This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
architectonic (Gk. the lowest part of the entablature). arcus. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). or organization. piers or pillars. arcade (Lat. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Also known as an exedra. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). but in essence the process is as follows. and Rouault. including Goya. Lancet and Tudor. In Greek and Roman literature. . In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. The adjective is apsidal.e. There are several variants of the technique. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. architrave (It. Degas. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Picasso. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. arkhitektonikos. "architectural") Relating to structure. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. design. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.A semicircular projection. the moulding around a window or door. The term applies also to a print made by this method. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the darker the tone). at the east end of a church behind the altar. which is fused to the plate by heating. roofed with a half-dome.
attributum. attribute (Lat. dominate. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. aureole (Lat. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "golden. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). archeiu. archivolto. Dante's Vita nuova . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. Ars Moriendi (Lat. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "begin.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. usually a saint. "front arch. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. voltus.and the Comedy . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century.archivolt (Ital. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. aureolus. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum." from Gk. In the case of martyrs. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine." and Lat.
The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. often anecdotal. The actual move was made in 1309. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). 'Captivity'. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. baldachin. the god of wine and fertility. or baldacchino (It.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. that of Cardano. in 1377. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. who had been residing in France since 1305. applied to the physically . like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Later. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. paintings of everyday life. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Six pontificates later. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome.
enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. or connected with. seven. the Temple of Venus. el Kantara. a visual metaphor for the number eight.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). AD 273. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. AD 300). their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. such as those at Pisa. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Easter. and Nocera in Italy.g. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. a church. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. and Epiphany. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. and abject filthy things. and Poitiers. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent.. Lebanon. built by Sixtus III." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. pope between 432 and 440. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. banderuola. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. beggars in rags. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Croatia]. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. Customarily. or forecourt. banderole (It. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. . Pentecost. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baalbek. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Alg.. Spalato [Split. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Florence. Parma. or canopy. France. As eight follows the "complete" number. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism.
and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1807-1876). stoa basilike. Constant Troyon (French. achieved through scale. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. . In architecture. Rubens). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Also tunnel vault. Théodore Rousseau (French. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. barocco. in its usual location near the church door . 1817-1878). Vermeer). basilica (Gk.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. "king's hall") a church building. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. 1796-1875). Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Originally. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. were often omitted entirely. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Jean-François Millet (French. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and thus a church. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. however. and (3) everyday realism. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Jules Dupré (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Baroque (Port. which is reserved for the clergy. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1811-1889). 1810-1865). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. southeast of Paris. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. something of earlier symbolism survives. 1814-1875). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. in the 1840s and 1850s. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building.In the 10th century. baptisteries. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. or baptismal chapels. the dramatic use of light and shadow. usually facing east. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group.
also incorrectly called bisque. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. which is either not yet glazed. domesticity. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. and often sentimentality. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. Bodegónes. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The term was mainly used up to c. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. Spanish still-lifes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). however. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. There were. It takes its name from its grainy texture. such as Waldmüller. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. 1650 in Spain. By association. as is to be expected. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. like their Dutch counterparts. especially Spanish. were referred to by their specific contents. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. in which still-life predominates. bodegón Image. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). often with food and drink. Book of Hours . the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. particularly porcelain.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. or which is to be left as it is.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. up until the mid-17th century. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. Biscuit porcelain.
bozzetto(Italian. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. Chantilly). illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. but can also be used for painted sketches.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. varying from silverish to a rich. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. durability. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. . days of the week. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture.an advantage over marble sculpture.both hot and cold . months. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. though these are more often called 'modelli'. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. See flying buttress. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. bozzetto Strictly speaking. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. or seasons. By extension. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts .by a variety of processes. and the fact that it is easily workable . a rapid sketch in oil. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. made as a study for a larger picture. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. coppery red.
and Giotto. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. cameo Small relief made from gems. glass. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. casson. box") In architecture. its forms highly stylized. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). over time the term was used for the collections themselves. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. It also served to glorify the emperor. ceramics. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. camera obscura . Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Among its most distinctive products were icons. manuscript illuminations. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. notable from Syria and Egypt. Duccio. and work in precious metals. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. mosaics. C cabinet A small. "a chest. private room where works of art.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. caisson (Fr. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which was often allegorical.
as an aid to drawing. "candle") A large. capital (Lat.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candelabra. dating to antiquity. which isolates the fabric from the paint. cantorie (It. usually built beside or attached to a church. followed by smaller and even pocket models. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. which was usually whitened. by the 16th century. Structurally. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace.-N. hemp. sing. usually with several branches or arms. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up.) A gallery for singers or musicians." and the earliest versions. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). campanile Bell tower. pl. Niepce created photography. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. capitellum. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. usually decorated. The Latin name means "dark chamber. candlestick. only very rough effects will be obtainable. candela. usually in a church. Portable versions were built. . canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. candelabrum (It. other materials used are cotton. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. and jute. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. both of which have richly carved marble panels. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantoria. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments.
Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. tapestry. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. details of the subject.a humorous drawing or parody. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartellini In a painting. cardinalis. the date of the painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartoon (It. The order combines reclusive and community life. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Carmelites (Lat. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. or fresco. At the height of the Middle Ages. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cartellino. or a motto. the Carmelites were originally hermits. and humanism. cartone. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". New Charterhouses. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism.both Italians and artists from other countries . Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. Carthusian Order (Lat. In fresco painting. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. pl. near Grenoble. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartouche .
