This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and Rouault. arcade (Lat. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Degas. arkhitektonikos. There are several variants of the technique. including Goya. In Greek and Roman literature. Picasso. . at the east end of a church behind the altar.A semicircular projection.e. architrave (It. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Lancet and Tudor. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). "architectural") Relating to structure. roofed with a half-dome. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. Also known as an exedra. the moulding around a window or door. design. The term applies also to a print made by this method. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. or organization. arcus. piers or pillars. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. the lowest part of the entablature). architectonic (Gk. The adjective is apsidal. the darker the tone). a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. which is fused to the plate by heating. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. but in essence the process is as follows. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish.
the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. aureolus. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "begin.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Dante's Vita nuova . Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. attribute (Lat. voltus.archivolt (Ital. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . dominate. archivolto. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. In the case of martyrs. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. attributum.and the Comedy ." from Gk. "front arch. aureole (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat. usually a saint. archeiu." and Lat. "golden. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .
as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. that of Cardano. The actual move was made in 1309. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). applied to the physically . Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. paintings of everyday life. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Later. or baldacchino (It. Six pontificates later. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the god of wine and fertility. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. 'Captivity'. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. often anecdotal. in 1377. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. who had been residing in France since 1305. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. baldachin.
a visual metaphor for the number eight. France. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. el Kantara. Customarily. Spalato [Split. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Lebanon. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. such as those at Pisa. Parma. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Florence. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. As eight follows the "complete" number. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. pope between 432 and 440. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. and Poitiers. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. and Epiphany. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. AD 273. banderuola. AD 300)." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. or forecourt. built by Sixtus III.. Baalbek. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small.. beggars in rags. and Nocera in Italy. Easter. and abject filthy things. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. . Pentecost. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. seven. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. or canopy. a church.g. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. banderole (It. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Alg. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. the Temple of Venus. set beneath a domical ciborium. or connected with. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Croatia].
a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Théodore Rousseau (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. baptisteries. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Vermeer). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. in its usual location near the church door . and thus a church. southeast of Paris. Jules Dupré (French.an allusion to entering the Christian life. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Baroque (Port. Also tunnel vault.In the 10th century. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. barocco. Originally. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Constant Troyon (French. 1810-1865). a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. In architecture. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. in the 1840s and 1850s. 1817-1878). 1811-1889). and increasingly elaborate decoration. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Jean-François Millet (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). and (3) everyday realism. 1814-1875). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. were often omitted entirely. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. "king's hall") a church building. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. something of earlier symbolism survives. achieved through scale. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. usually facing east. 1796-1875). or baptismal chapels. basilica (Gk. however. which is reserved for the clergy. . 1807-1876). a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. stoa basilike. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. Rubens).
also incorrectly called bisque. in which still-life predominates. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. bodegón Image. like their Dutch counterparts. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. or which is to be left as it is. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. as is to be expected. often with food and drink. such as Waldmüller. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. Biscuit porcelain. were referred to by their specific contents. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Bodegónes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Book of Hours . domesticity. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. The term was mainly used up to c. up until the mid-17th century. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. There were. By association.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. such as those by Diego Velázquez. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. and often sentimentality. which is either not yet glazed. however. particularly porcelain. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. especially Spanish. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. It takes its name from its grainy texture. Spanish still-lifes. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. 1650 in Spain.
By extension. made as a study for a larger picture. though these are more often called 'modelli'. Chantilly). but can also be used for painted sketches. varying from silverish to a rich. or seasons. and the fact that it is easily workable . The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. months.both hot and cold . breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bozzetto Strictly speaking. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture.by a variety of processes. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. . durability.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. days of the week. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. See flying buttress.an advantage over marble sculpture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . bozzetto(Italian. coppery red. a rapid sketch in oil. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.
box") In architecture. ceramics. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. caisson (Fr. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). mosaics. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. cameo Small relief made from gems.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. C cabinet A small. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. It also served to glorify the emperor. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. and work in precious metals. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Duccio. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. private room where works of art. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. and Giotto. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. notable from Syria and Egypt. "a chest. casson. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Among its most distinctive products were icons. glass. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. its forms highly stylized. manuscript illuminations. camera obscura . which was often allegorical.
capitellum. candlestick.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candelabra. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. as an aid to drawing. candelabrum (It. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. dating to antiquity. . canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. sing. "candle") A large. hemp. Portable versions were built." and the earliest versions. usually built beside or attached to a church. other materials used are cotton. which isolates the fabric from the paint. capital (Lat. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. The Latin name means "dark chamber. cantoria. candela. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually decorated. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. pl.-N. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. both of which have richly carved marble panels. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantorie (It. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. and jute.) A gallery for singers or musicians. campanile Bell tower. usually in a church. by the 16th century. followed by smaller and even pocket models. which was usually whitened. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. usually with several branches or arms. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. Niepce created photography. only very rough effects will be obtainable. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. Structurally. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall.
Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).a humorous drawing or parody. and humanism. the endeavour to attain true humanity. cartoon (It. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. tapestry. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. details of the subject. New Charterhouses. cartellino. the date of the painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. At the height of the Middle Ages. Carmelites (Lat. cartouche .who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . the Carmelites were originally hermits. near Grenoble. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartone. Fortitudo (Fortitude). and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). or a motto. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended.both Italians and artists from other countries . An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Carthusian Order (Lat. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. monasteries containing separate hermitages. cartellini In a painting. pl. The order combines reclusive and community life. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. In fresco painting. cardinalis. or fresco.
of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. putti (cupids). and swags of fruit and flowers. Cascina. cathedral (cathedra. they were also used in other countries. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures.) "castle". Paolo Uccello. These lead up to the north and south transepts. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). In the 15th century. castello (It. They contained the bride's clothes. a cathedral always faces west . or arms of the cross. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. or nave. caryatid (Gk. The altar is placed at the east end. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature.toward the setting sun. palace. decorated with gilt gesso. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. The main body. For reasons lost to time and tradition. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. where the throne of the bishop is placed. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. cassone (It. . linen. and many other items of her dowry. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework.
continually praise him. landscapes. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. "in the centre". Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. Christian. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. central perspective (Lat. Relative to the observer. . centralis. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). Both the statement of St. as celestial attendants of God. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. or birdlike characteristics. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. animal. and perspicere. in accordance with their distance from the observer. champlevé (Fr.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. a celestial winged being with human. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. and Islamic literature. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. a throne bearer of the deity. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. buildings and figures that are being depicted. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. rather than intercessory functions. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired.
and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases.chiaroscuro (It." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. North of the Alps. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. replacing tempera. or for choral singing. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. choros. "light dark") In painting. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. the Order of the Hospital of St." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. Since Carolingian times. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Lastly. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. Hans Burgkmair (1510)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. reserved for the clergy to pray together. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. choir (Gk.
The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. a massing of carved angels. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Sculpted clouds. an architect. became the most common motif. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. and garlands. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. balustrades. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. is as typically Churrigueresque.intersect). whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. undulating lines. reversed volutes. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. The Transparente (completed 1732). In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Spanish Rococo style in architecture. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. ciborium . and repetition of pattern. stucco shells. undulating cornices. gilded rays. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). Very few still exist in their original positions. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and the Churrigueresque column. further enriching the style.
the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. including the ciompi. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. combers. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Without being members of a guild. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. as also were those in the associated. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. The new government. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. beaters. the wool carder Michele di Lando. who were raised to the status of a guild.and post-medieval Italy. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. In reaction to this revolutionary . High Renaissance). the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. but self-employed. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Quattrocento (1400s. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. controlled by the minor guilds. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. on July 22. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. etc. ciompi. Then. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. They were forbidden to form a trade association. craft of dyeing. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. placing one of their members. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. or achieve political representation. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. Their economic condition worsened. Members of the lower classes.
together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration.episode. changed greatly from one period to the next. clair-obscur (Fr. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. however. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.) An ancient musical instrument. cithara (Gk. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. editing and translating a wide range of texts. with Italian scholars. and politics. philosophy and art . where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. the ciompi guild was abolished. In the 15th century Greek literature. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. scholars patiently finding. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. except in cases where . classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). resembling a lyre. Concepts of the classical. . "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. the black contours usually with a special line plate.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. literature. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). writers. on which strings were plucked. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). philosophy. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.
intensify one another. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. arch or ceiling. cognoscente (It." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. condottiere. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. Coffered ceilings. terrorized the country. . cognoscenti. condottieri (It. concetti (It. or "contract. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). compline (Lat. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. [hora] completa. pl. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. as well as from the Bible. those with refined tastes. Green and red. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. concetto. The name was derived from the condotta. literature or music. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. a work's underlying theme. blue and orange.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. when set side by side. occasionally made of wood. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. the church service at which these prayers are said. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. sing. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. pl.
