This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Lancet and Tudor. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. architrave (It. the lowest part of the entablature). the darker the tone).A semicircular projection. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. or organization. design. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. . and Rouault. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. architectonic (Gk. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The adjective is apsidal. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. roofed with a half-dome. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. The term applies also to a print made by this method. the moulding around a window or door. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). piers or pillars. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Also known as an exedra. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. In Greek and Roman literature. but in essence the process is as follows. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arcade (Lat. at the east end of a church behind the altar.e. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. Degas. Picasso. There are several variants of the technique. "architectural") Relating to structure. including Goya. arkhitektonikos. which is fused to the plate by heating. arcus.
"golden. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). In the case of martyrs. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Dante's Vita nuova . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. archivolto. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "front arch. usually a saint.and the Comedy . voltus. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. aureolus.archivolt (Ital. aureole (Lat. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. archeiu. attribute (Lat. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. dominate.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements." from Gk. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. Ars Moriendi (Lat. "begin. attributum. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance." and Lat.
balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. that of Cardano. often anecdotal. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. paintings of everyday life. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. the god of wine and fertility. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby").while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. Six pontificates later. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. applied to the physically . The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. who had been residing in France since 1305. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. baldachin. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The actual move was made in 1309. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. or baldacchino (It. Later. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. 'Captivity'. in 1377.
baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Croatia]. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and Poitiers. As eight follows the "complete" number. beggars in rags. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. and abject filthy things. Florence. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. and Epiphany. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. . Spalato [Split. AD 300). pope between 432 and 440. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Alg. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Parma. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. a visual metaphor for the number eight. the Temple of Venus.g. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. banderole (It. Pentecost. or canopy. AD 273. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. such as those at Pisa. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. a church. Baalbek. France.. el Kantara. Easter. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. or connected with. set beneath a domical ciborium. and Nocera in Italy. banderuola.. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. built by Sixtus III. seven. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Lebanon. or forecourt.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Customarily.
barocco. basilica (Gk. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. which is reserved for the clergy.In the 10th century. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. . In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Jean-François Millet (French. 1814-1875). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. 1807-1876). (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters.an allusion to entering the Christian life. however. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. stoa basilike. Also tunnel vault. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. 1796-1875). and thus a church. achieved through scale. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1817-1878). In architecture. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. baptisteries. Vermeer). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. in its usual location near the church door . 1810-1865). were often omitted entirely. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. something of earlier symbolism survives. Rubens). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. or baptismal chapels. Originally. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Constant Troyon (French. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. southeast of Paris. Théodore Rousseau (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. usually facing east. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Baroque (Port. 1811-1889). and (3) everyday realism. Jules Dupré (French. in the 1840s and 1850s. "king's hall") a church building. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur.
such as those by Diego Velázquez. also incorrectly called bisque. particularly porcelain. Spanish still-lifes. Book of Hours . As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). By association. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. often with food and drink. bodegón Image. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. It takes its name from its grainy texture. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. The term was mainly used up to c. as is to be expected. in which still-life predominates. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. such as Waldmüller. up until the mid-17th century. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. There were. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. especially Spanish. 1650 in Spain. like their Dutch counterparts. domesticity. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. however. or which is to be left as it is. were referred to by their specific contents. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Biscuit porcelain. which is either not yet glazed. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. and often sentimentality. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Bodegónes. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.
Chantilly). They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. a rapid sketch in oil. bozzetto Strictly speaking.an advantage over marble sculpture. .both hot and cold . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. coppery red. durability. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. months. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. bozzetto(Italian.by a variety of processes. See flying buttress. though these are more often called 'modelli'. and the fact that it is easily workable . buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. made as a study for a larger picture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. but can also be used for painted sketches. days of the week. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. varying from silverish to a rich. or seasons. By extension.
or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. C cabinet A small. box") In architecture. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). ceramics. and work in precious metals. private room where works of art. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. which was often allegorical. its forms highly stylized. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. It also served to glorify the emperor. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. camera obscura . caisson (Fr. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. mosaics. "a chest. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Duccio. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. cameo Small relief made from gems. Among its most distinctive products were icons. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. notable from Syria and Egypt. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. casson. glass. and Giotto. manuscript illuminations. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue.
The best-quality canvas is made of linen. usually decorated. cantoria. and jute. pl. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. campanile Bell tower. Portable versions were built.) A gallery for singers or musicians. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually in a church. Structurally. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. other materials used are cotton. candelabra. candlestick. by the 16th century. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and." and the earliest versions. which was usually whitened. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. usually built beside or attached to a church. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. both of which have richly carved marble panels. The Latin name means "dark chamber. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy).Ancestor of the photographic camera. Niepce created photography. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. only very rough effects will be obtainable. as an aid to drawing. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. which isolates the fabric from the paint. capital (Lat. hemp. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. candela. capitellum. . canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. "candle") A large. followed by smaller and even pocket models. sing.-N. candelabrum (It. usually with several branches or arms. cantorie (It. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. dating to antiquity.
and humanism. cartellini In a painting. details of the subject. Carthusian Order (Lat. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. The order combines reclusive and community life. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". or fresco. near Grenoble. or a motto. cartoon (It. pl. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. tapestry. cardinalis. the endeavour to attain true humanity. the date of the painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cartone. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. New Charterhouses.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. the Carmelites were originally hermits. monasteries containing separate hermitages.both Italians and artists from other countries . At the height of the Middle Ages. In fresco painting.a humorous drawing or parody. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Carmelites (Lat. Fortitudo (Fortitude). "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartellino.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartouche .
chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. In the 15th century. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. The main body. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. or nave. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature.) "castle". caryatid (Gk. Cascina. cathedral (cathedra. These lead up to the north and south transepts. cassone (It. For reasons lost to time and tradition. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). putti (cupids). . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and swags of fruit and flowers. and many other items of her dowry. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. they were also used in other countries. Paolo Uccello. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. The altar is placed at the east end. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance.toward the setting sun. castello (It. a cathedral always faces west . A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. linen. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. where the throne of the bishop is placed. palace. decorated with gilt gesso. They contained the bride's clothes. or arms of the cross.
or birdlike characteristics. and perspicere.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. landscapes. continually praise him. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. a throne bearer of the deity. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. buildings and figures that are being depicted. central perspective (Lat. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. champlevé (Fr. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. rather than intercessory functions. Relative to the observer. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Christian. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Both the statement of St. centralis. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. "in the centre". cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. animal. a celestial winged being with human. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. as celestial attendants of God. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). and Islamic literature. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. in accordance with their distance from the observer. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. . The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art.
Since Carolingian times. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . When the contrast of light and dark is strong. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Hans Burgkmair (1510). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. choir (Gk. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. reserved for the clergy to pray together. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. Lastly. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. or for choral singing. replacing tempera. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. choros.chiaroscuro (It." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. "light dark") In painting. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. North of the Alps. the Order of the Hospital of St. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling.
Very few still exist in their original positions. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and repetition of pattern. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. is as typically Churrigueresque. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. balustrades. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Sculpted clouds. undulating lines. The Transparente (completed 1732). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. an architect. and the Churrigueresque column. gilded rays. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and garlands. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. The Mexico cathedral (1718). undulating cornices. ciborium . further enriching the style. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. reversed volutes.intersect). An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. stucco shells. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). became the most common motif. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. a massing of carved angels. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory.
continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. including the ciompi. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Quattrocento (1400s. craft of dyeing. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. as also were those in the associated. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. the wool carder Michele di Lando.and post-medieval Italy. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. beaters. combers. Then. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Without being members of a guild. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. In reaction to this revolutionary . ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Their economic condition worsened. ciompi. High Renaissance). but self-employed. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. controlled by the minor guilds. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. The new government. who were raised to the status of a guild. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Members of the lower classes. placing one of their members. or achieve political representation. etc. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. on July 22.
Concepts of the classical. resembling a lyre. literature. with Italian scholars.episode. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). scholars patiently finding. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. however. except in cases where .as in Italy these were dispensed with. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). editing and translating a wide range of texts. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and politics. changed greatly from one period to the next. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. clair-obscur (Fr. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cithara (Gk. . writers. the black contours usually with a special line plate. In the 15th century Greek literature. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. philosophy. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. on which strings were plucked. the ciompi guild was abolished. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. philosophy and art . where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.) An ancient musical instrument.
Green and red. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. occasionally made of wood.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. condottieri (It. when set side by side. or "contract. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. intensify one another. sing. pl. [hora] completa. . cognoscente (It. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. cognoscenti." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. blue and orange. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. concetti (It. as well as from the Bible. those with refined tastes. a work's underlying theme. Coffered ceilings. compline (Lat. the church service at which these prayers are said. arch or ceiling. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. concetto. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. literature or music. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. terrorized the country. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. The name was derived from the condotta. condottiere. pl. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary).
respectable people who had to be aided discreetly.e.e. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Muzio's son. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Spanish. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. often called compagnie or. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. and his rival Braccio da Montone. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. clergy. confraternities Confraternities. or with the spiritual assistance of. scuole. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. . commonly called either Compagnia di S. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises.devastating Romagna. often under the direction of. flagellant confraternities. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Martino). (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. in the service of Perugia. and German--the condottieri. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. who won control of Milan in 1450. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Umbria. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Toward the end of the 15th century. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. By the 16th century. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Mark (1432). The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. primarily for syphilitics. Francesco Sforza. With no goal beyond personal gain. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. convents of convertite. i. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. By the end of the 14th century. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. and Tuscany. which spread in the 15th century. i. Carmagnola. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. in the service of Naples. disappeared. in Venice.
contours were initially regular. In medieval painting. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. while the Venetian government. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order.g. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contour (Fr. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. which accompanied condemned prisoners.e. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Confraternities. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. founded c. Dorotea in Trastevere. flat outlines. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. however. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. While the Doge ranked above the Council. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. but sometimes had their own premises.g. contour.i. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. and refuges for maidens. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. contrapposto (It. notwithstanding their location. in Florence. Later. 1514 in S. reformed prostitutes. e. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. e. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the Florentine Neri. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement.
Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. Reform programs. conventicle (Lat. declining moral standards. large cornice or other feature. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. corbel In architecture. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. a bracket of stone. They are often ornamented. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventiculurn. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. did not achieve any lasting results. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. whose names are inscribed on several works. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. 1100 and 1300. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Lat. . Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut.weight on one leg. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. 1280). aes cyprium. an engraving produced in this way. cuprum. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. The style spread as far as England. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. started the process of inner reform in the Church. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages.
out of veneration for Jesus Christ. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. An ancestor of the oboe. Jews. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. "small vat") In architecture. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. the first Christian emperor. D dado . the most famous victim of crucifixion. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft.e. i. Constantine the Great. the condemned man. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Next. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. after being whipped. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. cupula. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Death. or "scourged. There were various methods of performing the execution. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. a small dome. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. a semi-circular vault. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Seleucids. cupola (Lat. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Carthaginians. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. particularly among the Persians. Usually. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. reedy sound.