For reasons lost to time and tradition. The main body.toward the setting sun. and many other items of her dowry. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. a cathedral always faces west . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. . and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). They contained the bride's clothes. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Cascina. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The altar is placed at the east end. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. or nave. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. decorated with gilt gesso. they were also used in other countries.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. In the 15th century. cassone (It. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. castello (It. putti (cupids).) "castle". or arms of the cross. linen. cathedral (cathedra. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Paolo Uccello. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. where the throne of the bishop is placed. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. caryatid (Gk. and swags of fruit and flowers. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. palace.
"see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. and Islamic literature. and perspicere. buildings and figures that are being depicted. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. central perspective (Lat. in accordance with their distance from the observer. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. animal. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). a throne bearer of the deity. Both the statement of St. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. . Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Christian. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Relative to the observer. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. as celestial attendants of God. landscapes. rather than intercessory functions. a celestial winged being with human. continually praise him. centralis. champlevé (Fr. "in the centre". these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. or birdlike characteristics. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper.
chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. the Order of the Hospital of St. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. Since Carolingian times. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). Lastly. choir (Gk. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Hans Burgkmair (1510). The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. North of the Alps. reserved for the clergy to pray together. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land.chiaroscuro (It. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. choros. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . or for choral singing. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. replacing tempera." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). When the contrast of light and dark is strong. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "light dark") In painting.
most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The Transparente (completed 1732). stucco shells. an architect. balustrades. reversed volutes. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. a massing of carved angels. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. ciborium . Very few still exist in their original positions. gilded rays. undulating cornices. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco.intersect). An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. further enriching the style. and repetition of pattern. and garlands. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. undulating lines. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. became the most common motif. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and the Churrigueresque column. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. which was shaped like an inverted cone. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. is as typically Churrigueresque. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Sculpted clouds. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross.
but self-employed. combers. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. or achieve political representation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. beaters. who were raised to the status of a guild. placing one of their members. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. In reaction to this revolutionary . craft of dyeing. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July.and post-medieval Italy. They were forbidden to form a trade association. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Their economic condition worsened. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Without being members of a guild. etc. as also were those in the associated. the wool carder Michele di Lando. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. on July 22.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. controlled by the minor guilds. Quattrocento (1400s. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. ciompi. High Renaissance). including the ciompi. Members of the lower classes. Then. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. The new government. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history.
cithara (Gk. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. Concepts of the classical. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. resembling a lyre. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. editing and translating a wide range of texts. writers. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. literature. however. philosophy. the ciompi guild was abolished.) An ancient musical instrument. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). except in cases where . changed greatly from one period to the next. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. . and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. clair-obscur (Fr. the black contours usually with a special line plate. scholars patiently finding. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. philosophy and art . cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. on which strings were plucked. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. and politics. with Italian scholars. In the 15th century Greek literature.as in Italy these were dispensed with.episode.
and yellow and violet are complementary colours. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. sing. as well as from the Bible. occasionally made of wood. blue and orange. cognoscenti. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. concetti (It. compline (Lat. arch or ceiling. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. when set side by side. Coffered ceilings. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. The name was derived from the condotta. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. cognoscente (It. . condottiere. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. "concept") In Renaissance art theory.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. [hora] completa. terrorized the country. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. concetto. a work's underlying theme. or "contract. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. Green and red. condottieri (It. intensify one another. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. pl. literature or music. those with refined tastes.
Italians began to raise mercenary armies. who won control of Milan in 1450. in the service of Naples. convents of convertite. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. flagellant confraternities. clergy. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza.e. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. i. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. By the 16th century. confraternities Confraternities. which spread in the 15th century. Spanish. By the end of the 14th century. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Umbria. disappeared. in Venice. primarily for syphilitics. Carmagnola. or with the spiritual assistance of. With no goal beyond personal gain. Francesco Sforza. commonly called either Compagnia di S. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. and Tuscany. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. often under the direction of. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. i. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. . Toward the end of the 15th century. in the service of Perugia. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Muzio's son. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. often called compagnie or. scuole. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri.devastating Romagna. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Martino). were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'.e. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and German--the condottieri. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Mark (1432). The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour.
the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. In medieval painting. contour. while the Venetian government. notwithstanding their location.g. e. in Florence. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. contour (Fr. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. e. reformed prostitutes. contrapposto (It.g. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . the Florentine Neri. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Confraternities. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. and refuges for maidens. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership).e. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. contours were initially regular. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them.i. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. While the Doge ranked above the Council. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. founded c. Dorotea in Trastevere. however. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. flat outlines. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. 1514 in S. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. but sometimes had their own premises. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Later.
Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. 1280). Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. large cornice or other feature. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. . 1100 and 1300. started the process of inner reform in the Church. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. cuprum. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). a bracket of stone. an engraving produced in this way. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c.weight on one leg. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. declining moral standards. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Reform programs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. whose names are inscribed on several works. The style spread as far as England. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. conventiculurn. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. did not achieve any lasting results. aes cyprium. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. They are often ornamented. corbel In architecture. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. conventicle (Lat. Lat. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563.
