-1900). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). geometry. often standing in markets and town squares. its roof supported by columns. the quadrivium.grammar. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. lunette (Fr. Maria Novella in Florence). that could be used for public ceremonies. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. comprising arithmetic. Martin J. .

there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. originally sung without accompaniment. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. mandorla (It. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. manganese purple. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. magna mater (Lat. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. historical subjects. and however bright their lighting effects. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and iron red. "almond") . madrigal A part song. antimony yellow. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. When white is used for painting. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. "great mother") A mother goddess. for example. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and portraits as well as landscapes. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. copper green. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. being written. 1855–65. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. but they painted genre scenes. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. usually for the lute. and accompaniments. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. active mainly in Florence c. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Specifically. the goddess Cybele. particularly such ware produced in Italy. originating in Italy in the 14th century.

bound. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Bronzino. Mannerism (It. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Parmigianino. Developing out of the Renaissance. It reached to the knee or foot. the Codex manuscriptus. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. worn open. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. more strictly. Burgundy. strong. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and literary texts. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. often ornamented with decorative borders. marked by flagellation. "manner.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. which was quarried at Mount . ecclesiastical. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. illuminated initials and miniatures. maniera. Flanders. In Mannerist painting. the hand-written medieval book. in a specific sense. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. El Greco and Tintoretto. In architecture. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. mantle An overcoat. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. complex and crowded compositions. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. depending on the social class of the wearer. and crowned with thorns.

the medal's purpose was commemorative. having finished his training. a different design on the reverse. medallion In architecture. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Carrara. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Like the finest Imperial coins. Without monetary value. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. particularly by Michelangelo. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. sleek surface. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . an inscription running round the rim. marmi finti (It. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. quarried at Massa. The pure white Carrara marble. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. proof") the sufferings. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. martyrion. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and was much favoured in the Renaissance.Pentelicon in Attica. which were beginning to be reverently collected. "witness. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. martyrdom (Gk. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman.

Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. and of the many. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Medusa In Greek mythology. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Her head features on Minerva's shield. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. 14601528). 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. as it were. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. c. who reflected them. perhaps oddly. The process is essentially extinct today. The work of these men. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. of the person portrayed on the other side. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. particularly. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Ludwig von Siegen. the stress on individual character. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. in England. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. When Perseus cuts off her head. c. 1467-688). A Dutch officer. 1425-1504).round the neck. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. 1640. often anonymous. 1452-1526/27). In pure mezzotint. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. no line drawing is employed. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. for landscapes and portraits. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. even grain. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. . The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. This yields a soft effect in the print. It was. a Gorgon.

a painting executed in a single color. miter A high. still exist. Francis himself. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. a branch of the Franciscan order. Many such small versions. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. monokhromatos. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. e. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. "one color") Painted in a single color. motto (Ital. Parmigianino (d. often quite highly finished. monochrome (Gk. usually portraits. executed on a very small scale. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.. pointed headdress worn by bishops. "word. ink and paint. by Tiepolo and Rubens.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture.g. saying") . The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators.

and is intersected by the transept. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. . "ship") the main interior space of a church building. but often insipid. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. 1816-17. often separated from it by pillars. In general. navis. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Nazarenes A group of young. named after the patron saint of painting. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Berlin. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. In 1810 0verbeck. and Casino Massimo. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. naturalism (Fr. Isidore. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy.from the Middle Ages. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and two other members moved to Rome. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. nave (from Lat. 1817-29). Pforr. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The invention of personal mottos. Rome. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion.

It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. but their ideas continued to be influential. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Popes. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). were usually old when elected. is as true as it is notorious. the style of the Ancien Régime. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Nymphaeum (Gk. nimbus (Lat. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. usually golden.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. moreover. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). niello (Lat. "aureole") The disc or halo. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nigellus. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power.) .

Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. observances") Rites performed for the dead. inborn sin. a more elaborate base. Greek goddesses of Nature. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). The Corinthian order was the most ornate.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. and its greater tonal range. the Doric order. or poppy. fluted column and a plain capital. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. orders of architecture In classical architecture. the three basic styles of design. was the simplest. with a sturdy. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). prayer and preaching being central to their mission. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. They are seen in the form of the columns. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. The earliest. and entablatures. capital. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. . walnut. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. its richness of colour. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. such as linseed. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. "services. a small private chapel. obsequia. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. O obsequies (Lat. The Ionic order had a slenderer column.

