A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). design. In Greek and Roman literature. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. roofed with a half-dome. "architectural") Relating to structure. architrave (It. the lowest part of the entablature). arcus. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. architectonic (Gk. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. which is fused to the plate by heating. or organization. The term applies also to a print made by this method. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. . including Goya. The adjective is apsidal. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Lancet and Tudor. piers or pillars. Picasso. and Rouault. the moulding around a window or door. the darker the tone). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. arkhitektonikos. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface.e. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. but in essence the process is as follows. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arcade (Lat. Degas. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns.A semicircular projection. There are several variants of the technique. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Also known as an exedra.

In the case of martyrs. "golden. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography .the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. dominate. voltus. archivolto. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. attribute (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. aureolus.archivolt (Ital. "begin. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "front arch. usually a saint. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. aureole (Lat." and Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Dante's Vita nuova ." from Gk. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Ars Moriendi (Lat. archeiu.and the Comedy . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. attributum.

or baldacchino (It. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. often anecdotal. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The actual move was made in 1309. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). baldachin. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. that of Cardano. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. who had been residing in France since 1305. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Later. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). applied to the physically . the god of wine and fertility. in 1377. paintings of everyday life. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Six pontificates later. 'Captivity'.

Parma. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. el Kantara. AD 300). beggars in rags. or connected with. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Florence. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and abject filthy things.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642).. such as those at Pisa. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Croatia]. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Spalato [Split. As eight follows the "complete" number. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. built by Sixtus III. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Baalbek. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. and Poitiers. banderole (It. seven. pope between 432 and 440. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. a church. France. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. AD 273. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. the Temple of Venus. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. or canopy. and Epiphany. Lebanon. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. or forecourt. a visual metaphor for the number eight. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. banderuola. Easter. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. Alg. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Pentecost. set beneath a domical ciborium. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.g. Customarily. and Nocera in Italy. ..

and increasingly elaborate decoration. Théodore Rousseau (French. In architecture. Jules Dupré (French. or baptismal chapels. 1814-1875). 1807-1876). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Rubens). Baroque (Port. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. were often omitted entirely. Also tunnel vault. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. the dramatic use of light and shadow. "king's hall") a church building. baptisteries. basilica (Gk. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. usually facing east. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. stoa basilike. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. however. Constant Troyon (French. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Vermeer). and (3) everyday realism.an allusion to entering the Christian life. 1817-1878). . 1796-1875). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.In the 10th century. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. in its usual location near the church door . and thus a church. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. 1810-1865). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. barocco. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. 1811-1889). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. which is reserved for the clergy. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Jean-François Millet (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. achieved through scale. southeast of Paris. in the 1840s and 1850s. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. Originally. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini.

up until the mid-17th century. often with food and drink. which is either not yet glazed. It takes its name from its grainy texture. also incorrectly called bisque. as is to be expected. in which still-life predominates. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. By association. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. The term was mainly used up to c. like their Dutch counterparts. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Biscuit porcelain. Bodegónes. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. domesticity. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Spanish still-lifes. or which is to be left as it is. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. especially Spanish. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. were referred to by their specific contents. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). however. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. There were. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. and often sentimentality. 1650 in Spain. such as Waldmüller. bodegón Image. particularly porcelain. Book of Hours .

days of the week. varying from silverish to a rich. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. By extension. bozzetto(Italian. durability. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. though these are more often called 'modelli'. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. or seasons. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.by a variety of processes. coppery red. months. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. Chantilly).an advantage over marble sculpture. See flying buttress. a rapid sketch in oil. . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. but can also be used for painted sketches. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.both hot and cold . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. and the fact that it is easily workable . bozzetto Strictly speaking. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. made as a study for a larger picture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture.

box") In architecture. camera obscura . over time the term was used for the collections themselves. which was often allegorical. ceramics. Among its most distinctive products were icons. and Giotto. casson. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. manuscript illuminations. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. cameo Small relief made from gems. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. private room where works of art. C cabinet A small. glass. and work in precious metals. "a chest. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. mosaics. notable from Syria and Egypt. caisson (Fr. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Duccio. its forms highly stylized. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. It also served to glorify the emperor.

capital (Lat. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candela. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. Structurally." and the earliest versions. Niepce created photography.Ancestor of the photographic camera. sing. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. followed by smaller and even pocket models. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. usually in a church. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. which isolates the fabric from the paint. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. other materials used are cotton. cantoria. dating to antiquity. by the 16th century. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and.-N. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. usually built beside or attached to a church. and jute. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. campanile Bell tower. which was usually whitened. usually decorated. capitellum. "candle") A large. cantorie (It. only very rough effects will be obtainable. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. pl.) A gallery for singers or musicians. The Latin name means "dark chamber. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. as an aid to drawing. Portable versions were built. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candelabra. both of which have richly carved marble panels. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. hemp. usually with several branches or arms. candelabrum (It. . candlestick.

cartone. New Charterhouses. cartoon (It. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St.both Italians and artists from other countries . or fresco. near Grenoble. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartouche . Fortitudo (Fortitude).who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. The order combines reclusive and community life. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. In fresco painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. At the height of the Middle Ages. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). cartellini In a painting. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. and humanism. Carmelites (Lat. details of the subject. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. cartellino. tapestry. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). or a motto. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today .Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. pl. the date of the painting. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Carthusian Order (Lat. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. the endeavour to attain true humanity. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism.a humorous drawing or parody. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cardinalis.