Deësis (Gk. but the concept behind an art work. diptych (Lat. "drawing. Anglican and Orthodox churches. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. which was help to be the basis of all art. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder.g. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. diptychos. and Linz possessed common characteristics. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. diptychum. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. disegno (It. often an altarpiece. diakonos. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . danse macabre The dance of death. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Passau. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. e. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. usually in matching pairs.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. an expressive use of nature. Germany. decorated diffrently from the upper section. The term stresses not the literal drawing. deacon (Gk. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. design") In Renaissance art theory. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Gk. a favorite late medieval picture subject. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them.
notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. doublet A male garment.fully realize.Thomas Aquinas. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. donator. distemperare. Ordo Praedictatorum. distemper (Lat. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. when painters took to working out of doors. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. donor (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. The studio easel. formerly worn under armour. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). also used it on canvas. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . a 19th-century invention. Dominicans (Lat. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. which runs on castors or wheels. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. is a heavy piece of furniture. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. such as we still use today. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. "to mix. though a few artists. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. dome in architecture. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.
fresco. eschatology (Gk. "last". bound and flogged. sculpture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. Hence. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. in art. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. a depiction of Jesus. John (19. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. the frieze. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. full face. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. sometimes combining panel painting. It consists of the architrave. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. and architecture. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "word") . ensemble (Fr. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. Ecce Homo (Lat. epitaph (Gk. entablature In classical architecture. en face In portraiture. and logos. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. and the cornice. eschaton.
F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. which is called "maiolica. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. fields and livestock. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. which was developed in the Near East ca. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Marcantonio Flaminio. Spain. and Scandinavia. which is called "delftware. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. and is named for Faenza. Italy. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. farmers. Contarini. 4500 BCE. and of the last things. "good. celebrated with bread and wine. ." and that made in the Netherlands and England." and charis." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. notably Cardinal Pole. Germany. Giovanni Morone. particularly ware made in France. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts.death and resurrection. which was famous for maiolica. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Jerome. protector of shepherds.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Vittoria Colonna. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Augustine. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. eu. Eucharist (Gk. Equated with the Greek god Pan. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Saints Ambrose.
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St.8). "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. war. Only a small area can be painted in a day. 2 . a swag. fresco (It. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. such as plague. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and flowers suspended in a loop. frescos in Italy . The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. black and dun. famine and death. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. a technique known as a secco fresco. fluted of a column or pillar. relaxed. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. leaves. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. sword and set of balances. drying to a slightly different tint. can in time be seen. Their attributes are the bow. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ.festoni (It. that of the others red. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. and these areas. The colour of his horse is white. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Committed to charitable and missionary work.
the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. where the atmosphere was too damp. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Final details. a person's invisible tutelary god. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . and to a lesser extent for tapestries. usually childish figure. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. are genres of painting. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the intonaco. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. genre In a broad sense. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. The technique of buon fresco. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. landscape and portraiture. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Genius in classical Rome. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. both in churches and in private and public palaces.Save in Venice. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. In art from the classical period onwards. G Garter. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. for example. covings and ceilings. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. or fresco secco. or true fresco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy.
Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. As such. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. how it differed from notoriety. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Bernardo Daddi.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. as well as writers and artists. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Maso di Banco. Gobelins . Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Maria Gloriosa). whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. and as spurring on men of action. in portraits and on tombs. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. whether it must be connected with the public good. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia.
still in existence today. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. golden section (Lat. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. and although it reopened in 1699. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. thereafter it made only tapestries. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. who appointed Lebrun Director. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. This ratio is approximately 8:13. Golden Fleece. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In other Italian cities. . while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring.French tapestry manufactory. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. Paris. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.
1200 and c. painting. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In thinking of Nicola (d. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. that the effects are to be felt. 1270. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. c. or the influence of one building. painting. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Amiens. The artistic.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. There is a transcendental quality. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. . By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Nevertheless. In particular. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. like the cultural and commercial. the superficial particularities of form. In sculpture and in painting. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and lies much deeper than. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Denis. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. from the 13th until the 17th century. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Gothic Gothic. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure.
Honey. the Netherlands. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Canaletto. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and Morris Graves. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. and above all Italy. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. with sable. Such tours often took a year or more. starch. the beau idéal of the French. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. . and taste among the English. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Pannini. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and the great style. to silk. notably in the writings of Bellori. and Piranesi. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. if required. It is thinned with water for applying. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour.and hog-hair brushes. without visible brush marks. sometimes in the company of a tutor. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Dubuffet. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Klee. chiefly to France. are but different appellations of the same thing'. These qualities. occasionally. genius. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. to white or tinted paper and card and.
which had recruited most of the merchant class. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. including text as well as illustrations. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In the context of the fine arts. Some writers. to Provence and Paris. however. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. exclude drawing from this definition. then as now. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. grisaille (Fr. 1216. In another sense. through central Italy. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. c. however. Although its palace was rebuilt c. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime.e. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. drawing and the various forms of engraving. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. From 1266 to 1268. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. became an abiding feature of European politics. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. after this. usually gray. brother of Louis IX. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. After the War of the Eight Saints. . it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. gris. In Florence. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. and Waiblingen. the parties taking a multitude of local names. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50.
guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In 16th century Venice. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In some cities. print or painting. as some did). The guilds were not equal. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. Guilds were also patrons of art. and greater hostility between master and man. trades. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. notably Florence in the 14th century. In some towns. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. H hatching In a drawing. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. In Florence. and provided assistance to members in need. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. goldsmiths. for example." from Fr. but in time they acquired other functions. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. trade or profession (painters. "herald") . such as Brescia and Vicenza. [science] héraldique. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. héraut. In Italy they go back a long way. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. surgeons. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. or professions. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The guild also monitored standards of work. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. heraldry (Fr. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century.
his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. normative for churchmen. The main impact of the . they were condemned in 1184. with the rules governing their use. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. as Antichrist. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. the Waldensian. together with brethren north of the Alps. However. while others merged with the Waldensians. one great missionary community. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. By contrast. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. the Cathars were an anti-church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. indeed.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. from the start. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. d. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. i.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. the followers of Juan de Valdes. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). head of the 'carnal Church'.
Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Kensett. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. and classical literature. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Jasper Cropsey. Morse. Church. J. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. working from 1825 to 1875. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. humanus. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. mainly in the south. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. Frederick E. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. In humanism. Henry Inman. in his earlier work. history (usually classical history). and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point.movement upon the laity was in southern France. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. the emancipation of man from God took place. B. At the same time. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. its subjects considered morally elevating. humanism (Lat. F. F. and. my spouse'. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Durand. S. George Inness. Thomas Cole. hortus conclusus (Lat. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. American painters were studying in Rome. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Germany.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the scourge that was used in the scourging. soft style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. with many further details added.g. the ability to create. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. beautiful style. In the second half of the 14th century. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. or of other saints. inventio (It. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. The terms court style. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. and they are also depicted on their own. and the ladder. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Donatallo. Veronica. the hammer. the rooster of Peter's denial. invention. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. originality. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. etc. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. are also used in art literature. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. the veil of St. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. For instance. Human figures. Derived from classical rhetoric. investiture . usually the donors of a work of art. the pincers.
Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. and Jan Asselijn. Upon his return to Holland. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jerome's writings. Nicolaes Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. generally Dutch or Flemish. although they are usually called Romanists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. . The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Both and Berchem. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. who traveled in Italy and. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. bathed in a golden haze. Andries and Jan Both. of Utrecht. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The Both brothers. Italianizers Northern artists. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. principally Dutch.
encouraged by the Crusades.1519). the rite of communion is based on this. especially one at which the Bible is read. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. lectern A reading stand or desk. liberal arts . Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Archbishop of Genoa. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. As their military role grew. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. John of Jerusalem . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
g. a semicircular space. often sublime. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. Pythagoras for arithmetic. John F. Martin J. through the use of aerial perspective. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Church (1826-1900). Heade (1819-1904). geometry. then the basis of a philosophical training. "little moon") In architecture. commemorating a marriage. comprising arithmetic. together with identifying attributes (e. painting or sculptural decoration. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. the quadrivium.g. loggia (It.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). . whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. first the preparatory trivium .grammar. rhetoric and dialectic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. poetic atmosphere. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). often standing in markets and town squares. astronomy and music. Kensett (1816-1872). Tubal for music). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. that could be used for public ceremonies. that may contain a window. Maria Novella in Florence). It is related to. lunette (Fr.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. and Frederick E. its roof supported by columns.
The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and portraits as well as landscapes. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. "almond") . magna mater (Lat. Specifically. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. antimony yellow. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). being written. copper green. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. When white is used for painting. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. madrigal A part song. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. usually for the lute. active mainly in Florence c. 1855–65. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and accompaniments. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but they painted genre scenes. for example. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. mandorla (It. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. originating in Italy in the 14th century. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. the goddess Cybele.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and however bright their lighting effects. originally sung without accompaniment. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. particularly such ware produced in Italy. historical subjects. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). "great mother") A mother goddess. manganese purple. and iron red.
depending on the social class of the wearer. Bronzino. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. mantle An overcoat. El Greco and Tintoretto. ecclesiastical. and literary texts. often ornamented with decorative borders. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. in a specific sense. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Flanders. the hand-written medieval book. the Codex manuscriptus. more strictly. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. complex and crowded compositions. In Mannerist painting. maniera. strong. worn open. and crowned with thorns. Developing out of the Renaissance. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. marked by flagellation. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. bound. "manner. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. In architecture. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. It reached to the knee or foot. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. which was quarried at Mount . Parmigianino. Mannerism (It. Burgundy. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. illuminated initials and miniatures.
particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. martyrdom (Gk. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. martyrion. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. proof") the sufferings. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. marmi finti (It. an inscription running round the rim. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. sleek surface. Without monetary value. "witness. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. the medal's purpose was commemorative. which were beginning to be reverently collected. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. a different design on the reverse. medallion In architecture. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . having finished his training. Carrara. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.Pentelicon in Attica. particularly by Michelangelo. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. quarried at Massa. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. The pure white Carrara marble. Like the finest Imperial coins. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman.
Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. In pure mezzotint. c. Medusa In Greek mythology. a Gorgon. A Dutch officer. The work of these men. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. even grain. The process is essentially extinct today. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Ludwig von Siegen. When Perseus cuts off her head. in England. 1425-1504). And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. particularly. often anonymous. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1467-688). is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. perhaps oddly. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles.round the neck. and of the many. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. It was. who reflected them. c. as it were. This yields a soft effect in the print. the stress on individual character. . for landscapes and portraits. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. of the person portrayed on the other side. 14601528). Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. 1452-1526/27). Her head features on Minerva's shield. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). no line drawing is employed. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. supposedly to petrify her enemies. 1640. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'.
saying") . mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. often quite highly finished. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Parmigianino (d. Francis himself. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.g. a branch of the Franciscan order. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. "one color") Painted in a single color.. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Many such small versions. monochrome (Gk. a painting executed in a single color. e. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. monokhromatos. miter A high. painting in gouache on vellum or card. executed on a very small scale. "word. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. ink and paint. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. usually portraits. pointed headdress worn by bishops. motto (Ital. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. still exist.
