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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Degas. Lancet and Tudor. The term applies also to a print made by this method. architectonic (Gk. . but in essence the process is as follows. In Greek and Roman literature. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. design. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. arcus. architrave (It. "architectural") Relating to structure. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). There are several variants of the technique. The adjective is apsidal. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines.e. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. arcade (Lat. roofed with a half-dome. the lowest part of the entablature). arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). including Goya. the darker the tone).A semicircular projection. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. and Rouault. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. at the east end of a church behind the altar. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. or organization. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Also known as an exedra. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arkhitektonikos. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. piers or pillars. Picasso. which is fused to the plate by heating. the moulding around a window or door. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral.
drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.and the Comedy . attribute (Lat. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. archeiu. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. dominate. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . In the case of martyrs. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. attributum. aureolus. Ars Moriendi (Lat.archivolt (Ital.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "the art of dying well") a small book on death. "front arch. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. usually a saint. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "begin. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death." and Lat. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. archivolto." from Gk. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. Dante's Vita nuova . voltus. aureole (Lat. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "golden.
B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. baldachin. Later. The actual move was made in 1309. paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. or baldacchino (It. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. often anecdotal. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Six pontificates later. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. in 1377. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. applied to the physically .while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. 'Captivity'. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. the god of wine and fertility. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. that of Cardano. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. who had been residing in France since 1305.
whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. and abject filthy things.. or forecourt. beggars in rags. and Poitiers. Baalbek. and Nocera in Italy. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. France. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. AD 300). circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. a church. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Spalato [Split. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. banderole (It. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. the Temple of Venus. Alg.g. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. . of the church and were often large and richly decorated. set beneath a domical ciborium. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. seven. AD 273." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade.. a visual metaphor for the number eight. el Kantara. Florence. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. and Epiphany. Croatia]. built by Sixtus III. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Parma. Lebanon. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. banderuola. such as those at Pisa. or canopy. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Easter. pope between 432 and 440. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Customarily. Pentecost. or connected with. As eight follows the "complete" number.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning.
and thus a church. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1811-1889). achieved through scale. in the 1840s and 1850s. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. and (3) everyday realism. 1810-1865). Jean-François Millet (French. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. baptisteries. Théodore Rousseau (French. . barocco. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Constant Troyon (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. usually facing east. 1796-1875). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. stoa basilike. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. however. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. 1817-1878). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). southeast of Paris. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Rubens). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Vermeer). Baroque (Port. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Originally. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. 1807-1876). 1814-1875).an allusion to entering the Christian life. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. were often omitted entirely. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Jules Dupré (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. which is reserved for the clergy. basilica (Gk. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. something of earlier symbolism survives. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. or baptismal chapels. "king's hall") a church building.In the 10th century. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Also tunnel vault. In architecture. in its usual location near the church door .
often with food and drink. as is to be expected. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. Bodegónes. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. also incorrectly called bisque. however. in which still-life predominates. There were. Book of Hours . As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Spanish still-lifes. which is either not yet glazed. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Biscuit porcelain. bodegón Image. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. By association.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. like their Dutch counterparts. such as Waldmüller. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. 1650 in Spain. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. up until the mid-17th century. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. or which is to be left as it is. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). were referred to by their specific contents. domesticity. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. The term was mainly used up to c.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. particularly porcelain. especially Spanish. and often sentimentality.
months. . coppery red. varying from silverish to a rich. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and the fact that it is easily workable . containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. but can also be used for painted sketches. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . Chantilly). The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. though these are more often called 'modelli'. days of the week. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. made as a study for a larger picture.by a variety of processes. bozzetto Strictly speaking. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.an advantage over marble sculpture. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. durability. or seasons. a rapid sketch in oil. See flying buttress.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.both hot and cold . bozzetto(Italian. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. By extension. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.
an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. box") In architecture. which was often allegorical. ceramics. cameo Small relief made from gems. notable from Syria and Egypt. mosaics. Duccio. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. camera obscura . Among its most distinctive products were icons. caisson (Fr. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). "a chest. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. its forms highly stylized. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. casson. private room where works of art. C cabinet A small. It also served to glorify the emperor.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. and work in precious metals. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. manuscript illuminations. and Giotto. glass. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Based largely on Roman and Greek art.
"candle") A large. which isolates the fabric from the paint. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. cantorie (It. other materials used are cotton. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. hemp. capitellum. candelabra. ." and the earliest versions.) A gallery for singers or musicians. usually with several branches or arms. The Latin name means "dark chamber.Ancestor of the photographic camera. dating to antiquity. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. and jute. sing. pl. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. followed by smaller and even pocket models. only very rough effects will be obtainable. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. usually built beside or attached to a church. which was usually whitened. candelabrum (It. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. candlestick. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. campanile Bell tower.-N. Niepce created photography. usually in a church. both of which have richly carved marble panels. usually decorated. candela. as an aid to drawing. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. cantoria. Structurally. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. by the 16th century. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. capital (Lat. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. Portable versions were built. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. otherwise it will absorb too much paint.
the date of the painting. the Carmelites were originally hermits. At the height of the Middle Ages. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the endeavour to attain true humanity. or fresco. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). The order combines reclusive and community life.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. New Charterhouses. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . and humanism. pl. In fresco painting.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). monasteries containing separate hermitages. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartouche . and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. near Grenoble. details of the subject. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartoon (It. Carmelites (Lat. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cardinalis. cartone. Carthusian Order (Lat. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).a humorous drawing or parody. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartellino. or a motto. tapestry. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartellini In a painting.
