This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
"architectural") Relating to structure. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. .A semicircular projection. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Degas. The adjective is apsidal. arkhitektonikos. but in essence the process is as follows. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. There are several variants of the technique. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. architrave (It. design. arcus. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Picasso. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece.e. or organization. the moulding around a window or door. piers or pillars. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. The term applies also to a print made by this method. including Goya. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Also known as an exedra. Lancet and Tudor. the lowest part of the entablature). and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. In Greek and Roman literature. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. architectonic (Gk. which is fused to the plate by heating. and Rouault. at the east end of a church behind the altar. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. roofed with a half-dome. arcade (Lat. the darker the tone). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds.
like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli." from Gk. dominate. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. aureole (Lat. archivolto. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. attribute (Lat. "front arch. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.and the Comedy . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.archivolt (Ital. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). archeiu. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . Dante's Vita nuova . aureolus. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. attributum. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Ars Moriendi (Lat. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. voltus." and Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "golden. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. In the case of martyrs. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . usually a saint. "begin. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.
while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. that of Cardano. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The actual move was made in 1309. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. the god of wine and fertility. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. paintings of everyday life. in 1377. Later. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). All the popes elected at Avignon were French. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. 'Captivity'. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. often anecdotal. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. applied to the physically . baldachin. Six pontificates later. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. who had been residing in France since 1305. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. or baldacchino (It. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.
. set beneath a domical ciborium. or connected with. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. pope between 432 and 440. France. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Parma. or forecourt. Florence.. such as those at Pisa. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example.g. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Pentecost. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. and Poitiers. . Easter. or canopy. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. built by Sixtus III. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. banderuola. and abject filthy things. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. a visual metaphor for the number eight. and Epiphany. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Lebanon. AD 273. beggars in rags. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and Nocera in Italy. Spalato [Split. As eight follows the "complete" number. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Alg. a church. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. seven. Baalbek. Customarily. the Temple of Venus. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. AD 300). Croatia]. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. el Kantara. banderole (It.
Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Originally. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. 1810-1865). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. something of earlier symbolism survives. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. 1796-1875). In architecture. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Jean-François Millet (French. usually facing east. southeast of Paris. "king's hall") a church building. however. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church.In the 10th century. were often omitted entirely. in the 1840s and 1850s. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Baroque (Port. 1817-1878). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Also tunnel vault. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. which is reserved for the clergy. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. barocco. baptisteries. 1807-1876). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. in its usual location near the church door . "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1814-1875). Jules Dupré (French. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. basilica (Gk. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. and (3) everyday realism.an allusion to entering the Christian life. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. or baptismal chapels. and thus a church. and increasingly elaborate decoration. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. . In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Vermeer). Rubens). Constant Troyon (French. stoa basilike. achieved through scale. 1811-1889). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Théodore Rousseau (French.
There were. which is either not yet glazed.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. in which still-life predominates. or which is to be left as it is. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. like their Dutch counterparts. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). such as Waldmüller. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. were referred to by their specific contents. as is to be expected. bodegón Image. Bodegónes. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. such as those by Diego Velázquez. domesticity. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). It takes its name from its grainy texture. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Spanish still-lifes. particularly porcelain. up until the mid-17th century. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. and often sentimentality. often with food and drink. also incorrectly called bisque. The term was mainly used up to c. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Book of Hours . no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. especially Spanish. 1650 in Spain. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Biscuit porcelain. however. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. By association.
a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. or seasons. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. By extension. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. Chantilly).an advantage over marble sculpture. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.by a variety of processes. . bozzetto(Italian. varying from silverish to a rich. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. durability. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. but can also be used for painted sketches. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. and the fact that it is easily workable . made as a study for a larger picture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. a rapid sketch in oil. See flying buttress. days of the week. bozzetto Strictly speaking.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.both hot and cold . sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. coppery red. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. months.
over time the term was used for the collections themselves. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. It also served to glorify the emperor. caisson (Fr. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). camera obscura . The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. its forms highly stylized. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. ceramics. which was often allegorical. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cameo Small relief made from gems. Duccio. and work in precious metals. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. mosaics. box") In architecture. Among its most distinctive products were icons. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. notable from Syria and Egypt. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. private room where works of art. manuscript illuminations. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). casson. "a chest. C cabinet A small.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. glass. and Giotto.
the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candelabra. pl. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. "candle") A large. usually decorated. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. cantorie (It.-N. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. both of which have richly carved marble panels. candlestick. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candelabrum (It. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. capitellum. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. capital (Lat. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. . usually built beside or attached to a church. Portable versions were built. The Latin name means "dark chamber. followed by smaller and even pocket models. which was usually whitened. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. which isolates the fabric from the paint. candela. usually with several branches or arms. and jute.Ancestor of the photographic camera. dating to antiquity. Niepce created photography. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. other materials used are cotton. by the 16th century. as an aid to drawing. usually in a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. only very rough effects will be obtainable. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). Structurally. campanile Bell tower. hemp. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means." and the earliest versions.) A gallery for singers or musicians. sing. cantoria.
the date of the painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. or fresco. details of the subject. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). the endeavour to attain true humanity. Carmelites (Lat.both Italians and artists from other countries . Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Carthusian Order (Lat. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. cartellini In a painting. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. The order combines reclusive and community life. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartone. near Grenoble. monasteries containing separate hermitages. In fresco painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. tapestry. and humanism.a humorous drawing or parody. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cartoon (It. or a motto. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cartellino. cartouche . the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cardinalis. Fortitudo (Fortitude). New Charterhouses. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. At the height of the Middle Ages. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. pl.
or arms of the cross. linen. palace. a cathedral always faces west . taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. The altar is placed at the east end. and swags of fruit and flowers. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. cassone (It. castello (It. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. . or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). decorated with gilt gesso. They contained the bride's clothes. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Paolo Uccello. In the 15th century. Cascina. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. they were also used in other countries. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. These lead up to the north and south transepts. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. or nave. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. caryatid (Gk. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. The main body. cathedral (cathedra. putti (cupids). the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo.toward the setting sun. and many other items of her dowry. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy.) "castle".