1817-29). 1816-17. and is intersected by the transept. nave (from Lat. and Casino Massimo. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. . was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. named after the patron saint of painting. Isidore. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and two other members moved to Rome. Pforr. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. In general. It may have parallel aisles on each side. In 1810 0verbeck. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. naturalism (Fr. The invention of personal mottos. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). often separated from it by pillars. Rome. navis. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Berlin. Nazarenes A group of young. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. but often insipid.from the Middle Ages.
but their ideas continued to be influential. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. usually golden. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. niello (Lat. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nigellus. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Nymphaeum (Gk. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. moreover. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. "aureole") The disc or halo. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. nimbus (Lat. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. is as true as it is notorious. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). were usually old when elected. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. the style of the Ancien Régime. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him.) . The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Popes.
observances") Rites performed for the dead. fluted column and a plain capital. the three basic styles of design. or poppy. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. inborn sin. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. its richness of colour. such as linseed. They are seen in the form of the columns. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. and entablatures. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. walnut. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. was the simplest.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. a small private chapel. a more elaborate base. obsequia. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. orders of architecture In classical architecture. "services. O obsequies (Lat. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. The earliest. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. with a sturdy. the Doric order. . Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. and its greater tonal range. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). Greek goddesses of Nature. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). capital.
'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. while shops came to be thought undignified. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. tradition and social structure. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). Alberti described the palace as a city in little.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. palazzo (It. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and the main apartments above. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. P pala (Ital. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Palazzo Strozzi). Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. the Cancelleria). like cities. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. and. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. with biforate windows. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. designed as a . related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities.g.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. standing at the foot of the Cross.
Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Rich. evolved influential types.g.scholarly retreat. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. like the colonnaded vestibule. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). cornices and abutments. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. came to be applied all over Europe. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. panel . Palazzo Massimi). Movement of patrons and architects. behind a sober Florentine façade. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Other cities. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Following Oriental patterns. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and Palladio's in Vicenza. palmette. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Papal incentives to build. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s).g. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. e. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. often built next to their titular churches. column-caps. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. especially after the Sack of Rome. like Genoa. and large households. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In Venice.
so that they might have a voice at court. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. cedar. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. metal. mahogany. chestnut. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. fibre-board.Term in painting for a support of wood. Then. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and walnut. and spanned by a single dome. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. linden. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. as it were. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). The third aspect was administrative. Many other types were used. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. larch. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Having a circular plan. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. the. and modern painters have also used plywood. secular rulers. fir. and dark walnut are favourites. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. To maintain their authority. or the incidence of taxation. the management of clerical dues and taxation. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. In the 20th century cedar. On a larger scale. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. or other rigid substance. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. As successors to St Peter. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. A number of matters. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. enforce law and order. slate has occasionally been used as a support. to influence popes in their favour. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and the pressure and temptations . however. as distinct from canvas. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. olive. and other synthetic materials as supports. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. including beech. teak.
Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. was long in doubt. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. could supersede that of a pope. of individuals. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. from the point of view of its religious associations. would. So onerous. in spite of further absences from Rome. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. as such. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. By then. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. It was argued that such a council. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. at Avignon. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. however. if it did no serious damage to the faith. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. To resolve the problem of divided authority. in the eyes of God. however. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. possess an authority which. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . which seems so inevitable. Colonna and Caetani. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. which met at Constance 1414-18. to be long delayed. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church.that could be applied to them. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). As at Avignon. however. There remained. the most appropriate . a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city.as well. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle.
and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. However. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. less frequently pig. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. Passion . hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. pastoral (Lat. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. in classical literature. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. it has also been used for painting. as well as a governmental one. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. 400-300 BC).by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Parrhasius (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. pastor. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and satyrs. scholars and men of letters. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and other animals. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. to a world peopled by shepherds. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and with Zeuxis (c. goat. the creation of a cultural capital. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book.. nymphs. through lavish patronage of artists.
1478. pastiche (fr.) or pasticcio (It. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. Meanwhile. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and so on. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Portrayals of the Passion. a small. but not necessarily a direct copy. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. projecting either centrally or at both ends. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. a region in north-central Italy. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Francesco Salviati. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. ornamental building. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. . "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. patrician (Lat. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. which focus on the Suffering Christ. patricius. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss.The events leading up to Good Friday. wealthy citizen. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. such as a garden summerhouse. pavilion (Lat. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. the crown of thorns. hence tent") A lightly constructed. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. 1478). "butterfly. papilio.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. and also the archbishop of Pisa. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26.
and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. in particular the face. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. physis. perspicere. "to see through.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. "nature". pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. pergola (It. pendant (Fr. perspective (Lat. or related elements within an art work. concept or deity. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. personification (Lat. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "hanging. and facere. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). physiognomy (Gk. and gnomon. . "person". dependent") One of a pair of related art works.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. persona. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays.
and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. striking the imagination with the force of painting.piano nobile (Ital. but full of variety.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. remarkable for singularity. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Peter's. to be expressed in painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Pietà (Lat. . for example. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet.) The main floor of a building. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. both real and painted. affording a good subject for a landscape. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. A pier is generally larger than a column. containing the public rooms. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. usually above the ground floor. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. proper to take a landscape from. Rome. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. pigment (Lat. or resin to make paint. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. exemplified. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. pigmentum. glue. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. curious details. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.
Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. and capital. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. though in less widespread. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . it has a base. also used in Spain's American colonies. since. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Thenceforward. and thereafter all Europe. such as Florence and Genoa. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). more sporadic outbreaks. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. "pillar") A flat. perhaps. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. a shaft. however. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. for instance. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. outside Tuscany. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. plague Plague. despite regional variations. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. It seems probable. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. it is difficult to find. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Rocco and Sebastian. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. During 1348 the Black Death. moreover. It is often fluted. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith.pilaster (Lat. the burning of 'infected' clothing. In the 15th century. pilastrum. For this reason. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. in October 1347.
. the Symposium. Diego evolved a purer. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In contrast with Aristotle. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Phaedo. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the Renaissance-Plateresque. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. or simply the Plateresque. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedrus. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. like its successor. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and sinuous scrolls. correct classical orders became frequent. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. and unified style using massive geometric forms. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). are the masterworks of the second style. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Timaeus. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.e. harmonious. more severe. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. utilized Mudejar ornament -. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Philebus. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. which lasted only a few decades. composition. The first phase. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). The first phase. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. or appropriateness. placement. i. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. heraldic escutcheons. The second phase. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Theatetus and the Laws. A student of Socrates.
Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Rather unsystematic. near Florence. systematized and added to what Plato had done.in Plato's thought. and Agostino Steuco (c. but not completely. including those of Plotinus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. A new Latin translation. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. and the Chaldaic Oracles. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. replaced Ficino's. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. partially. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and he utilized many other writings. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. all of which he also translated into Latin.1577) becoming particularly popular. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. Plotinus. Iamblichus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. 1472-c. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c.
Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. column. polyptych (Gk. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. pluvial (Med. plinthos. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Lat. pluviale. pointed arch In architecture. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. plinth (Gk. as in classical architecture). Frequently supports a pediment. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. portico (Lat. such as processions and consecrations. where a pectoral is used to close it. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. poluptukhos. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Plato was read in the universities. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. or statue. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. porticus. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance.
and the . as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Florence (1486-90). The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Maria Novella. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Cathedral) by Uccello. Group portraits. and only a decorative accessory to form. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The equestrian portrait. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli.. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. National Gallery). such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris.e. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Florence. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. psychologically more complex. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Colleoni. Venice). whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The realism of the clear. inessential. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo Farnese). which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. the Carracci. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. decorating whole rooms. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Mantua. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c.sculptors such as Donatello. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Siena. Campidoglio). include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. flattened image. was revived in the 14th century. Desiderio da Settignano. Gattarnelata. The 16th century portrait became generalized. 1328. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello.
Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). was versed in classical and patristic . As Poussin was a Frenchman. The styles of S. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. 1494). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. and Peter Paul Rubens. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. to discharge their preaching duties." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. bishops especially. Charles Le Brun. The sermons of Visdomini. and. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Fiamma's sermons. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. from the secular clergy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Correggio. who had as their ideal masters Titian. however. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Savonarola and Musso. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishop of Asti. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). together with the Dominican Savonarola. Borromeo. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. abrasive even. are not florid in style. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. several of whom became bishops. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. of the sermon as an art form. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. minatory exhortations. bishop of Chioggia. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. primarily the mendicants.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists.
presbytery (or choir) (Gk. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. predella (It. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Louis of Toulouse (1317. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.g. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The New Testament references in these would. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. prefiguration Typology . In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Because of the small size of predelle . The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. the temptations of Adam and Christ. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. tapestries. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. among them Holman Hunt. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. though often relatively very wide . Naples). Millais and Rossetti.rhetoric. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. however. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). and so forth. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.
and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. again indicative of the purpose they served. projecting shelf on which to kneel. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Fragonard. "evenness") in painting. proportio. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. 3. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. notably David. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. these highly finished drawings.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. 2. proportion (Lat. profil perdu (Fr. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. the Canon of Proportion. which uses the square . The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. the quadrature. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Prix de Rome A scholarship. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. Girardon. the golden section. The following are important: 1. and Houdon among sculptors. sculpture and architecture.
Rome. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Unlike Pozzo. triangulation. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. a fourth = 3:4. provenance The origins of an art work. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. a fifth = 2:3. putto (It.as a unit of measurement. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. harmonic proportions. the steward or treasurer of a church. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. one half the length of the other). quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. . It was common in Roman art. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. for example). Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. putti sing. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. "boys") Plump naked little boys. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Ignazio. 4. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and 5.
the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. refectorium) Monastic dining hall.g. or the Jesuits. Lat. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. friars and nuns. Botticelli. the great orders of monks. and high relief (alto rilievo). the object of particular veneration. Brunelleschi. in which figures are almost detached from their background.Quattrocento (It. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Among the . with the Anglican Church developing in England. also known as the Realist school. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. relicquiae. or some item connected with a saint. relief (Lat. Donatello. In 16th century Europe. basso rilievo). medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). relevare. e. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. in particular works by Masaccio. Fra Angelico and others. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. refectory (Med. hermits. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. relic (Lat. in which figures are seen half round. canons regular.
hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. i. At the same time. The Benedictines. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Venice (1404). In 1517. presided over by chapters general. Mantua. The same bull . Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. and the generally moderate Observants. Bernardino of Siena. Founded by St Romuald c. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. That of S. who had no overall organization originally. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the Conventuals. however. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. In 1504. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Salvatore. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. and their more institutionalized brethren. Lorenzo Giustiniani. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams.contemplative orders. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.e. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. After the repression of the Spirituals. 1012. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. various groups were fused in the latter body. Bologna (1419). Giorgio in Alga. although technically of secular canons. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. the great patriarch of Venice. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Maria di Fregonaia. Padua. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. which was to become the main Italian one. Benedetto. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. The Conventuals. Lucca. was the congregation of S. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the most notable being S. it became the Cassinese congregation. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. Giustina. The Silvestrines. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance.
Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. The first. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded in 1535 by S. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Michele in Isola. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. however. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Gaetano da Thiene. the Theatines. Filippo Neri. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. also. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Angela Merici. Venice. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. a historical period. founded by S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. however. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533.
the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man.century. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. too long forgotten glories. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. as well as political. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). . and his own as potentially one of light. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. of 'darkness'. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of scholarship. Thereafter. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). of arts. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. 1875-86). was so vast and potent. For long. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. and competition with. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. which had begun early in the 14th century. however. of an energetic revival of interest in. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. however. because its core of energy. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. even Amoralism. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. the historical reality of antiquity. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. life. All-Roundness. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. of letters. increasingly.
"The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. letters. let alone a uniform. in the more limited sense. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. etc. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. (3) There is not a true. gratefully. etc. Though thus challenged. statues. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. The challenges are to be accepted. later still to Genoa. mobilized nationalism. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. especially in the High Gothic period. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. though sometimes of metal.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. It is for this additional.with all its shabbiness . The panel is usually made of wood or stone. and other liturgical objects. and mass media. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. There was an early. however. retables can be detached and.erased. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. candlesticks.) was the term chosen. Cathedral of SaintBavon. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. of industrialization. and is decorated with paintings. consist merely of a painting. the previous record . because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Ghent). congruence between. sometimes. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .
the first style to achieve such international currency.in the 11th century. almost simultaneously. Louis XV furniture. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and architecture dominating the 18th century. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. in several countries . Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. literally. More usually. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Spain . It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. . like 'Gothic'. retables have become extinct. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Rococo A style of design. rilievo (It. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). rocaille (French.France. Romanesque art. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. As the name suggests. painting. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. With the development of freestanding altars. and 'Romanesque'.of St Mark in Venice. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. its mood lighthearted and witry. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. however. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. "relief") In painting. Originally commissioned in 976. Italy. the St. Germany. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. is a typical product. richly decorated with organic forms. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. the impression that an object is three-dimensional.
van Heemskerk. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. such as red ochre. Q. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The aim of painting. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. stylized design representing an open rose. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. . is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Claude. M.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the development of nationalistic pride. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Rome. Piranesi. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). B. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Mabuse. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Pannini and Mengs. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. In addition. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Massys and M. van Orley. they maintained.
the Eucharist. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Sacra Conversazione (It. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449).S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Orthodox. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Subjects were nominally sacred. from the Old and New Testaments. supported by lay confraternities.greatly increased. Eastern independent. but others were the work of well-known figures. holy orders. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. local saints. multiple sets used in succession. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. penance. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Many compositions were anonymous. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Written primarily in ottava rima. when it finally left the city it had devastated. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Clement escaped into Castel S. and Protestant churches. gutted. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. confirmation. There were no limits on time. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).expressed through gesture. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. matrimony. and impoverished. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. glance and movement . pious legend and hagiography. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. In the . and Lorenzo de' Medici. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and anointing of the sick. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome.
the symbolic direction of Christ. the Bentivoglio. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.e. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Candidates first face west. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. which in the Gospel According to John. was buried under a new fortress. the Rocca Paolina. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. replaces the Lord's Supper..) Hall. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Lutheran. The classical Protestant churches (i. used for drawing. notably from Florence and in Germany. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.early church the number of sacraments varied. large room. and sacraments. baptism and the Eucharist.i. Saracens . Salt War. It is still practiced on special occasions. make such strict distinctions. as in the Church of the Brethren. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. that the price of salt should be increased. sacraments." which are called sacramentals. in principle. Immediately following baptism. Anglican. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. was not maintained as a sacrament. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. and then face east. strictly speaking. the sun of righteousness. The chief focus of discontent. chapter 13. as an excuse to revolt. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12.e. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.. foot washing. Hence. Thus." sala (Ital. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the Orthodox Church does not. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. They were still seeking aid. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The theology of the Orthodox Church. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.
particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. whose writings. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c.During the Middle Ages. and many others. wood or terracotta. legs and horns of a goat. the god of wine. 360 . scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. the Arabs or Muslims.c. satyr In Greek mythology. 270 BC). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). are lost. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 160 . Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity.c. made of stone. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 45 BC). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. The publication of Latin (1562. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). pl. 210 AD). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. sarcophagus. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Little known in the Middle Ages. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . sarcophagi (Gk. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy.
the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the Florentines. in June 1409. scholasticism . Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. but with little effect. most of whom. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. was called Bamboccio. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. Louis I (d. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. than their medieval predecessors. who recognized the Roman pope. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. from time to time both he and his opponents. while England. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. one of the early leaders. who had the support of the Avignon pope. on the other. As a result. Alexander V. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. In northern Italy. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Schism. 1386) and his son Ladislas. and. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness.for example Pieter van Laer. and therefore far more purely Italian princes.they had individual Bentnames . on one side. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. being Frenchmen. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. with France and her allies Aragon. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. However. while devout Christians agonized. Charles III of Durazzo (d. for. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support.
and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. moreover. as it were. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers.moral philosophy. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). if lime-water was used. because the secco technique is much less permanent.were different from those of medieval.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. Christian. history and rhetoric . secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Often called the burning ones. on one side. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. notably Aquinas. the plaster had to be damped before painting. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. as it is easier to add details in this way. university-based study. As such. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. and Islamic literature. Padua. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. that scholasticism was left. Serenissima (Ital. and theology. Medieval scholars. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. textual scholarship. None the less. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio).) . seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.The term is ambivalent. It was because the central concerns of humanism . scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. (See also: fresco.