Worked on at intervals 1504-06. decorated with gilt gesso. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). or nave. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. cathedral (cathedra. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. These lead up to the north and south transepts. putti (cupids). They contained the bride's clothes. they were also used in other countries. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. or arms of the cross. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Paolo Uccello. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. The main body. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. cassone (It. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The altar is placed at the east end. linen. caryatid (Gk. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and many other items of her dowry. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. where the throne of the bishop is placed.toward the setting sun. castello (It. and swags of fruit and flowers. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. palace. In the 15th century. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. a cathedral always faces west .) "castle". For reasons lost to time and tradition. . taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Cascina. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364.
moral laxity in the clergy and so on). In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. champlevé (Fr. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. central perspective (Lat. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. Both the statement of St. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. rather than intercessory functions. and perspicere. "in the centre". An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. a throne bearer of the deity. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. centralis. in accordance with their distance from the observer. landscapes. as celestial attendants of God. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Relative to the observer. . but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. and Islamic literature. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. continually praise him. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Christian. or birdlike characteristics. animal. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. buildings and figures that are being depicted. a celestial winged being with human.
replacing tempera. choir (Gk. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. Since Carolingian times." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. or for choral singing. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . the Order of the Hospital of St. "light dark") In painting." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. choros. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). reserved for the clergy to pray together. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). North of the Alps. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. Hans Burgkmair (1510). usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). When the contrast of light and dark is strong.chiaroscuro (It. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. Lastly." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service.
roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. and the Churrigueresque column. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. is as typically Churrigueresque. gilded rays. Sculpted clouds. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and garlands. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. The Transparente (completed 1732). undulating cornices. reversed volutes. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. undulating lines. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. a massing of carved angels. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. The Mexico cathedral (1718). and repetition of pattern. became the most common motif. stucco shells. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. further enriching the style. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. balustrades. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated.intersect). ciborium . Spanish Rococo style in architecture. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Very few still exist in their original positions. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). an architect. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera.
was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. placing one of their members. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. as also were those in the associated. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Quattrocento (1400s. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. on July 22. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. etc. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Then. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. including the ciompi. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. High Renaissance). revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. or achieve political representation. but self-employed. ciompi. beaters. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Members of the lower classes. craft of dyeing. In reaction to this revolutionary . the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Their economic condition worsened. combers. Without being members of a guild. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. The new government. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation.and post-medieval Italy. They were forbidden to form a trade association. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. who were raised to the status of a guild. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. the wool carder Michele di Lando. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. controlled by the minor guilds.
as in Italy these were dispensed with. the black contours usually with a special line plate. writers. philosophy and art . literature. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. philosophy. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. the ciompi guild was abolished. clair-obscur (Fr. editing and translating a wide range of texts. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. scholars patiently finding. except in cases where . The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. In the 15th century Greek literature. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. changed greatly from one period to the next.episode. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. on which strings were plucked. with Italian scholars. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. . and politics. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. Concepts of the classical. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. resembling a lyre. cithara (Gk. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. however. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.) An ancient musical instrument.
concetto. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. when set side by side. compline (Lat. literature or music. a work's underlying theme. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. arch or ceiling. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. The name was derived from the condotta. intensify one another. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. cognoscente (It. pl. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. pl. occasionally made of wood. . Green and red. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. blue and orange. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. concetti (It. condottiere. Coffered ceilings. [hora] completa. sing. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. as well as from the Bible. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. those with refined tastes. terrorized the country. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. cognoscenti. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottieri (It. or "contract.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault.
Mark (1432). Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities.devastating Romagna. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. By the 16th century. Muzio's son. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. disappeared. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in the service of Naples. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. convents of convertite. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. in Venice. primarily for syphilitics. i. . in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'.e. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Carmagnola. often under the direction of. clergy. commonly called either Compagnia di S. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. who won control of Milan in 1450. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Martino). Spanish.e. confraternities Confraternities. often called compagnie or. in the service of Perugia. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. or with the spiritual assistance of. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. which spread in the 15th century. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. scuole. Umbria. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. and his rival Braccio da Montone. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. and Tuscany. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. i. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. With no goal beyond personal gain. flagellant confraternities. By the end of the 14th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Toward the end of the 15th century. and German--the condottieri. Francesco Sforza. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Italians began to raise mercenary armies.
the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . the Florentine Neri. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. In medieval painting. reformed prostitutes. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. in Florence. 1514 in S. however. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. contour. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital.i. Confraternities. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. contours were initially regular. Dorotea in Trastevere. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. contour (Fr. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). While the Doge ranked above the Council. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. contrapposto (It. and refuges for maidens.e. e. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. founded c. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic.g. Later. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. but sometimes had their own premises. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. e. flat outlines.g. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. while the Venetian government. notwithstanding their location. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions.
did not achieve any lasting results. corbel In architecture. aes cyprium.weight on one leg. They are often ornamented. 1100 and 1300. . The style spread as far as England. a bracket of stone. started the process of inner reform in the Church. 1280). brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. an engraving produced in this way. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. conventiculurn. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. large cornice or other feature. cuprum. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. conventicle (Lat. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. declining moral standards. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Lat. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Reform programs. whose names are inscribed on several works. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer.
crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. D dado . and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the first Christian emperor.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. An ancestor of the oboe. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. i. reedy sound. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Jews. "small vat") In architecture. a small dome. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Next. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Carthaginians." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof.e. Death. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. There were various methods of performing the execution. cupola (Lat. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. particularly among the Persians. a semi-circular vault. Seleucids. after being whipped. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Usually. the condemned man. cupula. or "scourged. Constantine the Great. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. the most famous victim of crucifixion. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime.
flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. which was help to be the basis of all art. Germany. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. but the concept behind an art work. Gk. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. deacon (Gk. Anglican and Orthodox churches. diakonos. disegno (It. design") In Renaissance art theory. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. usually in matching pairs. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. "drawing. diptych (Lat. diptychum. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. decorated diffrently from the upper section.g. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). The term stresses not the literal drawing. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diptychos. Deësis (Gk. danse macabre The dance of death. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Passau. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. often an altarpiece. e. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. a favorite late medieval picture subject. an expressive use of nature. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art.
that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. donator. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). also used it on canvas. dome in architecture. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Ordo Praedictatorum. doublet A male garment. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. though a few artists. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). a 19th-century invention. such as we still use today. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. is a heavy piece of furniture. when painters took to working out of doors. which runs on castors or wheels.fully realize. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.Thomas Aquinas. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. The studio easel. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . distemper (Lat. formerly worn under armour. Dominicans (Lat. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. distemperare. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. "to mix. donor (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions.
It consists of the architrave. fresco. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. ensemble (Fr. and logos. a depiction of Jesus. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. eschaton. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. "last". sometimes combining panel painting. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. eschatology (Gk. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. en face In portraiture. Ecce Homo (Lat. entablature In classical architecture. the frieze.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. Hence. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. epitaph (Gk. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. in art. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. full face. John (19. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. and the cornice. and architecture. sculpture. bound and flogged. "word") .
fields and livestock. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Giovanni Morone. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. which was developed in the Near East ca. Carnesecchi and Ochino. It developed in France in the early 16th century. and is named for Faenza. Contarini. Jerome. which was famous for maiolica. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. ." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which is called "maiolica. Marcantonio Flaminio. Italy. Spain. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Eucharist (Gk. particularly ware made in France. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. and of the last things." and charis. Equated with the Greek god Pan. celebrated with bread and wine. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. protector of shepherds. Germany. Vittoria Colonna. which is called "delftware. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. eu." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Saints Ambrose. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and Scandinavia. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. "good.death and resurrection. 4500 BCE. notably Cardinal Pole. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Augustine. farmers.
representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. a technique known as a secco fresco. frescos in Italy .festoni (It. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. The colour of his horse is white. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Their attributes are the bow. fresco (It. that of the others red. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. a swag. relaxed. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. drying to a slightly different tint. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. black and dun. leaves. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Only a small area can be painted in a day. 2 . can in time be seen. fluted of a column or pillar. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. sword and set of balances. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. and flowers suspended in a loop. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. war. such as plague.8). and these areas. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. famine and death.
landscape and portraiture. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. for example. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. both in churches and in private and public palaces. covings and ceilings. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. are genres of painting.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. the intonaco. Genius in classical Rome. or fresco secco. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. The technique of buon fresco.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. genre In a broad sense. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work.Save in Venice. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. In art from the classical period onwards. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. Final details. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. or true fresco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. usually childish figure. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. G Garter. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. where the atmosphere was too damp. a person's invisible tutelary god.
as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. as well as writers and artists. and as spurring on men of action. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. in portraits and on tombs. Gobelins . Bernardo Daddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. whether it must be connected with the public good. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. how it differed from notoriety. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Maso di Banco. Maria Gloriosa). where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. As such. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant.
named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In other Italian cities. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. golden section (Lat. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. still in existence today. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV.French tapestry manufactory. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. This ratio is approximately 8:13. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. thereafter it made only tapestries. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). and although it reopened in 1699. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). who appointed Lebrun Director. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. . sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. Golden Fleece. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Paris.
The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. Denis. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. c. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. like the cultural and commercial. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Nevertheless. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. Gothic Gothic. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. that the effects are to be felt. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Amiens. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. or the influence of one building. The artistic. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. There is a transcendental quality. the superficial particularities of form. 1270. 1200 and c. from the 13th until the 17th century. painting. In thinking of Nicola (d. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. . In sculpture and in painting. painting. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In particular. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and lies much deeper than. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy.
Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. sometimes in the company of a tutor. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. genius. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. without visible brush marks. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Dubuffet. Pannini. and above all Italy. if required. the beau idéal of the French. and Morris Graves.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It is thinned with water for applying. to white or tinted paper and card and. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Honey. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Klee. and taste among the English. chiefly to France. and the great style. to silk. Such tours often took a year or more. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. notably in the writings of Bellori.and hog-hair brushes. occasionally. starch. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Canaletto. These qualities. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. the Netherlands. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and Piranesi. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. with sable. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. . It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting.
the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Although its palace was rebuilt c. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. then as now. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. through central Italy. gris. usually gray. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. to Provence and Paris. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. . In another sense. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In the context of the fine arts. 1216. After the War of the Eight Saints. and Waiblingen. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. however. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly.e. Some writers. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. c. From 1266 to 1268. grisaille (Fr. became an abiding feature of European politics. including text as well as illustrations. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. exclude drawing from this definition. brother of Louis IX. internal factions in Florence went under other names. however. after this. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In Florence.
In Italy they go back a long way.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. [science] héraldique. goldsmiths. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. "[knowledge of] heraldry. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and provided assistance to members in need. trades. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. H hatching In a drawing. héraut. or professions. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. but in time they acquired other functions. The guilds were not equal. surgeons. In Florence. "herald") . trade or profession (painters. and greater hostility between master and man. The guild also monitored standards of work. print or painting. In some towns. heraldry (Fr. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'." from Fr. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In 16th century Venice. In some cities. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Guilds were also patrons of art. as some did). commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. for example. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. notably Florence in the 14th century. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. such as Brescia and Vicenza.
Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. indeed. and regarded themselves as forming. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. However. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). d. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. while others merged with the Waldensians. the Waldensian. with the rules governing their use. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. together with brethren north of the Alps. the Cathars were an anti-church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. By contrast. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. one great missionary community. as Antichrist. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. i. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. the followers of Juan de Valdes. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The main impact of the . from the start. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. head of the 'carnal Church'. they were condemned in 1184. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. normative for churchmen. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty.
and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Germany. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. hortus conclusus (Lat. humanus. At the same time. Frederick E. working from 1825 to 1875. F. Thomas Cole. J. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister.movement upon the laity was in southern France. and. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. in his earlier work. American painters were studying in Rome. Henry Inman. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. humanism (Lat. F. Durand. mainly in the south. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Morse. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Church. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . In humanism. George Inness. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. its subjects considered morally elevating. B. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. my spouse'. Jasper Cropsey. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. the emancipation of man from God took place. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. S. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. history (usually classical history). Kensett. and classical literature.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
g. investiture . the veil of St. etc. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. beautiful style. and they are also depicted on their own. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. with many further details added. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. usually the donors of a work of art. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). For instance. The terms court style. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. it denominates a kind of behaviour. In the second half of the 14th century. the pincers. Human figures. are also used in art literature. there are representations of the bundle of rods.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. originality. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. and the ladder. Donatallo. the rooster of Peter's denial. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the hammer. trecento rococo and lyrical style. inventio (It. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. soft style. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. or of other saints. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. invention. the scourge that was used in the scourging. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Veronica. Derived from classical rhetoric. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. the ability to create. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts.
J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jerome's writings. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Both and Berchem. Nicolaes Berchem. Andries and Jan Both. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. although they are usually called Romanists. Italianizers Northern artists. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. of Utrecht. bathed in a golden haze. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. and Jan Asselijn. . Upon his return to Holland. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. generally Dutch or Flemish. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. who traveled in Italy and. principally Dutch. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. The Both brothers. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works.
"golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. John of Jerusalem . League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Emperor Maximilian I (1459.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . liberal arts . encouraged by the Crusades.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). lectern A reading stand or desk. Legenda Aurea (Lat. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Archbishop of Genoa. the rite of communion is based on this. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). especially one at which the Bible is read. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. As their military role grew. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.1519). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
Heade (1819-1904). its roof supported by columns. then the basis of a philosophical training. through the use of aerial perspective. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Tubal for music). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). loggia (It. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.g. often sublime. comprising arithmetic. Church (1826-1900). Maria Novella in Florence). lunette (Fr. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. It is related to. the quadrivium. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. often standing in markets and town squares.g. . Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. that may contain a window. John F. geometry. together with identifying attributes (e. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. and Frederick E. "little moon") In architecture. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. a semicircular space. poetic atmosphere. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). painting or sculptural decoration. astronomy and music.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. Martin J. Kensett (1816-1872).grammar. that could be used for public ceremonies.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). rhetoric and dialectic. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. commemorating a marriage. Pythagoras for arithmetic. first the preparatory trivium .
They were influenced by the Barbizon School. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. being written. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. particularly such ware produced in Italy. magna mater (Lat. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. Specifically. originating in Italy in the 14th century. and iron red. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). 1855–65. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. antimony yellow. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. but they painted genre scenes. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). historical subjects. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. madrigal A part song. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. manganese purple. and however bright their lighting effects. usually for the lute. and accompaniments. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. "almond") . it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. active mainly in Florence c. When white is used for painting. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). copper green. originally sung without accompaniment. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. "great mother") A mother goddess. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. and portraits as well as landscapes. mandorla (It. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. for example. the goddess Cybele.
and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Mannerism (It. It reached to the knee or foot. illuminated initials and miniatures. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. more strictly. the hand-written medieval book. mantle An overcoat. marked by flagellation. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and literary texts. Parmigianino. Bronzino. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. the Codex manuscriptus. "manner. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. In Mannerist painting. bound. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. complex and crowded compositions. in a specific sense. El Greco and Tintoretto. which was quarried at Mount . Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. ecclesiastical. maniera. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. In architecture. Developing out of the Renaissance. often ornamented with decorative borders. Flanders. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. depending on the social class of the wearer. Burgundy. and crowned with thorns. worn open. strong. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale.
medallion In architecture. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. gained the rank of'master' in his guild.Pentelicon in Attica. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. the medal's purpose was commemorative. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. marmi finti (It. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. The pure white Carrara marble. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. martyrion. an inscription running round the rim. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. a different design on the reverse. Like the finest Imperial coins. particularly by Michelangelo. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Without monetary value. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. sleek surface. which were beginning to be reverently collected. quarried at Massa. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). proof") the sufferings. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Carrara. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. having finished his training. martyrdom (Gk. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). "witness.
A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. a Gorgon. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). A Dutch officer. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. who reflected them. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. In pure mezzotint. Medusa In Greek mythology. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. of the person portrayed on the other side. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 1467-688). This yields a soft effect in the print. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. supposedly to petrify her enemies. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. in England. The work of these men. perhaps oddly. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. as it were. Ludwig von Siegen. When Perseus cuts off her head. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. 1640. for landscapes and portraits. 1452-1526/27). not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. and of the many. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The process is essentially extinct today. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. c. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. . 14601528). Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. 1425-1504). the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. the stress on individual character. Her head features on Minerva's shield. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching.round the neck. particularly. no line drawing is employed. often anonymous. c. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. It was. even grain. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles.
Parmigianino (d. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch.. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. executed on a very small scale. motto (Ital. a branch of the Franciscan order. often quite highly finished. Many such small versions. pointed headdress worn by bishops. ink and paint. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Francis himself. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. "word. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. a painting executed in a single color. monochrome (Gk. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. e.g. miter A high. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. by Tiepolo and Rubens. still exist. monokhromatos. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. saying") . usually portraits. "one color") Painted in a single color.
