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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Lancet and Tudor. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. arcade (Lat. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The adjective is apsidal. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. arkhitektonikos. design. The term applies also to a print made by this method. which is fused to the plate by heating. but in essence the process is as follows. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. at the east end of a church behind the altar. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Degas. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish.A semicircular projection. roofed with a half-dome. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. the darker the tone). the lowest part of the entablature). or organization. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. In Greek and Roman literature. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the moulding around a window or door. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. Also known as an exedra. piers or pillars. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). architectonic (Gk. architrave (It. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. . "architectural") Relating to structure. There are several variants of the technique. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. including Goya. arcus. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. and Rouault. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Picasso. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture.e.
archivolto. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. voltus. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "golden.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Dante's Vita nuova ." from Gk. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. aureolus. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. Ars Moriendi (Lat. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).archivolt (Ital. attributum. In the case of martyrs.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "begin. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. archeiu. usually a saint. aureole (Lat. dominate. "front arch. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. attribute (Lat. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements." and Lat.and the Comedy . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.
Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. baldachin. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Later. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Six pontificates later. often anecdotal. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. applied to the physically . or baldacchino (It. in 1377. the god of wine and fertility. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. 'Captivity'. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. paintings of everyday life. who had been residing in France since 1305. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. that of Cardano. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The actual move was made in 1309.
Spalato [Split. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Customarily. pope between 432 and 440. and Poitiers. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium.. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Florence. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. a church. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. AD 300). the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. banderuola. France.g. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. or connected with. a visual metaphor for the number eight. . of the church and were often large and richly decorated.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and Nocera in Italy. seven. such as those at Pisa. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. beggars in rags. Pentecost. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Croatia]. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Alg. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. As eight follows the "complete" number. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures.. Lebanon. the Temple of Venus. built by Sixtus III. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. or forecourt. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Baalbek. and Epiphany. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. Parma. AD 273. Easter. and abject filthy things. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. or canopy. banderole (It. el Kantara. a baptistery was roofed with a dome.
it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.an allusion to entering the Christian life. southeast of Paris. 1796-1875). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and (3) everyday realism. Also tunnel vault. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. achieved through scale. 1814-1875). Jules Dupré (French. and increasingly elaborate decoration. which is reserved for the clergy. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. basilica (Gk. 1810-1865). contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. In architecture. usually facing east. however. "king's hall") a church building. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. 1817-1878). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Rubens). Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Théodore Rousseau (French. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1811-1889). and thus a church. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. were often omitted entirely. in its usual location near the church door . . Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). in the 1840s and 1850s. Constant Troyon (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Baroque (Port. Jean-François Millet (French.In the 10th century. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Originally. stoa basilike. barocco. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. or baptismal chapels. baptisteries. something of earlier symbolism survives. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1807-1876). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Vermeer).
Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. and often sentimentality. were referred to by their specific contents. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. in which still-life predominates. Bodegónes. as is to be expected. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Spanish still-lifes. which is either not yet glazed.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. especially Spanish. 1650 in Spain. Biscuit porcelain. also incorrectly called bisque. There were. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Book of Hours . up until the mid-17th century. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. domesticity. like their Dutch counterparts. such as Waldmüller. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. It takes its name from its grainy texture. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. particularly porcelain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. often with food and drink. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. however.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. such as those by Diego Velázquez. By association. The term was mainly used up to c. bodegón Image. or which is to be left as it is. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary.
illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. but can also be used for painted sketches. made as a study for a larger picture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. varying from silverish to a rich. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.by a variety of processes. Chantilly). months. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. coppery red. See flying buttress. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto Strictly speaking. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. By extension.an advantage over marble sculpture. . The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. durability. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. a rapid sketch in oil. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bozzetto(Italian. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. days of the week. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall.both hot and cold . a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. and the fact that it is easily workable . It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. or seasons.
caisson (Fr. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. "a chest. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. and work in precious metals. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. which was often allegorical. C cabinet A small. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. its forms highly stylized. cameo Small relief made from gems. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. notable from Syria and Egypt. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. It also served to glorify the emperor. glass. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. mosaics. private room where works of art. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). camera obscura . Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. box") In architecture. Duccio. and Giotto. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. ceramics. manuscript illuminations. Among its most distinctive products were icons. casson.
candelabra.Ancestor of the photographic camera.) A gallery for singers or musicians. as an aid to drawing. other materials used are cotton. cantorie (It." and the earliest versions. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. campanile Bell tower. dating to antiquity. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. by the 16th century. usually with several branches or arms. Niepce created photography. candela. pl. Portable versions were built. hemp. both of which have richly carved marble panels. cantoria. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. The Latin name means "dark chamber. only very rough effects will be obtainable. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. and jute. "candle") A large. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. sing. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candelabrum (It. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. candlestick. capitellum. Structurally. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. usually built beside or attached to a church. . The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. capital (Lat. usually decorated.-N. followed by smaller and even pocket models. which isolates the fabric from the paint. which was usually whitened. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually in a church.
both Italians and artists from other countries . Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartone. the endeavour to attain true humanity. At the height of the Middle Ages. Carmelites (Lat. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Cardinal Virtues (Lat. the date of the painting. New Charterhouses. or a motto. In fresco painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cardinalis. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. details of the subject. cartouche . cartellino. cartoon (It.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". tapestry. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. The order combines reclusive and community life. pl. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Fortitudo (Fortitude).a humorous drawing or parody. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . or fresco. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartellini In a painting. near Grenoble. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. and humanism. monasteries containing separate hermitages. the Carmelites were originally hermits. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Carthusian Order (Lat. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.