The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. a throne bearer of the deity. in accordance with their distance from the observer.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. . in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. animal. or birdlike characteristics. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. landscapes. centralis. "in the centre". cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. and Islamic literature. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Both the statement of St. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. Relative to the observer. as celestial attendants of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. central perspective (Lat. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Christian. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. continually praise him. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. and perspicere. rather than intercessory functions. champlevé (Fr. buildings and figures that are being depicted. a celestial winged being with human.
replacing tempera. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. choros." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. Since Carolingian times. reserved for the clergy to pray together. or for choral singing. choir (Gk. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). the Order of the Hospital of St. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Lastly." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "light dark") In painting. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. North of the Alps.chiaroscuro (It. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Hans Burgkmair (1510). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges.
surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. undulating lines. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. became the most common motif. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. balustrades. and garlands. Sculpted clouds. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. reversed volutes. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Very few still exist in their original positions. further enriching the style. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. stucco shells. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. ciborium .intersect). undulating cornices. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and the Churrigueresque column. a massing of carved angels. is as typically Churrigueresque. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. gilded rays. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. an architect. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and repetition of pattern. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. The Mexico cathedral (1718). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. The Transparente (completed 1732). roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area.
and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. on July 22. the wool carder Michele di Lando. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. placing one of their members. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Members of the lower classes. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Quattrocento (1400s. They were forbidden to form a trade association. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. as also were those in the associated. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. craft of dyeing. In reaction to this revolutionary . High Renaissance). but self-employed.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Without being members of a guild.and post-medieval Italy. Their economic condition worsened. or achieve political representation. Then. beaters. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. controlled by the minor guilds. etc. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. ciompi. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. combers. The new government. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. including the ciompi. who were raised to the status of a guild. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods.
They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. and politics. editing and translating a wide range of texts. philosophy and art . The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. scholars patiently finding. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. however. cithara (Gk.) An ancient musical instrument. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity).as in Italy these were dispensed with. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. . literature. Concepts of the classical. on which strings were plucked. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. the ciompi guild was abolished.episode. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). with Italian scholars. the black contours usually with a special line plate. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). except in cases where . resembling a lyre. philosophy. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. clair-obscur (Fr. changed greatly from one period to the next. In the 15th century Greek literature. writers.
complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. occasionally made of wood.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. literature or music. The name was derived from the condotta. terrorized the country. blue and orange. compline (Lat. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. or "contract. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. condottiere. cognoscente (It. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. pl. [hora] completa. intensify one another. arch or ceiling. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. condottieri (It. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Green and red. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). the church service at which these prayers are said. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. those with refined tastes. a work's underlying theme. Coffered ceilings. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. concetto. sing. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. pl. ." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. cognoscenti. when set side by side. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. as well as from the Bible. concetti (It.
when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. often called compagnie or. Muzio's son. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. in the service of Perugia. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. who won control of Milan in 1450. . often under the direction of. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. which spread in the 15th century. and Tuscany. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Umbria. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. convents of convertite. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. With no goal beyond personal gain. By the end of the 14th century. flagellant confraternities.e.devastating Romagna. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. and his rival Braccio da Montone. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. in Venice. in the service of Naples. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. clergy. primarily for syphilitics. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Mark (1432). commonly called either Compagnia di S. i. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. By the 16th century. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. i. Spanish. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. and German--the condottieri. scuole. Toward the end of the 15th century. Carmagnola. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. disappeared. Martino). Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Francesco Sforza.e. or with the spiritual assistance of. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. confraternities Confraternities. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly.
Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. contrapposto (It. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in Florence. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate.e. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. While the Doge ranked above the Council. e. which accompanied condemned prisoners. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. e.i.g. founded c. In medieval painting. however. Dorotea in Trastevere. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. 1514 in S. reformed prostitutes. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. notwithstanding their location. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. Confraternities. contour (Fr. flat outlines. the Florentine Neri. but sometimes had their own premises. contours were initially regular. while the Venetian government. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. contour.g. Later. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. and refuges for maidens.
executed by imported Italian craftsmen. corbel In architecture. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. an engraving produced in this way. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. started the process of inner reform in the Church. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventiculurn. They are often ornamented. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. large cornice or other feature. . The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. whose names are inscribed on several works. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. declining moral standards. aes cyprium. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. cuprum. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. 1280). It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Reform programs. 1100 and 1300. Lat. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. did not achieve any lasting results. The style spread as far as England. conventicle (Lat. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. a bracket of stone.weight on one leg.
the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. An ancestor of the oboe. Constantine the Great. Seleucids. the condemned man. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. i. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Death.e. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the most famous victim of crucifixion. cupola (Lat.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. cupula. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. after being whipped. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. reedy sound. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. There were various methods of performing the execution. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. "small vat") In architecture. a semi-circular vault. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the first Christian emperor. a small dome. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Carthaginians. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. or "scourged. particularly among the Persians. Next. Jews. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Usually. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. D dado .
consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. a favorite late medieval picture subject. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. diptychos. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. design") In Renaissance art theory. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. disegno (It. often an altarpiece. The term stresses not the literal drawing. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . diakonos. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). danse macabre The dance of death. deacon (Gk. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. usually in matching pairs. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. e. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Germany. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. diptych (Lat. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Gk. but the concept behind an art work. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. and Linz possessed common characteristics. "drawing. diptychum. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. which was help to be the basis of all art. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. an expressive use of nature. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room.g. Deësis (Gk. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Passau.