Servite (Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sibylla. Lat. brass. sinopia . silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. the number gradually rose to ten. and the delicate. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Signoria (It. which were all identical in thickness.. In Christian legend. usually presided over by individual families. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Med. "the most serene republic of Venice"). sfumato A technique. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Originally. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. "prophetess") In antiquity. women who could prophesy. there was only one Sibyl. at the same time. in use since the Middle Ages. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibyls (Gk. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. term. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. in the period of classical antiquity. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament.
(2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. brand. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. Ital. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. in other words. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. staffage This word.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigma (Gk. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. as the name implies. soffit (Lat. . Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. stigmata. It is very closely related to International Gothic. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter.'Beautiful Madonnas'.) Wooden ceiling decoration. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . "mark. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. pronounced as French. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. sotto in sù (It. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. Francis of Assisi. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. especially in the flow of drapery. and.. Stanze (Ital. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. sing. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.
supremacy . pl. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In a looser sense. The vogue for the Sublime.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). with that for the Picturesque. John Milton. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. stucco A type of light. studioli (It. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Indeed. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). whose verses actually fabrications . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. studiolo. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. both external and internal. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.
it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. and in literature. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. doubtless.and. his own headquarters. London. or cartoons. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. into Italy. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now.e. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Salviati and Allori. temperare. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). . But the Italians did not make them. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). The subject is underexplored. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. 1407). tempera (Lat. then being replaced by oil paint. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. both for panel painting and fresco.Historically. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. chiefly from Flanders. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. i. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. These were imported. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. was being decorated with frescoes.
terraferma (Ital. i. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. pl. "fields. topia. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. Trajan's Column . widely used form. figure of speech. topoi (Gk. topos. vessels. quarter face.terracotta (It. triumphal arch. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. in the architecture of ancient Rome.e. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. tondo. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. in art. and profile. theme or motif. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. topiary (Gk. tondi (It. "a commonplace") In literature. walls. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). model. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. and later to subdivide gable ends. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. and sculptures. pl. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. and other surfaces.
of both sexes'. or wings. chastity. "threefold") in Christianity.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. into a number of less controversial forms. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. . Disseminated soon after his death. behind it. usually an altarpiece. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Trinity (Lat.' Before it go the apostles.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the Son and the Holy Spirit. triptych (Gk. beside it the army of martyrs. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. trinitas. tryptychos. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Battista Sforza. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. death. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Early triptychs were often portable. fame. a car so brave'. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. the military triumph became sublimated. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. of virtues and of the arts. patriarchs and prophets. time and eternity. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. as it were. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. after 'a countless number of virgins. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Meanwhile. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. added to the glamour of the triumph. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the wars by which they were won . Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one.
tympanum (Lat. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. first recorded in 1232. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). it is usually decorated with carvings. In medieval architecture. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tusche A thick. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. viscous black ink. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. typology . trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. often decorated with sculptures. "drum") In classical architecture. through various naturalistic devices. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. enclosed by an arch. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. It incorporates Renaissance features. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Dating from classical times.
.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. each had access to his paintings. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. 1610). especially his half-length figural groups. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. knew his former patrons. Judith. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. were popular with them also. where they were most accessible. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. In Christian thought. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. such as five works devoted to the senses. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. lanterns. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).Dirck van Baburen (c. 1590-1624). slayer of Goliath. U uomo universale (It. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. e. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. The numerous candles. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).A system of classification. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.) The Renaissance "universal man". killer of Holofernes. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .g. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. and David. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).
The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. guttering candles. V vanishing point In perspective. "evening") . snuff boxes and other objects. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vesper. often gold. it was used to decorate furniture. a work's richness of subject matter. mixed in.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the rib vault. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vanitas (Lat. carriages. hour-glasses and clocks. Parisian craftsmen. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. Vespers (Lat. Also varietas (Lat. overturned vessels. varietà (It. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group.). consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. the groin vault. There are a wide range of forms.
if you have it not'. and Justice. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. vita. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Envy. the church service at which these prayers are said. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Temperance. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Charity. Prudence. Covetousness. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Fortitude. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. and Sloth. "not exposed to winds". Lust. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Vestibule (Lat. "life") . Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. 'Assume a virtue.Prayers said in the evening. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. pl. for example. The seven Virtues were: Faith. vite (Lat. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. virtù could be used. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Anger. Hope. vimperga Of German origin. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. vestibulum. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Gluttony. In ancient Roman dwellings. in which the word signifies efficacy. actual or latent. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross.
and appalled recognition of.g. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1482-84). the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. or recovery from illness has been made. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Vitruvius Pollio. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. they were from the 18th century . and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. in fact. and of Ferrara. a biography. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena.An account of someone's life and work. usually when a prayer for good fortune. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Sculptors and Architects"). of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Marcus (1st cent. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. 1478-80. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. those of Volterera. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1472. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. protection from harm. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. The wars from 1494 do. published in 1550 and 1568.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
woodcut A print made from a wood block. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. usually linear. gallery. "Western work of art". "world view") A comprehensive world view. treasury or a place where justice was administered. Westwerk German word. based on stylization of various animal forms. a philosophy of life. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. . It was intended to have a variety of functions. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design.Weltanschauung (Gr. usually restorers. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. pompous on the floor above. during its subsequent history.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.