A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arcus. In Greek and Roman literature. including Goya. which is fused to the plate by heating. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The adjective is apsidal. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. architectonic (Gk. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. arcade (Lat. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. or organization. The term applies also to a print made by this method. piers or pillars. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the lowest part of the entablature). Lancet and Tudor. There are several variants of the technique. arkhitektonikos. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Also known as an exedra. the darker the tone).e.A semicircular projection. design. architrave (It. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. but in essence the process is as follows. and Rouault. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. the moulding around a window or door. . "architectural") Relating to structure. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Picasso. Degas. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. roofed with a half-dome. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites.

It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. Dante's Vita nuova . "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated." and Lat. "begin. archivolto. "golden. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. archeiu. attribute (Lat. voltus. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. usually a saint. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "front arch. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. aureolus. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. dominate. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. aureole (Lat. Ars Moriendi (Lat. attributum. In the case of martyrs. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting." from Gk.archivolt (Ital. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.and the Comedy .

Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. the god of wine and fertility. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. paintings of everyday life. baldachin. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. that of Cardano. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. who had been residing in France since 1305. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. often anecdotal. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. 'Captivity'. or baldacchino (It. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. applied to the physically . Bambocciati Group of relatively small. The actual move was made in 1309. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Later. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). in 1377. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Six pontificates later. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411.

a baptistery was roofed with a dome. and Nocera in Italy. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. As eight follows the "complete" number. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. el Kantara. the Temple of Venus. and Epiphany. banderole (It. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Croatia]. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Lebanon. built by Sixtus III. and Poitiers.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). such as those at Pisa. Pentecost. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Alg. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Parma. France.. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and abject filthy things. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. or canopy. AD 300). The baptismal font was usually octagonal. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. or connected with. Baalbek. a church. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered.g. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. banderuola. a visual metaphor for the number eight. pope between 432 and 440. set beneath a domical ciborium. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. beggars in rags. seven. Spalato [Split. AD 273. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. Customarily. or forecourt.. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. Florence. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Easter. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. .

and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. barocco. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. were often omitted entirely. which is reserved for the clergy. 1814-1875). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1807-1876). and the growth of absolutist monarchies. 1811-1889). Originally. 1817-1878). "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. achieved through scale. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Jean-François Millet (French. 1796-1875). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Jules Dupré (French. baptisteries. 1810-1865). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio).In the 10th century. something of earlier symbolism survives. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Vermeer). and (3) everyday realism. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. southeast of Paris. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. . barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. basilica (Gk. and thus a church. or baptismal chapels. stoa basilike. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. In architecture. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. in the 1840s and 1850s. however. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Baroque (Port. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. Also tunnel vault. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Constant Troyon (French. Théodore Rousseau (French. Rubens).an allusion to entering the Christian life. usually facing east. in its usual location near the church door . 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. "king's hall") a church building. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches.

such as Waldmüller. in which still-life predominates. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. There were.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Spanish still-lifes. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. like their Dutch counterparts. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. as is to be expected. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. also incorrectly called bisque. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Bodegónes. 1650 in Spain. Book of Hours . bodegón Image. Biscuit porcelain. domesticity. particularly porcelain. The term was mainly used up to c. It takes its name from its grainy texture. were referred to by their specific contents. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. up until the mid-17th century. especially Spanish. often with food and drink. and often sentimentality. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. By association. which is either not yet glazed. such as those by Diego Velázquez. however. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. or which is to be left as it is.

bozzetto Strictly speaking. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. bozzetto(Italian. varying from silverish to a rich. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. or seasons. though these are more often called 'modelli'. days of the week.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. but can also be used for painted sketches. a rapid sketch in oil. By extension. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.both hot and cold . illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. months. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. and the fact that it is easily workable . coppery red. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. . The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. made as a study for a larger picture. Chantilly). buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts .an advantage over marble sculpture. See flying buttress. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work.by a variety of processes. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. durability. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture.

valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. camera obscura . It also served to glorify the emperor. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. glass. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. its forms highly stylized. "a chest. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. and work in precious metals. box") In architecture. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Duccio. caisson (Fr. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. casson. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). which was often allegorical. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). and Giotto. Among its most distinctive products were icons. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. cameo Small relief made from gems. mosaics. private room where works of art. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. C cabinet A small. ceramics. manuscript illuminations. notable from Syria and Egypt.

but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually built beside or attached to a church.-N. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candelabrum (It. usually with several branches or arms. which isolates the fabric from the paint. Portable versions were built. usually decorated. usually in a church. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J.) A gallery for singers or musicians. other materials used are cotton. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. only very rough effects will be obtainable. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. followed by smaller and even pocket models. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. and jute. cantorie (It. capitellum. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. cantoria. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candelabra. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candlestick. Structurally. candela.Ancestor of the photographic camera. as an aid to drawing. pl. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. . consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. hemp. The Latin name means "dark chamber. "candle") A large. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. capital (Lat." and the earliest versions. sing. dating to antiquity. campanile Bell tower. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. which was usually whitened. by the 16th century. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Niepce created photography.

Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. pl. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. cartellino. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartone. The order combines reclusive and community life. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. cartoon (It.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . the endeavour to attain true humanity. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. near Grenoble. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. cartellini In a painting. Fortitudo (Fortitude). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Carthusian Order (Lat.both Italians and artists from other countries . Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cardinalis. tapestry. the Carmelites were originally hermits. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. details of the subject. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cartouche . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In fresco painting. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Carmelites (Lat. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. and humanism. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".a humorous drawing or parody. the date of the painting. At the height of the Middle Ages. or a motto. or fresco. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. New Charterhouses.

or arms of the cross. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. or nave. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. cassone (It. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. putti (cupids). seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. palace. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. and many other items of her dowry. The altar is placed at the east end. For reasons lost to time and tradition. they were also used in other countries.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. linen. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. cathedral (cathedra. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and swags of fruit and flowers. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. caryatid (Gk. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. a cathedral always faces west . of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. where the throne of the bishop is placed. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework.) "castle". . the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. In the 15th century. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. The main body. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Cascina.toward the setting sun. They contained the bride's clothes. castello (It. decorated with gilt gesso. Paolo Uccello.