For reasons lost to time and tradition. Cascina. The main body. and many other items of her dowry.) "castle". they were also used in other countries. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. .An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. putti (cupids). Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. linen. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. and swags of fruit and flowers. where the throne of the bishop is placed. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. castello (It. a cathedral always faces west . caryatid (Gk. In the 15th century. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. The altar is placed at the east end. cassone (It. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. These lead up to the north and south transepts. cathedral (cathedra. or arms of the cross. palace. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).toward the setting sun. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Paolo Uccello. decorated with gilt gesso. or nave. They contained the bride's clothes. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed.
It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. . buildings and figures that are being depicted. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. central perspective (Lat. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. rather than intercessory functions. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. landscapes. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. "in the centre". these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Christian. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. or birdlike characteristics. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). and perspicere. and Islamic literature. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. animal. champlevé (Fr. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. continually praise him. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Relative to the observer. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. in accordance with their distance from the observer. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. centralis. Both the statement of St. as celestial attendants of God. a throne bearer of the deity. a celestial winged being with human.
for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. choros. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. Hans Burgkmair (1510). but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Since Carolingian times. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times.chiaroscuro (It. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. reserved for the clergy to pray together. the Order of the Hospital of St. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. or for choral singing. choir (Gk. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. North of the Alps. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. Lastly. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. replacing tempera. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). "light dark") In painting. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service.
and including the apse (a niche in the wall. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. undulating lines. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and repetition of pattern. stucco shells. Very few still exist in their original positions. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. reversed volutes. The Transparente (completed 1732). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. a massing of carved angels. is as typically Churrigueresque. further enriching the style. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. an architect. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and garlands. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. became the most common motif. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. gilded rays. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. ciborium . balustrades. The Mexico cathedral (1718). which was shaped like an inverted cone. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. undulating cornices. Sculpted clouds. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and the Churrigueresque column. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi.intersect).
and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. or achieve political representation. combers. placing one of their members. including the ciompi. High Renaissance). and the new government failed to implement all their demands.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. etc.and post-medieval Italy. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. controlled by the minor guilds. ciompi. the wool carder Michele di Lando. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. who were raised to the status of a guild. They were forbidden to form a trade association. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. craft of dyeing. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Quattrocento (1400s. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. beaters. as also were those in the associated. In reaction to this revolutionary . The new government. but self-employed. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Their economic condition worsened. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Then. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. on July 22. Without being members of a guild. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Members of the lower classes.
Concepts of the classical.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.) An ancient musical instrument. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. . resembling a lyre. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. In the 15th century Greek literature. philosophy and art . editing and translating a wide range of texts.episode. literature. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the black contours usually with a special line plate. except in cases where . however. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. clair-obscur (Fr. with Italian scholars.as in Italy these were dispensed with. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cithara (Gk. on which strings were plucked. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. and politics. the ciompi guild was abolished. changed greatly from one period to the next. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). philosophy. writers. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. scholars patiently finding.
and yellow and violet are complementary colours. those with refined tastes. .coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. as well as from the Bible. intensify one another. pl. when set side by side. cognoscente (It. the church service at which these prayers are said. literature or music. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. blue and orange. cognoscenti. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. condottieri (It. concetto. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. condottiere. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Coffered ceilings. or "contract. compline (Lat. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. The name was derived from the condotta. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. [hora] completa. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. occasionally made of wood. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. concetti (It. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. terrorized the country. a work's underlying theme. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. sing. pl. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. arch or ceiling. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Green and red. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians.
convents of convertite.devastating Romagna. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno.e. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Toward the end of the 15th century. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. disappeared. scuole. Carmagnola. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Spanish. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. i. who won control of Milan in 1450. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. in Venice. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises.e. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. and his rival Braccio da Montone. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Muzio's son. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. in the service of Naples. Mark (1432). the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. clergy. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. . Martino). The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. With no goal beyond personal gain. and Tuscany. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. By the end of the 14th century. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. By the 16th century. often called compagnie or. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. which spread in the 15th century. often under the direction of. or with the spiritual assistance of. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. primarily for syphilitics. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. and German--the condottieri. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Umbria. i. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. confraternities Confraternities. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. flagellant confraternities. Francesco Sforza. in the service of Perugia.
the Venetian parliament of noblemen. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). In medieval painting. Dorotea in Trastevere. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. contour. and refuges for maidens.g. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. however. while the Venetian government. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the Florentine Neri. founded c. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Later. e. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect.g. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. 1514 in S. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. reformed prostitutes. in Florence.e.i. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . notwithstanding their location. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Confraternities. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. contours were initially regular. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. flat outlines. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. contrapposto (It. While the Doge ranked above the Council. but sometimes had their own premises. contour (Fr. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. e. "Council of Ten") established in 1310.
1280). an engraving produced in this way. Reform programs. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. 1100 and 1300. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. They are often ornamented. cuprum. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. aes cyprium.weight on one leg. declining moral standards. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. whose names are inscribed on several works. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. started the process of inner reform in the Church. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. corbel In architecture. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. did not achieve any lasting results. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. large cornice or other feature. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. conventicle (Lat. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. . but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. a bracket of stone. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Lat. The style spread as far as England. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. conventiculurn. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position.
cupula. particularly among the Persians. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Usually. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. the condemned man. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. after being whipped. Carthaginians. i. There were various methods of performing the execution. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. An ancestor of the oboe. D dado . cupola (Lat. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. or "scourged.e." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Death. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Seleucids. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. "small vat") In architecture. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Constantine the Great. reedy sound. a semi-circular vault. the first Christian emperor. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the most famous victim of crucifixion. Next. a small dome. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Jews.
deacon (Gk. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. often an altarpiece. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. but the concept behind an art work. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. disegno (It. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. e. usually in matching pairs. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. "drawing. danse macabre The dance of death. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. an expressive use of nature. design") In Renaissance art theory. Passau. The term stresses not the literal drawing. a favorite late medieval picture subject. diptychos. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. and Linz possessed common characteristics. diakonos. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber.g. Gk. Deësis (Gk. diptychum. diptych (Lat. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Anglican and Orthodox churches. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. which was help to be the basis of all art. decorated diffrently from the upper section. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Germany. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world.