1817-29). It may have parallel aisles on each side. 1816-17. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. nave (from Lat. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. named after the patron saint of painting. Pforr. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. and is intersected by the transept. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In 1810 0verbeck. navis. The invention of personal mottos. In general. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and Casino Massimo. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen.from the Middle Ages. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Berlin. naturalism (Fr. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). but often insipid. Rome. Nazarenes A group of young. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and two other members moved to Rome. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Isidore. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. often separated from it by pillars. . One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy.
Nymphaeum (Gk.) . nimbus (Lat. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. were usually old when elected. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. "aureole") The disc or halo. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). niello (Lat. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). usually golden. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Popes. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. the style of the Ancien Régime. but their ideas continued to be influential. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. is as true as it is notorious. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). moreover. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. nigellus. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).
the three basic styles of design. . and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. and entablatures. fluted column and a plain capital. or poppy. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. obsequia. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. Greek goddesses of Nature. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. was the simplest. "services. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. They are seen in the form of the columns. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). the Doric order. observances") Rites performed for the dead. The earliest. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. a small private chapel. with a sturdy. walnut. such as linseed. capital. O obsequies (Lat. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. and its greater tonal range. orders of architecture In classical architecture. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. its richness of colour. inborn sin. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. a more elaborate base.
A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. standing at the foot of the Cross. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. palazzo (It. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. with biforate windows. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. and. and the main apartments above. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). like cities. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). designed as a . "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. the Cancelleria). In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples.g. while shops came to be thought undignified. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. P pala (Ital. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. tradition and social structure. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Palazzo Strozzi). reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.
the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal.scholarly retreat. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. especially after the Sack of Rome. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Papal incentives to build. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". panel . The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). like Genoa. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces.g. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. Movement of patrons and architects. like the colonnaded vestibule. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). and Palladio's in Vicenza. e. Following Oriental patterns. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. and large households. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. often built next to their titular churches. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Palazzo Massimi). more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. palmette. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Rich. cornices and abutments. In Venice.g. column-caps. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. evolved influential types. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). came to be applied all over Europe. behind a sober Florentine façade. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). Other cities.
the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. Many other types were used. and modern painters have also used plywood. so that they might have a voice at court. to influence popes in their favour. olive. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. including beech. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. mahogany. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. slate has occasionally been used as a support. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. To maintain their authority. metal. larch. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. fibre-board. and dark walnut are favourites. however. enforce law and order. As successors to St Peter. A number of matters. On a larger scale. panel painting Painting on wooden panels.Term in painting for a support of wood. fir. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and spanned by a single dome. secular rulers. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). In the 20th century cedar. as it were. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. the management of clerical dues and taxation. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. and the pressure and temptations . The third aspect was administrative. linden. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. chestnut. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. Having a circular plan. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. or the incidence of taxation. cedar. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. and other synthetic materials as supports. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. or other rigid substance. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. teak. and walnut. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. the. Then. as distinct from canvas.
Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. By then.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. at Avignon. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. to be long delayed. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences).that could be applied to them. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. would.as well. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). possess an authority which. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. however. in the eyes of God. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. in spite of further absences from Rome. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. which seems so inevitable. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Colonna and Caetani. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. To resolve the problem of divided authority. was long in doubt. however. however. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. of individuals. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. which met at Constance 1414-18. So onerous. if it did no serious damage to the faith. could supersede that of a pope. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. from the point of view of its religious associations. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. It was argued that such a council. There remained. As at Avignon. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. the most appropriate . On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). as such. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds.
"shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. less frequently pig. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. goat. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. nymphs. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. in classical literature. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. to a world peopled by shepherds. pastoral (Lat. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. and other animals. Passion . scholars and men of letters. However. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and satyrs. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Parrhasius (c. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. 400-300 BC). as well as a governmental one. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. the creation of a cultural capital. through lavish patronage of artists.. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Skin had been used as a writng material before this. pastor. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. it has also been used for painting. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. and with Zeuxis (c. 425 BC) and Apelles (c.
whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and so on. hence tent") A lightly constructed. which focus on the Suffering Christ. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. papilio. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. Francesco Salviati. pavilion (Lat. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. 1478). the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. 1478. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. a small. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. pastiche (fr. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded.) or pasticcio (It. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. "butterfly. such as a garden summerhouse. the crown of thorns. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. patrician (Lat. patricius. but not necessarily a direct copy. projecting either centrally or at both ends. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. Meanwhile.The events leading up to Good Friday. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Portrayals of the Passion. and also the archbishop of Pisa. wealthy citizen. a prominent section of a monumental façade. . a region in north-central Italy. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. ornamental building.
"make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. persona. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. perspicere. personification (Lat. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. in particular the face. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. pendant (Fr. . "person". physis. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "nature". and gnomon. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). pergola (It. physiognomy (Gk. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "hanging. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "to see through. or related elements within an art work.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. perspective (Lat. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. concept or deity. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and facere. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo.
pigment (Lat. Pietà (Lat. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil.piano nobile (Ital. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. . and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. but may consist of a cluster of columns. usually above the ground floor. Peter's. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. glue. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. both real and painted. proper to take a landscape from. Rome. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. curious details. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. striking the imagination with the force of painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. pigmentum. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. A pier is generally larger than a column.) The main floor of a building. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. to be expressed in painting. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. but full of variety. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. or resin to make paint. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. exemplified. for example. containing the public rooms. affording a good subject for a landscape. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. remarkable for singularity.