cassone (It. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. or nave. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Paolo Uccello. linen. For reasons lost to time and tradition. decorated with gilt gesso. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. They contained the bride's clothes. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. These lead up to the north and south transepts. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. where the throne of the bishop is placed. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. castello (It. In the 15th century. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. palace.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.) "castle". . or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The main body. Cascina. or arms of the cross. they were also used in other countries. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. cathedral (cathedra. caryatid (Gk. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. and many other items of her dowry. a cathedral always faces west . putti (cupids). this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom.toward the setting sun. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. and swags of fruit and flowers. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. The altar is placed at the east end.

in accordance with their distance from the observer. rather than intercessory functions. or birdlike characteristics. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. centralis. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Christian. champlevé (Fr. "in the centre". 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. . It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. buildings and figures that are being depicted. animal. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). and perspicere. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. a celestial winged being with human. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. and Islamic literature. continually praise him. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. Both the statement of St. central perspective (Lat. as celestial attendants of God. a throne bearer of the deity. landscapes. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Relative to the observer. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects.

When the contrast of light and dark is strong. reserved for the clergy to pray together. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. North of the Alps. replacing tempera. the Order of the Hospital of St. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choros. or for choral singing. Hans Burgkmair (1510). chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526.chiaroscuro (It. "light dark") In painting. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. Since Carolingian times. choir (Gk. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. Lastly." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights.

further enriching the style. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. balustrades. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. became the most common motif. and the Churrigueresque column. The Mexico cathedral (1718). an architect. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. a massing of carved angels.intersect). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The Transparente (completed 1732). Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and garlands. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. undulating cornices. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. reversed volutes. Sculpted clouds. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. gilded rays. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. stucco shells. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. ciborium . The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and repetition of pattern. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Very few still exist in their original positions. which was shaped like an inverted cone. undulating lines. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. is as typically Churrigueresque.

Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. The new government. Their economic condition worsened. In reaction to this revolutionary . beaters. placing one of their members.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Quattrocento (1400s. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. High Renaissance). Without being members of a guild. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. or achieve political representation. as also were those in the associated. Members of the lower classes. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. but self-employed. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. on July 22. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. They were forbidden to form a trade association. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. ciompi. craft of dyeing. including the ciompi. who were raised to the status of a guild. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising.and post-medieval Italy. combers. controlled by the minor guilds. etc. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. the wool carder Michele di Lando. Then. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods.

literature. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). philosophy. In the 15th century Greek literature. the ciompi guild was abolished. changed greatly from one period to the next. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. on which strings were plucked. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). the black contours usually with a special line plate. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. with Italian scholars. resembling a lyre.) An ancient musical instrument. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque.episode. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. editing and translating a wide range of texts. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. philosophy and art . scholars patiently finding. clair-obscur (Fr. cithara (Gk. . Concepts of the classical. and politics. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.as in Italy these were dispensed with. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. except in cases where .together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. however. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. writers.

Coffered ceilings. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. arch or ceiling. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. Green and red. [hora] completa. blue and orange. occasionally made of wood. concetti (It. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). sing. as well as from the Bible. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. cognoscenti. concetto. literature or music. The name was derived from the condotta. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. cognoscente (It. intensify one another. pl. when set side by side. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. a work's underlying theme." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. compline (Lat.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. condottieri (It. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. terrorized the country. condottiere. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. . those with refined tastes. or "contract. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St.

(2) Confraternite del Rosario. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. scuole. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Carmagnola. Francesco Sforza. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. i. clergy. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides.e. often called compagnie or. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in the service of Naples. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Mark (1432). in the service of Perugia. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. convents of convertite. primarily for syphilitics. With no goal beyond personal gain. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. often under the direction of. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. which spread in the 15th century. and Tuscany. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. flagellant confraternities. and German--the condottieri. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Toward the end of the 15th century. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. in Venice. By the 16th century. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. confraternities Confraternities. or with the spiritual assistance of. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. By the end of the 14th century. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Umbria. Muzio's son. and his rival Braccio da Montone. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. who won control of Milan in 1450. Martino). and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. i.e.devastating Romagna. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. disappeared. . Spanish. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases.

Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. while the Venetian government. Later. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Dorotea in Trastevere. e. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. In medieval painting. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor.g.g. e. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. 1514 in S.i. but sometimes had their own premises. however. contours were initially regular. in Florence.e. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. While the Doge ranked above the Council. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. contour. reformed prostitutes. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . Confraternities. and refuges for maidens. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. contour (Fr. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. flat outlines. the Florentine Neri. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. notwithstanding their location. contrapposto (It. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. founded c. which accompanied condemned prisoners.

in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. corbel In architecture. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. whose names are inscribed on several works. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Reform programs. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. conventicle (Lat. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. large cornice or other feature. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Lat. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. did not achieve any lasting results. 1280). a bracket of stone. cuprum. . They are often ornamented.weight on one leg. conventiculurn. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. started the process of inner reform in the Church. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. The style spread as far as England. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. aes cyprium. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. 1100 and 1300. declining moral standards. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. an engraving produced in this way. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses.

Next. reedy sound. Seleucids. Death. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. i. particularly among the Persians. An ancestor of the oboe. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. "small vat") In architecture. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment.e. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. a semi-circular vault. after being whipped. Constantine the Great. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. cupula. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the most famous victim of crucifixion. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. the first Christian emperor.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Usually. cupola (Lat. or "scourged. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the condemned man. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. D dado . There were various methods of performing the execution. Carthaginians. Jews. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. a small dome. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.

a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Passau. but the concept behind an art work. diptych (Lat. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Deësis (Gk. danse macabre The dance of death. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. The term stresses not the literal drawing. an expressive use of nature. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. a favorite late medieval picture subject. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Gk. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. usually in matching pairs. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Germany. which was help to be the basis of all art. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). deacon (Gk.g. diptychum. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. disegno (It. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. "drawing. and Linz possessed common characteristics. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. often an altarpiece. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. design") In Renaissance art theory. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Anglican and Orthodox churches. e. diakonos. diptychos.