2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. doublet A male garment. dome in architecture. Ordo Praedictatorum. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. donator. donor (Lat. a 19th-century invention. formerly worn under armour.Thomas Aquinas. is a heavy piece of furniture. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. As disegno appeals to the intellect. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. "to mix. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. when painters took to working out of doors. distemper (Lat.fully realize. The studio easel. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Dominicans (Lat. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. such as we still use today. also used it on canvas. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. though a few artists. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . distemperare. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. usually forming a ceiling or roof. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). which runs on castors or wheels. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries.
fresco. sculpture. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. It consists of the architrave. "word") . John (19. "last". in art. Ecce Homo (Lat. sometimes combining panel painting. and architecture. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. entablature In classical architecture. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. eschatology (Gk. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. eschaton. en face In portraiture. bound and flogged. and logos. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. full face. epitaph (Gk. ensemble (Fr. the frieze. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. Hence. a depiction of Jesus. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. and the cornice. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper.
celebrated with bread and wine. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. 4500 BCE. Eucharist (Gk. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. and Scandinavia. "good. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. eu. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. which is called "maiolica. Marcantonio Flaminio. and also to Giulia Gonzaga.death and resurrection." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. . particularly ware made in France. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Spain. which is called "delftware. farmers. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. and is named for Faenza. which was famous for maiolica. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Saints Ambrose. Contarini. Vittoria Colonna. fields and livestock. and of the last things. Jerome. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. protector of shepherds. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy." and charis. Equated with the Greek god Pan. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. which was developed in the Near East ca. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Augustine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Germany. Carnesecchi and Ochino. notably Cardinal Pole. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Giovanni Morone. Italy.
Committed to charitable and missionary work. such as plague. Only a small area can be painted in a day. frescos in Italy . carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fluted of a column or pillar. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. a technique known as a secco fresco. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. 2 . In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. leaves.8). and these areas. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. fresco (It. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Their attributes are the bow. sword and set of balances. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ.festoni (It. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. can in time be seen. and flowers suspended in a loop. famine and death. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. war. relaxed. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. drying to a slightly different tint. a swag. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. The colour of his horse is white. black and dun. that of the others red.
During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. for example. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. The technique of buon fresco. G Garter. both in churches and in private and public palaces. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. are genres of painting. where the atmosphere was too damp. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. or true fresco. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. or fresco secco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). landscape and portraiture. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. covings and ceilings. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . usually childish figure. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Genius in classical Rome. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. the intonaco. In art from the classical period onwards.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. a person's invisible tutelary god. Final details. genre In a broad sense. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . the lowranking god was depicted as a winged.Save in Venice.
Maria Gloriosa). and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. whether it must be connected with the public good. as well as writers and artists. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Bernardo Daddi. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Maso di Banco. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and as spurring on men of action. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. As such. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. in portraits and on tombs. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Gobelins . whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. how it differed from notoriety. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents.
a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. still in existence today. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Golden Fleece. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. thereafter it made only tapestries.French tapestry manufactory. This ratio is approximately 8:13. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. In other Italian cities. golden section (Lat. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Paris. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. . The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. who appointed Lebrun Director. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. and although it reopened in 1699. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia.
the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. painting. In thinking of Nicola (d. There is a transcendental quality. Amiens. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. c. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. painting. like the cultural and commercial. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. that the effects are to be felt. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. and lies much deeper than. 1270. In sculpture and in painting.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. . By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. 1200 and c. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. the superficial particularities of form. Gothic Gothic. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. Nevertheless. from the 13th until the 17th century. The artistic. Denis. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. or the influence of one building. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. In particular. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style.
Dubuffet. Honey. occasionally. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. if required. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Klee. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. to white or tinted paper and card and. and the great style. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. notably in the writings of Bellori. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and Piranesi. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. These qualities. and taste among the English. Canaletto. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and above all Italy. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. . with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. with sable. to silk. Pannini. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. genius. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. the Netherlands. and Morris Graves. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. without visible brush marks. chiefly to France. It is thinned with water for applying. the beau idéal of the French. starch.and hog-hair brushes. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Such tours often took a year or more.
when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Some writers. brother of Louis IX. internal factions in Florence went under other names. 1216. After the War of the Eight Saints. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In the context of the fine arts. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. and Waiblingen. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. however. then as now.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. gris. however. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. . the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the parties taking a multitude of local names. drawing and the various forms of engraving.e. became an abiding feature of European politics. through central Italy. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. In Florence. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. Although its palace was rebuilt c. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. exclude drawing from this definition. grisaille (Fr. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. to Provence and Paris. In another sense. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. From 1266 to 1268. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. usually gray. c. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. after this. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. including text as well as illustrations. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour.
Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. heraldry (Fr. In some cities. surgeons. héraut. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and greater hostility between master and man. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state." from Fr. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. as some did). In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. goldsmiths. The guilds were not equal. The guild also monitored standards of work. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. Guilds were also patrons of art. In Florence. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. trades. and provided assistance to members in need. or professions. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. print or painting. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. such as Brescia and Vicenza. notably Florence in the 14th century. "[knowledge of] heraldry. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. [science] héraldique. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In some towns. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. H hatching In a drawing. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. "herald") . trade or profession (painters. for example. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In 16th century Venice. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In Italy they go back a long way. but in time they acquired other functions.
e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). while others merged with the Waldensians. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. the followers of Juan de Valdes. d. normative for churchmen. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. By contrast. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. However. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. the Cathars were an anti-church. together with brethren north of the Alps. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. as Antichrist. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. they were condemned in 1184. from the start. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. and regarded themselves as forming. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. the Waldensian.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. with the rules governing their use. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. head of the 'carnal Church'. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. The main impact of the . one great missionary community. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. i. indeed. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty.
humanism (Lat. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. At the same time. its subjects considered morally elevating. the emancipation of man from God took place. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. hortus conclusus (Lat. F. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Henry Inman. S. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. American painters were studying in Rome. F. and classical literature. Church. mainly in the south. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. my spouse'. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. B. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Frederick E. Thomas Cole. in his earlier work. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. In humanism. working from 1825 to 1875.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Germany. and. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Kensett. humanus. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. George Inness. Durand. Jasper Cropsey. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. history (usually classical history). First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Morse. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). J. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
inventio (It. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. and the ladder. For instance. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Human figures. beautiful style. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. usually the donors of a work of art. Donatallo. the rooster of Peter's denial. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the ability to create. originality. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. there are representations of the bundle of rods. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the scourge that was used in the scourging. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Derived from classical rhetoric. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the veil of St. and they are also depicted on their own. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). trecento rococo and lyrical style.g. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. The terms court style. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the hammer. soft style. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Veronica. are also used in art literature. it denominates a kind of behaviour. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. etc. with many further details added. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. invention. In the second half of the 14th century. or of other saints. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. the pincers. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. investiture . "invention") In Renaissance art theory.
Andries and Jan Both. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. principally Dutch. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Nicolaes Berchem. generally Dutch or Flemish. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. . The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Jerome's writings. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. bathed in a golden haze. and Jan Asselijn. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Upon his return to Holland. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. who traveled in Italy and. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Both and Berchem. although they are usually called Romanists. of Utrecht.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The Both brothers. Italianizers Northern artists. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there.
lectern A reading stand or desk.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).as the Friars of the Hospital of St.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . especially one at which the Bible is read. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.1519). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. the rite of communion is based on this. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). liberal arts . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Archbishop of Genoa. Legenda Aurea (Lat. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. As their military role grew. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. encouraged by the Crusades. John of Jerusalem . League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).
loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. painting or sculptural decoration. Tubal for music). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. and Frederick E. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. first the preparatory trivium . Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Pythagoras for arithmetic. commemorating a marriage.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Heade (1819-1904). characterized by effects of light in landscapes.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. the quadrivium.g.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. a semicircular space. through the use of aerial perspective. that could be used for public ceremonies. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.grammar. John F. It is related to. lunette (Fr. comprising arithmetic. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. geometry. rhetoric and dialectic. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. poetic atmosphere. Kensett (1816-1872). Maria Novella in Florence). often standing in markets and town squares. "little moon") In architecture. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. together with identifying attributes (e. its roof supported by columns. then the basis of a philosophical training. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. that may contain a window.g. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). loggia (It. Martin J. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. often sublime. . Church (1826-1900). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). astronomy and music.
especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. magna mater (Lat.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. antimony yellow. copper green. active mainly in Florence c. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. mandorla (It. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. but they painted genre scenes. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). Specifically. manganese purple. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). They were influenced by the Barbizon School. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. historical subjects. "almond") . but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. and portraits as well as landscapes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. the goddess Cybele. and iron red. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. 1855–65. usually for the lute. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. madrigal A part song. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. originally sung without accompaniment. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. being written. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and accompaniments. "great mother") A mother goddess. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. and however bright their lighting effects. for example. particularly such ware produced in Italy. When white is used for painting. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting.
it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Mannerism (It. the hand-written medieval book. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Developing out of the Renaissance. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. mantle An overcoat. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. ecclesiastical. and literary texts. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. In Mannerist painting. Burgundy. marked by flagellation. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. strong. depending on the social class of the wearer. "manner. in a specific sense. El Greco and Tintoretto. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. In architecture. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. worn open. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. maniera. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Flanders. bound. illuminated initials and miniatures. Parmigianino. It reached to the knee or foot. and crowned with thorns.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. often ornamented with decorative borders. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. complex and crowded compositions. Bronzino. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. which was quarried at Mount . the Codex manuscriptus. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. more strictly.
marmi finti (It. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Carrara. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. a different design on the reverse. which were beginning to be reverently collected. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. sleek surface. the medal's purpose was commemorative.Pentelicon in Attica. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. The pure white Carrara marble. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. an inscription running round the rim. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. medallion In architecture. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. martyrdom (Gk. particularly by Michelangelo. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). having finished his training. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Without monetary value. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Like the finest Imperial coins. quarried at Massa. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. "witness. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). proof") the sufferings. martyrion.
Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. The process is essentially extinct today. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Medusa In Greek mythology. who reflected them. . c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. often anonymous. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. of the person portrayed on the other side. The work of these men. no line drawing is employed. c. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1640. In pure mezzotint. as it were. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. the stress on individual character. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. and of the many. A Dutch officer. particularly. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. When Perseus cuts off her head. perhaps oddly. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. supposedly to petrify her enemies. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. This yields a soft effect in the print. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. 1452-1526/27). The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. 1425-1504). Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. 14601528). 1467-688). a Gorgon. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. even grain. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. It was. for landscapes and portraits. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Ludwig von Siegen.round the neck. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. in England.