in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. It is often fluted. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. it is difficult to find. also used in Spain's American colonies. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. outside Tuscany. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. In the 15th century. however. perhaps. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. pilastrum. such as Florence and Genoa. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. Thenceforward. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. in October 1347. During 1348 the Black Death. though in less widespread. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. moreover. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. and capital. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. the burning of 'infected' clothing. a shaft. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. more sporadic outbreaks. it has a base. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. It seems probable. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. since. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. "pillar") A flat. plague Plague. For this reason. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). for instance.pilaster (Lat. and thereafter all Europe. Rocco and Sebastian. despite regional variations.
the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. heraldic escutcheons. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. Phaedo. The first phase. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. harmonious. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. more severe. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. like its successor. or appropriateness. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Philebus. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. or simply the Plateresque. Timaeus. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and sinuous scrolls. Diego evolved a purer. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. and unified style using massive geometric forms. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. placement. In contrast with Aristotle. The second phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases.. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones.e. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Theatetus and the Laws. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). composition. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . A student of Socrates. The first phase. which lasted only a few decades. correct classical orders became frequent. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. are the masterworks of the second style. the Symposium. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. utilized Mudejar ornament -. i. the Renaissance-Plateresque. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Phaedrus.
with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. 1472-c. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. replaced Ficino's. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Iamblichus. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. A new Latin translation. systematized and added to what Plato had done. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. but not completely. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Plotinus. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. including those of Plotinus. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. and he utilized many other writings. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Rather unsystematic. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Unlike the case of Aristotle. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. the greatest of his ancient disciples. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. partially.in Plato's thought. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. and the Chaldaic Oracles. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and Agostino Steuco (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. near Florence. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. all of which he also translated into Latin.1577) becoming particularly popular. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries.
but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluvial (Med. porticus. pluviale. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. or statue. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. poluptukhos. pointed arch In architecture. such as processions and consecrations. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. Frequently supports a pediment. Plato was read in the universities. as in classical architecture). plinth (Gk. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. portico (Lat. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. polyptych (Gk. where a pectoral is used to close it. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. plinthos. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. column.
Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. 1328. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. was revived in the 14th century. Palazzo Farnese). Mantua. Colleoni. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Venice). flattened image. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London.. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. decorating whole rooms. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Gattarnelata. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Campidoglio). The realism of the clear. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Cathedral) by Uccello. Siena. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Group portraits. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. psychologically more complex.e.sculptors such as Donatello. Florence. inessential. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Desiderio da Settignano. and only a decorative accessory to form. and the . Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Florence (1486-90). the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. The equestrian portrait. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. National Gallery). Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The 16th century portrait became generalized. the Carracci. Maria Novella. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436.
The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. several of whom became bishops. and. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. not least those of statesmen and prelates. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Borromeo. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). from the secular clergy. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. 1494). star preachers journeyed all over Italy. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. bishops especially. primarily the mendicants. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. who had as their ideal masters Titian. and Peter Paul Rubens. abrasive even. was versed in classical and patristic . Fiamma's sermons. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. bishop of Chioggia. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. however. to discharge their preaching duties. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Correggio. are not florid in style. together with the Dominican Savonarola. minatory exhortations. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. of the sermon as an art form. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. The styles of S. Savonarola and Musso. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. bishop of Asti. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Charles Le Brun. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. As Poussin was a Frenchman.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. The sermons of Visdomini. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d.
Millais and Rossetti. though often relatively very wide . Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . prefiguration Typology . among them Holman Hunt. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Louis of Toulouse (1317. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The New Testament references in these would. however. tapestries. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Because of the small size of predelle . predella (It. and so forth. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Naples). Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. the temptations of Adam and Christ. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.g. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.rhetoric. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.
the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. again indicative of the purpose they served. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. which uses the square . and Ingres among painters and Clodion. Girardon. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. intended as complete works of art in themselves. profil perdu (Fr.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). "evenness") in painting. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). notably David. Prix de Rome A scholarship. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. projecting shelf on which to kneel. sculpture and architecture. Fragonard. the golden section. these highly finished drawings. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. proportion (Lat. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. proportio. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. 2. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. the Canon of Proportion. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. 3. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. the quadrature. and Houdon among sculptors. The following are important: 1.
most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. . the steward or treasurer of a church. putto (It. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. for example). was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. triangulation. It was common in Roman art. Unlike Pozzo. "boys") Plump naked little boys. one half the length of the other). Rome. Ignazio. putti sing. harmonic proportions. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. provenance The origins of an art work. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. and 5. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. a fourth = 3:4. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries.as a unit of measurement. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. a fifth = 2:3. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. 4.
in particular works by Masaccio.g. Botticelli. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. basso rilievo). and high relief (alto rilievo). relicquiae. friars and nuns. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. canons regular. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectory (Med. in which figures are seen half round. relic (Lat. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. in which figures are almost detached from their background. or the Jesuits. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. In 16th century Europe. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission.Quattrocento (It. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. or some item connected with a saint. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Lat. with the Anglican Church developing in England. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. relief (Lat. the great orders of monks. Among the . "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. the object of particular veneration. relevare. Fra Angelico and others. Donatello. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. hermits. Brunelleschi. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. e. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. also known as the Realist school. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects.
Founded by St Romuald c. who had no overall organization originally. which was to become the main Italian one. At the same time. The same bull . A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Bernardino of Siena. the great patriarch of Venice. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars.e. Padua. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. Giustina. Venice (1404). Maria di Fregonaia. presided over by chapters general. That of S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. After the repression of the Spirituals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. The Conventuals. and their more institutionalized brethren. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. 1012. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Lucca. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. the Conventuals. however. Mantua. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. although technically of secular canons. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Salvatore. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. In 1517. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. was the congregation of S. The Benedictines. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. various groups were fused in the latter body. Benedetto. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. i. it became the Cassinese congregation. and the generally moderate Observants. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Bologna (1419). having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. In 1504. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Silvestrines. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S.contemplative orders. Giorgio in Alga. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. their resources being in the hands of trustees. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. the most notable being S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty.