At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. tradition and social structure. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. the Cancelleria). while shops came to be thought undignified. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.g. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Palazzo Strozzi). like cities. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. with biforate windows. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. designed as a .1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. palazzo (It. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). standing at the foot of the Cross. and the main apartments above. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. P pala (Ital. Usually pointed or rounded at the top.

Palazzo Massimi).scholarly retreat. palmette. Following Oriental patterns. evolved influential types. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. like Genoa. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. often built next to their titular churches.g. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Rich. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. especially after the Sack of Rome. and Palladio's in Vicenza. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. panel . behind a sober Florentine façade. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Other cities. Papal incentives to build. cornices and abutments. e. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and large households. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Movement of patrons and architects. In Venice. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. column-caps. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified.g. like the colonnaded vestibule. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. came to be applied all over Europe. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila).

the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and spanned by a single dome. Having a circular plan. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. as distinct from canvas. secular rulers. so that they might have a voice at court. enforce law and order. however. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. A number of matters. olive. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. As successors to St Peter. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. or other rigid substance. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. On a larger scale. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome.Term in painting for a support of wood. cedar. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. The third aspect was administrative. fibre-board. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. teak. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. as it were. chestnut. slate has occasionally been used as a support. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. or the incidence of taxation. In the 20th century cedar. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. to influence popes in their favour. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. metal.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and modern painters have also used plywood. To maintain their authority. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Many other types were used. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. mahogany. the management of clerical dues and taxation. and the pressure and temptations . and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. and other synthetic materials as supports. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. including beech. linden. and dark walnut are favourites. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. fir. and walnut. Then. larch. the. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example).

For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. however. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. of individuals. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. the most appropriate . This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. was long in doubt. from the point of view of its religious associations. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. in spite of further absences from Rome. at Avignon.that could be applied to them. Colonna and Caetani. if it did no serious damage to the faith.as well. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. which met at Constance 1414-18. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. possess an authority which. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. as such. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. to be long delayed. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. however.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. It was argued that such a council. There remained. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. As at Avignon. By then. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. in the eyes of God. So onerous. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. which seems so inevitable. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. however. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . The identification of the Papacy with Rome. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. To resolve the problem of divided authority. could supersede that of a pope. would.

The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. goat. nymphs. as well as a governmental one. Passion . it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. the creation of a cultural capital. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and satyrs. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. through lavish patronage of artists. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. in classical literature. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. it has also been used for painting. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. scholars and men of letters. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives.. Parrhasius (c. and other animals. However. to a world peopled by shepherds. pastor. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. 400-300 BC). paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. less frequently pig. pastoral (Lat. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and with Zeuxis (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier.

which focus on the Suffering Christ. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. pavilion (Lat. a small. ornamental building. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. a region in north-central Italy. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Portrayals of the Passion. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. and so on. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. 1478. projecting either centrally or at both ends. patricius. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. and also the archbishop of Pisa. the crown of thorns. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. papilio. but not necessarily a direct copy. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. wealthy citizen. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. . "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. pastiche (fr. 1478). patrician (Lat. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. hence tent") A lightly constructed. such as a garden summerhouse. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau.) or pasticcio (It.The events leading up to Good Friday. a prominent section of a monumental façade. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. Francesco Salviati. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. Meanwhile. "butterfly. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.

who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "nature". and facere. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). in particular the face. "person". that settled the religious conflict in the German states. perspicere. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. persona. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. perspective (Lat. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. and gnomon.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. . or related elements within an art work. pendant (Fr. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. pergola (It. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. personification (Lat. "hanging. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "to see through. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. physiognomy (Gk.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. concept or deity. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. physis.

containing the public rooms. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. curious details. but may consist of a cluster of columns.piano nobile (Ital. for example. affording a good subject for a landscape. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. usually above the ground floor. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. pigment (Lat. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Rome. or resin to make paint. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. but full of variety. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. proper to take a landscape from. pigmentum. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. . Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap.) The main floor of a building. Pietà (Lat. remarkable for singularity. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Peter's. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. both real and painted. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. exemplified. striking the imagination with the force of painting. A pier is generally larger than a column. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. to be expressed in painting. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. glue. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet.