The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. which runs on castors or wheels. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Dominicans (Lat. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The studio easel. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. donor (Lat. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. donator. a 19th-century invention. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. usually forming a ceiling or roof. "to mix. Ordo Praedictatorum. is a heavy piece of furniture. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. distemperare. such as we still use today. doublet A male garment. dome in architecture. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. As disegno appeals to the intellect. when painters took to working out of doors. distemper (Lat. also used it on canvas. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket.Thomas Aquinas. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. though a few artists. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes.fully realize. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. formerly worn under armour. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it.
which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "last".forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. Hence. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. It consists of the architrave. and the cornice. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. entablature In classical architecture. fresco. in art. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. eschatology (Gk. eschaton. a depiction of Jesus. and architecture. John (19. en face In portraiture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. bound and flogged. ensemble (Fr. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. "word") . Ecce Homo (Lat. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. the frieze. epitaph (Gk. full face. and logos. sometimes combining panel painting. sculpture.
notably Cardinal Pole. Marcantonio Flaminio. Saints Ambrose. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Eucharist (Gk. Augustine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Germany. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. celebrated with bread and wine. Equated with the Greek god Pan. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Italy. Carnesecchi and Ochino. "good. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. eu. Vittoria Colonna.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. fields and livestock. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.death and resurrection. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Jerome. farmers. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Giovanni Morone. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which is called "delftware. Contarini. . F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. protector of shepherds." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which was famous for maiolica. which was developed in the Near East ca. which is called "maiolica. and Scandinavia. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and is named for Faenza. 4500 BCE." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. particularly ware made in France." and charis. and of the last things. Spain. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism.
Only a small area can be painted in a day. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Their attributes are the bow. frescos in Italy . fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. black and dun. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). can in time be seen. war. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. and flowers suspended in a loop.8). drying to a slightly different tint. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. The colour of his horse is white. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. 2 . leaves. sword and set of balances. such as plague. famine and death. relaxed. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. a swag. fresco (It. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth.festoni (It. a technique known as a secco fresco. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Committed to charitable and missionary work. fluted of a column or pillar. that of the others red. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. and these areas.
and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. for example. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. landscape and portraiture. In art from the classical period onwards. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Genius in classical Rome. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. a person's invisible tutelary god. The technique of buon fresco. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life.Save in Venice. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Final details. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or fresco secco. the intonaco. or true fresco. are genres of painting. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . It was founded by Edward III in 1348. usually childish figure. covings and ceilings. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. genre In a broad sense. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. G Garter. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. where the atmosphere was too damp. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.
while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Bernardo Daddi. how it differed from notoriety. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. as well as writers and artists.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. whether it must be connected with the public good. Gobelins . where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. and as spurring on men of action. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Maria Gloriosa). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maso di Banco. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. in portraits and on tombs. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. As such. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy.
0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. . golden section (Lat. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In other Italian cities. and although it reopened in 1699. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church.French tapestry manufactory. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. thereafter it made only tapestries. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). still in existence today. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Paris. This ratio is approximately 8:13. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Golden Fleece. who appointed Lebrun Director. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters.
The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. and lies much deeper than. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. There is a transcendental quality. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Amiens. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. The artistic. painting. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. In thinking of Nicola (d. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. the superficial particularities of form. like the cultural and commercial. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. Gothic Gothic. . By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Nevertheless. Denis. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. or the influence of one building. 1270. In sculpture and in painting. c. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. that the effects are to be felt. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. painting. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. In particular. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. from the 13th until the 17th century. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. 1200 and c.
and Piranesi. starch. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. notably in the writings of Bellori. Dubuffet. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. without visible brush marks. These qualities. It is thinned with water for applying. and above all Italy. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. chiefly to France. Pannini. the beau idéal of the French. Honey. genius. to white or tinted paper and card and. to silk. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. if required. occasionally.and hog-hair brushes. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and taste among the English. with sable. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and Morris Graves. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. . known also as poster paint and designer's colour. the Netherlands. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Such tours often took a year or more. Canaletto. Klee. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and the great style. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni.
which had recruited most of the merchant class. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. internal factions in Florence went under other names. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. became an abiding feature of European politics. From 1266 to 1268. brother of Louis IX. through central Italy. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. After the War of the Eight Saints. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. including text as well as illustrations. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. In Florence. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Some writers. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. grisaille (Fr. the parties taking a multitude of local names. gris. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Although its palace was rebuilt c. In the context of the fine arts. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. however. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. In another sense. usually gray. then as now. exclude drawing from this definition. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. 1216. drawing and the various forms of engraving. and Waiblingen. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. to Provence and Paris. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. however. c. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers.e. after this. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. .