The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. "in the centre". these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. rather than intercessory functions. a throne bearer of the deity. as celestial attendants of God. champlevé (Fr. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. continually praise him. Both the statement of St. or birdlike characteristics. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. centralis. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. animal. Christian. a celestial winged being with human. Relative to the observer. central perspective (Lat. landscapes. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). and perspicere. . Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. in accordance with their distance from the observer. and Islamic literature. buildings and figures that are being depicted. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish.

The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. When the contrast of light and dark is strong." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. choir (Gk.chiaroscuro (It. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). Since Carolingian times. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. or for choral singing. Lastly. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). the Order of the Hospital of St. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. reserved for the clergy to pray together. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. "light dark") In painting." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. Hans Burgkmair (1510). North of the Alps. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. replacing tempera. choros. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition.

Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. and repetition of pattern. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. reversed volutes. a massing of carved angels. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. undulating cornices. Sculpted clouds. and the Churrigueresque column. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. further enriching the style. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and including the apse (a niche in the wall.intersect). and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. ciborium . In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. gilded rays. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. The Mexico cathedral (1718). and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. and garlands. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. is as typically Churrigueresque. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The Transparente (completed 1732). balustrades. undulating lines. became the most common motif. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. an architect. stucco shells. Very few still exist in their original positions.

Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.and post-medieval Italy. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. on July 22. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. The new government. Without being members of a guild. controlled by the minor guilds. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. They were forbidden to form a trade association. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. the wool carder Michele di Lando. placing one of their members. beaters. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. but self-employed. or achieve political representation. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Their economic condition worsened. Quattrocento (1400s. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. ciompi. High Renaissance). Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Members of the lower classes. Then. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. etc. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. craft of dyeing. including the ciompi. In reaction to this revolutionary . who were raised to the status of a guild. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. combers. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. as also were those in the associated.

editing and translating a wide range of texts. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. philosophy. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and politics. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. In the 15th century Greek literature. changed greatly from one period to the next. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). on which strings were plucked. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. with Italian scholars.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. writers. the ciompi guild was abolished. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. philosophy and art . The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored.episode. . clair-obscur (Fr. cithara (Gk. Concepts of the classical. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). scholars patiently finding. however. the black contours usually with a special line plate. resembling a lyre. except in cases where . They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.) An ancient musical instrument. literature. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.

sing. cognoscente (It. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). condottieri (It. arch or ceiling. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. occasionally made of wood. cognoscenti. those with refined tastes. Coffered ceilings. pl. Green and red. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. the church service at which these prayers are said. concetto. condottiere. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. concetti (It. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. when set side by side. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. literature or music. terrorized the country. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. . a work's underlying theme. blue and orange. as well as from the Bible. intensify one another. pl. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. compline (Lat. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. The name was derived from the condotta. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. or "contract. [hora] completa.

associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. convents of convertite. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Mark (1432). who won control of Milan in 1450. Toward the end of the 15th century. in the service of Perugia. By the end of the 14th century. confraternities Confraternities. or with the spiritual assistance of. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. which spread in the 15th century. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. often under the direction of. often called compagnie or. Muzio's son.e. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Umbria. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. Francesco Sforza. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. clergy. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. in the service of Naples. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. primarily for syphilitics. i. disappeared. and his rival Braccio da Montone. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. By the 16th century. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Martino). these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. Spanish. i. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Carmagnola. and Tuscany. flagellant confraternities. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. . scuole. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. With no goal beyond personal gain. in Venice. and German--the condottieri.devastating Romagna. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St.e. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century.

e. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. while the Venetian government. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. and refuges for maidens. the Florentine Neri. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. In medieval painting. however. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. 1514 in S. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. e. which accompanied condemned prisoners. e. contour. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love.g. Confraternities. flat outlines. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. but sometimes had their own premises. contour (Fr. Later. While the Doge ranked above the Council. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary.i. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contrapposto (It. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. notwithstanding their location. founded c. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .g. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. reformed prostitutes. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). contours were initially regular. Dorotea in Trastevere. in Florence. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy.

The style spread as far as England. whose names are inscribed on several works. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. conventiculurn. conventicle (Lat. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Reform programs. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. a bracket of stone. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. 1280). With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. They are often ornamented. corbel In architecture.weight on one leg. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Lat. . an engraving produced in this way. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. large cornice or other feature. aes cyprium. did not achieve any lasting results. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). 1100 and 1300. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. declining moral standards. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. started the process of inner reform in the Church. cuprum.

Constantine the Great. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. "small vat") In architecture. i. the most famous victim of crucifixion. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure.e. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Death. Carthaginians. Jews. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. reedy sound.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. There were various methods of performing the execution. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Usually. Seleucids. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Next. the condemned man. D dado . Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. a semi-circular vault. particularly among the Persians. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. a small dome. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. or "scourged. the first Christian emperor. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. after being whipped. cupola (Lat. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. cupula. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. An ancestor of the oboe.