A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the condemned man. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. a semi-circular vault. Usually. An ancestor of the oboe. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. There were various methods of performing the execution. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Jews. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. D dado . crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. i. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. the first Christian emperor. particularly among the Persians. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Carthaginians. after being whipped. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. the most famous victim of crucifixion. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. reedy sound. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. cupula. Constantine the Great. a small dome. "small vat") In architecture. or "scourged. Death.e. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Next. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Seleucids. cupola (Lat. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists.
diptych (Lat. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term.g. deacon (Gk. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. diptychum. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Gk. design") In Renaissance art theory. e. diakonos. an expressive use of nature. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Germany. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Deësis (Gk. disegno (It. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. danse macabre The dance of death. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. which was help to be the basis of all art. often an altarpiece. but the concept behind an art work. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Passau. usually in matching pairs. "drawing. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. diptychos. The term stresses not the literal drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing.
is a heavy piece of furniture.fully realize. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. distemper (Lat. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Dominicans (Lat. donator. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. which runs on castors or wheels. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). dome in architecture. usually forming a ceiling or roof. "to mix. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The studio easel. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. such as we still use today. when painters took to working out of doors. formerly worn under armour. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). doublet A male garment. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching.Thomas Aquinas. distemperare. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Ordo Praedictatorum. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). though a few artists. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . donor (Lat. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. also used it on canvas. a 19th-century invention. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes.
engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. sculpture. Ecce Homo (Lat. in art. eschatology (Gk. a depiction of Jesus. "last". the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. and architecture. en face In portraiture. entablature In classical architecture. the frieze. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. full face. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. and the cornice. and logos. sometimes combining panel painting. bound and flogged. John (19. epitaph (Gk. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. fresco. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. eschaton. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. "word") . the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. ensemble (Fr. Hence. It consists of the architrave. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing.
and Scandinavia. which was developed in the Near East ca. eu. Saints Ambrose. notably Cardinal Pole. particularly ware made in France. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion.death and resurrection. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Marcantonio Flaminio. which is called "delftware. Equated with the Greek god Pan. which was famous for maiolica." and that made in the Netherlands and England. It developed in France in the early 16th century. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Italy. Contarini. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Giovanni Morone. . Carnesecchi and Ochino. Germany. Eucharist (Gk. and of the last things. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. farmers. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. celebrated with bread and wine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. which is called "maiolica.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. fields and livestock. 4500 BCE. protector of shepherds. and is named for Faenza. Vittoria Colonna. Spain. "good. Jerome. Augustine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns." and charis.
and these areas. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. a technique known as a secco fresco. and flowers suspended in a loop. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). can in time be seen. black and dun. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. famine and death. relaxed. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. The colour of his horse is white. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. 2 . war. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. that of the others red. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). such as plague. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. sword and set of balances. frescos in Italy . drying to a slightly different tint.festoni (It. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. fresco (It. fluted of a column or pillar. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Their attributes are the bow.8). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Only a small area can be painted in a day. a swag. leaves. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically.
the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. landscape and portraiture. for example. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. Genius in classical Rome. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. The technique of buon fresco. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. genre In a broad sense. or true fresco. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . It was founded by Edward III in 1348. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . usually childish figure. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. where the atmosphere was too damp. In art from the classical period onwards. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp.Save in Venice. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or fresco secco. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. the intonaco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. a person's invisible tutelary god. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. covings and ceilings. G Garter. Final details. both in churches and in private and public palaces. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. are genres of painting.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.
glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. as well as writers and artists. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. As such. Bernardo Daddi. whether it must be connected with the public good. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Gobelins . Maria Gloriosa). while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. how it differed from notoriety. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. and as spurring on men of action. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Maso di Banco. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. in portraits and on tombs. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents.such artists as Pieter Bruegel.
For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. who appointed Lebrun Director. golden section (Lat. Golden Fleece. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. . the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Paris. In other Italian cities. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. and although it reopened in 1699. still in existence today. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. thereafter it made only tapestries. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum.French tapestry manufactory. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. This ratio is approximately 8:13. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.
like the cultural and commercial. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. In particular. Nevertheless. The artistic. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. In thinking of Nicola (d. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. 1270. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and lies much deeper than. There is a transcendental quality. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. painting. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. In sculpture and in painting. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. the superficial particularities of form. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. c. painting. 1200 and c.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. Denis. from the 13th until the 17th century. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. . that the effects are to be felt. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. Amiens. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Gothic Gothic. or the influence of one building.
to white or tinted paper and card and. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. It is thinned with water for applying. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. These qualities. starch. genius. and Morris Graves. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. to silk. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and taste among the English. and above all Italy. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Such tours often took a year or more. Dubuffet. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. chiefly to France. with sable. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and the great style. if required. Canaletto.and hog-hair brushes. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. There was also a flourishing market in guide books.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. sometimes in the company of a tutor. occasionally. Pannini. notably in the writings of Bellori. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Honey. the beau idéal of the French. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. without visible brush marks. are but different appellations of the same thing'. . Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. the Netherlands. and Piranesi. Klee.
through central Italy. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. however. after this. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. In the context of the fine arts.e. which had recruited most of the merchant class. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. including text as well as illustrations. c. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. usually gray. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. In another sense. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. became an abiding feature of European politics. exclude drawing from this definition. however. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. 1216. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. to Provence and Paris. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. In Florence. brother of Louis IX. Although its palace was rebuilt c. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. grisaille (Fr. gris. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. internal factions in Florence went under other names. drawing and the various forms of engraving. After the War of the Eight Saints. then as now. From 1266 to 1268. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. . the parties taking a multitude of local names. and Waiblingen. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Some writers. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire.
the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The guilds were not equal. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. In some cities. and greater hostility between master and man. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. as some did). guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. héraut. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In 16th century Venice. trade or profession (painters." from Fr. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. such as Brescia and Vicenza. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Guilds were also patrons of art. [science] héraldique. trades. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. H hatching In a drawing. but in time they acquired other functions. and provided assistance to members in need. In Florence. notably Florence in the 14th century. or professions. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. surgeons. In Italy they go back a long way. heraldry (Fr. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. print or painting.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. "herald") . "[knowledge of] heraldry. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. for example. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guild also monitored standards of work. In some towns. goldsmiths.
heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. with the rules governing their use. However. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. indeed. By contrast. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. while others merged with the Waldensians. and regarded themselves as forming. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. d. they were condemned in 1184. as Antichrist. from the start. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. together with brethren north of the Alps. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. normative for churchmen. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The main impact of the . head of the 'carnal Church'. one great missionary community. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the Waldensian. i. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. the Cathars were an anti-church. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy.