While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Michele in Isola. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. however. founded by S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. a historical period. The first. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Filippo Neri. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Venice. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Angela Merici. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Gerolamo Aemiliani. S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. also. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. however. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. the Theatines. Gaetano da Thiene. founded in 1535 by S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S.
Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. of letters. because its core of energy. increasingly. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and competition with. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Thereafter. even Amoralism. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. as well as political. For long. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. 1875-86). culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of arts. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. life. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. the historical reality of antiquity. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. however. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. however. of an energetic revival of interest in. too long forgotten glories. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. All-Roundness. . Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of scholarship. was so vast and potent. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). and his own as potentially one of light. of 'darkness'. which had begun early in the 14th century.century. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism.
(1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. and other liturgical objects. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. later still to Genoa. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole.erased. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. The challenges are to be accepted. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. There was an early. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. It is for this additional. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Though thus challenged. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. congruence between.) was the term chosen. mobilized nationalism. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. gratefully. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. sometimes. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (3) There is not a true. the previous record .with all its shabbiness . statues. etc. let alone a uniform. Ghent). however. of industrialization.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. in the more limited sense. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). 'culture' and 'history' during the period. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. candlesticks. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. etc. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. and is decorated with paintings. and mass media. consist merely of a painting. Cathedral of SaintBavon. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. especially in the High Gothic period. retables can be detached and. letters. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. though sometimes of metal.
the first style to achieve such international currency. As the name suggests. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. in several countries . Italy. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). the impression that an object is three-dimensional. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious.France. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. rilievo (It. and architecture dominating the 18th century. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Romanesque art. Spain . Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). More usually. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.of St Mark in Venice. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. is a typical product. Rococo A style of design. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. . Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. literally. richly decorated with organic forms. "relief") In painting. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. Louis XV furniture. the St. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction.in the 11th century. almost simultaneously. rocaille (French. Germany. With the development of freestanding altars. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. however. Originally commissioned in 976. and 'Romanesque'. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. retables have become extinct. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. its mood lighthearted and witry. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. painting. like 'Gothic'.
making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Claude. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Massys and M. van Heemskerk. the development of nationalistic pride. van Orley.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. B. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. In addition. . Piranesi. Rome. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. stylized design representing an open rose. Mabuse. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. such as red ochre. Pannini and Mengs. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The aim of painting. Q. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. they maintained. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona.
Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Sacra Conversazione (It. from the Old and New Testaments. Orthodox.expressed through gesture. when it finally left the city it had devastated.greatly increased. Eastern independent. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. There were no limits on time. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. Subjects were nominally sacred. In the . glance and movement . the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. but others were the work of well-known figures. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and anointing of the sick. penance. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. multiple sets used in succession. and Protestant churches. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Many compositions were anonymous. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. matrimony. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. and Lorenzo de' Medici. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. supported by lay confraternities. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Written primarily in ottava rima. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and impoverished. holy orders. Clement escaped into Castel S. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the Eucharist. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. confirmation.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. gutted. pious legend and hagiography. local saints.
replaces the Lord's Supper. They were still seeking aid. which in the Gospel According to John. Candidates first face west. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Immediately following baptism. baptism and the Eucharist. strictly speaking. the sun of righteousness. the symbolic direction of Christ. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. It is still practiced on special occasions. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the Bentivoglio.e. chapter 13. Salt War.. Anglican. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. and sacraments. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Lutheran. and then face east.. make such strict distinctions.e. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. that the price of salt should be increased. the Rocca Paolina." which are called sacramentals. The classical Protestant churches (i.early church the number of sacraments varied. in principle. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit." sala (Ital. the Orthodox Church does not. used for drawing. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.i. The chief focus of discontent. Hence. Saracens . the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. The theology of the Orthodox Church. was buried under a new fortress. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. sacraments. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. foot washing. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. as in the Church of the Brethren. was not maintained as a sacrament. Thus. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . notably from Florence and in Germany. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. large room.) Hall. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. as an excuse to revolt.
c. made of stone. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. sarcophagi (Gk. the god of wine. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. legs and horns of a goat. 160 . 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. are lost. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. sarcophagus. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Little known in the Middle Ages. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 360 . 210 AD). whose writings. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. 270 BC). The publication of Latin (1562. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. pl.c. wood or terracotta. satyr In Greek mythology. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition.During the Middle Ages. 45 BC). and many others. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. the Arabs or Muslims.
thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). and. in June 1409. with France and her allies Aragon. 1386) and his son Ladislas. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). on the other. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. Louis I (d. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. on one side. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. the Florentines.for example Pieter van Laer. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies.they had individual Bentnames . while devout Christians agonized. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. most of whom. Schism. who had the support of the Avignon pope. than their medieval predecessors. who recognized the Roman pope. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. but with little effect. one of the early leaders. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. In northern Italy. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. As a result. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). However. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. being Frenchmen. while England. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. was called Bamboccio. Alexander V. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. from time to time both he and his opponents. Charles III of Durazzo (d. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. scholasticism . Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. for.
history and rhetoric . The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. if lime-water was used.) . But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). as it is easier to add details in this way. as it were. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. moreover.were different from those of medieval. university-based study. Serenissima (Ital. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. As such. Often called the burning ones. that scholasticism was left. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. textual scholarship. and Islamic literature. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. and theology.The term is ambivalent. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Padua. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. (See also: fresco. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. on one side. Christian. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. notably Aquinas. None the less. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). the plaster had to be damped before painting. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Medieval scholars. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. rather than wet plaster as in fresco.moral philosophy.