Thomas Aquinas. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. usually forming a ceiling or roof. donator. distemper (Lat. distemperare. is a heavy piece of furniture. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. such as we still use today. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. when painters took to working out of doors. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. The studio easel. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. As disegno appeals to the intellect. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Dominicans (Lat. doublet A male garment. a 19th-century invention. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). also used it on canvas. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . donor (Lat. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Ordo Praedictatorum. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety.fully realize. which runs on castors or wheels. formerly worn under armour. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. "to mix. though a few artists. dome in architecture. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching.

The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. fresco. and the cornice. full face. sculpture. ensemble (Fr. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. entablature In classical architecture. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Ecce Homo (Lat. a depiction of Jesus. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. epitaph (Gk. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. John (19. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. the frieze. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. "last". epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. in art. and logos. bound and flogged. Hence. and architecture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. eschaton.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. en face In portraiture. It consists of the architrave. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. "word") . enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. sometimes combining panel painting. eschatology (Gk. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof.

he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Germany. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Spain. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Vittoria Colonna. which was famous for maiolica. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. which was developed in the Near East ca." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. and is named for Faenza.death and resurrection.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. notably Cardinal Pole. eu. fields and livestock. Jerome. and of the last things. and Scandinavia. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Giovanni Morone. which is called "delftware. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Augustine. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Saints Ambrose." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Eucharist (Gk. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. protector of shepherds. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Contarini. Equated with the Greek god Pan. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. celebrated with bread and wine. particularly ware made in France. 4500 BCE. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. . Italy. which is called "maiolica. It developed in France in the early 16th century. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. "good." and charis. farmers. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Marcantonio Flaminio. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther.

a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. a technique known as a secco fresco. such as plague. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. can in time be seen. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. war. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. sword and set of balances. Their attributes are the bow. frescos in Italy . well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. drying to a slightly different tint. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. that of the others red. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. and flowers suspended in a loop. Only a small area can be painted in a day.festoni (It. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. fresco (It. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. black and dun.8). The colour of his horse is white. and these areas. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Committed to charitable and missionary work. relaxed. a swag. famine and death. leaves. 2 . fluted of a column or pillar.

or fresco secco. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . genre In a broad sense. or true fresco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. both in churches and in private and public palaces. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. are genres of painting. the intonaco. Genius in classical Rome. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. The technique of buon fresco. covings and ceilings. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Final details. G Garter. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. a person's invisible tutelary god. landscape and portraiture. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. In art from the classical period onwards. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. where the atmosphere was too damp. usually childish figure. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. for example.Save in Venice. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.

gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. whether it must be connected with the public good. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Maria Gloriosa). The nature of true gloria was much discussed. how it differed from notoriety. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and as spurring on men of action. in portraits and on tombs. As such. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi').such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as well as writers and artists. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Gobelins . Maso di Banco. Bernardo Daddi. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.

Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). This ratio is approximately 8:13. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Paris. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. who appointed Lebrun Director. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). still in existence today.French tapestry manufactory. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. and although it reopened in 1699. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. golden section (Lat. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. thereafter it made only tapestries. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Golden Fleece. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. In other Italian cities. .

after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. In particular. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. There is a transcendental quality. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. Amiens. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Nevertheless. from the 13th until the 17th century. . on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. that the effects are to be felt. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. 1200 and c. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and lies much deeper than. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. In sculpture and in painting.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. like the cultural and commercial. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. painting. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). painting. 1270. Denis. The artistic. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Gothic Gothic. In thinking of Nicola (d. the superficial particularities of form. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. or the influence of one building. c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line.

and above all Italy. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Such tours often took a year or more. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. to white or tinted paper and card and. and Piranesi. It is thinned with water for applying. the Netherlands. Dubuffet. genius. Pannini. chiefly to France. the beau idéal of the French. without visible brush marks. with sable. Klee. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. and Morris Graves. occasionally. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. .and hog-hair brushes. to silk. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. are but different appellations of the same thing'. starch. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). sometimes in the company of a tutor. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Honey. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. These qualities. and the great style. Canaletto. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. if required. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. notably in the writings of Bellori. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and taste among the English. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians.

1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. gris. which had recruited most of the merchant class. In Florence. to Provence and Paris. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. usually gray. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly.e. grisaille (Fr. after this. After the War of the Eight Saints.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. through central Italy. From 1266 to 1268. 1216. . however. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. and Waiblingen. brother of Louis IX. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. including text as well as illustrations. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. internal factions in Florence went under other names. Although its palace was rebuilt c. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. the parties taking a multitude of local names. c. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. Some writers. In the context of the fine arts. exclude drawing from this definition. however. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. drawing and the various forms of engraving. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. became an abiding feature of European politics. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. then as now. In another sense. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry.

only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and provided assistance to members in need. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. or professions. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. In Florence. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. print or painting. and greater hostility between master and man. trades. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. but in time they acquired other functions. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. Guilds were also patrons of art. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In some cities. The guilds were not equal. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. surgeons.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft." from Fr. heraldry (Fr. goldsmiths. trade or profession (painters. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. "[knowledge of] heraldry. "herald") . and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. héraut. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. [science] héraldique. notably Florence in the 14th century. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In some towns. The guild also monitored standards of work. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. for example. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In 16th century Venice. In Italy they go back a long way. H hatching In a drawing. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. such as Brescia and Vicenza. as some did).

e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. indeed. head of the 'carnal Church'. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. together with brethren north of the Alps. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. while others merged with the Waldensians. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. as Antichrist. they were condemned in 1184. the Cathars were an anti-church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. the followers of Juan de Valdes. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. with the rules governing their use. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. the Waldensian. normative for churchmen. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. and regarded themselves as forming. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. i. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. from the start. The main impact of the . However. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. d. one great missionary community. By contrast.