Germany. Frederick E. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Kensett. Church. American painters were studying in Rome. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Thomas Cole. B. George Inness. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. F. and classical literature. J. F. In humanism. Durand. S. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. its subjects considered morally elevating. working from 1825 to 1875. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. hortus conclusus (Lat.movement upon the laity was in southern France. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. At the same time. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. humanus. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. and. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Henry Inman. the emancipation of man from God took place. my spouse'. in his earlier work. humanism (Lat. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Jasper Cropsey. history (usually classical history). mainly in the south. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Morse.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
the ability to create. originality.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the pincers. Derived from classical rhetoric. In the second half of the 14th century. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. etc. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. inventio (It. or of other saints. trecento rococo and lyrical style. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. the hammer. usually the donors of a work of art. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the scourge that was used in the scourging. Veronica. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. and the ladder. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Human figures. For instance. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. and they are also depicted on their own. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. invention. with many further details added. Donatallo. soft style. the veil of St. beautiful style. there are representations of the bundle of rods. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. investiture . the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the rooster of Peter's denial.g. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. are also used in art literature. The terms court style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century.
Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Jerome's writings. who traveled in Italy and. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. of Utrecht. The Both brothers. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. principally Dutch. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Both and Berchem. generally Dutch or Flemish. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Andries and Jan Both. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Italianizers Northern artists. bathed in a golden haze. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. . Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. although they are usually called Romanists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Nicolaes Berchem. Upon his return to Holland. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and Jan Asselijn. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there.
Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.1519). encouraged by the Crusades. especially one at which the Bible is read. Legenda Aurea (Lat. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Archbishop of Genoa. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. the rite of communion is based on this. John of Jerusalem . Emperor Maximilian I (1459.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). lectern A reading stand or desk. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. liberal arts . As their military role grew. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).as the Friars of the Hospital of St.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.
loggia (It.grammar. the quadrivium. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. comprising arithmetic. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Tubal for music). and Frederick E. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). that could be used for public ceremonies. together with identifying attributes (e. commemorating a marriage. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. often sublime. geometry. lunette (Fr. its roof supported by columns. "little moon") In architecture. Church (1826-1900). and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. a semicircular space. Kensett (1816-1872). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. astronomy and music. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. .) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. poetic atmosphere. John F. first the preparatory trivium . often standing in markets and town squares. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Maria Novella in Florence). Pythagoras for arithmetic. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Heade (1819-1904). rhetoric and dialectic. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). It is related to. then the basis of a philosophical training. painting or sculptural decoration.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns.g. that may contain a window. Martin J. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars.g. through the use of aerial perspective. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.
the goddess Cybele. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. antimony yellow. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and iron red. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). particularly such ware produced in Italy. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. 1855–65. "great mother") A mother goddess. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. originating in Italy in the 14th century. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. being written. Specifically. When white is used for painting. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. copper green. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. for example. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). mandorla (It. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). historical subjects. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). magna mater (Lat. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. "almond") .M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. madrigal A part song. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. but they painted genre scenes. usually for the lute. originally sung without accompaniment. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. active mainly in Florence c. and however bright their lighting effects. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. manganese purple. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. and portraits as well as landscapes. and accompaniments. They were influenced by the Barbizon School.
"manner. mantle An overcoat. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Burgundy. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. more strictly. ecclesiastical. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Flanders. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. marked by flagellation. Mannerism (It. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. the Codex manuscriptus. Bronzino. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. often ornamented with decorative borders. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. bound. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. in a specific sense. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. It reached to the knee or foot.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. strong. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. In Mannerist painting. complex and crowded compositions. and crowned with thorns. and literary texts. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. El Greco and Tintoretto. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. In architecture. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. illuminated initials and miniatures. depending on the social class of the wearer. Developing out of the Renaissance. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. maniera. which was quarried at Mount . Parmigianino. worn open. the hand-written medieval book.
marmi finti (It. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. quarried at Massa. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). an inscription running round the rim. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. "witness. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. proof") the sufferings. a different design on the reverse. having finished his training. sleek surface. The pure white Carrara marble. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . particularly by Michelangelo. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. martyrion. which were beginning to be reverently collected. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. martyrdom (Gk. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field.Pentelicon in Attica. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Without monetary value. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. medallion In architecture. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. Like the finest Imperial coins. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles.
Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. This yields a soft effect in the print. and of the many. perhaps oddly. When Perseus cuts off her head. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. a Gorgon.round the neck. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. particularly. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1452-1526/27). L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. in England. In pure mezzotint. The work of these men. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. as it were. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. for landscapes and portraits. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. The process is essentially extinct today. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1640. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. of the person portrayed on the other side. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. c. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. . 14601528). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Medusa In Greek mythology. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. even grain. c. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. the stress on individual character. Ludwig von Siegen. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. who reflected them. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. no line drawing is employed. often anonymous. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. A Dutch officer. 1467-688). It was. Her head features on Minerva's shield. 1425-1504). supposedly to petrify her enemies. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'.