Francis himself. motto (Ital. e. Parmigianino (d. Many such small versions. "word. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. a painting executed in a single color. monochrome (Gk. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch..miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. "one color") Painted in a single color. usually portraits. pointed headdress worn by bishops. ink and paint. still exist. saying") . The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. monokhromatos. miter A high. executed on a very small scale. often quite highly finished.g. painting in gouache on vellum or card. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. by Tiepolo and Rubens. a branch of the Franciscan order.
Pforr. Nazarenes A group of young. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. naturalism (Fr. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Berlin. Rome. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. navis. but often insipid. .from the Middle Ages. named after the patron saint of painting. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. and Casino Massimo. The invention of personal mottos. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). 1817-29). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. It may have parallel aisles on each side. and two other members moved to Rome. often separated from it by pillars. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. nave (from Lat. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. 1816-17. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. In 1810 0verbeck. In general. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and is intersected by the transept. Isidore. "ship") the main interior space of a church building.
surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). the style of the Ancien Régime.) . niello (Lat. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. moreover. Popes. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. usually golden. nimbus (Lat. "aureole") The disc or halo. were usually old when elected.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Nymphaeum (Gk. but their ideas continued to be influential. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. nigellus. is as true as it is notorious. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.
and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. and entablatures. The earliest. was the simplest. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. with a sturdy. or poppy. capital. its richness of colour. observances") Rites performed for the dead. Greek goddesses of Nature. a more elaborate base. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. the three basic styles of design. such as linseed. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. inborn sin. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). a small private chapel. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). an order of secular priests who live in independent communities.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. fluted column and a plain capital. and its greater tonal range. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. . orders of architecture In classical architecture. "services. walnut. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. the Doric order. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. O obsequies (Lat. They are seen in the form of the columns. obsequia. The Ionic order had a slenderer column.
"panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. P pala (Ital. Palazzo Strozzi). Alberti described the palace as a city in little. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. and the main apartments above. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. the Cancelleria). and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. standing at the foot of the Cross.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines.g. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. like cities. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. while shops came to be thought undignified. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. with biforate windows. tradition and social structure. and. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. designed as a . The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. palazzo (It. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace.
often built next to their titular churches. Following Oriental patterns. palmette. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system.scholarly retreat. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Papal incentives to build. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Palazzo Massimi). Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". column-caps. and large households. like Genoa. evolved influential types. e. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and Palladio's in Vicenza. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. panel . and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. like the colonnaded vestibule. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation.g. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions.g. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. behind a sober Florentine façade. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. In Venice. Other cities. especially after the Sack of Rome. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Movement of patrons and architects. Rich. came to be applied all over Europe. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. cornices and abutments.
papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. however. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. secular rulers. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. as distinct from canvas. fir. The third aspect was administrative. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. larch. the management of clerical dues and taxation. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and dark walnut are favourites. and spanned by a single dome. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. cedar. enforce law and order. fibre-board. or other rigid substance. and walnut. Having a circular plan. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). To maintain their authority. On a larger scale. including beech. so that they might have a voice at court. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. slate has occasionally been used as a support. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. as it were. the. and other synthetic materials as supports. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. and the pressure and temptations . linden. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. As successors to St Peter. or the incidence of taxation. mahogany. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. In the 20th century cedar. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and modern painters have also used plywood. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa.Term in painting for a support of wood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. teak. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. chestnut. metal. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. A number of matters. olive. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. to influence popes in their favour. Then. Many other types were used. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe.
various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. from the point of view of its religious associations. So onerous. the most appropriate . Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. however. in spite of further absences from Rome. which met at Constance 1414-18. if it did no serious damage to the faith. As at Avignon. It was argued that such a council. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. which seems so inevitable. would. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. was long in doubt. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. as such.as well. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. at Avignon. in the eyes of God. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). the acceptance of the city as the most practical . it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. possess an authority which. however. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. could supersede that of a pope. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. to be long delayed. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State.that could be applied to them. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. however. Colonna and Caetani. By then. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. of individuals. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). There remained. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. To resolve the problem of divided authority. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel.
through lavish patronage of artists.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. it has also been used for painting. Passion . and satyrs. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). goat. pastor. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and other animals. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. Parrhasius (c. pastoral (Lat. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. However. nymphs. in classical literature. the creation of a cultural capital. and with Zeuxis (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. 400-300 BC). scholars and men of letters. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). less frequently pig. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. as well as a governmental one. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. to a world peopled by shepherds.. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives.
A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. a prominent section of a monumental façade. which focus on the Suffering Christ. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. "butterfly.) or pasticcio (It. wealthy citizen. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. and also the archbishop of Pisa. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. patrician (Lat. 1478). but not necessarily a direct copy. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. papilio. ornamental building. hence tent") A lightly constructed. pavilion (Lat. projecting either centrally or at both ends. a small. such as a garden summerhouse. Francesco Salviati. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. the crown of thorns. pastiche (fr. 1478. and so on.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. a region in north-central Italy.The events leading up to Good Friday. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. Meanwhile. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. . patricius. Portrayals of the Passion. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial.
who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "nature". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. persona. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. or related elements within an art work. pendant (Fr. . personification (Lat. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. "person". though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. concept or deity. and gnomon. and facere. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. physis. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. physiognomy (Gk. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century).) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. in particular the face. perspicere. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "hanging. "to see through. perspective (Lat.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. pergola (It. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. dependent") One of a pair of related art works.