The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. H hatching In a drawing. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. as some did). surgeons. such as Brescia and Vicenza. trade or profession (painters. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. and greater hostility between master and man. héraut. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and provided assistance to members in need. or professions. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. The guilds were not equal. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. goldsmiths. In some cities. [science] héraldique. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. In Italy they go back a long way. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In Florence. "[knowledge of] heraldry. trades." from Fr. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. heraldry (Fr. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. In 16th century Venice. In some towns. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Guilds were also patrons of art. notably Florence in the 14th century. "herald") . The guild also monitored standards of work. but in time they acquired other functions. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. print or painting. for example. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna.
the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The main impact of the . The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. from the start. they were condemned in 1184. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. head of the 'carnal Church'. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. indeed. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. the followers of Juan de Valdes. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. normative for churchmen. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. while others merged with the Waldensians.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. one great missionary community. the Cathars were an anti-church. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. the Waldensian. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. i. By contrast. with the rules governing their use. and regarded themselves as forming. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. However. as Antichrist. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. together with brethren north of the Alps. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. d.
B. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Thomas Cole. Church. Jasper Cropsey. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. humanism (Lat. Kensett. Henry Inman. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. history (usually classical history). absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. mainly in the south. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Durand. F. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Frederick E. Morse. working from 1825 to 1875. and classical literature. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. S. At the same time. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . hortus conclusus (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. my spouse'. F. in his earlier work. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. George Inness.movement upon the laity was in southern France. the emancipation of man from God took place. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. In humanism. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. its subjects considered morally elevating. J. Germany. humanus. American painters were studying in Rome. and.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
g. the pincers. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. and they are also depicted on their own. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. soft style. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). originality. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Derived from classical rhetoric. Human figures. usually the donors of a work of art. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. or of other saints. beautiful style. etc. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. and the ladder. Donatallo. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. trecento rococo and lyrical style. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. The terms court style. Veronica. inventio (It. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. investiture .surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. For instance. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the ability to create. there are representations of the bundle of rods. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. are also used in art literature. the rooster of Peter's denial. the veil of St. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. the scourge that was used in the scourging. invention. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. with many further details added. the hammer. In the second half of the 14th century.
who traveled in Italy and. generally Dutch or Flemish. of Utrecht. . Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Nicolaes Berchem.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Andries and Jan Both. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. and Jan Asselijn. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. bathed in a golden haze. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Both and Berchem. Jerome's writings. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Upon his return to Holland. principally Dutch. The Both brothers. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. although they are usually called Romanists. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Italianizers Northern artists.
Archbishop of Genoa. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). lectern A reading stand or desk. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. the rite of communion is based on this.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. As their military role grew. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Legenda Aurea (Lat. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. liberal arts . Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. John of Jerusalem . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. especially one at which the Bible is read.1519). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). encouraged by the Crusades.
painting or sculptural decoration. the quadrivium. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Church (1826-1900). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). astronomy and music. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. commemorating a marriage. often sublime. John F. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Kensett (1816-1872). lunette (Fr. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Maria Novella in Florence). Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Heade (1819-1904). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.g. that may contain a window. . its roof supported by columns. that could be used for public ceremonies. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. It is related to.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. then the basis of a philosophical training. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. rhetoric and dialectic. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Tubal for music).g.grammar. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. loggia (It. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. often standing in markets and town squares. geometry. Martin J. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. comprising arithmetic. a semicircular space.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. together with identifying attributes (e. "little moon") In architecture. poetic atmosphere. first the preparatory trivium . or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. through the use of aerial perspective. and Frederick E.
with white provided by the tin-glaze material. copper green. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. and however bright their lighting effects. Specifically. usually for the lute. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. 1855–65. and accompaniments. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. particularly such ware produced in Italy. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. When white is used for painting. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. manganese purple. for example. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). originally sung without accompaniment. the goddess Cybele. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. "almond") . One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. mandorla (It. with secular texts replacing sacred ones.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. but they painted genre scenes. madrigal A part song. historical subjects. magna mater (Lat. originating in Italy in the 14th century. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). antimony yellow. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. "great mother") A mother goddess. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). active mainly in Florence c. and portraits as well as landscapes. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. being written. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and iron red. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground.
Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. the hand-written medieval book. maniera. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. El Greco and Tintoretto. Burgundy. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. depending on the social class of the wearer. Parmigianino. ecclesiastical. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Mannerism (It. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. more strictly. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. often ornamented with decorative borders. mantle An overcoat. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. complex and crowded compositions. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. "manner. Bronzino. and crowned with thorns. illuminated initials and miniatures. strong. In architecture. and literary texts. bound. in a specific sense. Developing out of the Renaissance. It reached to the knee or foot. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. In Mannerist painting. the Codex manuscriptus. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. marked by flagellation. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Flanders. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. worn open. which was quarried at Mount .
is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). particularly by Michelangelo. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. martyrdom (Gk. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Like the finest Imperial coins. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . sleek surface. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). quarried at Massa. proof") the sufferings. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. a different design on the reverse. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. an inscription running round the rim.Pentelicon in Attica. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. having finished his training. "witness. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Without monetary value. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. martyrion. medallion In architecture. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Carrara. the medal's purpose was commemorative. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. marmi finti (It. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The pure white Carrara marble.
1640. who reflected them. supposedly to petrify her enemies. no line drawing is employed. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. 1452-1526/27). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. perhaps oddly. Her head features on Minerva's shield. c. Medusa In Greek mythology. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. for landscapes and portraits. The process is essentially extinct today. When Perseus cuts off her head. It was. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). a Gorgon. and of the many. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved.round the neck. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. This yields a soft effect in the print. particularly. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. even grain. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. 1425-1504). the stress on individual character. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. In pure mezzotint. of the person portrayed on the other side. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. A Dutch officer. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. The work of these men. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. often anonymous. as it were. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Ludwig von Siegen. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. 14601528). not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. in England. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. 1467-688). c. .