Parmigianino (d.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings.. a branch of the Franciscan order.g. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. by Tiepolo and Rubens. "word. monochrome (Gk. Francis himself. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. ink and paint. monokhromatos. saying") . usually portraits. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. still exist. Many such small versions. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. painting in gouache on vellum or card. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. executed on a very small scale. motto (Ital. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. e. a painting executed in a single color. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. miter A high. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. often quite highly finished. "one color") Painted in a single color. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. pointed headdress worn by bishops.
The invention of personal mottos. and is intersected by the transept. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. nave (from Lat. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Pforr. Berlin. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Nazarenes A group of young. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. navis.from the Middle Ages. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. naturalism (Fr. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. often separated from it by pillars. In 1810 0verbeck. but often insipid. Rome. 1817-29). In general. Isidore. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. named after the patron saint of painting. 1816-17. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. . which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and two other members moved to Rome. and Casino Massimo. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches.
Nymphaeum (Gk. were usually old when elected. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. nimbus (Lat. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. moreover. is as true as it is notorious. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Popes. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. nigellus. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. niello (Lat. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. usually golden. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case).) . Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. the style of the Ancien Régime. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). but their ideas continued to be influential. "aureole") The disc or halo. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825).
oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. a more elaborate base. a small private chapel. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The Corinthian order was the most ornate.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. the three basic styles of design. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. or poppy. inborn sin. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. . "services. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. with a sturdy. They are seen in the form of the columns. was the simplest. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and its greater tonal range. capital. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. O obsequies (Lat. obsequia. walnut. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. fluted column and a plain capital. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. the Doric order. its richness of colour. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. Greek goddesses of Nature. and entablatures. such as linseed. The earliest. orders of architecture In classical architecture. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed.
while shops came to be thought undignified. and. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. P pala (Ital. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and the main apartments above. the Cancelleria). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. with biforate windows. palazzo (It. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. designed as a . Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. like cities. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Palazzo Strozzi).Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. tradition and social structure. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. standing at the foot of the Cross.g.
the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. especially after the Sack of Rome. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Movement of patrons and architects. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). like the colonnaded vestibule. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Papal incentives to build. panel . where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Other cities. Palazzo Massimi). with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. cornices and abutments. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. palmette. and large households. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and Palladio's in Vicenza. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere).g. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. like Genoa. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces.g. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. column-caps. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. often built next to their titular churches. behind a sober Florentine façade. Following Oriental patterns. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning.scholarly retreat. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. came to be applied all over Europe. e. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Rich. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". evolved influential types. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). In Venice. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.
Many other types were used. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. teak. Having a circular plan. fibre-board.Term in painting for a support of wood. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Then. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. or other rigid substance. and modern painters have also used plywood. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. linden. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and other synthetic materials as supports. however. metal. mahogany. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. To maintain their authority. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. slate has occasionally been used as a support. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. As successors to St Peter. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. so that they might have a voice at court. or the incidence of taxation. secular rulers. to influence popes in their favour. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. larch. enforce law and order. the. olive.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. The third aspect was administrative. On a larger scale. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). A number of matters. the management of clerical dues and taxation. and dark walnut are favourites. fir. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. cedar. In the 20th century cedar. including beech. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. chestnut. and the pressure and temptations . the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and walnut. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. and spanned by a single dome. as it were. as distinct from canvas.
who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. in spite of further absences from Rome. possess an authority which. It was argued that such a council. of individuals. Colonna and Caetani. however. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. which seems so inevitable. however. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. the acceptance of the city as the most practical .that could be applied to them. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. was long in doubt. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. So onerous. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. could supersede that of a pope. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. There remained. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. at Avignon. however. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. By then. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. considered perfectly suitable for the role played .base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. which met at Constance 1414-18. the most appropriate . from the point of view of its religious associations. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. as such. To resolve the problem of divided authority. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. As at Avignon. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. to be long delayed. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. would. in the eyes of God. if it did no serious damage to the faith.as well. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate.
425 BC) and Apelles (c. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. scholars and men of letters. it has also been used for painting. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. However. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and other animals. to a world peopled by shepherds. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. goat. through lavish patronage of artists. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and satyrs..by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. pastor. as well as a governmental one. the creation of a cultural capital. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. pastoral (Lat. in classical literature. Parrhasius (c. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. 400-300 BC). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and with Zeuxis (c. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. less frequently pig. nymphs. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Passion . 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age.
and so on. Francesco Salviati. patricius. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded.The events leading up to Good Friday. pavilion (Lat. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. patrician (Lat. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. 1478. a small. "butterfly. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. projecting either centrally or at both ends. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. which focus on the Suffering Christ. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. a region in north-central Italy.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. wealthy citizen. Portrayals of the Passion.) or pasticcio (It. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. ornamental building. pastiche (fr. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. 1478). . who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. but not necessarily a direct copy. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. the crown of thorns. Meanwhile. and also the archbishop of Pisa. papilio. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. hence tent") A lightly constructed. such as a garden summerhouse.
in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. . in particular the face. and gnomon. personification (Lat. "nature". dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. pendant (Fr. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. concept or deity. perspicere. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "to see through. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. pergola (It. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. perspective (Lat. persona.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "hanging. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. or related elements within an art work. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. and facere. physiognomy (Gk. physis. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "person". The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective).
and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Rome. but full of variety. pigment (Lat. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. exemplified.) The main floor of a building. to be expressed in painting. remarkable for singularity. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. proper to take a landscape from. A pier is generally larger than a column. Pietà (Lat. or resin to make paint.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. pigmentum. but may consist of a cluster of columns. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. containing the public rooms. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. both real and painted. for example. curious details. striking the imagination with the force of painting. affording a good subject for a landscape. Peter's. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.piano nobile (Ital. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. glue. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). usually above the ground floor. . and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.