The term stresses not the literal drawing. but the concept behind an art work. diptychum. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Passau. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). usually in matching pairs. Germany. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. disegno (It. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. diptychos. deacon (Gk. Gk. design") In Renaissance art theory. danse macabre The dance of death. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. "drawing. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diakonos. an expressive use of nature. diptych (Lat.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest.g. e. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. and Linz possessed common characteristics. often an altarpiece. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. a favorite late medieval picture subject. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Deësis (Gk. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. which was help to be the basis of all art. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room.

their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. donator. also used it on canvas. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. usually forming a ceiling or roof. a 19th-century invention.fully realize.Thomas Aquinas. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. donor (Lat. which runs on castors or wheels. distemperare. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. is a heavy piece of furniture. when painters took to working out of doors. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . formerly worn under armour. such as we still use today. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. "to mix. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. doublet A male garment. Ordo Praedictatorum. Dominicans (Lat. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. dome in architecture. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. distemper (Lat. The studio easel. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). though a few artists.

forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. sculpture. eschaton. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. eschatology (Gk. and architecture. entablature In classical architecture. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. "last". whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. the frieze. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. fresco. en face In portraiture. bound and flogged. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. Hence. in art. "word") . epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. sometimes combining panel painting. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. John (19. It consists of the architrave. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. Ecce Homo (Lat. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. ensemble (Fr. full face. and the cornice. a depiction of Jesus. and logos. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. epitaph (Gk.

Carnesecchi and Ochino. and of the last things. Giovanni Morone. and Scandinavia. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. It developed in France in the early 16th century. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Eucharist (Gk. Saints Ambrose. Contarini. which was developed in the Near East ca. fields and livestock.death and resurrection. Marcantonio Flaminio. convinced of the inefficacy of human works.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. 4500 BCE. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. which is called "delftware." and charis. which is called "maiolica. Germany." and that made in the Netherlands and England. protector of shepherds. Jerome. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. eu. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Vittoria Colonna. and is named for Faenza. farmers. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. particularly ware made in France. Equated with the Greek god Pan. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. . Italy. Augustine. notably Cardinal Pole. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Spain. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. which was famous for maiolica. "good. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. celebrated with bread and wine.

Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. leaves. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Their attributes are the bow. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. fluted of a column or pillar. black and dun. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. sword and set of balances. can in time be seen. and flowers suspended in a loop. The colour of his horse is white. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Only a small area can be painted in a day. drying to a slightly different tint. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art.festoni (It. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. that of the others red. and these areas. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). a swag. fresco (It. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. 2 . Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). a technique known as a secco fresco. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Committed to charitable and missionary work.8). war. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. famine and death. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. such as plague. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. relaxed. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. frescos in Italy .

Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. where the atmosphere was too damp. genre In a broad sense. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Genius in classical Rome. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. both in churches and in private and public palaces. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. covings and ceilings. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . for example. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. usually childish figure. landscape and portraiture. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. the intonaco. are genres of painting. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. The technique of buon fresco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. or fresco secco. Final details.Save in Venice. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. or true fresco. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. a person's invisible tutelary god. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. In art from the classical period onwards. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing .

Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. in portraits and on tombs. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. As such. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Maso di Banco. Maria Gloriosa). as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. and as spurring on men of action. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Gobelins . The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. how it differed from notoriety. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. as well as writers and artists. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Bernardo Daddi. whether it must be connected with the public good. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto.

Golden Fleece. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts.French tapestry manufactory. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. still in existence today. who appointed Lebrun Director. and although it reopened in 1699. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Paris. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. . which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. thereafter it made only tapestries. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. This ratio is approximately 8:13. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. In other Italian cities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. golden section (Lat. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70).

that the effects are to be felt. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. painting. or the influence of one building. the superficial particularities of form. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. In sculpture and in painting. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. c. painting. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Denis. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. 1200 and c. In particular. Nevertheless. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Gothic Gothic. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. 1270. . stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. In thinking of Nicola (d. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). from the 13th until the 17th century. and lies much deeper than. The artistic. like the cultural and commercial. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. There is a transcendental quality. Amiens. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification.

and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Dubuffet. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. the beau idéal of the French. starch. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). without visible brush marks. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Such tours often took a year or more. Honey. with sable. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. It is thinned with water for applying. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. These qualities.and hog-hair brushes. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and Piranesi. Klee. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Pannini. chiefly to France. to silk. and the great style. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. are but different appellations of the same thing'. to white or tinted paper and card and. and Morris Graves. occasionally. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and above all Italy.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. and taste among the English. . genius. if required. Canaletto. the Netherlands. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. notably in the writings of Bellori. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni.

graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. drawing and the various forms of engraving. From 1266 to 1268. the parties taking a multitude of local names. brother of Louis IX. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. exclude drawing from this definition. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. including text as well as illustrations. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. In Florence. usually gray. internal factions in Florence went under other names. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. 1216. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. through central Italy. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. After the War of the Eight Saints. gris. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. then as now.e. Although its palace was rebuilt c. grisaille (Fr. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. and Waiblingen. after this. which had recruited most of the merchant class. . finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. however. became an abiding feature of European politics. Some writers. In another sense. however. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. In the context of the fine arts. c. to Provence and Paris.

acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In 16th century Venice. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. H hatching In a drawing. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guilds were not equal. heraldry (Fr. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. "herald") . guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. trades. trade or profession (painters. héraut. [science] héraldique. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. notably Florence in the 14th century.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft." from Fr. surgeons. print or painting. for example. In Florence. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. "[knowledge of] heraldry. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. or professions. as some did). and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. and provided assistance to members in need. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In Italy they go back a long way. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. Guilds were also patrons of art. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The guild also monitored standards of work. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and greater hostility between master and man. In some cities. In some towns. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. goldsmiths. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. but in time they acquired other functions.

