A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish.e. and Rouault. Picasso. the lowest part of the entablature). The adjective is apsidal. There are several variants of the technique. Also known as an exedra. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. architectonic (Gk. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. or organization. "architectural") Relating to structure. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). piers or pillars. which is fused to the plate by heating. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. the darker the tone). . but in essence the process is as follows.A semicircular projection. In Greek and Roman literature. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. design. arcus. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. at the east end of a church behind the altar. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. including Goya. Lancet and Tudor. architrave (It. The term applies also to a print made by this method. the moulding around a window or door. arkhitektonikos. arcade (Lat. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. Degas. roofed with a half-dome. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.

attribute (Lat." from Gk. usually a saint.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. "front arch. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Dante's Vita nuova . dominate. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations." and Lat.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. archeiu. In the case of martyrs.and the Comedy . aureolus. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. Ars Moriendi (Lat.archivolt (Ital. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. archivolto. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "golden. voltus. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. "begin. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. attributum. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. aureole (Lat.

'Captivity'. the god of wine and fertility. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). baldachin. paintings of everyday life. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. often anecdotal. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. that of Cardano. Six pontificates later. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. The actual move was made in 1309. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. in 1377. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Later. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. applied to the physically . who had been residing in France since 1305. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. or baldacchino (It.

Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. As eight follows the "complete" number. Parma. beggars in rags. Easter. Baalbek. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Florence. and Epiphany. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Lebanon.g. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Spalato [Split. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. AD 300). France. Alg. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. or connected with. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. banderole (It. AD 273. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. or canopy. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. set beneath a domical ciborium. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. and Poitiers. . and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. Croatia]. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. el Kantara.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). the Temple of Venus. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts.. Pentecost. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. and abject filthy things. pope between 432 and 440. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. such as those at Pisa. a church. banderuola. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to.. and Nocera in Italy. or forecourt. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. seven. Customarily. built by Sixtus III.

there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1810-1865). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Also tunnel vault. and (3) everyday realism. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1807-1876). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1796-1875). Constant Troyon (French. In architecture. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. southeast of Paris. baptisteries. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. or baptismal chapels. however. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. 1817-1878). 1811-1889). . in its usual location near the church door . the dramatic use of light and shadow. barocco. were often omitted entirely. something of earlier symbolism survives. usually facing east. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1814-1875). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters.In the 10th century. Rubens). Jean-François Millet (French. stoa basilike. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Vermeer). achieved through scale. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. which is reserved for the clergy. Baroque (Port. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Originally. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. basilica (Gk. and thus a church. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Jules Dupré (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. in the 1840s and 1850s.an allusion to entering the Christian life. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Théodore Rousseau (French. "king's hall") a church building.

Biscuit porcelain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. There were. 1650 in Spain. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. Book of Hours . which is either not yet glazed. as is to be expected. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). and often sentimentality. also incorrectly called bisque. like their Dutch counterparts. in which still-life predominates. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. however. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. up until the mid-17th century. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. were referred to by their specific contents. domesticity. The term was mainly used up to c. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. or which is to be left as it is. especially Spanish.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. It takes its name from its grainy texture. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. bodegón Image. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. particularly porcelain. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Spanish still-lifes. By association. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Bodegónes. such as Waldmüller. often with food and drink.

A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. durability. though these are more often called 'modelli'. made as a study for a larger picture. . and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina.both hot and cold . See flying buttress.by a variety of processes. bozzetto Strictly speaking. or seasons. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. coppery red. but can also be used for painted sketches. varying from silverish to a rich. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.an advantage over marble sculpture. bozzetto(Italian. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. months. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. a rapid sketch in oil. and the fact that it is easily workable . Chantilly). breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. days of the week. By extension.

Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cameo Small relief made from gems. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. casson. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. caisson (Fr. and Giotto. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). manuscript illuminations. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. glass. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. which was often allegorical. ceramics. box") In architecture. its forms highly stylized. "a chest. notable from Syria and Egypt. private room where works of art. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Among its most distinctive products were icons. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Duccio. camera obscura . C cabinet A small. mosaics. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Based largely on Roman and Greek art.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. It also served to glorify the emperor. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. and work in precious metals. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue.

capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. cantorie (It. usually with several branches or arms. usually built beside or attached to a church." and the earliest versions. capital (Lat. candela. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. The Latin name means "dark chamber. which was usually whitened. Structurally. sing. by the 16th century. usually in a church. Niepce created photography. candelabra. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up.Ancestor of the photographic camera. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. The best-quality canvas is made of linen.) A gallery for singers or musicians. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. both of which have richly carved marble panels. other materials used are cotton. hemp. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. campanile Bell tower. Portable versions were built. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually decorated. capitellum. "candle") A large. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. and jute. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. pl. which isolates the fabric from the paint. candelabrum (It. cantoria. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. dating to antiquity. as an aid to drawing. .-N. only very rough effects will be obtainable. followed by smaller and even pocket models. candlestick. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral.

"hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance).both Italians and artists from other countries . Cardinal Virtues (Lat. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Carthusian Order (Lat. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Fortitudo (Fortitude). monasteries containing separate hermitages. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cardinalis. or a motto. cartoon (It. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartellini In a painting. details of the subject. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. The order combines reclusive and community life. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. the date of the painting. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cartouche . In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cartellino. Carmelites (Lat. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). or fresco. near Grenoble. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.a humorous drawing or parody.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartone. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). pl. In fresco painting. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". At the height of the Middle Ages. and humanism. tapestry. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. New Charterhouses. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics.

this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. decorated with gilt gesso.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. The main body. caryatid (Gk. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Cascina. castello (It. In the 15th century. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and swags of fruit and flowers. . These lead up to the north and south transepts. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. The altar is placed at the east end. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. or arms of the cross. cassone (It. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Paolo Uccello. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. or nave. They contained the bride's clothes. linen. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. palace. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom.toward the setting sun. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. and many other items of her dowry. they were also used in other countries.) "castle". Worked on at intervals 1504-06. a cathedral always faces west . cathedral (cathedra. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. putti (cupids).

champlevé (Fr. animal. or birdlike characteristics. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. . 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. a throne bearer of the deity. and Islamic literature. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). landscapes. Christian. as celestial attendants of God. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. rather than intercessory functions. a celestial winged being with human. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. buildings and figures that are being depicted. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. centralis. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. central perspective (Lat. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. and perspicere. Both the statement of St.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Relative to the observer. "in the centre". in accordance with their distance from the observer. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. continually praise him. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired.

the Order of the Hospital of St. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. reserved for the clergy to pray together. or for choral singing. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. "light dark") In painting. Hans Burgkmair (1510). and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Since Carolingian times. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. replacing tempera. choros. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. notably Lucas Cranach (1506).chiaroscuro (It. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. North of the Alps." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. choir (Gk. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. Lastly. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone.

became the most common motif. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and the Churrigueresque column. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque.intersect). is as typically Churrigueresque. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. ciborium . gilded rays. a massing of carved angels. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. balustrades. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). stucco shells. Sculpted clouds. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. which was shaped like an inverted cone. further enriching the style. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. The Transparente (completed 1732). undulating cornices. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. and repetition of pattern. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. an architect. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. reversed volutes. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. undulating lines. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and garlands. Very few still exist in their original positions.

continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. combers. Members of the lower classes.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. or achieve political representation. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. controlled by the minor guilds. Without being members of a guild. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Quattrocento (1400s. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. etc. Then. on July 22. ciompi. who were raised to the status of a guild. the wool carder Michele di Lando. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. They were forbidden to form a trade association. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. The new government. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. including the ciompi. In reaction to this revolutionary . the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Their economic condition worsened. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. placing one of their members. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. beaters. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. as also were those in the associated. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds.and post-medieval Italy. but self-employed. craft of dyeing. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. High Renaissance).

Concepts of the classical. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. editing and translating a wide range of texts. writers. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.) An ancient musical instrument. except in cases where . in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. clair-obscur (Fr. philosophy and art . cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). philosophy. with Italian scholars. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. resembling a lyre. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). and politics. however. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. on which strings were plucked. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). In the 15th century Greek literature. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.episode. . The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. scholars patiently finding. cithara (Gk.as in Italy these were dispensed with. the black contours usually with a special line plate. the ciompi guild was abolished. changed greatly from one period to the next. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. literature.

when set side by side. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. blue and orange. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. cognoscente (It. Coffered ceilings. condottiere. pl. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. a work's underlying theme. those with refined tastes. intensify one another. occasionally made of wood. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. [hora] completa. the church service at which these prayers are said. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. literature or music. sing.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. arch or ceiling. concetti (It. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. or "contract. cognoscenti. concetto. condottieri (It. compline (Lat. pl. terrorized the country. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Green and red. as well as from the Bible. The name was derived from the condotta. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. .

and his rival Braccio da Montone. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. or with the spiritual assistance of. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St.devastating Romagna. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. primarily for syphilitics. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Carmagnola. often called compagnie or. Toward the end of the 15th century. convents of convertite.e. By the 16th century. disappeared. confraternities Confraternities. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. Muzio's son. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. often under the direction of. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. commonly called either Compagnia di S. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Spanish. Umbria. By the end of the 14th century. clergy. in the service of Naples. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. Martino). . Francesco Sforza. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. in Venice. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. and German--the condottieri. and Tuscany. which spread in the 15th century. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'.e. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. who won control of Milan in 1450. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. scuole. i. in the service of Perugia. flagellant confraternities. Mark (1432). i. With no goal beyond personal gain. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260.

in Florence. and refuges for maidens. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. while the Venetian government. contrapposto (It. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. however. Confraternities. contour. e. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Dorotea in Trastevere. contours were initially regular. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. In medieval painting. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Later. notwithstanding their location.i. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. e. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .e. flat outlines. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. contour (Fr. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. reformed prostitutes. founded c.g. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the Florentine Neri. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. 1514 in S. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. but sometimes had their own premises. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. While the Doge ranked above the Council. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order.g.

declining moral standards. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. They are often ornamented. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. conventicle (Lat. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration.weight on one leg. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. 1100 and 1300. did not achieve any lasting results. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. an engraving produced in this way. The style spread as far as England. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. a bracket of stone. Lat. started the process of inner reform in the Church. corbel In architecture. 1280). Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. large cornice or other feature. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. . Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). whose names are inscribed on several works. conventiculurn. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. aes cyprium. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. cuprum. Reform programs. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch.

the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. the condemned man. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. i. cupula. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. particularly among the Persians. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. D dado . due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Usually. the most famous victim of crucifixion. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. An ancestor of the oboe. after being whipped. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Seleucids. Jews. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Carthaginians. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. There were various methods of performing the execution. cupola (Lat. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. a semi-circular vault. reedy sound. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Death. "small vat") In architecture. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club.e. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Next. Constantine the Great." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. the first Christian emperor. or "scourged. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. a small dome. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure.