F. humanus. the emancipation of man from God took place. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Thomas Cole. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. humanism (Lat. Henry Inman. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. history (usually classical history). Germany. Durand. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Morse. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. hortus conclusus (Lat. J. my spouse'. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. In humanism. American painters were studying in Rome. Kensett. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. S. Jasper Cropsey. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. F. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. B. its subjects considered morally elevating. mainly in the south. working from 1825 to 1875. Church. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. in his earlier work. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. and classical literature. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Frederick E. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. George Inness. and. At the same time. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters.movement upon the laity was in southern France. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. In the second half of the 14th century. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the hammer. For instance. originality. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. investiture . the veil of St. beautiful style. with many further details added. the scourge that was used in the scourging. and the ladder.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. etc. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. Donatallo. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the rooster of Peter's denial. soft style. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. inventio (It. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Veronica. the ability to create. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Derived from classical rhetoric.g. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. usually the donors of a work of art. or of other saints. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. it denominates a kind of behaviour. Human figures. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the pincers. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. The terms court style. invention. are also used in art literature. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. and they are also depicted on their own.

were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Both and Berchem. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Italianizers Northern artists. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Upon his return to Holland. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. of Utrecht. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. and Jan Asselijn. Nicolaes Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. bathed in a golden haze. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. principally Dutch. . Andries and Jan Both. The Both brothers. who traveled in Italy and. although they are usually called Romanists. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Jerome's writings. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. generally Dutch or Flemish.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.

1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. encouraged by the Crusades. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. As their military role grew. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). especially one at which the Bible is read. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. John of Jerusalem . "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. the rite of communion is based on this. Legenda Aurea (Lat. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. liberal arts . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. lectern A reading stand or desk. Archbishop of Genoa. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.

While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. lunette (Fr. comprising arithmetic. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. a semicircular space. painting or sculptural decoration. rhetoric and dialectic.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e.g. poetic atmosphere. Maria Novella in Florence). and Frederick E. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. . often sublime. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. the quadrivium. then the basis of a philosophical training. Kensett (1816-1872). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. "little moon") In architecture. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Pythagoras for arithmetic. its roof supported by columns. Heade (1819-1904). first the preparatory trivium .These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. that could be used for public ceremonies. John F. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. It is related to. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. geometry. Tubal for music). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. astronomy and music. together with identifying attributes (e. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Martin J. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). often standing in markets and town squares. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. commemorating a marriage. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). loggia (It.g. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.grammar. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). that may contain a window. through the use of aerial perspective. Church (1826-1900).

with secular texts replacing sacred ones. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. Specifically. active mainly in Florence c. being written. historical subjects. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. madrigal A part song. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). the goddess Cybele. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. originating in Italy in the 14th century. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and accompaniments. originally sung without accompaniment. antimony yellow. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). manganese purple. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). they never lost a sense of solidity of form. but they painted genre scenes. usually for the lute. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. "almond") . Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. magna mater (Lat. and iron red. and however bright their lighting effects.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and portraits as well as landscapes. particularly such ware produced in Italy. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. 1855–65. When white is used for painting. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. mandorla (It. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. "great mother") A mother goddess. copper green. for example.

the hand-written medieval book. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. In Mannerist painting. Bronzino. In architecture. bound. El Greco and Tintoretto. often ornamented with decorative borders. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. strong. more strictly. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. ecclesiastical. Parmigianino. in a specific sense. "manner. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. maniera. illuminated initials and miniatures. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. worn open. which was quarried at Mount . and literary texts. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Developing out of the Renaissance. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. depending on the social class of the wearer. It reached to the knee or foot. Flanders. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and crowned with thorns. complex and crowded compositions. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Burgundy. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Mannerism (It. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. the Codex manuscriptus. marked by flagellation. mantle An overcoat.

This was partly because ancient Roman coins. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). marmi finti (It. martyrion. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. which were beginning to be reverently collected. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. sleek surface. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary.Pentelicon in Attica. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. The pure white Carrara marble. particularly by Michelangelo. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. proof") the sufferings. having finished his training. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Like the finest Imperial coins. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Without monetary value. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. martyrdom (Gk. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. a different design on the reverse. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. quarried at Massa. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. an inscription running round the rim. medallion In architecture. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). "witness. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work.

often anonymous. who reflected them. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. in England. This yields a soft effect in the print. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. the stress on individual character. even grain. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). When Perseus cuts off her head. c. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. particularly. for landscapes and portraits. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. and of the many. 1640. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. The work of these men. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. A Dutch officer. c. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. supposedly to petrify her enemies. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. 14601528). . 1452-1526/27). It was. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. perhaps oddly. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. as it were. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Medusa In Greek mythology. The process is essentially extinct today. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. In pure mezzotint. Her head features on Minerva's shield. a Gorgon. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. no line drawing is employed. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. of the person portrayed on the other side. 1425-1504). Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless.round the neck. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1467-688). Ludwig von Siegen.