and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. or with the spiritual assistance of. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Umbria. and his rival Braccio da Montone. flagellant confraternities. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili.devastating Romagna. With no goal beyond personal gain.e. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century.e. clergy. Francesco Sforza. in Venice. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. scuole. disappeared. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. i. commonly called either Compagnia di S. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Toward the end of the 15th century. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. who won control of Milan in 1450. Spanish. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. in the service of Perugia. in the service of Naples. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. By the end of the 14th century. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. By the 16th century. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. and Tuscany. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. i. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. primarily for syphilitics. Martino). confraternities Confraternities. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. . often called compagnie or. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. and German--the condottieri. Muzio's son. Mark (1432). these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Carmagnola. often under the direction of. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. which spread in the 15th century. convents of convertite. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri.
"outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. contour (Fr. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. e. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. but sometimes had their own premises. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). which accompanied condemned prisoners.i. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . and those which aided imprisoned debtors. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. however. while the Venetian government. flat outlines. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Dorotea in Trastevere. reformed prostitutes. contrapposto (It. founded c. in Florence. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. and refuges for maidens. e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. In medieval painting.g. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders.e. contour. Later. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. contours were initially regular.g. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. 1514 in S. Confraternities. notwithstanding their location. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the Florentine Neri. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy.
started the process of inner reform in the Church. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. conventiculurn. aes cyprium. large cornice or other feature. Lat. corbel In architecture. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. did not achieve any lasting results. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. The style spread as far as England. whose names are inscribed on several works. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. . Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. an engraving produced in this way.weight on one leg. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Reform programs. a bracket of stone. conventicle (Lat. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. 1280). The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. They are often ornamented. cuprum. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. 1100 and 1300. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. declining moral standards.
The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook.e. a small dome. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. the first Christian emperor. "small vat") In architecture. after being whipped. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Carthaginians.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. i. the condemned man. Jews. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. or "scourged. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. the most famous victim of crucifixion. particularly among the Persians. Usually. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. cupula. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. An ancestor of the oboe. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Seleucids. reedy sound. a semi-circular vault. There were various methods of performing the execution. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Next. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. D dado . Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Death. cupola (Lat. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. Constantine the Great. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment.
"servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. e. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Germany. but the concept behind an art work. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. which was help to be the basis of all art. an expressive use of nature.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. diptych (Lat. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. danse macabre The dance of death. diptychos. diakonos. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Deësis (Gk. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. design") In Renaissance art theory. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "drawing. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Gk. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. deacon (Gk. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. disegno (It. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Anglican and Orthodox churches. diptychum. The term stresses not the literal drawing. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. often an altarpiece. Passau. and Linz possessed common characteristics. usually in matching pairs.g. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art.
though a few artists. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). distemper (Lat.Thomas Aquinas. dome in architecture. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. when painters took to working out of doors.fully realize. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. also used it on canvas. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. As disegno appeals to the intellect. distemperare. "to mix. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. which runs on castors or wheels. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. is a heavy piece of furniture. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. such as we still use today. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. doublet A male garment. donator. Dominicans (Lat. formerly worn under armour. The studio easel. usually forming a ceiling or roof. donor (Lat. a 19th-century invention. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Ordo Praedictatorum.
and logos. eschatology (Gk. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. "last".forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. the frieze. entablature In classical architecture. full face. a depiction of Jesus. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. John (19. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. en face In portraiture. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. It consists of the architrave. Hence. sometimes combining panel painting. Ecce Homo (Lat. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. fresco. eschaton. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. and the cornice. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. sculpture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. and architecture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. bound and flogged. in art. "word") . epitaph (Gk. ensemble (Fr.
the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. eu. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Carnesecchi and Ochino. fields and livestock.death and resurrection. Contarini. farmers. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. Saints Ambrose." and that made in the Netherlands and England. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Spain. protector of shepherds. Vittoria Colonna. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. celebrated with bread and wine. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience." and charis. . "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. and is named for Faenza. 4500 BCE. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. which was developed in the Near East ca. notably Cardinal Pole. which is called "maiolica. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. which is called "delftware. which was famous for maiolica. Equated with the Greek god Pan. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. and Scandinavia. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Marcantonio Flaminio. Giovanni Morone. and of the last things. Eucharist (Gk.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. "good. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Jerome. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Italy. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Augustine. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Germany. particularly ware made in France.