both real and painted. Pietà (Lat. to be expressed in painting. affording a good subject for a landscape. or resin to make paint. A pier is generally larger than a column. exemplified. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. . the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.piano nobile (Ital. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. for example. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. pigment (Lat. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. remarkable for singularity. striking the imagination with the force of painting. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). glue. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. containing the public rooms. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. proper to take a landscape from. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. but full of variety. usually above the ground floor. curious details. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Peter's. pigmentum. Rome. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St.) The main floor of a building.
the burning of 'infected' clothing. and capital. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. outside Tuscany. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. perhaps. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. also used in Spain's American colonies. In the 15th century. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. During 1348 the Black Death. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. more sporadic outbreaks. "pillar") A flat. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century.pilaster (Lat. for instance. it has a base. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. despite regional variations. Rocco and Sebastian. since. however. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. plague Plague. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). moreover. It is often fluted. Thenceforward. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . such as Florence and Genoa. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and thereafter all Europe. a shaft. in October 1347. For this reason. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. It seems probable. pilastrum. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. it is difficult to find. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. though in less widespread.
emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. or simply the Plateresque. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. heraldic escutcheons. Theatetus and the Laws. The first phase. The second phase. harmonious. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the Symposium. i. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Philebus. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The first phase. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Phaedrus. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Timaeus. or appropriateness. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. more severe. In contrast with Aristotle. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. A student of Socrates. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Diego evolved a purer. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. composition. correct classical orders became frequent. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedo. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.. utilized Mudejar ornament -. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. like its successor. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. which lasted only a few decades.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. placement.e. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and sinuous scrolls. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. are the masterworks of the second style.
Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. systematized and added to what Plato had done. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. including those of Plotinus. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). It was especially in a number of academies in France and . all of which he also translated into Latin. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. near Florence. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Unlike the case of Aristotle.in Plato's thought. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. partially. but not completely. and the Chaldaic Oracles. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists.1577) becoming particularly popular. 1472-c. replaced Ficino's. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. and Agostino Steuco (c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Iamblichus. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Plotinus. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Rather unsystematic. and he utilized many other writings. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. the greatest of his ancient disciples. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. A new Latin translation.
The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. pluviale. plinth (Gk. porticus. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. Frequently supports a pediment. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . where a pectoral is used to close it.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. such as processions and consecrations. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. as in classical architecture). portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. poluptukhos. column. Lat. portico (Lat. plinthos. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. pointed arch In architecture. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. pluvial (Med. or statue. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Plato was read in the universities. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. polyptych (Gk.
The 16th century portrait became generalized. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Florence (1486-90). Venice). Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Cathedral) by Uccello. The equestrian portrait. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Desiderio da Settignano.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.e. The realism of the clear. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Colleoni. and only a decorative accessory to form. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Group portraits. 1328. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. and the . Mantua. Siena. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Maria Novella. Campidoglio). Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Florence. decorating whole rooms. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. flattened image.. the Carracci. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. National Gallery). was revived in the 14th century. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Palazzo Farnese). inessential. Gattarnelata. psychologically more complex. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447.
This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. primarily the mendicants. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. bishop of Chioggia. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. several of whom became bishops. As Poussin was a Frenchman. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. abrasive even. are not florid in style. bishop of Asti. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. who had as their ideal masters Titian. was versed in classical and patristic . there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. however." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. and. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Savonarola and Musso. The styles of S. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Fiamma's sermons. 1494). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. not least those of statesmen and prelates. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. and Peter Paul Rubens. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Charles Le Brun. to discharge their preaching duties. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. of the sermon as an art form. bishops especially. from the secular clergy. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. minatory exhortations. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Correggio. star preachers journeyed all over Italy." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Borromeo. The sermons of Visdomini.
the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317. predella (It. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). however.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. tapestries. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. and so forth. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. The New Testament references in these would. prefiguration Typology . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Millais and Rossetti. though often relatively very wide . among them Holman Hunt. Naples). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.g. Because of the small size of predelle . and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high.rhetoric. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.
and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The following are important: 1. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. notably David. Fragonard. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the quadrature. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. "evenness") in painting. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. sculpture and architecture. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. which uses the square . That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. these highly finished drawings. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. proportio. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the Canon of Proportion. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. proportion (Lat. intended as complete works of art in themselves. again indicative of the purpose they served. 2. the golden section. and Houdon among sculptors. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 3. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). profil perdu (Fr.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Girardon. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C.
harmonic proportions. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. a fourth = 3:4. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. . psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. It was common in Roman art. provenance The origins of an art work. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. putto (It. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. for example). triangulation. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Ignazio. one half the length of the other). 4. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. putti sing. a fifth = 2:3. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. and 5. Unlike Pozzo. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. "boys") Plump naked little boys. Rome.
refectory (Med. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. friars and nuns. Among the . in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Lat. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. relicquiae. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. or the Jesuits. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. and high relief (alto rilievo). medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). in which figures are seen half round. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. also known as the Realist school. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. the object of particular veneration. in particular works by Masaccio. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message.g. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Donatello.Quattrocento (It. canons regular. the great orders of monks. or some item connected with a saint. relief (Lat. hermits. basso rilievo). with the Anglican Church developing in England. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. relevare. e. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Fra Angelico and others. in which figures are almost detached from their background. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. In 16th century Europe. relic (Lat. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Brunelleschi. Botticelli. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.
Benedetto. presided over by chapters general. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. In 1504.e. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. That of S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. i. and the generally moderate Observants. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. the great patriarch of Venice. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. various groups were fused in the latter body. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Lucca. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. who had no overall organization originally. Venice (1404). Maria di Fregonaia.contemplative orders. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Lorenzo Giustiniani. which was to become the main Italian one. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Bernardino of Siena. At the same time. Giorgio in Alga. 1012. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Bologna (1419). however. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. The Silvestrines. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Giustina. The same bull . In 1517. Padua. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. it became the Cassinese congregation. the Conventuals. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Mantua. the most notable being S. After the repression of the Spirituals. Founded by St Romuald c. The Conventuals. was the congregation of S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. and their more institutionalized brethren. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. The Benedictines. Salvatore. although technically of secular canons. the great issue of contention being the strict observance.