Many such small versions. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Francis himself. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.. still exist. monochrome (Gk. monokhromatos. "one color") Painted in a single color. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. saying") . modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. "word. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. usually portraits. miter A high. a painting executed in a single color. a branch of the Franciscan order. e. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. executed on a very small scale. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. often quite highly finished. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. by Tiepolo and Rubens. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Parmigianino (d. ink and paint.g. painting in gouache on vellum or card. motto (Ital.

Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. nave (from Lat. and is intersected by the transept. In general. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and two other members moved to Rome. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Isidore. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Rome. navis. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. 1817-29).from the Middle Ages. Nazarenes A group of young. . and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. The invention of personal mottos. It may have parallel aisles on each side. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Berlin. named after the patron saint of painting. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. 1816-17. Pforr. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. and Casino Massimo. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. naturalism (Fr. often separated from it by pillars. In 1810 0verbeck. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. but often insipid. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). "ship") the main interior space of a church building.

To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. niello (Lat.) . were usually old when elected. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. is as true as it is notorious. nimbus (Lat. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the style of the Ancien Régime. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. usually golden. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). but their ideas continued to be influential. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. nigellus. Popes. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. moreover. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Nymphaeum (Gk. "aureole") The disc or halo.

The Corinthian order was the most ornate.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The earliest. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). O obsequies (Lat. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. and entablatures. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. "services. the Doric order. walnut. fluted column and a plain capital. orders of architecture In classical architecture. . prayer and preaching being central to their mission. Greek goddesses of Nature. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. or poppy. obsequia. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). its richness of colour. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. capital. was the simplest. and its greater tonal range. the three basic styles of design. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. observances") Rites performed for the dead. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. such as linseed. inborn sin. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. with a sturdy. a more elaborate base. a small private chapel. They are seen in the form of the columns.

designed as a . 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. palazzo (It. while shops came to be thought undignified. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. like cities. tradition and social structure. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. the Cancelleria). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. P pala (Ital. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. with biforate windows. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and the main apartments above. and. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Palazzo Strozzi). Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. standing at the foot of the Cross. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes.g. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). and large windows appeared on the ground floor.

lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. often built next to their titular churches. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Papal incentives to build. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). behind a sober Florentine façade. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and large households. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). Palazzo Massimi). and Palladio's in Vicenza. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. like the colonnaded vestibule. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". evolved influential types. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Following Oriental patterns. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. palmette. especially after the Sack of Rome. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. In Venice. Movement of patrons and architects. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks.g. Rich. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. column-caps. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. like Genoa. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). came to be applied all over Europe. e. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome.g. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. cornices and abutments. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. panel . Other cities. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere).scholarly retreat. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system.

popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. olive. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. the management of clerical dues and taxation. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. In the 20th century cedar. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. Having a circular plan. or other rigid substance. Then. so that they might have a voice at court. as distinct from canvas. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the. or the incidence of taxation. chestnut. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and the pressure and temptations . to influence popes in their favour. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. Many other types were used. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. secular rulers. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. mahogany. and modern painters have also used plywood. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. A number of matters. as it were. and walnut. As successors to St Peter. The third aspect was administrative. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. teak. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and spanned by a single dome. larch. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. metal. enforce law and order. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and dark walnut are favourites. including beech. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. To maintain their authority. however. slate has occasionally been used as a support. On a larger scale.Term in painting for a support of wood. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. fir. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. cedar. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. and other synthetic materials as supports. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. fibre-board. linden.

notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). in the eyes of God. if it did no serious damage to the faith. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). To resolve the problem of divided authority. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. however. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. It was argued that such a council.that could be applied to them. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. however. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was.as well. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . was long in doubt. as such. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. at Avignon. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. which met at Constance 1414-18. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. in spite of further absences from Rome. of individuals. possess an authority which. So onerous. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. which seems so inevitable. By then. from the point of view of its religious associations. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. would. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. the most appropriate . could supersede that of a pope. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. There remained. Colonna and Caetani. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. to be long delayed. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). As at Avignon.

330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Parrhasius (c. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. through lavish patronage of artists. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. to a world peopled by shepherds. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. and other animals. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Passion . and satyrs. pastoral (Lat.. 400-300 BC). and with Zeuxis (c. as well as a governmental one. scholars and men of letters. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. nymphs. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. However. it has also been used for painting. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. the creation of a cultural capital. pastor. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. in classical literature. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. less frequently pig. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. goat. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood.

a region in north-central Italy. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Francesco Salviati. and so on. Meanwhile. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. "butterfly. 1478. which focus on the Suffering Christ. a small. pavilion (Lat. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. patricius. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. patrician (Lat. Portrayals of the Passion. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. wealthy citizen. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.The events leading up to Good Friday.) or pasticcio (It. 1478). through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. but not necessarily a direct copy. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. papilio. and also the archbishop of Pisa. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. such as a garden summerhouse. projecting either centrally or at both ends. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. the crown of thorns. . ornamental building. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. a prominent section of a monumental façade.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. pastiche (fr. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize.

and facere.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "hanging. personification (Lat. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. and gnomon. "to see through. "person". concept or deity. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. or related elements within an art work. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. pendant (Fr. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). . concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. pergola (It. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. persona. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. physis. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "nature". perspicere. in particular the face. perspective (Lat. physiognomy (Gk. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon.

affording a good subject for a landscape. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. curious details. or resin to make paint. remarkable for singularity. . but may consist of a cluster of columns. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Pietà (Lat. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. glue. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pigment (Lat. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. proper to take a landscape from. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. pigmentum. containing the public rooms. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. exemplified. both real and painted. to be expressed in painting.) The main floor of a building. A pier is generally larger than a column. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. for example. Peter's. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet.piano nobile (Ital. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. but full of variety. usually above the ground floor. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Rome.