and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. diptychum. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. which was help to be the basis of all art. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. e. Deësis (Gk.g. an expressive use of nature. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. often an altarpiece. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Gk. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . danse macabre The dance of death. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. usually in matching pairs. a favorite late medieval picture subject. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. diptychos. Germany. diakonos. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. deacon (Gk.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "drawing. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. diptych (Lat. design") In Renaissance art theory. disegno (It. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Anglican and Orthodox churches. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Passau. but the concept behind an art work. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. decorated diffrently from the upper section.

their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. The studio easel. distemper (Lat. donator. which runs on castors or wheels. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Ordo Praedictatorum. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. As disegno appeals to the intellect. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. such as we still use today. formerly worn under armour.Thomas Aquinas. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. is a heavy piece of furniture. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. "to mix. doublet A male garment. dome in architecture. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. when painters took to working out of doors. a 19th-century invention. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes.fully realize. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. usually forming a ceiling or roof. distemperare. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). donor (Lat. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . also used it on canvas. Dominicans (Lat. though a few artists.

engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. fresco. sculpture. epitaph (Gk. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. en face In portraiture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. eschaton. and architecture. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. and logos. and the cornice. the frieze. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. entablature In classical architecture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. a depiction of Jesus. John (19. ensemble (Fr. sometimes combining panel painting. Hence. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. in art. full face. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "last". Ecce Homo (Lat. "word") . eschatology (Gk. It consists of the architrave. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. bound and flogged. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe.

particularly ware made in France. which is called "delftware. and is named for Faenza. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. which was famous for maiolica." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Germany. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Saints Ambrose. Marcantonio Flaminio. notably Cardinal Pole. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and of the last things. Italy. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. . the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. which was developed in the Near East ca. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Eucharist (Gk." and charis. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Contarini. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Augustine.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Equated with the Greek god Pan. eu. "good. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. and Scandinavia." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Jerome. which is called "maiolica. celebrated with bread and wine.death and resurrection. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. 4500 BCE. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. farmers. fields and livestock. protector of shepherds. Vittoria Colonna. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Spain. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Giovanni Morone.

Committed to charitable and missionary work. fluted of a column or pillar. and flowers suspended in a loop. a technique known as a secco fresco. black and dun.8). Only a small area can be painted in a day. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. can in time be seen. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. 2 . famine and death. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. fresco (It. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. sword and set of balances. relaxed. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Their attributes are the bow. that of the others red. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. and these areas. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. drying to a slightly different tint. leaves.festoni (It. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. The colour of his horse is white. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. such as plague. a swag. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. frescos in Italy . war. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful.

The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). covings and ceilings.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Final details. a person's invisible tutelary god. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The technique of buon fresco. for example. or fresco secco. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. are genres of painting.Save in Venice. In art from the classical period onwards. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. or true fresco. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. both in churches and in private and public palaces. landscape and portraiture. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. the intonaco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. genre In a broad sense. usually childish figure. Genius in classical Rome. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . It was founded by Edward III in 1348. where the atmosphere was too damp. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster.

in portraits and on tombs. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. As such. Bernardo Daddi. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. whether it must be connected with the public good. how it differed from notoriety. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and as spurring on men of action.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. as well as writers and artists. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Gobelins . whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Maria Gloriosa). but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Maso di Banco.

The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. and although it reopened in 1699. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. . This ratio is approximately 8:13. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). who appointed Lebrun Director. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Paris. golden section (Lat. still in existence today. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). In other Italian cities. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. thereafter it made only tapestries. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia.French tapestry manufactory. Golden Fleece. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building.

and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. In sculpture and in painting. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. 1200 and c. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. the superficial particularities of form. In particular. like the cultural and commercial. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. . and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. There is a transcendental quality. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Amiens. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. 1270. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. and lies much deeper than. painting. from the 13th until the 17th century. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. c. In thinking of Nicola (d. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style').The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. that the effects are to be felt. painting. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. or the influence of one building. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Gothic Gothic. Nevertheless. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. The artistic. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Denis.

Canaletto. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Dubuffet. to silk. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and the great style. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. the Netherlands. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. occasionally. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. . The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). There was also a flourishing market in guide books. if required. These qualities. It is thinned with water for applying. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy.and hog-hair brushes. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Honey. Such tours often took a year or more. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. are but different appellations of the same thing'. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Pannini. without visible brush marks. notably in the writings of Bellori. and taste among the English. and Piranesi. to white or tinted paper and card and. the beau idéal of the French.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. and Morris Graves. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. genius. and above all Italy. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. chiefly to France. starch. with sable. Klee.

1216. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. after this. including text as well as illustrations. and Waiblingen. to Provence and Paris. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. drawing and the various forms of engraving. through central Italy. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. however. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. however. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. gris. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. usually gray. exclude drawing from this definition. became an abiding feature of European politics. From 1266 to 1268. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. c. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. the parties taking a multitude of local names. then as now. internal factions in Florence went under other names. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. In Florence. which had recruited most of the merchant class. In another sense. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. After the War of the Eight Saints. grisaille (Fr. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. . when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. In the context of the fine arts.e. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Some writers. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. brother of Louis IX.

" from Fr. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The guilds were not equal. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In 16th century Venice. print or painting. In Florence. and greater hostility between master and man. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. H hatching In a drawing. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. surgeons. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. In Italy they go back a long way.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. heraldry (Fr. notably Florence in the 14th century. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. héraut. as some did). Guilds were also patrons of art. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. "[knowledge of] heraldry. goldsmiths. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In some towns. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In some cities. "herald") . a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. trade or profession (painters. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. or professions. but in time they acquired other functions. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. The guild also monitored standards of work. trades. for example. such as Brescia and Vicenza. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. [science] héraldique. and provided assistance to members in need.