. "word. a branch of the Franciscan order. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. saying") . not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. monochrome (Gk. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. usually portraits. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. "one color") Painted in a single color. e. pointed headdress worn by bishops.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Parmigianino (d. monokhromatos.g. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. motto (Ital. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. painting in gouache on vellum or card. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. often quite highly finished. still exist. Many such small versions. a painting executed in a single color. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. executed on a very small scale. ink and paint. miter A high. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Francis himself. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. by Tiepolo and Rubens. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'.
and two other members moved to Rome. The invention of personal mottos. Rome. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and Casino Massimo. named after the patron saint of painting. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In 1810 0verbeck. 1817-29). naturalism (Fr. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. 1816-17. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. It may have parallel aisles on each side. . but often insipid. Pforr.from the Middle Ages. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Berlin. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and is intersected by the transept. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Nazarenes A group of young. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. navis. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Isidore. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. In general. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. nave (from Lat. often separated from it by pillars.
The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. nimbus (Lat. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Popes. niello (Lat. is as true as it is notorious. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. the style of the Ancien Régime. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. "aureole") The disc or halo. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. usually golden. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Nymphaeum (Gk. were usually old when elected.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s.) . surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. nigellus. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). moreover. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). but their ideas continued to be influential. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay.
prayer and preaching being central to their mission. a small private chapel. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. orders of architecture In classical architecture. O obsequies (Lat. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The earliest. and entablatures. They are seen in the form of the columns. with a sturdy. "services. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. . having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. obsequia.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. such as linseed. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. fluted column and a plain capital. the three basic styles of design. inborn sin. walnut. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a more elaborate base. Greek goddesses of Nature. or poppy. the Doric order. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. its richness of colour. capital. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). was the simplest. and its greater tonal range. observances") Rites performed for the dead.
and large windows appeared on the ground floor. palazzo (It. P pala (Ital. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. designed as a . In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. while shops came to be thought undignified. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. the Cancelleria). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace.g. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. tradition and social structure. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. and. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. standing at the foot of the Cross. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. Palazzo Strozzi). Usually pointed or rounded at the top. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. with biforate windows. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. and the main apartments above. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. like cities.
and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). cornices and abutments. like the colonnaded vestibule. behind a sober Florentine façade. palmette. especially after the Sack of Rome. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. evolved influential types. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. often built next to their titular churches. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. like Genoa. came to be applied all over Europe. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. In Venice. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. e. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Palazzo Massimi).scholarly retreat. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Movement of patrons and architects. and Palladio's in Vicenza. panel . palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. column-caps. Other cities.g. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves.g. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Following Oriental patterns. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. and large households. Papal incentives to build. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Rich.
This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. to influence popes in their favour. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. including beech. and other synthetic materials as supports.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. larch. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. slate has occasionally been used as a support. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. and modern painters have also used plywood. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. fibre-board.Term in painting for a support of wood. cedar. so that they might have a voice at court. The third aspect was administrative. the. chestnut. In the 20th century cedar. Many other types were used. metal. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. enforce law and order. fir. or the incidence of taxation. Having a circular plan. mahogany. To maintain their authority. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. olive. however. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and dark walnut are favourites. or other rigid substance. On a larger scale. and spanned by a single dome. as distinct from canvas. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Then. A number of matters. as it were. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and the pressure and temptations . secular rulers. teak. As successors to St Peter. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. linden. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and walnut. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth.
There remained. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. to be long delayed. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. possess an authority which. of individuals. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. from the point of view of its religious associations. Colonna and Caetani. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate.that could be applied to them. So onerous. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. which seems so inevitable. however. which met at Constance 1414-18. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. at Avignon. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. in spite of further absences from Rome. By then. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. as such. It was argued that such a council. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. if it did no serious damage to the faith. was long in doubt. As at Avignon. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. in the eyes of God. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). To resolve the problem of divided authority. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. however.as well. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. could supersede that of a pope. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. however. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. the most appropriate . fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). would.
it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. less frequently pig. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). and satyrs. nymphs. pastor. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. the creation of a cultural capital. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents.. However. scholars and men of letters. it has also been used for painting. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). goat. through lavish patronage of artists. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 400-300 BC). in classical literature. Parrhasius (c. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. pastoral (Lat. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and other animals. and with Zeuxis (c. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Passion . as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. to a world peopled by shepherds. as well as a governmental one. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.
which focus on the Suffering Christ. pastiche (fr. 1478). wealthy citizen. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. "butterfly. and also the archbishop of Pisa.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. ornamental building. a region in north-central Italy. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. the crown of thorns. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form.The events leading up to Good Friday. Portrayals of the Passion. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. such as a garden summerhouse. pavilion (Lat. Francesco Salviati. patrician (Lat. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. . In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. a prominent section of a monumental façade. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. and so on. but not necessarily a direct copy. Meanwhile. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. a small. 1478. hence tent") A lightly constructed. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. patricius. projecting either centrally or at both ends. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. papilio.) or pasticcio (It. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot.
concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physis. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. . "person". who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). persona. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "nature". and gnomon. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. personification (Lat. pendant (Fr. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. perspective (Lat. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and facere. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "to see through. in particular the face. or related elements within an art work. physiognomy (Gk. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. perspicere. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. concept or deity. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. pergola (It. "hanging. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers.
to be expressed in painting. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Rome. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. usually above the ground floor. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. affording a good subject for a landscape. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work.piano nobile (Ital. both real and painted. A pier is generally larger than a column. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. but full of variety. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Pietà (Lat. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). Peter's. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. containing the public rooms. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. . for example. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. glue. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. remarkable for singularity. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. curious details. or resin to make paint. pigmentum. proper to take a landscape from. exemplified. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.) The main floor of a building. pigment (Lat. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet.
plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). it is difficult to find. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. It is often fluted. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. moreover. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. though in less widespread. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. it has a base. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Thenceforward. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. despite regional variations. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. however. a shaft. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. since. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . and capital. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. and thereafter all Europe. pilastrum. It seems probable. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Rocco and Sebastian. plague Plague. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). more sporadic outbreaks. During 1348 the Black Death.pilaster (Lat. for instance. in October 1347. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. In the 15th century. perhaps. the burning of 'infected' clothing. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. such as Florence and Genoa. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. "pillar") A flat. outside Tuscany. also used in Spain's American colonies. For this reason. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore.
particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Diego evolved a purer. or appropriateness. i. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Phaedrus. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle.. are the masterworks of the second style. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488).e. The second phase. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The first phase. which lasted only a few decades. heraldic escutcheons. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. The first phase. Timaeus. like its successor. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Phaedo. more severe. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. composition. harmonious. correct classical orders became frequent. the Symposium. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Philebus. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. A student of Socrates. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and sinuous scrolls. In contrast with Aristotle. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Theatetus and the Laws. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. placement. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. or simply the Plateresque. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding.
Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Iamblichus. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. near Florence. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. all of which he also translated into Latin. replaced Ficino's. 1472-c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. A new Latin translation. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. systematized and added to what Plato had done. but not completely. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. and Agostino Steuco (c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Plotinus. and the Chaldaic Oracles. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. and he utilized many other writings.1577) becoming particularly popular. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. the greatest of his ancient disciples. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. including those of Plotinus. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c.in Plato's thought. partially. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Unlike the case of Aristotle. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Rather unsystematic. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony.
polyptych (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. poluptukhos. porticus. plinthos. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Some polyptychs were very elaborate. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. plinth (Gk. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pluviale. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. Plato was read in the universities. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. such as processions and consecrations. portico (Lat. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluvial (Med. Lat.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pointed arch In architecture. column. or statue. where a pectoral is used to close it. as in classical architecture). if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Frequently supports a pediment. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints.
the Carracci. Florence. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. flattened image.. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Florence (1486-90). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Mantua. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The equestrian portrait. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. National Gallery). Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Siena. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Palazzo Farnese). and only a decorative accessory to form. Gattarnelata. Desiderio da Settignano. The realism of the clear. was revived in the 14th century.e. 1328. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Venice). The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Maria Novella. psychologically more complex. Campidoglio). decorating whole rooms. and the . inessential. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Group portraits. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture.sculptors such as Donatello. Cathedral) by Uccello. Colleoni. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671.
sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Fiamma's sermons. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. The styles of S. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. who had as their ideal masters Titian. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. are not florid in style. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. from the secular clergy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. bishop of Asti. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. As Poussin was a Frenchman. was versed in classical and patristic . however. Savonarola and Musso. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. of the sermon as an art form. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. minatory exhortations. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. bishop of Chioggia. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. to discharge their preaching duties. together with the Dominican Savonarola. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The sermons of Visdomini. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. several of whom became bishops. Correggio. abrasive even. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Borromeo. and Peter Paul Rubens.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishops especially. 1494). by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Charles Le Brun. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. primarily the mendicants. and. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration.
though often relatively very wide .they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. The New Testament references in these would. Millais and Rossetti. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.g. predella (It. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. prefiguration Typology . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.rhetoric. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. however. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Louis of Toulouse (1317. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. tapestries. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. among them Holman Hunt.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. the temptations of Adam and Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. and so forth. Because of the small size of predelle . Naples). aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.
The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. and Houdon among sculptors. the Canon of Proportion. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. "evenness") in painting. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. proportio. sculpture and architecture. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The following are important: 1.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. which uses the square . these highly finished drawings. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). 3. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. again indicative of the purpose they served. proportion (Lat. the quadrature. Fragonard. projecting shelf on which to kneel. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Girardon. Prix de Rome A scholarship. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. profil perdu (Fr. the golden section. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). notably David. 2. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C.
provenance The origins of an art work. Unlike Pozzo. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. a fifth = 2:3. "boys") Plump naked little boys. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. and 5. for example). The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. putto (It. . many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. one half the length of the other). which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. Ignazio. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. Rome. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. putti sing. harmonic proportions. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). in whose celebrated ceiling in S. 4. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. It was common in Roman art.as a unit of measurement. the steward or treasurer of a church. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. a fourth = 3:4. triangulation.
A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. refectory (Med. canons regular. Botticelli. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Donatello. in which figures are seen half round. relic (Lat. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. relevare. and high relief (alto rilievo). in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. also known as the Realist school. Fra Angelico and others.Quattrocento (It. hermits. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. relief (Lat. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in particular works by Masaccio. basso rilievo). or the Jesuits. or some item connected with a saint.g. in which figures are almost detached from their background. with the Anglican Church developing in England. friars and nuns. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. e. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the object of particular veneration. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Among the . It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). the great orders of monks. Lat. Brunelleschi. relicquiae. In 16th century Europe.
developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Padua. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. The Conventuals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. At the same time. who had no overall organization originally. After the repression of the Spirituals. The Benedictines. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Bologna (1419). Giustina. Mantua. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Lucca. Lorenzo Giustiniani. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal.contemplative orders. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. That of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. In 1517. Giorgio in Alga. The Silvestrines. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. In 1504. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. which was to become the main Italian one. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. was the congregation of S. i. the most notable being S. Venice (1404). and their more institutionalized brethren. Bernardino of Siena. Benedetto. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. the great patriarch of Venice. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. although technically of secular canons. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The same bull . Maria di Fregonaia.e. Founded by St Romuald c. and the generally moderate Observants. it became the Cassinese congregation. 1012. the Conventuals. however. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. S. presided over by chapters general. Salvatore. various groups were fused in the latter body. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S.