For this reason. plague Plague. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. since. moreover. In the 15th century. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). pilastrum. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. it has a base. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. outside Tuscany. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. and thereafter all Europe. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). It seems probable. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. the burning of 'infected' clothing. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. however. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. such as Florence and Genoa. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. though in less widespread. perhaps. "pillar") A flat. and capital. Thenceforward. more sporadic outbreaks. it is difficult to find.pilaster (Lat. a shaft. It is often fluted. in October 1347. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Rocco and Sebastian. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. for instance. also used in Spain's American colonies. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. despite regional variations. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. During 1348 the Black Death. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints.

Phaedo. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. which lasted only a few decades. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). In contrast with Aristotle. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale..surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. are the masterworks of the second style. and sinuous scrolls. correct classical orders became frequent. placement. i. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Diego evolved a purer. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). the Symposium. The first phase. Timaeus. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. composition. harmonious. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. or appropriateness. The first phase. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Philebus. or simply the Plateresque. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. heraldic escutcheons. The second phase. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. A student of Socrates. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. like its successor. Phaedrus. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. more severe. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain.e.

with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. including those of Plotinus. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. partially.in Plato's thought. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and the Chaldaic Oracles. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the greatest of his ancient disciples. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. near Florence. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Plotinus. but not completely. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. replaced Ficino's. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Rather unsystematic. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. systematized and added to what Plato had done. and Agostino Steuco (c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. for example with Symphorian Champier (c.1577) becoming particularly popular. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. 1472-c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. all of which he also translated into Latin. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Iamblichus. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Unlike the case of Aristotle. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. and he utilized many other writings.

such as processions and consecrations. poluptukhos. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. pluviale. Frequently supports a pediment. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. polyptych (Gk. portico (Lat. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pluvial (Med. as in classical architecture). porticus. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. Plato was read in the universities. plinth (Gk. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. pointed arch In architecture. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. plinthos. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. where a pectoral is used to close it. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . or statue. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. column. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture.

Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. flattened image. Florence (1486-90). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Campidoglio). was revived in the 14th century. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Cathedral) by Uccello. The 16th century portrait became generalized. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Desiderio da Settignano. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Siena. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Venice). the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Colleoni. and the . include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. inessential.sculptors such as Donatello. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The equestrian portrait. National Gallery). and only a decorative accessory to form. decorating whole rooms. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. the Carracci. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. psychologically more complex. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Palazzo Farnese). Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Gattarnelata. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671.. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Group portraits. Mantua. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The realism of the clear. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. 1328. Florence. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Maria Novella. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436.e.

bishop of Asti. Borromeo. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). are not florid in style. however. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. who had as their ideal masters Titian. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. was versed in classical and patristic ." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. abrasive even. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Savonarola and Musso.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. As Poussin was a Frenchman. and. to discharge their preaching duties. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. 1494). Cornelio Musso (1511-74). from the secular clergy. and Peter Paul Rubens. of the sermon as an art form. The styles of S. bishop of Chioggia. together with the Dominican Savonarola. minatory exhortations. Correggio. The sermons of Visdomini. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. primarily the mendicants. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Charles Le Brun. Fiamma's sermons. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). several of whom became bishops. bishops especially. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85).

the temptations of Adam and Christ. The New Testament references in these would. Because of the small size of predelle . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. predella (It. Naples). however. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). among them Holman Hunt. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.rhetoric. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.g. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. and so forth. though often relatively very wide .they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. tapestries. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. prefiguration Typology . "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Millais and Rossetti. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature.

a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. Fragonard. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. and Houdon among sculptors. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. notably David. proportio. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. the Canon of Proportion. "evenness") in painting. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. the golden section. intended as complete works of art in themselves. the quadrature. again indicative of the purpose they served. proportion (Lat. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 3. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. sculpture and architecture. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. which uses the square . these highly finished drawings. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666).The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. Girardon. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. profil perdu (Fr. The following are important: 1. 2.

psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. putto (It. . The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. a fifth = 2:3. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. for example). the steward or treasurer of a church. Unlike Pozzo. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. a fourth = 3:4. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. It was common in Roman art. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. Ignazio.as a unit of measurement. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Rome. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. putti sing. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. "boys") Plump naked little boys. provenance The origins of an art work. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. one half the length of the other). triangulation. 4. and 5. harmonic proportions.

"to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in which figures are seen half round. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. hermits. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. also known as the Realist school.g. in which figures are almost detached from their background. relic (Lat. friars and nuns. the object of particular veneration. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or the Jesuits. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. e. Donatello. the great orders of monks. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. with the Anglican Church developing in England.Quattrocento (It. relevare. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. refectory (Med. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. Lat. canons regular. basso rilievo). in particular works by Masaccio. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Brunelleschi. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. In 16th century Europe. Botticelli. relief (Lat. Among the . or some item connected with a saint. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. relicquiae. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. and high relief (alto rilievo). Fra Angelico and others. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order.

they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. The Silvestrines. their resources being in the hands of trustees. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. and their more institutionalized brethren. although technically of secular canons. Maria di Fregonaia. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. the great patriarch of Venice. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. the Conventuals. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. 1012. Lucca. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation.e. Venice (1404). the most notable being S. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Founded by St Romuald c. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Giustina. was the congregation of S. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. In 1517. Mantua. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. which was to become the main Italian one. Padua. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. who had no overall organization originally. In 1504. The Benedictines. At the same time. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. That of S. presided over by chapters general. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. however. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Salvatore. and the generally moderate Observants. The same bull . various groups were fused in the latter body. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. i. After the repression of the Spirituals. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Giorgio in Alga. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. it became the Cassinese congregation. Bologna (1419). originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations.contemplative orders. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Bernardino of Siena. Benedetto. The Conventuals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century.