plague Plague. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). despite regional variations. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Rocco and Sebastian. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. for instance. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. it is difficult to find. moreover. since. In the 15th century. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. though in less widespread. pilastrum. and capital. It seems probable. During 1348 the Black Death. outside Tuscany. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. perhaps. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. a shaft. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. also used in Spain's American colonies.pilaster (Lat. For this reason. Thenceforward. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). more sporadic outbreaks. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. the burning of 'infected' clothing. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. however. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. It is often fluted. in October 1347. "pillar") A flat. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. such as Florence and Genoa. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. and thereafter all Europe. it has a base. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7.

lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Phaedo. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. composition.. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). harmonious. utilized Mudejar ornament -. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). In contrast with Aristotle. or simply the Plateresque. like its successor. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Timaeus. heraldic escutcheons. The first phase. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. are the masterworks of the second style. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. the Symposium. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. i. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. which lasted only a few decades. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. correct classical orders became frequent. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. the Renaissance-Plateresque.e. Diego evolved a purer. and unified style using massive geometric forms. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Theatetus and the Laws. or appropriateness. The second phase. more severe. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. The first phase. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. A student of Socrates. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Phaedrus. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. placement. Philebus. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. and sinuous scrolls. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain.

Iamblichus. the greatest of his ancient disciples. including those of Plotinus. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400.in Plato's thought. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. and he utilized many other writings. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. systematized and added to what Plato had done. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. replaced Ficino's. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Plotinus.1577) becoming particularly popular. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. partially. all of which he also translated into Latin. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. near Florence. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. 1472-c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Rather unsystematic. A new Latin translation. but not completely. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. and Agostino Steuco (c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. and the Chaldaic Oracles.

or statue. Frequently supports a pediment. Lat. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. such as processions and consecrations. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. where a pectoral is used to close it. pluviale. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Plato was read in the universities. column. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. poluptukhos. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. portico (Lat. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. porticus. polyptych (Gk. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. plinth (Gk. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. plinthos. pluvial (Med. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. pointed arch In architecture. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. as in classical architecture). In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks.

Siena. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. psychologically more complex. Palazzo Farnese). Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Mantua. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Group portraits. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Cathedral) by Uccello. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. flattened image. Desiderio da Settignano. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Florence (1486-90). decorating whole rooms. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Gattarnelata. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary.sculptors such as Donatello. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Florence. was revived in the 14th century. and only a decorative accessory to form. Campidoglio). whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. and the . The realism of the clear. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature.e. Venice). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The equestrian portrait. 1328. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Colleoni. National Gallery). Maria Novella. inessential. the Carracci. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome..

Cornelio Musso (1511-74). and Peter Paul Rubens. Savonarola and Musso. to discharge their preaching duties. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. are not florid in style. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). bishops especially. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Borromeo. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. of the sermon as an art form. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. bishop of Chioggia. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The sermons of Visdomini. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Correggio. and. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. abrasive even. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). 1494). not least those of statesmen and prelates. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. bishop of Asti. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. The styles of S. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. was versed in classical and patristic . whereas drawing satisfies the mind. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Fiamma's sermons. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. several of whom became bishops." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. from the secular clergy. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Charles Le Brun. who had as their ideal masters Titian. however. primarily the mendicants. minatory exhortations. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary.

the temptations of Adam and Christ. among them Holman Hunt. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. predella (It. however. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. prefiguration Typology . The New Testament references in these would. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Because of the small size of predelle . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. and so forth. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. tapestries. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Naples).rhetoric. Millais and Rossetti. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. though often relatively very wide . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.g. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.

founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. and Houdon among sculptors. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. profil perdu (Fr. projecting shelf on which to kneel. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the golden section. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. proportio. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. "evenness") in painting. these highly finished drawings. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. which uses the square . They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. again indicative of the purpose they served. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The following are important: 1. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. proportion (Lat. notably David. Girardon. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. 3. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. the Canon of Proportion. Fragonard. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. sculpture and architecture. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. 2. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the quadrature. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B.

quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. provenance The origins of an art work. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. putto (It. a fourth = 3:4. "boys") Plump naked little boys. harmonic proportions. putti sing. 4. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. the steward or treasurer of a church. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus).as a unit of measurement. and 5. for example). one half the length of the other). and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Unlike Pozzo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. It was common in Roman art. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Ignazio. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. a fifth = 2:3. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. . the history of a work's ownership since its creation. triangulation. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Rome.

religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. friars and nuns. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. basso rilievo). "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or the Jesuits. Fra Angelico and others. Lat. and high relief (alto rilievo). the great orders of monks. the object of particular veneration. Among the . relicquiae. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). also known as the Realist school. Botticelli. relief (Lat. Donatello. e. Brunelleschi. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. with the Anglican Church developing in England. relevare. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.Quattrocento (It. in which figures are seen half round. hermits. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message.g. or some item connected with a saint. refectory (Med. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. In 16th century Europe. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. in particular works by Masaccio. in which figures are almost detached from their background. canons regular. relic (Lat. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects.

it became the Cassinese congregation. After the repression of the Spirituals. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. was the congregation of S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. S. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The Benedictines. however. In 1504. The Conventuals. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Maria di Fregonaia. which was to become the main Italian one. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. i. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Bernardino of Siena. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks.e. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the Conventuals. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches.contemplative orders. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Founded by St Romuald c. In 1517. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Giustina. Bologna (1419). and the generally moderate Observants. The Silvestrines. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. although technically of secular canons. the great patriarch of Venice. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Giorgio in Alga. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Venice (1404). with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Mantua. Salvatore. The same bull . the most notable being S. Padua. various groups were fused in the latter body. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Benedetto. Lucca. and their more institutionalized brethren. 1012. who had no overall organization originally. presided over by chapters general. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. That of S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. At the same time. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams.

emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. however. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Filippo Neri. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. also. founded by S. Venice. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Angela Merici. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Michele in Isola. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. however. the Theatines. founded in 1535 by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Gaetano da Thiene. a historical period. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Gerolamo Aemiliani. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The first. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S.

of an energetic revival of interest in. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. which had begun early in the 14th century. of 'darkness'. 1875-86). it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. even Amoralism. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. of letters. because its core of energy. increasingly. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. All-Roundness.century. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and his own as potentially one of light. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. however. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. was so vast and potent. For long. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. however. the historical reality of antiquity. and competition with. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. . 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. of scholarship. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. life. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. too long forgotten glories. of arts. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. as well as political. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Thereafter. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career.

statues. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole.) was the term chosen. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. retables can be detached and. Cathedral of SaintBavon. congruence between. in the more limited sense. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Ghent). let alone a uniform. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.erased. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). etc. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. candlesticks. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. etc. The challenges are to be accepted. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. mobilized nationalism. and mass media. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. sometimes. though sometimes of metal. There was an early. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. and is decorated with paintings. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. It is for this additional. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. the previous record . of industrialization. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. letters. later still to Genoa. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. consist merely of a painting. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. and other liturgical objects. Though thus challenged. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt').A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. gratefully. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. especially in the High Gothic period. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (3) There is not a true. however.with all its shabbiness .

however. the first style to achieve such international currency. With the development of freestanding altars. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. its mood lighthearted and witry. and 'Romanesque'. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. like 'Gothic'. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. "relief") In painting. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Rococo A style of design.in the 11th century. rilievo (It. Spain . Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). literally. Germany. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Romanesque art. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. painting. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. almost simultaneously. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.of St Mark in Venice. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Originally commissioned in 976. richly decorated with organic forms. in several countries . and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). More usually. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. the St.France. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. . it indicates a derivation from Roman art. is a typical product. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. As the name suggests. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Louis XV furniture. Italy. rocaille (French. retables have become extinct.