Gerolamo Aemiliani. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Angela Merici. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the Theatines. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. The first. Filippo Neri. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Venice. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. a historical period. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. founded in 1535 by S. Gaetano da Thiene. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. however. however. also. Michele in Isola. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. founded by S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines.
Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of arts. increasingly. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. the historical reality of antiquity. because its core of energy. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. even Amoralism. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). which had begun early in the 14th century. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. life. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. and his own as potentially one of light. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. of an energetic revival of interest in. Thereafter. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. however. and competition with. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. of letters.century. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). was so vast and potent. as well as political. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. of scholarship. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of 'darkness'. too long forgotten glories. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. All-Roundness. . morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. For long. however. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. 1875-86).
'culture' and 'history' during the period. (3) There is not a true. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. mobilized nationalism. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. There was an early. and other liturgical objects. Though thus challenged. and is decorated with paintings. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. statues. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. consist merely of a painting. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). the previous record . retables can be detached and. and mass media. Ghent). as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. especially in the High Gothic period. etc. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). It is for this additional. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Cathedral of SaintBavon. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. candlesticks. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. letters. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. of industrialization. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. sometimes.erased. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. later still to Genoa. congruence between. gratefully.with all its shabbiness .) was the term chosen. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. The challenges are to be accepted. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. though sometimes of metal.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. etc. let alone a uniform. in the more limited sense. however.
Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. With the development of freestanding altars. richly decorated with organic forms. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Originally commissioned in 976. like 'Gothic'. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Italy. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. almost simultaneously. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. in several countries . As the name suggests. rocaille (French. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. literally.of St Mark in Venice. the St. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Louis XV furniture. Rococo A style of design. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.France. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. and 'Romanesque'. the first style to achieve such international currency. its mood lighthearted and witry. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Spain .in the 11th century. . Romanesque art. More usually. retables have become extinct. "relief") In painting. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. painting. is a typical product. however. Germany. rilievo (It. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.
In addition. such as red ochre. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Q. Mabuse. they maintained. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. the development of nationalistic pride. Claude. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Piranesi. . Rome. B. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Pannini and Mengs. The aim of painting. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. stylized design representing an open rose. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. van Heemskerk. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. van Orley. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Massys and M.
Orthodox. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. and Lorenzo de' Medici. There were no limits on time. glance and movement . a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.greatly increased. supported by lay confraternities. Eastern independent. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. matrimony. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. confirmation. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. but others were the work of well-known figures. holy orders. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. from the Old and New Testaments.expressed through gesture. Sacra Conversazione (It. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. when it finally left the city it had devastated. local saints. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . and Protestant churches. In the . Written primarily in ottava rima. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Many compositions were anonymous. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Clement escaped into Castel S. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and anointing of the sick. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. penance. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Subjects were nominally sacred. the Eucharist. multiple sets used in succession. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. gutted. and impoverished. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). pious legend and hagiography. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).
the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Lutheran. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts.) Hall. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. was buried under a new fortress. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Candidates first face west. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Thus. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. used for drawing. baptism and the Eucharist. that the price of salt should be increased. the sun of righteousness. make such strict distinctions. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. and then face east. foot washing. was not maintained as a sacrament. Salt War.. which in the Gospel According to John. and sacraments. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.i. the Rocca Paolina. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan.e. The chief focus of discontent. The classical Protestant churches (i. It is still practiced on special occasions. notably from Florence and in Germany. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. chapter 13. replaces the Lord's Supper. the Orthodox Church does not. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge..early church the number of sacraments varied. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Saracens . Hence. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. as in the Church of the Brethren. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church.e. The theology of the Orthodox Church." which are called sacramentals. as an excuse to revolt. strictly speaking." sala (Ital. Anglican. the symbolic direction of Christ. sacraments. They were still seeking aid. Immediately following baptism. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. the Bentivoglio. large room. in principle. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place.
wood or terracotta. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. the Arabs or Muslims. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). made of stone. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. whose writings. 45 BC). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). sarcophagi (Gk. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c.During the Middle Ages. 360 . The publication of Latin (1562. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. sarcophagus. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 160 . Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. and many others. Little known in the Middle Ages. are lost. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. satyr In Greek mythology. 270 BC). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. legs and horns of a goat. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 210 AD). human-like woodland deities with the ears.c. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . the god of wine.c. pl. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.
This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. in June 1409. Louis I (d. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. However. was called Bamboccio. As a result. than their medieval predecessors. being Frenchmen. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Schism. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals.they had individual Bentnames . who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. on one side. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. 1386) and his son Ladislas. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. most of whom. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. scholasticism . on the other. while devout Christians agonized. and. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. while England. with France and her allies Aragon. one of the early leaders. Alexander V. who had the support of the Avignon pope. who recognized the Roman pope. the Florentines.for example Pieter van Laer. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. for. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. In northern Italy. but with little effect. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. from time to time both he and his opponents. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31).
in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. history and rhetoric . Serenissima (Ital. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. Padua. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. as it were. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. It was because the central concerns of humanism . (See also: fresco. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). as it is easier to add details in this way. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. None the less. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries.) . moreover. As such. Often called the burning ones. the plaster had to be damped before painting. Christian. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). if lime-water was used. because the secco technique is much less permanent. on one side. that scholasticism was left. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Medieval scholars.moral philosophy.were different from those of medieval.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. notably Aquinas. and theology. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. textual scholarship. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy.The term is ambivalent. university-based study. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. and Islamic literature. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.
brass. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Servite (Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Lat. an expression of Venetian self-confidence.. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. and the delicate. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. the number gradually rose to ten. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Med. sfumato A technique. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Originally. Signoria (It. sibyls (Gk. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. "prophetess") In antiquity. at the same time. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. in the period of classical antiquity. sibylla. women who could prophesy. usually presided over by individual families. there was only one Sibyl. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. term. Sibyls foretold the Birth. In Christian legend. "the most serene republic of Venice"). which were all identical in thickness. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sinopia . made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. in use since the Middle Ages.