The main impact of the . indeed. the followers of Juan de Valdes. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. However. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. normative for churchmen. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. as Antichrist. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. head of the 'carnal Church'. from the start. with the rules governing their use. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. the Waldensian. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. and regarded themselves as forming. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. d. they were condemned in 1184. By contrast. while others merged with the Waldensians. the Cathars were an anti-church. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. i. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. together with brethren north of the Alps. one great missionary community. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy).the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement.

and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. and classical literature. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. hortus conclusus (Lat. J. F. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Henry Inman. the emancipation of man from God took place. humanus. Kensett. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Durand. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. and. American painters were studying in Rome. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. In humanism. At the same time. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Morse. Germany. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Frederick E. George Inness. F. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. its subjects considered morally elevating. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. S. Church. mainly in the south. B. Jasper Cropsey. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. history (usually classical history). in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). my spouse'. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. humanism (Lat. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth.movement upon the laity was in southern France. in his earlier work. working from 1825 to 1875. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Thomas Cole.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

trecento rococo and lyrical style. etc. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. or of other saints. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. usually the donors of a work of art. are also used in art literature. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. For instance. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the ability to create. beautiful style. Derived from classical rhetoric. the scourge that was used in the scourging. and the ladder. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. and they are also depicted on their own. with many further details added. Veronica. the hammer. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. invention. the pincers. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the rooster of Peter's denial. investiture . the veil of St. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Human figures. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.g. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. The terms court style. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. inventio (It. soft style. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Donatallo. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. originality. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. In the second half of the 14th century. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts.

Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. bathed in a golden haze. Italianizers Northern artists. Andries and Jan Both. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. of Utrecht. Both and Berchem. generally Dutch or Flemish. and Jan Asselijn. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Upon his return to Holland. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jerome's writings. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. although they are usually called Romanists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. The Both brothers. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. who traveled in Italy and. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. principally Dutch. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. . Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.

As their military role grew. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. liberal arts . In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). especially one at which the Bible is read. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. the rite of communion is based on this. lectern A reading stand or desk. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.as the Friars of the Hospital of St.1519). encouraged by the Crusades. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. John of Jerusalem .K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Archbishop of Genoa. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Legenda Aurea (Lat.

loggia (It. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. comprising arithmetic. rhetoric and dialectic.g. together with identifying attributes (e. John F. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. . that may contain a window. a semicircular space. commemorating a marriage. painting or sculptural decoration. through the use of aerial perspective. often standing in markets and town squares. its roof supported by columns. poetic atmosphere. Martin J. then the basis of a philosophical training. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.grammar.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. "little moon") In architecture. and Frederick E. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure.g. geometry. Tubal for music). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. the quadrivium. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). often sublime. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Maria Novella in Florence). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. that could be used for public ceremonies. lunette (Fr. Kensett (1816-1872). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. It is related to. Heade (1819-1904).) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. first the preparatory trivium . astronomy and music. Church (1826-1900). characterized by effects of light in landscapes.

and however bright their lighting effects. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. "great mother") A mother goddess. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. Specifically. and portraits as well as landscapes. antimony yellow. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. particularly such ware produced in Italy. historical subjects. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). for example. active mainly in Florence c. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. and iron red. "almond") . Silvestro Lega (1826–95). being written. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and accompaniments. originating in Italy in the 14th century. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. 1855–65. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. but they painted genre scenes. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. manganese purple. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. copper green. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. mandorla (It. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. madrigal A part song. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. the goddess Cybele. When white is used for painting. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. magna mater (Lat. originally sung without accompaniment. usually for the lute.

but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. strong. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. sometimes harsh or discordant colors.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. which was quarried at Mount . It reached to the knee or foot. the Codex manuscriptus. In Mannerist painting. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. more strictly. Mannerism (It. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. marked by flagellation. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. often ornamented with decorative borders. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. depending on the social class of the wearer. Developing out of the Renaissance. Burgundy. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. illuminated initials and miniatures. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. and crowned with thorns. Parmigianino. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and literary texts. worn open. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. "manner. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. the hand-written medieval book. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. complex and crowded compositions. Flanders. bound. ecclesiastical. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Bronzino. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. maniera. in a specific sense. El Greco and Tintoretto. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. mantle An overcoat. In architecture.

The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. medallion In architecture. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Carrara. The pure white Carrara marble. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. which were beginning to be reverently collected. a different design on the reverse. proof") the sufferings. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Without monetary value. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. "witness. martyrdom (Gk. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Like the finest Imperial coins. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. an inscription running round the rim.Pentelicon in Attica. martyrion. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). having finished his training. sleek surface. marmi finti (It. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. particularly by Michelangelo. quarried at Massa. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman.

1425-1504). mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Ludwig von Siegen. perhaps oddly. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. 1452-1526/27).round the neck. This yields a soft effect in the print. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. even grain. particularly. It was. no line drawing is employed. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. in England. 14601528). Her head features on Minerva's shield. a Gorgon. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. and of the many. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. for landscapes and portraits. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. often anonymous. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. c. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. who reflected them. the stress on individual character. supposedly to petrify her enemies. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. 1467-688). When Perseus cuts off her head. In pure mezzotint. 1640. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. The work of these men. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. c. Medusa In Greek mythology. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. . A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. A Dutch officer. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. of the person portrayed on the other side. The process is essentially extinct today. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. as it were.

g. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. usually portraits. Many such small versions. Francis himself. pointed headdress worn by bishops. "word. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. "one color") Painted in a single color. monokhromatos. painting in gouache on vellum or card. e. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. executed on a very small scale. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. motto (Ital. often quite highly finished. a painting executed in a single color. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. ink and paint. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. Parmigianino (d. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. miter A high. saying") . still exist. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. monochrome (Gk. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. a branch of the Franciscan order. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church.