since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. plague Plague. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. despite regional variations. It is often fluted. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Thenceforward. in October 1347. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. such as Florence and Genoa. more sporadic outbreaks. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. "pillar") A flat. In the 15th century. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. It seems probable. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. since.pilaster (Lat. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. During 1348 the Black Death. Rocco and Sebastian. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. For this reason. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. it has a base. and thereafter all Europe. also used in Spain's American colonies. outside Tuscany. a shaft. and capital. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. though in less widespread. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. for instance. pilastrum. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. moreover. however. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. it is difficult to find. perhaps. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy.
in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. the Symposium. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. The second phase. composition. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Theatetus and the Laws. Phaedo. or appropriateness. Philebus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. placement. like its successor. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Diego evolved a purer. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. The first phase.e. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . and unified style using massive geometric forms. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. heraldic escutcheons. more severe. harmonious. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Timaeus. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. utilized Mudejar ornament -. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The first phase. i. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Phaedrus. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. In contrast with Aristotle. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation.. are the masterworks of the second style. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. or simply the Plateresque. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the Renaissance-Plateresque. and sinuous scrolls. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. A student of Socrates. correct classical orders became frequent. which lasted only a few decades. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain.
prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. partially. but not completely. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. near Florence. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Rather unsystematic. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Iamblichus. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. replaced Ficino's. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. all of which he also translated into Latin. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. and Agostino Steuco (c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. A new Latin translation. for example with Symphorian Champier (c.1577) becoming particularly popular. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. including those of Plotinus. and the Chaldaic Oracles. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 .in Plato's thought. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. and he utilized many other writings. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Plotinus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. 1472-c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness.
Lat. Plato was read in the universities. as in classical architecture). but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pluviale. plinthos. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. porticus. Frequently supports a pediment. column. plinth (Gk. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. portico (Lat. poluptukhos. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. pluvial (Med. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. polyptych (Gk. where a pectoral is used to close it.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. pointed arch In architecture. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. or statue. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. such as processions and consecrations. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass.
Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Maria Novella. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671.e. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. and the . Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Colleoni. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Campidoglio). Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. inessential.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Farnese). Cathedral) by Uccello. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. psychologically more complex. decorating whole rooms. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. the Carracci. The 16th century portrait became generalized. The equestrian portrait. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Siena. Florence (1486-90). Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Florence. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. National Gallery). 1328. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Venice). and only a decorative accessory to form. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Group portraits. Desiderio da Settignano. flattened image.. Mantua. was revived in the 14th century. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Gattarnelata. The realism of the clear.
Savonarola and Musso. to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. from the secular clergy. who had as their ideal masters Titian. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. are not florid in style. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The sermons of Visdomini. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. As Poussin was a Frenchman. was versed in classical and patristic . Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. The styles of S. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. primarily the mendicants. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Fiamma's sermons. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). several of whom became bishops. however. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Charles Le Brun. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). by contrast with the mendicant preachers.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. bishops especially. Correggio. and. of the sermon as an art form. abrasive even. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishop of Asti. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. minatory exhortations. and Peter Paul Rubens. 1494). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. together with the Dominican Savonarola. bishop of Chioggia. Borromeo.
who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Naples). central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Because of the small size of predelle . "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Such a polyptych consists of a principal. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. and so forth. The New Testament references in these would. among them Holman Hunt.g. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. though often relatively very wide . The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Louis of Toulouse (1317. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. predella (It. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. tapestries.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Millais and Rossetti.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. however.rhetoric. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. prefiguration Typology . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. the temptations of Adam and Christ. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.
"evenness") in painting. projecting shelf on which to kneel. which uses the square . so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). these highly finished drawings. proportion (Lat. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. 3. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. the golden section. Girardon. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the quadrature. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. notably David. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Fragonard. 2. the Canon of Proportion. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. again indicative of the purpose they served. profil perdu (Fr. and Houdon among sculptors. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. proportio. The following are important: 1. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. sculpture and architecture. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. intended as complete works of art in themselves. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body.
"boys") Plump naked little boys. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. . architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. 4. Unlike Pozzo. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. a fourth = 3:4. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. putto (It. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. putti sing. triangulation. for example). The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Rome. the steward or treasurer of a church. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. one half the length of the other). They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). provenance The origins of an art work. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and 5. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. a fifth = 2:3. Ignazio. harmonic proportions. It was common in Roman art. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.as a unit of measurement.
relevare. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. relicquiae. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. canons regular. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. relief (Lat. or some item connected with a saint. the great orders of monks.g. Brunelleschi. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. Among the . "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Donatello. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface.Quattrocento (It. or the Jesuits. in which figures are almost detached from their background. in which figures are seen half round. also known as the Realist school. refectory (Med. relic (Lat. friars and nuns. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Lat. the object of particular veneration. hermits. with the Anglican Church developing in England. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. and high relief (alto rilievo). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Fra Angelico and others. Botticelli. In 16th century Europe. basso rilievo). R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. e. in particular works by Masaccio.
the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. various groups were fused in the latter body. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. presided over by chapters general. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. The same bull .contemplative orders. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Venice (1404). Bernardino of Siena. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. That of S. although technically of secular canons. and their more institutionalized brethren. their resources being in the hands of trustees. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. who had no overall organization originally. Bologna (1419). In 1504. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. was the congregation of S. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. S. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Benedetto. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. The Benedictines. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. The Conventuals. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Giorgio in Alga. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Padua. Mantua. the great patriarch of Venice. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Salvatore. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the most notable being S. In 1517. After the repression of the Spirituals. and the generally moderate Observants. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Founded by St Romuald c.e. Maria di Fregonaia. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Lucca. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Giustina. however. The Silvestrines. which was to become the main Italian one. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. i. At the same time. it became the Cassinese congregation. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. 1012.