Piranesi. The aim of painting. Mabuse. they maintained. Massys and M. van Heemskerk. In addition. Pannini and Mengs. the development of nationalistic pride. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). B. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. such as red ochre. van Orley. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rome. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Claude. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Q. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. stylized design representing an open rose.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. M. .

penance. when it finally left the city it had devastated. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions.greatly increased. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Subjects were nominally sacred. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Orthodox. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. In the . a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. gutted. Written primarily in ottava rima. the Eucharist. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. and Lorenzo de' Medici. local saints. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Eastern independent. and anointing of the sick. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. glance and movement . sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. matrimony. but others were the work of well-known figures. pious legend and hagiography. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . There were no limits on time. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. multiple sets used in succession. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. holy orders. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Sacra Conversazione (It. confirmation. Clement escaped into Castel S. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. supported by lay confraternities. from the Old and New Testaments. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. and impoverished. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. and Protestant churches.expressed through gesture. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Many compositions were anonymous.

baptism and the Eucharist. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . used for drawing. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Immediately following baptism. the Bentivoglio. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. was not maintained as a sacrament. It is still practiced on special occasions. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the symbolic direction of Christ.) Hall. large room. Thus. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.early church the number of sacraments varied. the Orthodox Church does not. was buried under a new fortress. The theology of the Orthodox Church. the Rocca Paolina. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The classical Protestant churches (i. the sun of righteousness.. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. and then face east. that the price of salt should be increased. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. replaces the Lord's Supper. and sacraments. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. sacraments. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. make such strict distinctions. chapter 13. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. as in the Church of the Brethren. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. which in the Gospel According to John.. notably from Florence and in Germany. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.e. Candidates first face west." which are called sacramentals. Anglican. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. They were still seeking aid.i. as an excuse to revolt. Saracens ." sala (Ital. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. foot washing.e. in principle. Hence. Lutheran. The chief focus of discontent. Salt War. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. strictly speaking. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church.

satyr In Greek mythology. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 270 BC). are lost. 160 . 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. legs and horns of a goat. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.c. sarcophagi (Gk. The publication of Latin (1562. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. 360 . owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. pl. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. whose writings. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. made of stone. wood or terracotta. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 210 AD). and many others. 45 BC). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. human-like woodland deities with the ears. the Arabs or Muslims. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). the god of wine. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and .c. Little known in the Middle Ages. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. sarcophagus.During the Middle Ages. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus.

1384) and Louis II of Anjou. 1386) and his son Ladislas. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals.for example Pieter van Laer. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. in June 1409. but with little effect. who recognized the Roman pope. being Frenchmen. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. and. scholasticism . was called Bamboccio. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. most of whom. Schism. However. As a result. while England. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Louis I (d. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between.they had individual Bentnames . Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Charles III of Durazzo (d. than their medieval predecessors. on the other. for. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Alexander V. from time to time both he and his opponents. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. In northern Italy. with France and her allies Aragon. on one side. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). and therefore far more purely Italian princes. one of the early leaders. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. while devout Christians agonized. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). the Florentines.

theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. university-based study. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Often called the burning ones. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. the plaster had to be damped before painting. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. Medieval scholars. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. that scholasticism was left. as it were. history and rhetoric . the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. as it is easier to add details in this way. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Christian. textual scholarship. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. and Islamic literature. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. because the secco technique is much less permanent. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. moreover. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Padua. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. None the less.The term is ambivalent.) . on one side. As such.moral philosophy. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. if lime-water was used. notably Aquinas. and theology. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.were different from those of medieval. Serenissima (Ital.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. (See also: fresco. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster.

"the most serene republic of Venice"). an expression of Venetian self-confidence. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. term. the number gradually rose to ten. Signoria (It. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in use since the Middle Ages. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci.. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sfumato A technique. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. brass. and the delicate. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. women who could prophesy. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. In Christian legend. sibylla. Lat. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. usually presided over by individual families. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Originally. which were all identical in thickness.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. at the same time. sibyls (Gk. sinopia . in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Sibyls foretold the Birth. there was only one Sibyl. "prophetess") In antiquity. Med. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. in the period of classical antiquity. Servite (Lat.

tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. as the name implies. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. It is very closely related to International Gothic.. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. pronounced as French. sotto in sù (It. Francis of Assisi. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. soffit (Lat. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Stanze (Ital. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. staffage This word. stigma (Gk. Ital. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . in other words. stigmata.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. sing. especially in the flow of drapery. and. . at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. "mark. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. brand. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.) Wooden ceiling decoration. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil).

and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. John Milton. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. stucco A type of light. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. studioli (It.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studiolo. whose verses actually fabrications . with that for the Picturesque. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. supremacy .were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. In a looser sense. The vogue for the Sublime. both external and internal. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. Indeed. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). pl.

into Italy. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. temperare. both for panel painting and fresco. 1407). the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. tempera (Lat. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. . tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. But the Italians did not make them. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. i. chiefly from Flanders.e. Salviati and Allori. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. was being decorated with frescoes. These were imported. The subject is underexplored. doubtless.Historically. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . his own headquarters. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. and in literature. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. then being replaced by oil paint. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church.and. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. or cartoons. London.