They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages.from the Middle Ages. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. In general. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. often separated from it by pillars. 1817-29). nave (from Lat. Nazarenes A group of young. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and two other members moved to Rome. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. It may have parallel aisles on each side. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Isidore. The invention of personal mottos. naturalism (Fr. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). but often insipid. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. and Casino Massimo. Rome. 1816-17. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Berlin. navis. named after the patron saint of painting. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. In 1810 0verbeck. . as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. Pforr. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and is intersected by the transept.

placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. nigellus. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Nymphaeum (Gk. the style of the Ancien Régime. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825).) . nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). were usually old when elected.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. nimbus (Lat. niello (Lat. but their ideas continued to be influential. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. moreover. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. usually golden. Popes. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. "aureole") The disc or halo. is as true as it is notorious. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum.

and its greater tonal range. O obsequies (Lat. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The earliest. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. the Doric order. observances") Rites performed for the dead. its richness of colour. Greek goddesses of Nature. prayer and preaching being central to their mission.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. They are seen in the form of the columns. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. walnut. capital. fluted column and a plain capital. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. inborn sin. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. obsequia. was the simplest. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). a small private chapel. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. the three basic styles of design. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. orders of architecture In classical architecture. "services. a more elaborate base. such as linseed. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. or poppy. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. . and entablatures. with a sturdy.

palazzo (It. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. like cities. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. standing at the foot of the Cross. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. tradition and social structure. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. with biforate windows. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. Palazzo Strozzi). Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.g. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). the Cancelleria). P pala (Ital. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. while shops came to be thought undignified. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. designed as a . The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. and the main apartments above. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. and. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion.

The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Palazzo Massimi). cornices and abutments. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Rich. behind a sober Florentine façade. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. and large households. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings.scholarly retreat. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". like Genoa. and Palladio's in Vicenza. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. palmette. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. In Venice. originally evolved in response to specific conditions.g. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice.g. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. evolved influential types. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Papal incentives to build. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Movement of patrons and architects. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. panel . meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Other cities. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. Following Oriental patterns. came to be applied all over Europe. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. often built next to their titular churches. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). column-caps. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. like the colonnaded vestibule. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. e. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. especially after the Sack of Rome. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions.

As successors to St Peter. To maintain their authority. The third aspect was administrative. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. or the incidence of taxation.Term in painting for a support of wood. the. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and modern painters have also used plywood. In the 20th century cedar. enforce law and order. to influence popes in their favour. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. linden. and the pressure and temptations . fir. larch. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Many other types were used. and dark walnut are favourites. A number of matters. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. mahogany. or other rigid substance. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Having a circular plan. Then. chestnut. teak. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. fibre-board. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. olive.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. cedar. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. On a larger scale. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. as distinct from canvas. secular rulers. as it were. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. including beech. however. and walnut. and spanned by a single dome. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. metal. and other synthetic materials as supports. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. slate has occasionally been used as a support. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. so that they might have a voice at court. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law.

This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle.as well. There remained. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). the most appropriate . Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. however. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. however. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. So onerous. in the eyes of God. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). of individuals. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . was long in doubt. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. as such. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. As at Avignon.that could be applied to them. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. which met at Constance 1414-18. By then. from the point of view of its religious associations. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. Colonna and Caetani. if it did no serious damage to the faith. which seems so inevitable. to be long delayed. could supersede that of a pope. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. however. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. would. at Avignon. in spite of further absences from Rome. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. To resolve the problem of divided authority. It was argued that such a council. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. possess an authority which. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power.

by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. nymphs.. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. goat. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). through lavish patronage of artists. pastoral (Lat. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. in classical literature. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. Passion . and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. However. less frequently pig. Parrhasius (c. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. scholars and men of letters. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. to a world peopled by shepherds. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. the creation of a cultural capital. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. pastor. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. it has also been used for painting. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. and other animals. 400-300 BC). hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). as well as a governmental one. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. and satyrs. and with Zeuxis (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c.

ornamental building. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Portrayals of the Passion. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. such as a garden summerhouse. wealthy citizen. patricius. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Meanwhile.) or pasticcio (It. a small. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. papilio.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Francesco Salviati. "butterfly. 1478. hence tent") A lightly constructed. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. . whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and also the archbishop of Pisa. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. pavilion (Lat. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.The events leading up to Good Friday. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. projecting either centrally or at both ends. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. but not necessarily a direct copy. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. 1478). patrician (Lat. the crown of thorns. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. a region in north-central Italy. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. which focus on the Suffering Christ. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pastiche (fr. and so on.

who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. perspicere. or related elements within an art work. "hanging. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. concept or deity. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "nature". pergola (It. "to see through. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. in particular the face. and facere. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. physis. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. persona. . But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century).The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. personification (Lat. perspective (Lat. pendant (Fr. and gnomon. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. physiognomy (Gk. "person". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface.

pigmentum. or resin to make paint. remarkable for singularity. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. but may consist of a cluster of columns. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Peter's. proper to take a landscape from. both real and painted. to be expressed in painting. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. usually above the ground floor. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. affording a good subject for a landscape. A pier is generally larger than a column.piano nobile (Ital. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Pietà (Lat. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. for example. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Rome. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. striking the imagination with the force of painting. glue. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. pigment (Lat. containing the public rooms. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. curious details. . Developing in Germany in the 14th century. but full of variety. exemplified.) The main floor of a building.

in October 1347. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . despite regional variations. more sporadic outbreaks. moreover. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. it is difficult to find. though in less widespread. a shaft. and thereafter all Europe. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. During 1348 the Black Death. however. plague Plague. perhaps. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. "pillar") A flat. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. such as Florence and Genoa. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. also used in Spain's American colonies. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Thenceforward. since. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. In the 15th century.pilaster (Lat. for instance. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. It is often fluted. Rocco and Sebastian. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. and capital. pilastrum. outside Tuscany. It seems probable. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. For this reason. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. it has a base.