They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. and regarded themselves as forming. the Cathars were an anti-church. i. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. d. the followers of Juan de Valdes. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. head of the 'carnal Church'. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. one great missionary community. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. By contrast. However. the Waldensian. indeed. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. The main impact of the . as Antichrist. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. with the rules governing their use. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. normative for churchmen. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. they were condemned in 1184. while others merged with the Waldensians. together with brethren north of the Alps. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. from the start.

Germany. and. J. In humanism. humanus. humanism (Lat. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. F. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Morse. Henry Inman. Church. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Kensett. Jasper Cropsey. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. At the same time. hortus conclusus (Lat. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. mainly in the south. B. history (usually classical history). The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. its subjects considered morally elevating.movement upon the laity was in southern France. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. American painters were studying in Rome. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. working from 1825 to 1875. my spouse'. Durand. in his earlier work. Thomas Cole. the emancipation of man from God took place. Frederick E. F. S. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. George Inness. and classical literature.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. soft style. Veronica. Donatallo. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. with many further details added. usually the donors of a work of art. investiture . "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Derived from classical rhetoric. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. In the second half of the 14th century. the ability to create. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the hammer. inventio (It. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. etc. Judas' thirty pieces of silver.g. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. the pincers. the rooster of Peter's denial. there are representations of the bundle of rods. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. or of other saints. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. are also used in art literature. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. trecento rococo and lyrical style. the veil of St. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. originality. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). and the ladder. For instance. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. beautiful style. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. invention. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the scourge that was used in the scourging. The terms court style. and they are also depicted on their own. Human figures. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread.

principally Dutch. Nicolaes Berchem. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. and Jan Asselijn. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Andries and Jan Both. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. of Utrecht. Italianizers Northern artists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Jerome's writings. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Both and Berchem. The Both brothers. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. . Upon his return to Holland. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. who traveled in Italy and. generally Dutch or Flemish. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. although they are usually called Romanists. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation).

lectern A reading stand or desk.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. liberal arts .1519). Legenda Aurea (Lat. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. As their military role grew. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. especially one at which the Bible is read. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. John of Jerusalem . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. encouraged by the Crusades. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). the rite of communion is based on this. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. Archbishop of Genoa.

grammar. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. together with identifying attributes (e. and Frederick E. geometry. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. first the preparatory trivium . loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. It is related to. Kensett (1816-1872).g. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900).These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. a semicircular space. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. Pythagoras for arithmetic. astronomy and music. Church (1826-1900). . Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Tubal for music). lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Heade (1819-1904). "little moon") In architecture. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Martin J. rhetoric and dialectic. that may contain a window. Maria Novella in Florence). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. lunette (Fr. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. John F. often standing in markets and town squares.g. poetic atmosphere. its roof supported by columns. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. then the basis of a philosophical training. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's).) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. that could be used for public ceremonies. painting or sculptural decoration.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. commemorating a marriage. through the use of aerial perspective. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. the quadrivium. comprising arithmetic. often sublime. loggia (It.

originating in Italy in the 14th century. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. madrigal A part song. manganese purple. and iron red. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. 1855–65. "almond") . The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. antimony yellow. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. originally sung without accompaniment. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. usually for the lute. particularly such ware produced in Italy. historical subjects. being written. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. Specifically. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and accompaniments. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. and portraits as well as landscapes. and however bright their lighting effects.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. active mainly in Florence c. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). "great mother") A mother goddess. mandorla (It. for example. When white is used for painting. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. the goddess Cybele. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. copper green. but they painted genre scenes. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). with secular texts replacing sacred ones. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. magna mater (Lat.

style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Developing out of the Renaissance. the hand-written medieval book. strong. marked by flagellation. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. the Codex manuscriptus. and literary texts. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. "manner. depending on the social class of the wearer. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. El Greco and Tintoretto. Flanders. Burgundy. ecclesiastical. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. worn open. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. more strictly. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. In Mannerist painting. Parmigianino. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. often ornamented with decorative borders. bound. Bronzino. complex and crowded compositions. In architecture. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. which was quarried at Mount . Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. It reached to the knee or foot. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. mantle An overcoat. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and crowned with thorns. illuminated initials and miniatures. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. in a specific sense. maniera. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Mannerism (It.

Like the finest Imperial coins. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Without monetary value. the medal's purpose was commemorative. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. The pure white Carrara marble. sleek surface. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. "witness. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles.Pentelicon in Attica. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Carrara. an inscription running round the rim. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. particularly by Michelangelo. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. a different design on the reverse. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. quarried at Massa. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. marmi finti (It. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. having finished his training. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. medallion In architecture. martyrion. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. martyrdom (Gk. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. proof") the sufferings.

sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. c. as it were. When Perseus cuts off her head.round the neck. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. 1467-688). Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. in England. This yields a soft effect in the print. the stress on individual character. even grain. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. The work of these men. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. 14601528). Her head features on Minerva's shield. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Ludwig von Siegen. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. In pure mezzotint. A Dutch officer. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. particularly. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. often anonymous. Medusa In Greek mythology. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. of the person portrayed on the other side. 1640. for landscapes and portraits. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. It was. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. c. no line drawing is employed. 1425-1504). every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. 1452-1526/27). Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. perhaps oddly. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. a Gorgon. and of the many. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. who reflected them. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. supposedly to petrify her enemies. . The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. The process is essentially extinct today. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori.

Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. e. a branch of the Franciscan order. "one color") Painted in a single color. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.g.. Many such small versions. monochrome (Gk. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. usually portraits. executed on a very small scale. ink and paint. "word. monokhromatos. a painting executed in a single color. still exist. miter A high. Francis himself. saying") . painting in gouache on vellum or card. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. motto (Ital. Parmigianino (d. by Tiepolo and Rubens. pointed headdress worn by bishops. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. often quite highly finished.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored.

and their work is clear and prettily coloured. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. 1816-17. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Isidore. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. and is intersected by the transept. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Nazarenes A group of young. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Berlin. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and two other members moved to Rome. . naturalism (Fr. and Casino Massimo. often separated from it by pillars. 1817-29).from the Middle Ages. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. but often insipid. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. navis. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. named after the patron saint of painting. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Rome. Pforr. In general. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. It may have parallel aisles on each side. In 1810 0verbeck. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The invention of personal mottos. nave (from Lat.

nigellus. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). usually golden. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). moreover. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. but their ideas continued to be influential. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. niello (Lat. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. is as true as it is notorious. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. nimbus (Lat. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825).) . that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. the style of the Ancien Régime. Popes.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. "aureole") The disc or halo. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. were usually old when elected. Nymphaeum (Gk.

The Ionic order had a slenderer column. the Doric order. was the simplest. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. fluted column and a plain capital.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. inborn sin. walnut. "services. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a small private chapel. such as linseed. . an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). O obsequies (Lat. a more elaborate base. the three basic styles of design. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. with a sturdy. capital. The earliest. They are seen in the form of the columns. Greek goddesses of Nature. and entablatures. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. its richness of colour. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. obsequia. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). or poppy. and its greater tonal range. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. observances") Rites performed for the dead. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. orders of architecture In classical architecture. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls.

Alberti described the palace as a city in little.g.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. and the main apartments above. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. P pala (Ital. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. palazzo (It. the Cancelleria). and. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. designed as a . tradition and social structure. with biforate windows. like cities. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. while shops came to be thought undignified. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. standing at the foot of the Cross. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. Palazzo Strozzi). reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles.

Following Oriental patterns. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. behind a sober Florentine façade. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Other cities. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. especially after the Sack of Rome. came to be applied all over Europe. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. and Palladio's in Vicenza. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions.g. column-caps.scholarly retreat. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Papal incentives to build. e. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. often built next to their titular churches. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. like the colonnaded vestibule. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Movement of patrons and architects. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). like Genoa. In Venice. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. panel . cornices and abutments.g. evolved influential types. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. palmette. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Rich. Palazzo Massimi). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. and large households. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.

the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. On a larger scale. as it were. so that they might have a voice at court. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. The third aspect was administrative. or other rigid substance. In the 20th century cedar. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. chestnut. fibre-board. linden. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. larch. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. the management of clerical dues and taxation. and the pressure and temptations . the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. teak.Term in painting for a support of wood. and other synthetic materials as supports. Having a circular plan. secular rulers. or the incidence of taxation. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. As successors to St Peter. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. including beech. cedar. however. enforce law and order. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. fir. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. olive. Then. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and walnut. and modern painters have also used plywood. slate has occasionally been used as a support. as distinct from canvas. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). panel painting Painting on wooden panels. A number of matters. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. to influence popes in their favour. the. To maintain their authority. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. metal. and dark walnut are favourites. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. mahogany. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Many other types were used. and spanned by a single dome. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome.

Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. to be long delayed. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. It was argued that such a council. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope.that could be applied to them. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. was long in doubt. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. the most appropriate . So onerous. of individuals. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. would. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. however. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. at Avignon. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. By then.as well. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. as such. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). if it did no serious damage to the faith. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. which met at Constance 1414-18. from the point of view of its religious associations. however. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. in the eyes of God. in spite of further absences from Rome. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. There remained. which seems so inevitable. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. possess an authority which. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. Colonna and Caetani. To resolve the problem of divided authority. however. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . As at Avignon. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. could supersede that of a pope.

but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. and other animals. pastor. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. the creation of a cultural capital. in classical literature. scholars and men of letters. and satyrs. and with Zeuxis (c. However.. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. Parrhasius (c. to a world peopled by shepherds. as well as a governmental one. nymphs. less frequently pig. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. goat. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. it has also been used for painting. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. 400-300 BC). through lavish patronage of artists. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Passion . it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. pastoral (Lat.

and also the archbishop of Pisa. papilio. . pavilion (Lat. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Meanwhile. which focus on the Suffering Christ. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. Francesco Salviati. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. and so on. but not necessarily a direct copy. "butterfly. the crown of thorns. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss.) or pasticcio (It. Portrayals of the Passion.The events leading up to Good Friday. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. patrician (Lat. 1478. ornamental building. wealthy citizen. projecting either centrally or at both ends. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. patricius. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. 1478). other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. such as a garden summerhouse. pastiche (fr. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. hence tent") A lightly constructed. a small. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. a region in north-central Italy. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements.

physiognomy (Gk. "nature". But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. perspective (Lat. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. . They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. pendant (Fr. pergola (It. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. and gnomon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and facere. "person". "hanging. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. perspicere. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. physis. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "to see through. personification (Lat. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. in particular the face. concept or deity. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). or related elements within an art work. persona. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown.

picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.piano nobile (Ital. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Rome. Pietà (Lat. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. but may consist of a cluster of columns. to be expressed in painting. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. usually above the ground floor. proper to take a landscape from. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. pigmentum. . exemplified. for example. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.) The main floor of a building. pigment (Lat. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. A pier is generally larger than a column. Peter's. curious details. glue. or resin to make paint. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. affording a good subject for a landscape. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. remarkable for singularity. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. both real and painted. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. striking the imagination with the force of painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. but full of variety. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. containing the public rooms.

and capital. a shaft. plague Plague. the burning of 'infected' clothing. It seems probable. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. For this reason.pilaster (Lat. despite regional variations. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. more sporadic outbreaks. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). and thereafter all Europe. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. perhaps. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. in October 1347. however. since. Rocco and Sebastian. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. such as Florence and Genoa. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . outside Tuscany. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. pilastrum. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. also used in Spain's American colonies. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. it has a base. moreover. for instance. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. It is often fluted. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. it is difficult to find. though in less widespread. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Thenceforward. "pillar") A flat. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. During 1348 the Black Death. In the 15th century.

. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. or simply the Plateresque. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. more severe.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. are the masterworks of the second style. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. utilized Mudejar ornament -. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Theatetus and the Laws. composition. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. heraldic escutcheons. Diego evolved a purer. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). and sinuous scrolls. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Philebus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. The first phase. which lasted only a few decades. Timaeus. the Symposium. correct classical orders became frequent. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. In contrast with Aristotle. Phaedo. harmonious. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. The first phase. The second phase. and unified style using massive geometric forms. A student of Socrates. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. placement. Phaedrus. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. or appropriateness. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. i. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. the Renaissance-Plateresque. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. like its successor.e.

It was especially in a number of academies in France and . A new Latin translation.in Plato's thought. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. replaced Ficino's. all of which he also translated into Latin. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries.1577) becoming particularly popular. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. the greatest of his ancient disciples. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. near Florence. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Plotinus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Unlike the case of Aristotle. partially. but not completely. and Agostino Steuco (c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Iamblichus. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. and he utilized many other writings. 1472-c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. including those of Plotinus. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. systematized and added to what Plato had done. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Rather unsystematic. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. and the Chaldaic Oracles. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony.

such as processions and consecrations. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Frequently supports a pediment. pluviale. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. portico (Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Lat. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. or statue. plinth (Gk. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. porticus. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. as in classical architecture). portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Plato was read in the universities. polyptych (Gk. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. where a pectoral is used to close it.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. pluvial (Med. column. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. plinthos. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. poluptukhos. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. pointed arch In architecture. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara.

whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Venice). Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. was revived in the 14th century. 1328. Palazzo Farnese). The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature.sculptors such as Donatello. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. flattened image. and only a decorative accessory to form. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The realism of the clear. Florence. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. the Carracci. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Desiderio da Settignano. decorating whole rooms. Siena.e. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Group portraits. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. The equestrian portrait. Gattarnelata. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Cathedral) by Uccello.. Maria Novella. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Campidoglio). Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. and the . Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Colleoni. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Florence (1486-90). National Gallery). Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. inessential. Mantua. psychologically more complex.

Savonarola and Musso. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. of the sermon as an art form. Charles Le Brun. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). bishop of Chioggia. are not florid in style. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. who had as their ideal masters Titian. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. several of whom became bishops. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. was versed in classical and patristic . abrasive even.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. to discharge their preaching duties. The sermons of Visdomini. and Peter Paul Rubens. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Fiamma's sermons. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. bishops especially. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. minatory exhortations. 1494). from the secular clergy. Borromeo. The styles of S. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Correggio. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. and. bishop of Asti. together with the Dominican Savonarola. however. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. As Poussin was a Frenchman. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. not least those of statesmen and prelates. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. primarily the mendicants. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael.

Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. though often relatively very wide .the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. predella (It. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.rhetoric. prefiguration Typology . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. The New Testament references in these would.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. however. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala).they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. tapestries. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Millais and Rossetti. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Louis of Toulouse (1317. and so forth. Naples). Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. among them Holman Hunt. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Because of the small size of predelle . presbytery (or choir) (Gk.g. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.

2. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). and Ingres among painters and Clodion. and Houdon among sculptors.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. 3. "evenness") in painting. Girardon. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Prix de Rome A scholarship. which uses the square . sculpture and architecture. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. again indicative of the purpose they served. intended as complete works of art in themselves. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. notably David. the quadrature. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. proportio. profil perdu (Fr. the golden section. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). these highly finished drawings. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the Canon of Proportion. proportion (Lat. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. The following are important: 1. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Fragonard. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries.

quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size.as a unit of measurement. one half the length of the other). "boys") Plump naked little boys. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. Ignazio. . Unlike Pozzo. putto (It. and 5. provenance The origins of an art work. 4. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. It was common in Roman art. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. the steward or treasurer of a church. a fourth = 3:4. a fifth = 2:3. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. putti sing. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. for example). many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Rome. harmonic proportions. triangulation.

in particular works by Masaccio. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. friars and nuns.g. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Lat. refectory (Med. relief (Lat. the great orders of monks. Brunelleschi.Quattrocento (It. relicquiae. relevare. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Among the . Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Donatello. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in which figures are almost detached from their background. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. and high relief (alto rilievo). or the Jesuits. or some item connected with a saint. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. also known as the Realist school. with the Anglican Church developing in England. relic (Lat. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. hermits. the object of particular veneration. e. In 16th century Europe. basso rilievo). religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). in which figures are seen half round. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Fra Angelico and others. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. canons regular. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Botticelli.

which was to become the main Italian one. The same bull . Bernardino of Siena. In 1504. 1012. The Conventuals. the most notable being S. Salvatore. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Bologna (1419). Mantua. was the congregation of S. Giustina. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. and their more institutionalized brethren. Lucca. the Conventuals. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. although technically of secular canons. Padua. S. Benedetto. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The Silvestrines. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. In 1517. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. Giorgio in Alga. That of S. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. various groups were fused in the latter body. who had no overall organization originally. After the repression of the Spirituals. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Lorenzo Giustiniani. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. it became the Cassinese congregation. Maria di Fregonaia. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life.contemplative orders. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. however. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. At the same time. presided over by chapters general.e. Venice (1404). with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. the great patriarch of Venice. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. and the generally moderate Observants. i. Founded by St Romuald c. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Benedictines. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S.