Trajan's Column . three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted.e. tondi (It. figure of speech. and later to subdivide gable ends. i. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. and profile. triumphal arch. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). terraferma (Ital. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. vessels. and other surfaces. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. widely used form.terracotta (It. topos. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. theme or motif. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. pl. topiary (Gk. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. walls. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and sculptures. quarter face. topoi (Gk. "fields. topia. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. model. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "a commonplace") In literature. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. pl. tondo. in art. in the architecture of ancient Rome. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture.

or wings. "threefold") A painting in three sections. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. . that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. of virtues and of the arts. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. added to the glamour of the triumph. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. a car so brave'.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. behind it. death. after 'a countless number of virgins. Disseminated soon after his death. Trinity (Lat. usually an altarpiece. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. beside it the army of martyrs. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. into a number of less controversial forms. triptych (Gk. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. fame.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. Meanwhile. the wars by which they were won . triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Early triptychs were often portable. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .' Before it go the apostles. "threefold") in Christianity. patriarchs and prophets. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. tryptychos. trinitas. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. time and eternity. of both sexes'. the military triumph became sublimated. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Battista Sforza. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. as it were. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. chastity. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.

creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tympanum (Lat. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). first recorded in 1232. it is usually decorated with carvings. It incorporates Renaissance features. through various naturalistic devices. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. often decorated with sculptures. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tusche A thick. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. "drum") In classical architecture. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Dating from classical times. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. viscous black ink. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. enclosed by an arch. tromp l'oeil (Fr. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. typology . In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. In medieval architecture.

g. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. In Christian thought. each had access to his paintings. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. especially his half-length figural groups. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. 1610). lanterns. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. e. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. 1590-1624). where they were most accessible. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.) The Renaissance "universal man". and David.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.Dirck van Baburen (c. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. were popular with them also. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . U uomo universale (It. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. such as five works devoted to the senses. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. The numerous candles. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. . Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. killer of Holofernes. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Judith.A system of classification. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. knew his former patrons. slayer of Goliath. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).

hour-glasses and clocks. V vanishing point In perspective. Parisian craftsmen. mixed in. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. There are a wide range of forms. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vesper. vanitas (Lat. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. carriages. it was used to decorate furniture. and the rib vault. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Also varietas (Lat. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. varietà (It. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.). "evening") . and even flowers (which will soon fade). guttering candles. overturned vessels. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. the groin vault. often gold. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. a work's richness of subject matter. snuff boxes and other objects. Vespers (Lat.

but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Lust. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. vite (Lat. and Sloth. the church service at which these prayers are said. Vestibule (Lat. Prudence. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. for example. if you have it not'. and Justice. vita.Prayers said in the evening. Fortitude. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. actual or latent. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. 'Assume a virtue. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Anger. Gluttony. Envy. in which the word signifies efficacy. Charity. In ancient Roman dwellings. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. pl. Covetousness. Temperance. Hope. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. The seven Virtues were: Faith. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. virtù could be used. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vestibulum. "not exposed to winds". vimperga Of German origin. "life") .

a biography.An account of someone's life and work. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The wars from 1494 do. protection from harm. in fact. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. usually when a prayer for good fortune. or recovery from illness has been made. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. published in 1550 and 1568. Sculptors and Architects"). No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. those of Volterera. they were from the 18th century . scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. and of Ferrara. Vitruvius Pollio. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1472.g. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Marcus (1st cent. 1482-84). by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. and appalled recognition of. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. 1478-80. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. "Western work of art". during its subsequent history. woodcut A print made from a wood block. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print.Weltanschauung (Gr. "world view") A comprehensive world view. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. . usually linear. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. a philosophy of life. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. usually restorers. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Westwerk German word. pompous on the floor above. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. gallery. based on stylization of various animal forms. It was intended to have a variety of functions.

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