The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. which lasted only a few decades. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Phaedo. or appropriateness.e. composition. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. The first phase. or simply the Plateresque. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Diego evolved a purer. like its successor. The first phase. i. more severe. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Philebus. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). harmonious. Theatetus and the Laws. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). lasted from about 1525 to 1560. the Renaissance-Plateresque. correct classical orders became frequent. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. placement. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Phaedrus. The second phase. A student of Socrates. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). and unified style using massive geometric forms. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. heraldic escutcheons. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Timaeus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. In contrast with Aristotle. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. utilized Mudejar ornament -. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. and sinuous scrolls. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. the Symposium. are the masterworks of the second style. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases..

and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and Agostino Steuco (c. replaced Ficino's. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion.1577) becoming particularly popular. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c.in Plato's thought. Iamblichus. near Florence. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. systematized and added to what Plato had done. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. A new Latin translation. the greatest of his ancient disciples. but not completely. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Plotinus. 1472-c. including those of Plotinus. and he utilized many other writings. Rather unsystematic. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. partially. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. all of which he also translated into Latin. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Unlike the case of Aristotle. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition.

Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. or statue. porticus. where a pectoral is used to close it. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. poluptukhos. Frequently supports a pediment. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Lat. column. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. such as processions and consecrations. pluvial (Med. as in classical architecture). Plato was read in the universities. portico (Lat. pointed arch In architecture. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. plinthos. pluviale. polyptych (Gk. plinth (Gk.

Siena. National Gallery). Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. the Carracci. Florence. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Maria Novella.. The realism of the clear. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. flattened image. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Group portraits. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. and only a decorative accessory to form. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Florence (1486-90). Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. 1328. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo Farnese). Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. decorating whole rooms. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. The equestrian portrait. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature.e. Colleoni. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Mantua. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. psychologically more complex. and the .sculptors such as Donatello. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Venice). painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Gattarnelata. Campidoglio). Desiderio da Settignano. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. inessential. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Cathedral) by Uccello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. was revived in the 14th century. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799.

Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Fiamma's sermons." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. to discharge their preaching duties. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. bishop of Chioggia. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. from the secular clergy. Charles Le Brun. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The sermons of Visdomini. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. minatory exhortations. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Correggio. not least those of statesmen and prelates. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Savonarola and Musso. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Borromeo. was versed in classical and patristic . sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. primarily the mendicants. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. several of whom became bishops. however. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. and Peter Paul Rubens." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. and. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. abrasive even. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. who had as their ideal masters Titian. The styles of S. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. 1494). bishop of Asti. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). bishops especially. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. of the sermon as an art form. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. together with the Dominican Savonarola. are not florid in style.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists.

central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. though often relatively very wide . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Louis of Toulouse (1317. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Because of the small size of predelle . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. however. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. tapestries. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. The New Testament references in these would. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets).the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament .rhetoric.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. predella (It. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Naples). In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. among them Holman Hunt.g. prefiguration Typology . The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Millais and Rossetti. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. and so forth. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.

so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). "evenness") in painting. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the golden section. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. which uses the square . Fragonard. proportion (Lat. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. 2. intended as complete works of art in themselves. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. the quadrature. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. these highly finished drawings. 3. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The following are important: 1. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. sculpture and architecture. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. the Canon of Proportion. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. and Houdon among sculptors. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. Girardon. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. proportio. notably David. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. again indicative of the purpose they served. profil perdu (Fr. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. Prix de Rome A scholarship.

putti sing. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. the steward or treasurer of a church. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. putto (It. Ignazio. and 5. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. 4. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy.as a unit of measurement. a fourth = 3:4. provenance The origins of an art work. triangulation. It was common in Roman art. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. . provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. a fifth = 2:3. one half the length of the other). in whose celebrated ceiling in S. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). for example). "boys") Plump naked little boys. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Unlike Pozzo. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Rome. harmonic proportions.

denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. canons regular. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. basso rilievo). "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relief (Lat.Quattrocento (It. in which figures are almost detached from their background. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Fra Angelico and others. relevare. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. or some item connected with a saint. Botticelli. e. friars and nuns. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. in which figures are seen half round. Lat. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. In 16th century Europe. Donatello. in particular works by Masaccio. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. refectory (Med. relicquiae. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. and high relief (alto rilievo). Among the . It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. or the Jesuits. the object of particular veneration. the great orders of monks. relic (Lat.g. also known as the Realist school. hermits. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Brunelleschi.

A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Bernardino of Siena. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Lucca. i. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. In 1504. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. In 1517. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches.e. After the repression of the Spirituals. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. 1012. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Benedetto. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. however. and the generally moderate Observants. who had no overall organization originally. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. which was to become the main Italian one. although technically of secular canons. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. the Conventuals. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Salvatore. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Mantua. The Silvestrines. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. At the same time. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. and their more institutionalized brethren. various groups were fused in the latter body. Founded by St Romuald c. Venice (1404). Maria di Fregonaia. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Bologna (1419). there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Giorgio in Alga. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. it became the Cassinese congregation. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. Padua. the most notable being S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The same bull . The Benedictines. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. the great patriarch of Venice. S. That of S. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit.contemplative orders. was the congregation of S. Giustina. The Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. presided over by chapters general.