One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. as the name implies. pronounced as French. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Stanze (Ital. stigma (Gk. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. and by a sweet and playful sentiment.) Wooden ceiling decoration. . "mark.. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. and. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. especially in the flow of drapery. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. staffage This word. It is very closely related to International Gothic. sotto in sù (It. Francis of Assisi. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. soffit (Lat. Ital. sing. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. in other words. brand. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. stigmata. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.
It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The vogue for the Sublime. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. both external and internal. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. pl. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. John Milton. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. with that for the Picturesque. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. stucco A type of light. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. In a looser sense.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. whose verses actually fabrications . but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). Indeed. studiolo.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. supremacy . studioli (It.
Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. i. 1407). or cartoons. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them.Historically. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). his own headquarters. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). was being decorated with frescoes. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. London. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. temperare. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. tempera (Lat. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . both for panel painting and fresco. The subject is underexplored. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence.and. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. then being replaced by oil paint. chiefly from Flanders. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. These were imported. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. into Italy. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. But the Italians did not make them. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. . and in literature.e. Salviati and Allori. doubtless.
though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. Trajan's Column . Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. topia. topoi (Gk. in the architecture of ancient Rome. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). widely used form. topiary (Gk. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. i. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. and other surfaces. triumphal arch. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. and later to subdivide gable ends. "fields. terraferma (Ital. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topos. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. pl. figure of speech. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. theme or motif. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. vessels. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. tondo. walls. "a commonplace") In literature. model.e. in art. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.terracotta (It. tondi (It. quarter face. and profile. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child.
poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Trinity (Lat. as it were. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. behind it. the military triumph became sublimated. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. beside it the army of martyrs. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. added to the glamour of the triumph. . loot and prisoners was given sparingly.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. of virtues and of the arts. tryptychos. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. or wings. Early triptychs were often portable. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. into a number of less controversial forms.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. triptych (Gk. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. time and eternity. trinitas.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. after 'a countless number of virgins. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. the wars by which they were won . a car so brave'. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. chastity. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Disseminated soon after his death. "threefold") A painting in three sections. of both sexes'. "threefold") in Christianity. patriarchs and prophets. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Battista Sforza. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. fame.' Before it go the apostles. death. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). the Son and the Holy Spirit. usually an altarpiece. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. Meanwhile.
enclosed by an arch. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tusche A thick. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. In medieval architecture. often decorated with sculptures. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. viscous black ink. "drum") In classical architecture.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. it is usually decorated with carvings. It incorporates Renaissance features. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Dating from classical times. typology . through various naturalistic devices. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. tympanum (Lat. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. first recorded in 1232. tromp l'oeil (Fr. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us.
A system of classification. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. U uomo universale (It. e. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. slayer of Goliath. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and David. where they were most accessible. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. lanterns. knew his former patrons. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).g. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. 1610). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets.Dirck van Baburen (c. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). each had access to his paintings. The numerous candles. Judith. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). . were popular with them also. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. 1590-1624). such as five works devoted to the senses. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor.) The Renaissance "universal man". and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. In Christian thought. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). killer of Holofernes.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. especially his half-length figural groups.
with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. vanitas (Lat. and the rib vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade). The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. it was used to decorate furniture. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. a work's richness of subject matter. the groin vault. Parisian craftsmen. mixed in. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. There are a wide range of forms. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. often gold. overturned vessels. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. V vanishing point In perspective. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. snuff boxes and other objects. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. "evening") . guttering candles. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. hour-glasses and clocks. Vespers (Lat. carriages. formed when two barrel vaults intersect.). Also varietas (Lat. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. varietà (It. vesper. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.
"not exposed to winds". Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Gluttony. pl. virtù could be used. actual or latent. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. for example. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Fortitude. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. The seven Virtues were: Faith. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'.Prayers said in the evening. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Envy. vestibulum. Temperance. In ancient Roman dwellings. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. "life") . Charity. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Anger. if you have it not'. Covetousness. Lust. in which the word signifies efficacy. and Justice. 'Assume a virtue. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Hope. vite (Lat. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. and Sloth. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. vita. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Prudence. vimperga Of German origin. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Vestibule (Lat. the church service at which these prayers are said.
a biography. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. protection from harm. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Vitruvius Pollio. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. published in 1550 and 1568.An account of someone's life and work. they were from the 18th century . Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. and the occasional wars thereafter (e.g. Sculptors and Architects"). AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The wars from 1494 do. in fact. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Marcus (1st cent. and of Ferrara. usually when a prayer for good fortune. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. 1482-84). as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. 1478-80. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1472. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. or recovery from illness has been made. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and appalled recognition of. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. those of Volterera. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
pompous on the floor above. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. usually linear. a philosophy of life. during its subsequent history.Weltanschauung (Gr. gallery. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Westwerk German word. "world view") A comprehensive world view. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. It was intended to have a variety of functions. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. . based on stylization of various animal forms. "Western work of art". treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually restorers. woodcut A print made from a wood block.
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