The first. however. however. Venice. Gaetano da Thiene. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. a historical period. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. founded by S. Michele in Isola. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Filippo Neri. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. the Theatines. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Angela Merici. founded in 1535 by S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. also. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys.
of an energetic revival of interest in. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. because its core of energy. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. For long. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. increasingly. 1875-86). 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. of letters. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. as well as political. was so vast and potent. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. however. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. and his own as potentially one of light. which had begun early in the 14th century. of arts. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Thereafter. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of scholarship. and competition with. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. life. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. . It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. even Amoralism. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. too long forgotten glories. All-Roundness. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man.century. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. the historical reality of antiquity. of 'darkness'. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. however.
Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.) was the term chosen. letters. It is for this additional.erased. however. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. mobilized nationalism. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. consist merely of a painting. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Though thus challenged. etc. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Ghent). a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. let alone a uniform. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. the previous record . as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. retables can be detached and. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. etc. later still to Genoa. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. gratefully. in the more limited sense. (3) There is not a true. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. congruence between. There was an early. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside.with all its shabbiness . subjective reason a term to be used with caution. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). and other liturgical objects.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. sometimes. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. of industrialization. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. candlesticks. though sometimes of metal. especially in the High Gothic period. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. and is decorated with paintings. Cathedral of SaintBavon. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. statues. and mass media. The challenges are to be accepted. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.
Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). however. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. in several countries . the impression that an object is three-dimensional. rilievo (It. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. is a typical product. and architecture dominating the 18th century. rocaille (French.France. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. literally. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. almost simultaneously. "relief") In painting. . for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Originally commissioned in 976. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. and 'Romanesque'. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.in the 11th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Louis XV furniture. painting. Rococo A style of design. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. retables have become extinct. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Romanesque art. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. like 'Gothic'. As the name suggests. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Spain . Germany. the St. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. its mood lighthearted and witry. More usually. the first style to achieve such international currency. richly decorated with organic forms. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806).of St Mark in Venice. With the development of freestanding altars. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Italy.
van Orley. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. In addition. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. the development of nationalistic pride. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. van Heemskerk. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Q. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Claude. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. such as red ochre. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. The aim of painting. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Massys and M. B. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Piranesi. Rome. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Mabuse.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Pannini and Mengs. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. . M. they maintained. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. stylized design representing an open rose.
hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. confirmation. Clement escaped into Castel S. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Sacra Conversazione (It. Orthodox. gutted. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Eastern independent. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and anointing of the sick. and Lorenzo de' Medici.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. penance. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. supported by lay confraternities. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Subjects were nominally sacred. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. There were no limits on time. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. but others were the work of well-known figures. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. the Eucharist. holy orders. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. In the . but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted.expressed through gesture. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). local saints. glance and movement . matrimony. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). and Protestant churches. Many compositions were anonymous. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. from the Old and New Testaments.greatly increased. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). pious legend and hagiography. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Written primarily in ottava rima. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. and impoverished. multiple sets used in succession. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528.
Immediately following baptism. as an excuse to revolt. The chief focus of discontent. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. the symbolic direction of Christ. large room. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. foot washing." which are called sacramentals. strictly speaking. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Salt War.e. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions.) Hall. as in the Church of the Brethren. Anglican.. was not maintained as a sacrament. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the sun of righteousness. make such strict distinctions. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. replaces the Lord's Supper. baptism and the Eucharist. sacraments. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. that the price of salt should be increased. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. in principle. The classical Protestant churches (i.i." sala (Ital. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. which in the Gospel According to John. and then face east. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. the Bentivoglio.e. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the Rocca Paolina. the Orthodox Church does not. Saracens . Candidates first face west. was buried under a new fortress. Hence. Lutheran. Thus. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. They were still seeking aid. used for drawing. It is still practiced on special occasions. The theology of the Orthodox Church. chapter 13.early church the number of sacraments varied. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. and sacraments. notably from Florence and in Germany. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540.
45 BC). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. pl. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. made of stone. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Little known in the Middle Ages. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 160 . the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. satyr In Greek mythology. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. wood or terracotta. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). the god of wine. and many others. sarcophagi (Gk. legs and horns of a goat. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 270 BC).c. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . sarcophagus. 360 .c. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. whose writings. The publication of Latin (1562. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.During the Middle Ages. human-like woodland deities with the ears. are lost. the Arabs or Muslims. 210 AD).
and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Louis I (d. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. However. the Florentines. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. As a result. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who had the support of the Avignon pope. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. In northern Italy. Alexander V. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place.they had individual Bentnames . having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. on the other. being Frenchmen. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). with France and her allies Aragon. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. while England. than their medieval predecessors. for. on one side. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. most of whom. scholasticism . in June 1409. from time to time both he and his opponents. 1386) and his son Ladislas. was called Bamboccio. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who recognized the Roman pope.for example Pieter van Laer. one of the early leaders. Schism. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. while devout Christians agonized. but with little effect. Charles III of Durazzo (d. and. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between.
moral philosophy. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Serenissima (Ital. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Christian. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. on one side. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire).) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. Often called the burning ones.were different from those of medieval. notably Aquinas. None the less. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). and Islamic literature. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. history and rhetoric . because the secco technique is much less permanent. as it is easier to add details in this way. (See also: fresco. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. that scholasticism was left. textual scholarship. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. university-based study. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.) . But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. and theology. moreover. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.The term is ambivalent. Medieval scholars. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. if lime-water was used. As such. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. as it were. Padua. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. It was because the central concerns of humanism . It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. the plaster had to be damped before painting. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco.