Venice. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. however. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Michele in Isola. S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . founded in 1535 by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. the Theatines. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. however. Gaetano da Thiene. Angela Merici. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Filippo Neri. The first. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. founded by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. also. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. a historical period.

Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. even Amoralism. of letters. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. the historical reality of antiquity. because its core of energy. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. however. For long.century. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). culture was linked to personality and behaviour. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. however. All-Roundness. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. as well as political. Thereafter. 1875-86). of 'darkness'. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. . The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. which had begun early in the 14th century. was so vast and potent. of scholarship. and his own as potentially one of light. of an energetic revival of interest in. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of arts. and competition with. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. too long forgotten glories. life. increasingly. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept.

) was the term chosen. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. retables can be detached and. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. There was an early. of industrialization. let alone a uniform. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. mobilized nationalism. Though thus challenged. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. however. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. letters. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. and other liturgical objects. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. congruence between. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Ghent). the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Cathedral of SaintBavon. especially in the High Gothic period. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. and is decorated with paintings. etc. consist merely of a painting. statues. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. etc.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt').erased. candlesticks. The challenges are to be accepted. the previous record . in the more limited sense. (3) There is not a true. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. and mass media. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. sometimes. though sometimes of metal. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside.with all its shabbiness . (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. It is for this additional. gratefully. later still to Genoa. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. subjective reason a term to be used with caution.

Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. literally. Originally commissioned in 976. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation.in the 11th century. almost simultaneously. More usually. rocaille (French.of St Mark in Venice. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. is a typical product. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. As the name suggests. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. and 'Romanesque'. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. painting. Romanesque art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Spain . the St. Louis XV furniture. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Italy. "relief") In painting. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. With the development of freestanding altars. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. like 'Gothic'. in several countries .France. richly decorated with organic forms. retables have become extinct. the first style to achieve such international currency. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. however. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Germany. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. and architecture dominating the 18th century. rilievo (It. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. its mood lighthearted and witry. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). . Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Rococo A style of design.

usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. In addition. Rome. B. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Pannini and Mengs. The aim of painting. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. M. Q. . stylized design representing an open rose. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. they maintained. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. van Orley. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. such as red ochre. van Heemskerk. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Mabuse. Claude. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Piranesi. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. the development of nationalistic pride. Massys and M.

the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. and anointing of the sick. multiple sets used in succession. penance. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. In the . A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. but others were the work of well-known figures. gutted. matrimony. pious legend and hagiography. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. confirmation. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).greatly increased. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. There were no limits on time. the Eucharist. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. and Protestant churches. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. supported by lay confraternities. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). when it finally left the city it had devastated. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. local saints. from the Old and New Testaments. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Many compositions were anonymous. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and impoverished. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. glance and movement . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Subjects were nominally sacred. Written primarily in ottava rima. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Eastern independent. Sacra Conversazione (It. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. holy orders. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Clement escaped into Castel S. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to.expressed through gesture. Orthodox. and Lorenzo de' Medici. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment.

" sala (Ital. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. the symbolic direction of Christ..e. foot washing. was not maintained as a sacrament.) Hall. and then face east. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. large room. The classical Protestant churches (i. and sacraments. as in the Church of the Brethren. which in the Gospel According to John. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the Rocca Paolina. replaces the Lord's Supper. used for drawing. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. They were still seeking aid. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Bentivoglio. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Candidates first face west. chapter 13. Hence. sacraments. make such strict distinctions.i. baptism and the Eucharist. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. strictly speaking. in principle. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. that the price of salt should be increased. the sun of righteousness. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.e. Immediately following baptism. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. as an excuse to revolt. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place.early church the number of sacraments varied. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Thus. It is still practiced on special occasions. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper." which are called sacramentals. Anglican. was buried under a new fortress. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Salt War. The chief focus of discontent. the Orthodox Church does not. Saracens . sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. notably from Florence and in Germany. Lutheran. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .

Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). the god of wine. and many others. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. satyr In Greek mythology. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). The publication of Latin (1562. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. whose writings. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. 160 . along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. human-like woodland deities with the ears.c.c. 270 BC). legs and horns of a goat. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. sarcophagus. Little known in the Middle Ages. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 45 BC). sarcophagi (Gk. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. pl. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. made of stone. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Arabs or Muslims. are lost. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. 360 .During the Middle Ages. wood or terracotta. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 210 AD).

Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. was called Bamboccio. one of the early leaders. who recognized the Roman pope. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. being Frenchmen. Schism. Louis I (d. As a result. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. and therefore far more purely Italian princes.they had individual Bentnames . the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. while England. than their medieval predecessors.for example Pieter van Laer. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. from time to time both he and his opponents. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. while devout Christians agonized. on one side. Alexander V. In northern Italy. and. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. on the other. However. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. who had the support of the Avignon pope. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. with France and her allies Aragon. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. for. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Charles III of Durazzo (d. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. most of whom. in June 1409. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. scholasticism . the Florentines. but with little effect.

Serenissima (Ital. (See also: fresco. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.The term is ambivalent. and theology. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest.were different from those of medieval. None the less. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. textual scholarship. Christian. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. As such. notably Aquinas. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. university-based study. Medieval scholars. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. history and rhetoric . rather than wet plaster as in fresco. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.moral philosophy. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. because the secco technique is much less permanent. as it is easier to add details in this way.) . and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. and Islamic literature. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Often called the burning ones. if lime-water was used. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). on one side. Padua. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. moreover.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. that scholasticism was left. It was because the central concerns of humanism . as it were. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. the plaster had to be damped before painting. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia).

. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. the number gradually rose to ten. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. "prophetess") In antiquity. Sibyls foretold the Birth. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Signoria (It. which were all identical in thickness. usually presided over by individual families. Med. "the most serene republic of Venice"). In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. sfumato A technique. in use since the Middle Ages. women who could prophesy. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. brass. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. there was only one Sibyl. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Servite (Lat. sibyls (Gk. Originally. term. at the same time. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Lat. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. in the period of classical antiquity. sinopia . were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. and the delicate. sibylla. In Christian legend. They first appear in alpine monasteries.

sing.. as the name implies. stigma (Gk. It is very closely related to International Gothic. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. stigmata. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter.'Beautiful Madonnas'. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. staffage This word. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . and by a sweet and playful sentiment.) Wooden ceiling decoration. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. . soffit (Lat. "mark. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. Francis of Assisi. sotto in sù (It. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. especially in the flow of drapery. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. pronounced as French. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. in other words. brand. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. Stanze (Ital. Ital.

were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The vogue for the Sublime. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. with that for the Picturesque. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. studioli (It. both external and internal. John Milton. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. Indeed. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). supremacy . studiolo. pl. whose verses actually fabrications . helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. In a looser sense. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. stucco A type of light. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts.

Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. both for panel painting and fresco. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. then being replaced by oil paint. The subject is underexplored. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. tempera (Lat. These were imported. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. . tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source.e. doubtless. or cartoons. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. London. Salviati and Allori.Historically. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries.and. and in literature. But the Italians did not make them. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. i. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. into Italy. was being decorated with frescoes. chiefly from Flanders. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. temperare. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). 1407). his own headquarters.

topoi (Gk. Trajan's Column . Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. i. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and later to subdivide gable ends. topia. terraferma (Ital. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. model. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. "fields. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and other surfaces. topos. triumphal arch. quarter face. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tondi (It. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. pl. theme or motif. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. in the architecture of ancient Rome. figure of speech. "a commonplace") In literature.e. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. widely used form. topiary (Gk. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. in art.terracotta (It. and profile. vessels. pl. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. walls. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. tondo. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. and sculptures.

poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. death. the military triumph became sublimated. chastity. time and eternity. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. behind it. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). as it were. Early triptychs were often portable. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. patriarchs and prophets. or wings. "threefold") A painting in three sections. after 'a countless number of virgins. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. tryptychos. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Battista Sforza. a car so brave'. . "threefold") in Christianity. Trinity (Lat. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. of both sexes'. into a number of less controversial forms. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. Meanwhile.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. the Son and the Holy Spirit. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. triptych (Gk. fame.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. added to the glamour of the triumph. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Disseminated soon after his death. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the wars by which they were won . most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . usually an altarpiece. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. trinitas. beside it the army of martyrs.' Before it go the apostles. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. of virtues and of the arts.

viscous black ink. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. often decorated with sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Dating from classical times. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. In medieval architecture. first recorded in 1232. It incorporates Renaissance features. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. "drum") In classical architecture. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tusche A thick. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I).triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. enclosed by an arch. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tympanum (Lat. it is usually decorated with carvings. tromp l'oeil (Fr. through various naturalistic devices. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. typology .

the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. lanterns. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. knew his former patrons. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. 1610). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. U uomo universale (It. In Christian thought. e. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). especially his half-length figural groups. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. slayer of Goliath. where they were most accessible.Dirck van Baburen (c.A system of classification. and David. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . were popular with them also. Judith. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. . while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.) The Renaissance "universal man". the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. 1590-1624). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. each had access to his paintings. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . The numerous candles.g. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). killer of Holofernes. such as five works devoted to the senses.

vanitas (Lat. carriages. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vesper. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. Parisian craftsmen. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. often gold. varietà (It. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. snuff boxes and other objects. the groin vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade). and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Also varietas (Lat. a work's richness of subject matter. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. There are a wide range of forms. hour-glasses and clocks. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. guttering candles. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. "evening") . mixed in. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. Vespers (Lat.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. overturned vessels. it was used to decorate furniture. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. V vanishing point In perspective. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.). with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. and the rib vault.

Hope. and Justice. Fortitude. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Vestibule (Lat. Gluttony. in which the word signifies efficacy. "life") . Covetousness. Lust. the church service at which these prayers are said. actual or latent. Envy. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. if you have it not'. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Prudence. Charity. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vestibulum. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. In ancient Roman dwellings. The seven Virtues were: Faith. and Sloth. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. "not exposed to winds". Anger. for example. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. vita. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. vimperga Of German origin. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. virtù could be used. pl. vite (Lat.Prayers said in the evening. Temperance. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. 'Assume a virtue.

AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory.An account of someone's life and work.g. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. Sculptors and Architects"). they were from the 18th century . and of Ferrara. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. Vitruvius Pollio. usually when a prayer for good fortune. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1472. protection from harm. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Marcus (1st cent. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. or recovery from illness has been made. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. those of Volterera. 1482-84). 1478-80. published in 1550 and 1568. and appalled recognition of. a biography. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. in fact. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. The wars from 1494 do. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

pompous on the floor above. usually linear. during its subsequent history. gallery. It was intended to have a variety of functions. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. . but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Westwerk German word. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. based on stylization of various animal forms. woodcut A print made from a wood block. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor.Weltanschauung (Gr. usually restorers. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. "Western work of art". The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. "world view") A comprehensive world view. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. a philosophy of life. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. treasury or a place where justice was administered.

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