Gerolamo Aemiliani. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Angela Merici. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. however. Gaetano da Thiene. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. founded by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The first. however. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Michele in Isola. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded in 1535 by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. a historical period. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Venice. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Filippo Neri. also. the Theatines. S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule.

Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. life. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. as well as political. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. All-Roundness. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. For long. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of 'darkness'. . Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. even Amoralism. too long forgotten glories. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. however. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. which had begun early in the 14th century. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts.century. of an energetic revival of interest in. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. of scholarship. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. however. was so vast and potent. 1875-86). of letters. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Thereafter. increasingly. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. because its core of energy. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. the historical reality of antiquity. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. and his own as potentially one of light. of arts. and competition with. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster.

Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . and is decorated with paintings. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Though thus challenged. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. let alone a uniform. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. statues.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. (3) There is not a true.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. and mass media. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and.) was the term chosen. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. consist merely of a painting. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.with all its shabbiness . The panel is usually made of wood or stone. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. and other liturgical objects. however. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. letters. candlesticks. especially in the High Gothic period. mobilized nationalism. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. though sometimes of metal. in the more limited sense. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. congruence between. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Cathedral of SaintBavon. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. The challenges are to be accepted. Ghent). gratefully. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.erased. later still to Genoa. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. of industrialization. sometimes. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. etc. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. It is for this additional. There was an early. etc. the previous record . retables can be detached and.

and architecture dominating the 18th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. More usually. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. its mood lighthearted and witry. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. however. richly decorated with organic forms. retables have become extinct. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. . the St. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. Rococo A style of design. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. "relief") In painting. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Italy. is a typical product. almost simultaneously. Originally commissioned in 976. literally. Romanesque art.in the 11th century. As the name suggests. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. like 'Gothic'. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200.France. in several countries . With the development of freestanding altars. and 'Romanesque'. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). rocaille (French. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. painting. Louis XV furniture.of St Mark in Venice. Germany. rilievo (It. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Spain . it indicates a derivation from Roman art.

and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Pannini and Mengs. they maintained. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rome. Claude. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Mabuse. B. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. such as red ochre. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Piranesi. van Heemskerk. Massys and M. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. stylized design representing an open rose. The aim of painting.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Q. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. M. . The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Orley. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. In addition.

pious legend and hagiography. There were no limits on time. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Many compositions were anonymous. supported by lay confraternities. local saints. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. from the Old and New Testaments. In the .greatly increased. when it finally left the city it had devastated. and impoverished. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. glance and movement . the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. penance. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. and Lorenzo de' Medici. gutted. and anointing of the sick. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Clement escaped into Castel S. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. but others were the work of well-known figures. multiple sets used in succession. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. confirmation. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). whose Rappresentazione dei SS. holy orders. Orthodox. the Eucharist. Eastern independent. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Sacra Conversazione (It. Subjects were nominally sacred. and Protestant churches. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. matrimony. Written primarily in ottava rima.expressed through gesture. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints.

was not maintained as a sacrament. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. strictly speaking. Immediately following baptism. the Bentivoglio. chapter 13. foot washing. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church." which are called sacramentals. the symbolic direction of Christ. Thus. It is still practiced on special occasions.i. and then face east. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12.) Hall. large room. used for drawing. The classical Protestant churches (i. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. as an excuse to revolt. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Saracens . the Rocca Paolina. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . Anglican. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. They were still seeking aid. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist.. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors." sala (Ital. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. sacraments. which in the Gospel According to John. baptism and the Eucharist. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.early church the number of sacraments varied. was buried under a new fortress. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. replaces the Lord's Supper. Lutheran.e. The chief focus of discontent. that the price of salt should be increased. and sacraments. the Orthodox Church does not. make such strict distinctions. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. notably from Florence and in Germany.e. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. The theology of the Orthodox Church.. Salt War. Candidates first face west. the sun of righteousness. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Hence. in principle. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions.

wood or terracotta. legs and horns of a goat. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible.During the Middle Ages. human-like woodland deities with the ears.c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). made of stone. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . are lost. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 210 AD). satyr In Greek mythology. and many others. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. sarcophagi (Gk. 45 BC). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. pl. the god of wine. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. 160 . 360 . Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. 270 BC). the Arabs or Muslims. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. The publication of Latin (1562. whose writings. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Little known in the Middle Ages. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. sarcophagus. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition.

causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. 1386) and his son Ladislas. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. was called Bamboccio.for example Pieter van Laer. while England. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. with France and her allies Aragon. one of the early leaders. Alexander V. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). the Florentines. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. for. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. on the other. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who recognized the Roman pope. while devout Christians agonized. Schism. As a result. than their medieval predecessors. and. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope.they had individual Bentnames . the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. from time to time both he and his opponents. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Louis I (d. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. in June 1409. being Frenchmen. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. who had the support of the Avignon pope. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. However. but with little effect. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. In northern Italy. most of whom. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. scholasticism . on one side. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense.

secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Often called the burning ones. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). rather than wet plaster as in fresco. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. and Islamic literature. as it is easier to add details in this way. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. As such. on one side. because the secco technique is much less permanent.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. It was because the central concerns of humanism . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. textual scholarship. moreover.moral philosophy. Serenissima (Ital. Padua. the plaster had to be damped before painting. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. and theology. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. as it were. that scholasticism was left. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. university-based study. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.were different from those of medieval. (See also: fresco. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. None the less. if lime-water was used. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy.) . 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. Medieval scholars.The term is ambivalent. history and rhetoric . Christian. notably Aquinas.