Other orders of Friars were the Minims. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Angela Merici. however. the Theatines. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Filippo Neri. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. however. The first.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. also. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). founded in 1535 by S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Venice. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Gaetano da Thiene. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. a historical period. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Michele in Isola. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. founded by S.

because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. because its core of energy. 1875-86). Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. and his own as potentially one of light. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. of scholarship. however. life. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of an energetic revival of interest in. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. even Amoralism. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy.century. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. For long. the historical reality of antiquity. of arts. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of letters. as well as political. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). however. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. which had begun early in the 14th century. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. was so vast and potent. All-Roundness. and competition with. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. too long forgotten glories. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Thereafter. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. increasingly. of 'darkness'. .

) was the term chosen. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. later still to Genoa. etc. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. The challenges are to be accepted. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. let alone a uniform. There was an early. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. retables can be detached and. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. especially in the High Gothic period. Cathedral of SaintBavon. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. It is for this additional. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . mobilized nationalism. however. in the more limited sense. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). sometimes. consist merely of a painting. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. and is decorated with paintings. statues. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Ghent). though sometimes of metal. and mass media. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. of industrialization. etc. and other liturgical objects. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Though thus challenged. letters. (3) There is not a true. gratefully.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism.erased. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. congruence between. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. the previous record . 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. candlesticks. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. 'culture' and 'history' during the period.with all its shabbiness .

Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Germany. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. With the development of freestanding altars. its mood lighthearted and witry.of St Mark in Venice. literally. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Romanesque art. Rococo A style of design. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. rocaille (French. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. it indicates a derivation from Roman art.France. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Spain . often considered the last stage of the Baroque. almost simultaneously. Originally commissioned in 976. is a typical product. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. the first style to achieve such international currency. Italy. and 'Romanesque'. the St. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. As the name suggests. More usually. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. however. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. like 'Gothic'. Louis XV furniture. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. rilievo (It. painting. . The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. retables have become extinct. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.in the 11th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. richly decorated with organic forms. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). in several countries . "relief") In painting. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.

making it the centre of the High Renaissance. van Orley. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Claude. In addition. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Heemskerk. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Piranesi. the development of nationalistic pride.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. such as red ochre. Mabuse. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Rome. . they maintained. B. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Massys and M. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). stylized design representing an open rose. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Q. The aim of painting. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. M. Pannini and Mengs.

In the . the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. but others were the work of well-known figures. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. the Eucharist. local saints.expressed through gesture.greatly increased. Written primarily in ottava rima. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. Clement escaped into Castel S. Sacra Conversazione (It. and Lorenzo de' Medici. gutted. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . confirmation. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Orthodox.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. supported by lay confraternities. matrimony. and anointing of the sick. holy orders. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. There were no limits on time. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. pious legend and hagiography. from the Old and New Testaments. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Subjects were nominally sacred. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). Many compositions were anonymous. and Protestant churches. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). when it finally left the city it had devastated. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. penance. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). glance and movement . "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Eastern independent. and impoverished. multiple sets used in succession.

Thus. the Bentivoglio. Hence. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it.e. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. in principle. sacraments. Salt War. Immediately following baptism. and then face east. foot washing. as in the Church of the Brethren. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Saracens . make such strict distinctions. the symbolic direction of Christ. It is still practiced on special occasions. was buried under a new fortress. fixed the number of sacraments at seven." sala (Ital. which in the Gospel According to John. the sun of righteousness. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Lutheran. as an excuse to revolt. baptism and the Eucharist. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. and sacraments. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. The chief focus of discontent. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology.early church the number of sacraments varied. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge.. that the price of salt should be increased. replaces the Lord's Supper. used for drawing. Candidates first face west. the Rocca Paolina. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments ." which are called sacramentals. the Orthodox Church does not. Anglican.) Hall. strictly speaking.. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. chapter 13. was not maintained as a sacrament. notably from Florence and in Germany. They were still seeking aid. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.i. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. large room. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions.e. The classical Protestant churches (i.

satyr In Greek mythology. the god of wine.During the Middle Ages. 270 BC). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell.c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Little known in the Middle Ages. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 210 AD). and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. 360 . made of stone. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. pl. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. legs and horns of a goat. The publication of Latin (1562. the Arabs or Muslims. human-like woodland deities with the ears. sarcophagi (Gk. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).c. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. whose writings. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). wood or terracotta. and many others. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. are lost. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). sarcophagus. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 160 . 45 BC).

for. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. most of whom. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Alexander V. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. than their medieval predecessors. and. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. 1386) and his son Ladislas. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). being Frenchmen. As a result. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. scholasticism . and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. In northern Italy. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. with France and her allies Aragon. on the other. was called Bamboccio. Charles III of Durazzo (d. but with little effect. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). one of the early leaders. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. However. Schism. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. while devout Christians agonized. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). who recognized the Roman pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome.for example Pieter van Laer. from time to time both he and his opponents. while England. Louis I (d. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. on one side.they had individual Bentnames . in June 1409. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. the Florentines.