"the most serene republic of Venice"). brass. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Servite (Lat. at the same time. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in the period of classical antiquity. term. Med. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sfumato A technique. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sinopia . sibyls (Gk. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is..) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. which were all identical in thickness. In Christian legend. and the delicate. "prophetess") In antiquity. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. women who could prophesy. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in use since the Middle Ages. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. sibylla. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Signoria (It. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Lat. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. the number gradually rose to ten. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. there was only one Sibyl. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. usually presided over by individual families. Originally.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. They first appear in alpine monasteries.
sing. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Stanze (Ital. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. . in other words. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. stigma (Gk. Ital. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . brand. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. "mark. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Francis of Assisi. It is very closely related to International Gothic.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. sotto in sù (It. pronounced as French.. soffit (Lat.) Wooden ceiling decoration. stigmata. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. as the name implies. staffage This word. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. especially in the flow of drapery. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and.
notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. studiolo. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. whose verses actually fabrications . malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. In a looser sense. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. with that for the Picturesque.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. pl. studioli (It. Indeed. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). supremacy . both external and internal. stucco A type of light. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. The vogue for the Sublime. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. John Milton.
the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). his own headquarters.e. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. and in literature. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. chiefly from Flanders. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. The subject is underexplored. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Salviati and Allori. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. both for panel painting and fresco. 1407). T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. temperare. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). tempera (Lat. doubtless. i. . was being decorated with frescoes.and. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence.Historically. But the Italians did not make them. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . then being replaced by oil paint. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. These were imported. into Italy. or cartoons. London.
figure of speech. "a commonplace") In literature. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. in art. pl. and other surfaces. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Trajan's Column . theme or motif. topiary (Gk. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. in the architecture of ancient Rome. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. and profile. tondi (It. and later to subdivide gable ends. vessels. model. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "fields. walls. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. i. pl.e. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. topia.terracotta (It. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. tondo. widely used form. topos. and sculptures. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. triumphal arch. topoi (Gk. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. quarter face. terraferma (Ital.
' Before it go the apostles. after 'a countless number of virgins. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. a car so brave'. Early triptychs were often portable. fame. Battista Sforza. "threefold") A painting in three sections. of virtues and of the arts. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). beside it the army of martyrs. trinitas. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. . This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. Trinity (Lat.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. triptych (Gk. Disseminated soon after his death. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. the Son and the Holy Spirit. "threefold") in Christianity. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the military triumph became sublimated. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. behind it. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. tryptychos. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. time and eternity. the wars by which they were won . Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. death. usually an altarpiece. of both sexes'. chastity. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. patriarchs and prophets. into a number of less controversial forms. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. as it were. Meanwhile. added to the glamour of the triumph. or wings.
enclosed by an arch.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. "drum") In classical architecture. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. Dating from classical times. typology . In medieval architecture. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. through various naturalistic devices. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tympanum (Lat. tusche A thick. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. first recorded in 1232. It incorporates Renaissance features. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. viscous black ink. it is usually decorated with carvings. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. often decorated with sculptures. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tromp l'oeil (Fr.
) The Renaissance "universal man". Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. slayer of Goliath. killer of Holofernes. 1610). lanterns. 1590-1624). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. The numerous candles. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). were popular with them also. Judith. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). where they were most accessible. e. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.Dirck van Baburen (c.g. and David. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. In Christian thought. knew his former patrons. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. . Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. such as five works devoted to the senses. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. each had access to his paintings. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. especially his half-length figural groups. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.A system of classification.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . U uomo universale (It. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.
). varietà (It. Parisian craftsmen. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. carriages. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. There are a wide range of forms. V vanishing point In perspective.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. the groin vault. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. and even flowers (which will soon fade). formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. often gold. guttering candles. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vanitas (Lat. vesper. snuff boxes and other objects. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. "evening") . Vespers (Lat. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. a work's richness of subject matter. Also varietas (Lat. mixed in. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. it was used to decorate furniture. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. hour-glasses and clocks. and the rib vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. overturned vessels. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal.
The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. virtù could be used. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Lust. 'Assume a virtue. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Charity. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. "life") . "not exposed to winds". the church service at which these prayers are said. in which the word signifies efficacy. vimperga Of German origin. The seven Virtues were: Faith. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Vestibule (Lat. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Hope. actual or latent.Prayers said in the evening. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. and Sloth. and Justice. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. vita. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Prudence. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Fortitude. Temperance. In ancient Roman dwellings. Covetousness. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Envy. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). for example. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Gluttony. vestibulum. if you have it not'. pl. vite (Lat. Anger.
the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers.An account of someone's life and work. Sculptors and Architects"). usually when a prayer for good fortune. they were from the 18th century . as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Marcus (1st cent. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. Vitruvius Pollio. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. or recovery from illness has been made. those of Volterera. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before.g. in fact. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. The wars from 1494 do. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. protection from harm. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. 1472. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. published in 1550 and 1568. and of Ferrara. and appalled recognition of. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. 1478-80. a biography. 1482-84).
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
"Western work of art". The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. usually restorers. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. a philosophy of life. It was intended to have a variety of functions. based on stylization of various animal forms. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Westwerk German word. . usually linear. "world view") A comprehensive world view. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament.Weltanschauung (Gr. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. pompous on the floor above. treasury or a place where justice was administered. during its subsequent history. gallery. woodcut A print made from a wood block.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.