Lat. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. an expression of Venetian self-confidence.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. They first appear in alpine monasteries. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. brass. sinopia . In Christian legend. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.. sfumato A technique. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Originally. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. the number gradually rose to ten. and the delicate. "the most serene republic of Venice"). at the same time. usually presided over by individual families. term. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. there was only one Sibyl. sibylla. which were all identical in thickness. women who could prophesy. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Med. in use since the Middle Ages. sibyls (Gk. Servite (Lat. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. Signoria (It. in the period of classical antiquity. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. "prophetess") In antiquity. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Sibyls foretold the Birth.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia.

One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Francis of Assisi.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. especially in the flow of drapery. staffage This word. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. . brand. Stanze (Ital. stigma (Gk. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. in other words. It is very closely related to International Gothic. Ital. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. soffit (Lat.) Wooden ceiling decoration. "mark. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. pronounced as French. and.. sing. sotto in sù (It. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. the red chalk used to make such a drawing.'Beautiful Madonnas'. stigmata. as the name implies. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening.

whose verses actually fabrications . In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). John Milton. studioli (It. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. supremacy . pl. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The vogue for the Sublime. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. with that for the Picturesque.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. Indeed. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. In a looser sense. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). both external and internal. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. studiolo. stucco A type of light. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).

were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. temperare. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. both for panel painting and fresco. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.e. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. 1407). "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . was being decorated with frescoes. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. These were imported. doubtless. Salviati and Allori.and. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. chiefly from Flanders. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. The subject is underexplored. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. . into Italy. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. or cartoons. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. i. tempera (Lat. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. then being replaced by oil paint. But the Italians did not make them. and in literature. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass.Historically. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. his own headquarters. London. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.

and other surfaces. model. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. quarter face. and later to subdivide gable ends. tondo. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. theme or motif. widely used form. pl. topiary (Gk. topia. tondi (It. vessels. pl.e. and sculptures. in the architecture of ancient Rome. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. and profile. walls. in art. figure of speech. topos. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. topoi (Gk. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "fields. triumphal arch.terracotta (It. terraferma (Ital. i. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. Trajan's Column . In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "a commonplace") In literature.

of both sexes'. triptych (Gk. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete.' Before it go the apostles. chastity. beside it the army of martyrs. or wings. after 'a countless number of virgins. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. "threefold") in Christianity. usually an altarpiece. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. Meanwhile.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. death. as it were. the Son and the Holy Spirit. patriarchs and prophets. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. the military triumph became sublimated. trinitas. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Battista Sforza. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. the wars by which they were won . The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. of virtues and of the arts. "threefold") A painting in three sections. time and eternity. added to the glamour of the triumph. fame. Trinity (Lat. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. behind it. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. Disseminated soon after his death. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. tryptychos. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. Early triptychs were often portable. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. . into a number of less controversial forms. a car so brave'. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself.

Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tympanum (Lat. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. enclosed by an arch. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. In medieval architecture.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. viscous black ink. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tusche A thick. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. often decorated with sculptures. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. first recorded in 1232. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. it is usually decorated with carvings. typology . The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). through various naturalistic devices. Dating from classical times. "drum") In classical architecture. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance.

1610). lanterns. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. slayer of Goliath. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. knew his former patrons. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. each had access to his paintings. where they were most accessible. such as five works devoted to the senses.Dirck van Baburen (c. especially his half-length figural groups. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. U uomo universale (It.A system of classification. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.) The Renaissance "universal man". 1590-1624). The numerous candles. and David. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Judith. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). e. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.g. killer of Holofernes. were popular with them also. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). . and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. In Christian thought. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.

Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. carriages. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. often gold. V vanishing point In perspective. and the rib vault. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. the groin vault. overturned vessels. and even flowers (which will soon fade). vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. a work's richness of subject matter. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. it was used to decorate furniture. Parisian craftsmen. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. vesper. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. vanitas (Lat. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. There are a wide range of forms.). "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. Vespers (Lat. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. guttering candles. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. snuff boxes and other objects. hour-glasses and clocks. "evening") . varietà (It. mixed in. Also varietas (Lat. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch.

"forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Fortitude. Covetousness. Vestibule (Lat. In ancient Roman dwellings. vestibulum. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Gluttony. vimperga Of German origin. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Lust. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. actual or latent. Prudence. "life") . vita. Anger. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. in which the word signifies efficacy. "not exposed to winds". The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vite (Lat. Hope. pl. for example. Temperance. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. the church service at which these prayers are said. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art.Prayers said in the evening. and Sloth. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). virtù could be used. if you have it not'. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Charity. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. 'Assume a virtue. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Envy. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. and Justice.

those of Volterera. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. published in 1550 and 1568. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and of Ferrara. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. in fact. 1472.An account of someone's life and work. a biography. protection from harm. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. 1482-84). fall into a different category from those that preceded them. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. they were from the 18th century . whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Sculptors and Architects"). Vitruvius Pollio. usually when a prayer for good fortune. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Marcus (1st cent. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. and appalled recognition of.g. or recovery from illness has been made. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. The wars from 1494 do. 1478-80. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. usually restorers. a philosophy of life.Weltanschauung (Gr. treasury or a place where justice was administered. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. gallery. Westwerk German word. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. pompous on the floor above. during its subsequent history. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. It was intended to have a variety of functions. "Western work of art". "world view") A comprehensive world view. . Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. based on stylization of various animal forms. woodcut A print made from a wood block. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. usually linear.