S. Venice. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. founded by S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Gaetano da Thiene. Gerolamo Aemiliani. the Theatines. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. The first. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. founded in 1535 by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Filippo Neri. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Angela Merici. also. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. a historical period. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. however. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Michele in Isola. however. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524.
'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. the historical reality of antiquity. which had begun early in the 14th century. Thereafter. For long. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. and competition with. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. 1875-86). however. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. and his own as potentially one of light. of letters. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. All-Roundness. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. increasingly. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. however. too long forgotten glories. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. was so vast and potent. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. because its core of energy. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. even Amoralism. of an energetic revival of interest in. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of arts. life. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of 'darkness'. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. as well as political. . Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done.century. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. of scholarship. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man.
as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. let alone a uniform. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. of industrialization. consist merely of a painting. later still to Genoa. and other liturgical objects. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). candlesticks. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.) was the term chosen. Ghent). Though thus challenged. letters. congruence between. There was an early. sometimes. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . the previous record . (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. etc. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. however. Cathedral of SaintBavon. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. and mass media. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. and is decorated with paintings. etc. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. mobilized nationalism. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. in the more limited sense. especially in the High Gothic period. (3) There is not a true.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. though sometimes of metal.erased. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. retables can be detached and. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. It is for this additional. The challenges are to be accepted. statues. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. gratefully. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.with all its shabbiness .
with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. the first style to achieve such international currency.France. however. the St. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Originally commissioned in 976. Louis XV furniture. its mood lighthearted and witry. rilievo (It. painting. Spain . it indicates a derivation from Roman art. "relief") In painting. With the development of freestanding altars. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Germany.of St Mark in Venice. Rococo A style of design. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. and 'Romanesque'. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. rocaille (French. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. like 'Gothic'.in the 11th century. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. is a typical product. literally. More usually. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. . Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. retables have become extinct. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. almost simultaneously. As the name suggests. Italy. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. in several countries . richly decorated with organic forms. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Romanesque art. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.
usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Claude. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Massys and M. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. stylized design representing an open rose. they maintained. Mabuse. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. M. van Orley. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. making it the centre of the High Renaissance.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. van Heemskerk. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Rome. such as red ochre. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. The aim of painting. B. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. In addition. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Q. Piranesi. . Pannini and Mengs. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride.
or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . In the . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. and Lorenzo de' Medici. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Eastern independent. Sacra Conversazione (It. and impoverished. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. when it finally left the city it had devastated. supported by lay confraternities. penance. holy orders. There were no limits on time. confirmation. but others were the work of well-known figures. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance.expressed through gesture. Orthodox. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. glance and movement . matrimony. Subjects were nominally sacred. from the Old and New Testaments. gutted. pious legend and hagiography. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). multiple sets used in succession. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and anointing of the sick. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. the Eucharist. Many compositions were anonymous. Written primarily in ottava rima. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).greatly increased. Clement escaped into Castel S. local saints. and Protestant churches.
) Hall. the Orthodox Church does not.e. was buried under a new fortress. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. in principle. sacraments. as in the Church of the Brethren. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.e. Hence. Candidates first face west. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12.. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. The classical Protestant churches (i. They were still seeking aid.." sala (Ital. the Bentivoglio. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. Salt War. The chief focus of discontent. the Rocca Paolina. replaces the Lord's Supper. the symbolic direction of Christ.early church the number of sacraments varied. Immediately following baptism. large room. Thus. was not maintained as a sacrament. notably from Florence and in Germany. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. chapter 13. Anglican. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it." which are called sacramentals. which in the Gospel According to John. used for drawing. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. and then face east. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. It is still practiced on special occasions. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . strictly speaking. make such strict distinctions. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. baptism and the Eucharist. foot washing. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. and sacraments. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Lutheran. the sun of righteousness. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. that the price of salt should be increased. as an excuse to revolt. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church.i. Saracens . sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.
in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Little known in the Middle Ages. 210 AD). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. human-like woodland deities with the ears. satyr In Greek mythology. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 270 BC). The publication of Latin (1562. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 160 . sarcophagus. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Arabs or Muslims. made of stone. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. are lost. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.During the Middle Ages. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . and many others. whose writings. legs and horns of a goat. sarcophagi (Gk. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. the god of wine.c. 45 BC). pl. wood or terracotta. 360 .
with France and her allies Aragon. In northern Italy. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope.they had individual Bentnames . and therefore far more purely Italian princes. than their medieval predecessors. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Charles III of Durazzo (d. scholasticism . 1386) and his son Ladislas.for example Pieter van Laer. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). on one side. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. who had the support of the Avignon pope. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. while England. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. from time to time both he and his opponents. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. but with little effect. the Florentines. Louis I (d. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. for. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. in June 1409. Schism. on the other. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. while devout Christians agonized. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. who recognized the Roman pope. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). being Frenchmen. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. one of the early leaders. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. As a result. most of whom. was called Bamboccio. Alexander V. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. and. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. However. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope.
Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. and theology. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. because the secco technique is much less permanent. notably Aquinas. Medieval scholars.were different from those of medieval. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Christian. on one side. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. history and rhetoric .) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Often called the burning ones. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. as it were. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. university-based study. Padua. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.The term is ambivalent. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco.moral philosophy. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. if lime-water was used. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. None the less. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). textual scholarship. Serenissima (Ital. as it is easier to add details in this way. that scholasticism was left. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. and Islamic literature. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. As such.) . the plaster had to be damped before painting. (See also: fresco. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). moreover.
Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibyls (Gk. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. there was only one Sibyl. Signoria (It. at the same time. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. in the period of classical antiquity. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. In Christian legend. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sibylla. women who could prophesy. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. and the delicate. term.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. "the most serene republic of Venice"). silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Servite (Lat. "prophetess") In antiquity. Originally. sfumato A technique.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. brass. Med. Sibyls foretold the Birth. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.. the number gradually rose to ten. sinopia . in use since the Middle Ages. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. usually presided over by individual families. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Lat. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. which were all identical in thickness.
Ital. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. and.'Beautiful Madonnas'. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . stigma (Gk. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. sing. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. stigmata. . and by a sweet and playful sentiment. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. sotto in sù (It. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. It is very closely related to International Gothic. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Stanze (Ital. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. staffage This word. in other words. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil).. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. soffit (Lat. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. "mark. as the name implies. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Francis of Assisi. brand.) Wooden ceiling decoration. pronounced as French. especially in the flow of drapery. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.
sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. studioli (It. In a looser sense. whose verses actually fabrications . supremacy . Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. John Milton. both external and internal. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. studiolo. pl. with that for the Picturesque. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate).were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The vogue for the Sublime. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. stucco A type of light. Indeed.
doubtless. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. was being decorated with frescoes. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. chiefly from Flanders. These were imported. then being replaced by oil paint. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). or cartoons. and in literature. The subject is underexplored. temperare. But the Italians did not make them. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio).and. both for panel painting and fresco. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source.Historically. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. Salviati and Allori. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. into Italy. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. 1407). his own headquarters. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. . now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. tempera (Lat. i. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. London.e. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling.
tondi (It. widely used form. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. triumphal arch. and later to subdivide gable ends. vessels. in the architecture of ancient Rome. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.terracotta (It. theme or motif. quarter face. walls. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Trajan's Column . in art. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "a commonplace") In literature. and other surfaces. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. figure of speech. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. topoi (Gk. topia. "fields. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). i. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. and profile. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. terraferma (Ital. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topiary (Gk. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. tondo. pl.e. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. topos. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. and sculptures. pl. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. model.
In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Trinity (Lat. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. trinitas. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. . in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. fame. tryptychos. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph.' Before it go the apostles. behind it.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. triptych (Gk. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. usually an altarpiece. or wings. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. beside it the army of martyrs. as it were. after 'a countless number of virgins. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Meanwhile. death. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the military triumph became sublimated. chastity. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Battista Sforza. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . "threefold") in Christianity. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. added to the glamour of the triumph. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. "threefold") A painting in three sections.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Early triptychs were often portable.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. a car so brave'. of both sexes'. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Disseminated soon after his death. of virtues and of the arts. into a number of less controversial forms. the wars by which they were won . that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. time and eternity. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. patriarchs and prophets. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings.
viscous black ink. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. "drum") In classical architecture. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tympanum (Lat. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. enclosed by an arch. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tusche A thick. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. often decorated with sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Dating from classical times. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. through various naturalistic devices. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. it is usually decorated with carvings. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. In medieval architecture. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). typology . first recorded in 1232.
and David. especially his half-length figural groups.) The Renaissance "universal man". tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. 1590-1624). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.Dirck van Baburen (c. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. knew his former patrons. each had access to his paintings. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.g. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). The numerous candles. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Judith. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. killer of Holofernes. 1610). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. were popular with them also.A system of classification. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. slayer of Goliath. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . e. such as five works devoted to the senses. U uomo universale (It. where they were most accessible. . lanterns. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . In Christian thought. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.
often gold. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. mixed in. Vespers (Lat. vesper. hour-glasses and clocks. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.). V vanishing point In perspective. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. varietà (It. it was used to decorate furniture. and the rib vault. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. snuff boxes and other objects. the groin vault. There are a wide range of forms. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. guttering candles. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Also varietas (Lat. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. vanitas (Lat. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. carriages. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. Parisian craftsmen. and even flowers (which will soon fade). "evening") . overturned vessels. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. a work's richness of subject matter. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls.
'Assume a virtue. vita. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli.Prayers said in the evening. actual or latent. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. virtù could be used. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vimperga Of German origin. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. "not exposed to winds". The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Fortitude. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Envy. and Sloth. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Prudence. and Justice. Gluttony. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Temperance. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Covetousness. pl. the church service at which these prayers are said. "life") . in which the word signifies efficacy. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. for example. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. if you have it not'. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Vestibule (Lat. Hope. vite (Lat. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. vestibulum. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Lust. In ancient Roman dwellings. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Charity. Anger.
No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. a biography. The wars from 1494 do. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. and appalled recognition of. or recovery from illness has been made. protection from harm. they were from the 18th century . usually when a prayer for good fortune. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. and of Ferrara. those of Volterera. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.An account of someone's life and work. published in 1550 and 1568. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1472. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Vitruvius Pollio. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for.g. 1478-80. Sculptors and Architects"). Marcus (1st cent. 1482-84). in fact. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
a philosophy of life. based on stylization of various animal forms. "world view") A comprehensive world view. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. pompous on the floor above. "Western work of art". during its subsequent history. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. It was intended to have a variety of functions. woodcut A print made from a wood block. Westwerk German word. usually linear. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel.Weltanschauung (Gr. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. gallery. usually restorers. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. treasury or a place where justice was administered. . Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out.