there was only one Sibyl. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Signoria (It. Med. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. term. in use since the Middle Ages. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. which were all identical in thickness. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Lat. sibyls (Gk.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. brass. "the most serene republic of Venice"). and the delicate. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. women who could prophesy. Originally. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibylla. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. In Christian legend. sinopia . light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. in the period of classical antiquity. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sfumato A technique. Sibyls foretold the Birth. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. They first appear in alpine monasteries. "prophetess") In antiquity. usually presided over by individual families. at the same time. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia.. the number gradually rose to ten. Servite (Lat.
at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. sotto in sù (It. as the name implies.) Wooden ceiling decoration. It is very closely related to International Gothic. Stanze (Ital. staffage This word. in other words. Ital. stigmata. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Francis of Assisi. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil).The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. . spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. especially in the flow of drapery. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. sing. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. stigma (Gk. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. pronounced as French. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. "mark.'Beautiful Madonnas'. brand. and. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. soffit (Lat.
and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. both external and internal. studiolo. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). In a looser sense. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. whose verses actually fabrications . John Milton. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. supremacy . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). studioli (It.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. pl. The vogue for the Sublime. Indeed. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. with that for the Picturesque. stucco A type of light. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century.
Salviati and Allori. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. or cartoons. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church.and. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. then being replaced by oil paint.Historically. i. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . chiefly from Flanders. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. 1407). The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. doubtless. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. . it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The subject is underexplored. tempera (Lat. both for panel painting and fresco. But the Italians did not make them. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. London. and in literature. was being decorated with frescoes. his own headquarters. These were imported. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Tempera colors are bright and translucent.e. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. into Italy. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. temperare. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass.
model. pl. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. "a commonplace") In literature. in art. walls. and other surfaces. tondo. quarter face. figure of speech. topos. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tondi (It. i. and sculptures. pl. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.e. topoi (Gk. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and later to subdivide gable ends. topia. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. "fields. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.terracotta (It. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. widely used form. topiary (Gk. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). Trajan's Column . and profile. terraferma (Ital. theme or motif. vessels. in the architecture of ancient Rome. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. triumphal arch.
Battista Sforza. usually an altarpiece. trinitas. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . triptych (Gk. a car so brave'. patriarchs and prophets.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. of virtues and of the arts. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. into a number of less controversial forms. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Early triptychs were often portable. fame. beside it the army of martyrs. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. of both sexes'. Meanwhile. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.' Before it go the apostles. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Trinity (Lat. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. . only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. tryptychos. the military triumph became sublimated. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. time and eternity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. death. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. or wings. as it were. Disseminated soon after his death. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. after 'a countless number of virgins. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. chastity. "threefold") in Christianity. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. the wars by which they were won . added to the glamour of the triumph. behind it. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court).
often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. typology . tusche A thick. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Dating from classical times. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. In medieval architecture. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tromp l'oeil (Fr. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. enclosed by an arch. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. tympanum (Lat. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. first recorded in 1232. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. "drum") In classical architecture. often decorated with sculptures. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. It incorporates Renaissance features. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. viscous black ink.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. through various naturalistic devices. it is usually decorated with carvings.
In Christian thought.g. 1610). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.) The Renaissance "universal man". . killer of Holofernes. The numerous candles. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. were popular with them also.A system of classification. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Judith. and David. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. U uomo universale (It. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. knew his former patrons. such as five works devoted to the senses. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . slayer of Goliath. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). especially his half-length figural groups. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). each had access to his paintings. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. lanterns. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. e. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. 1590-1624). Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . where they were most accessible. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht.Dirck van Baburen (c. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468).
consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. Vespers (Lat. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. often gold. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. There are a wide range of forms. varietà (It. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. V vanishing point In perspective. vanitas (Lat. Also varietas (Lat. mixed in. overturned vessels.). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the rib vault.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. the groin vault. hour-glasses and clocks. carriages. a work's richness of subject matter. and even flowers (which will soon fade). and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. snuff boxes and other objects. "evening") . guttering candles. Parisian craftsmen. it was used to decorate furniture. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vesper. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls.
The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. vestibulum. Lust. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and Justice. Envy. vite (Lat. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Temperance. In ancient Roman dwellings. in which the word signifies efficacy. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. actual or latent. vita. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The seven Virtues were: Faith. vimperga Of German origin. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. pl. and Sloth. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. "life") . to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. "not exposed to winds". 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Fortitude. for example. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Hope. Covetousness. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Anger. if you have it not'. virtù could be used. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. the church service at which these prayers are said. Charity. 'Assume a virtue. Gluttony.Prayers said in the evening. Vestibule (Lat. Prudence.
by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. 1482-84). votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. in fact. a biography. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. usually when a prayer for good fortune. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1478-80. published in 1550 and 1568.g. The wars from 1494 do. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. they were from the 18th century . Marcus (1st cent. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. Sculptors and Architects"). and appalled recognition of. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Vitruvius Pollio. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. those of Volterera. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. protection from harm. 1472. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. or recovery from illness has been made. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori.An account of someone's life and work. and of Ferrara.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Weltanschauung (Gr. "Western work of art". wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. during its subsequent history. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. pompous on the floor above. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. based on stylization of various animal forms. It was intended to have a variety of functions. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. usually linear. gallery. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. "world view") A comprehensive world view. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. Westwerk German word. usually restorers. . a philosophy of life. woodcut A print made from a wood block. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. treasury or a place where justice was administered.
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