But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. because the secco technique is much less permanent. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. notably Aquinas. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. on one side. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. Padua. textual scholarship. As such. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Often called the burning ones. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Serenissima (Ital. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. None the less. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. the plaster had to be damped before painting. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. history and rhetoric . moreover. that scholasticism was left.moral philosophy.The term is ambivalent.) . a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. if lime-water was used. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels.were different from those of medieval. Medieval scholars. It was because the central concerns of humanism . university-based study. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. as it is easier to add details in this way. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. as it were. Christian. and Islamic literature. and theology. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. (See also: fresco. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.

usually presided over by individual families. Sibyls foretold the Birth. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. women who could prophesy. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Lat. sibylla. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. the number gradually rose to ten. In Christian legend. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament.. in use since the Middle Ages. at the same time. there was only one Sibyl. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. brass. sibyls (Gk. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Signoria (It. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. Originally.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. in the period of classical antiquity. "the most serene republic of Venice"). which were all identical in thickness. "prophetess") In antiquity. term. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. and the delicate. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. sinopia . Servite (Lat. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. sfumato A technique. Med. They first appear in alpine monasteries.

stigmata. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. brand. Francis of Assisi. Ital. Stanze (Ital. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . and. It is very closely related to International Gothic. sing. staffage This word. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. "mark. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint.) Wooden ceiling decoration. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. soffit (Lat. . at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. pronounced as French. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. especially in the flow of drapery. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. stigma (Gk.'Beautiful Madonnas'. the red chalk used to make such a drawing.. as the name implies. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. in other words. sotto in sù (It.

stucco A type of light. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. both external and internal. whose verses actually fabrications . Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. with that for the Picturesque. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. pl. The vogue for the Sublime. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). supremacy . usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. studiolo.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Indeed. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). In a looser sense. studioli (It. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. John Milton. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.

now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. . the supremacy of the English king over the English Church.Historically. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. was being decorated with frescoes. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. 1407). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. i. then being replaced by oil paint. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. The subject is underexplored.e. and in literature. But the Italians did not make them. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. London. These were imported. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). temperare. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .and. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. tempera (Lat. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. doubtless. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). into Italy. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. or cartoons. Salviati and Allori. chiefly from Flanders. both for panel painting and fresco. his own headquarters. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint.

pl. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and other surfaces. topoi (Gk. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon.e. figure of speech. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "a commonplace") In literature. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. in the architecture of ancient Rome. pl. walls.terracotta (It. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. vessels. theme or motif. tondo. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. triumphal arch. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. and sculptures. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "fields. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topiary (Gk. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. i. and later to subdivide gable ends. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. Trajan's Column . and profile. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. terraferma (Ital. in art. widely used form. tondi (It. quarter face. topia. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. model. topos. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows.

"threefold") A painting in three sections. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. beside it the army of martyrs. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Early triptychs were often portable. "threefold") in Christianity. the wars by which they were won . Disseminated soon after his death. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. tryptychos. as it were. a car so brave'. Battista Sforza. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Trinity (Lat. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. behind it. after 'a countless number of virgins. of both sexes'. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. patriarchs and prophets. . The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. death. chastity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. trinitas. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. into a number of less controversial forms. added to the glamour of the triumph.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . the military triumph became sublimated. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. triptych (Gk. of virtues and of the arts. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. the Son and the Holy Spirit. fame. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. or wings. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Meanwhile. usually an altarpiece. time and eternity.' Before it go the apostles.

Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. typology . tympanum (Lat. it is usually decorated with carvings. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. It incorporates Renaissance features. first recorded in 1232. viscous black ink. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Dating from classical times. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. tromp l'oeil (Fr. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "drum") In classical architecture. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. often decorated with sculptures. tusche A thick. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In medieval architecture. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. enclosed by an arch. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. through various naturalistic devices.

such as five works devoted to the senses. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. In Christian thought. Judith. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. 1590-1624). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. slayer of Goliath. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. knew his former patrons. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. killer of Holofernes.Dirck van Baburen (c. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. e. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.) The Renaissance "universal man". especially his half-length figural groups. lanterns. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. were popular with them also.A system of classification. each had access to his paintings. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. 1610).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.g. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. The numerous candles. . and David. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. where they were most accessible. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. U uomo universale (It.

consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. V vanishing point In perspective. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. hour-glasses and clocks. often gold. varietà (It. "evening") . Also varietas (Lat. the groin vault. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. and the rib vault. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. a work's richness of subject matter.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. Parisian craftsmen. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. snuff boxes and other objects. mixed in. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death.). veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vanitas (Lat. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. Vespers (Lat. vesper. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. There are a wide range of forms. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. it was used to decorate furniture. overturned vessels. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. guttering candles.

if you have it not'. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. vita. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. virtù could be used. 'Assume a virtue. "life") . vite (Lat. Hope. vestibulum. the church service at which these prayers are said. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. actual or latent. Vestibule (Lat. and Justice. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Anger. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Covetousness.Prayers said in the evening. "not exposed to winds". Gluttony. The seven Virtues were: Faith. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. and Sloth. pl. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vimperga Of German origin. Lust. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Envy. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. In ancient Roman dwellings. for example. Prudence. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Charity. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Fortitude. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Temperance. in which the word signifies efficacy. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha.

Marcus (1st cent. 1478-80. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. they were from the 18th century . came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and appalled recognition of. The wars from 1494 do. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte.g. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. 1482-84). fall into a different category from those that preceded them. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. or recovery from illness has been made. Sculptors and Architects"). Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and of Ferrara. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. usually when a prayer for good fortune.An account of someone's life and work. those of Volterera. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. in fact. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. protection from harm. Vitruvius Pollio. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1472. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. published in 1550 and 1568. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. a biography. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

gallery. It was intended to have a variety of functions. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. based on stylization of various animal forms. "world view") A comprehensive world view. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Westwerk German word. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. woodcut A print made from a wood block. pompous on the floor above. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. a philosophy of life. "Western work of art". usually linear. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. treasury or a place where justice was administered.Weltanschauung (Gr. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. usually restorers. during its subsequent history. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. . Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.

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