The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. such as plague. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre.8). fresco (It. and flowers suspended in a loop. fluted of a column or pillar. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. famine and death. The colour of his horse is white. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. relaxed. black and dun. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). drying to a slightly different tint. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. sword and set of balances. can in time be seen. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. that of the others red. Their attributes are the bow. 2 . war. a swag. leaves. a technique known as a secco fresco. frescos in Italy . well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting.festoni (It. Only a small area can be painted in a day. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Committed to charitable and missionary work. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. and these areas.
the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . usually childish figure. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. G Garter. covings and ceilings. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. genre In a broad sense. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). In art from the classical period onwards. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. or fresco secco. Genius in classical Rome. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or true fresco. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper.Save in Venice. Final details. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. both in churches and in private and public palaces. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. where the atmosphere was too damp. a person's invisible tutelary god. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. landscape and portraiture. the intonaco. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing .) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. are genres of painting. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. The technique of buon fresco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. for example. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.
but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. in portraits and on tombs. As such. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. how it differed from notoriety. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Bernardo Daddi. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Maria Gloriosa). which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Gobelins . where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. whether it must be connected with the public good. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. as well as writers and artists. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Maso di Banco. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. and as spurring on men of action. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto.
In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. and although it reopened in 1699. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. . a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Golden Fleece. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. who appointed Lebrun Director. thereafter it made only tapestries. Paris. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In other Italian cities. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. golden section (Lat. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. This ratio is approximately 8:13. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order.French tapestry manufactory. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. still in existence today.
In thinking of Nicola (d. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Denis. c. Gothic Gothic. painting. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. . is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. 1200 and c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. painting. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. There is a transcendental quality. the superficial particularities of form. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. or the influence of one building. like the cultural and commercial. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. and lies much deeper than. In sculpture and in painting. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. from the 13th until the 17th century. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Amiens. 1270. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. that the effects are to be felt. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. The artistic. In particular. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. Nevertheless. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres.
Pannini. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and the great style. with sable. It is thinned with water for applying. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Honey. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. . Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. without visible brush marks. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. chiefly to France. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and taste among the English. and Piranesi. are but different appellations of the same thing'. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. to white or tinted paper and card and. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. the beau idéal of the French. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. genius. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. These qualities. Canaletto. if required. and Morris Graves. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. notably in the writings of Bellori. Such tours often took a year or more. the Netherlands. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. Dubuffet. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Klee. occasionally. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. starch. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and above all Italy. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and.and hog-hair brushes. to silk. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele.
through central Italy. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. In Florence. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. including text as well as illustrations. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. internal factions in Florence went under other names. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. From 1266 to 1268. however. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. In the context of the fine arts. and Waiblingen. . generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. exclude drawing from this definition.e. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. After the War of the Eight Saints. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In another sense. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. 1216. then as now. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. grisaille (Fr. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. to Provence and Paris. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. usually gray. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. brother of Louis IX. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Some writers. became an abiding feature of European politics.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. gris. drawing and the various forms of engraving. c. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. however. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Although its palace was rebuilt c. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. which had recruited most of the merchant class. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. after this.
and provided assistance to members in need. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. but in time they acquired other functions." from Fr. or professions. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. goldsmiths. In some cities. In Italy they go back a long way. [science] héraldique. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. "[knowledge of] heraldry. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. for example. trade or profession (painters. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. H hatching In a drawing. and greater hostility between master and man. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. In 16th century Venice. In Florence. trades. The guilds were not equal. Guilds were also patrons of art. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. "herald") . acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. surgeons. as some did). heraldry (Fr. héraut. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In some towns. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. print or painting. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The guild also monitored standards of work. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. such as Brescia and Vicenza. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. notably Florence in the 14th century.
head of the 'carnal Church'. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. while others merged with the Waldensians. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. from the start. with the rules governing their use. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. The main impact of the . Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. the Waldensian. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. However. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. together with brethren north of the Alps. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. they were condemned in 1184. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. i. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. indeed. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. as Antichrist. and regarded themselves as forming. normative for churchmen. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. d. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. one great missionary community. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. the followers of Juan de Valdes. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. the Cathars were an anti-church. By contrast.
Germany. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Frederick E. Henry Inman. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. B. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. working from 1825 to 1875. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. hortus conclusus (Lat. Thomas Cole. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece.movement upon the laity was in southern France. humanism (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. mainly in the south. Durand. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . American painters were studying in Rome. Kensett. and classical literature. F. my spouse'. J. Church. the emancipation of man from God took place. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. and. George Inness. history (usually classical history). may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. humanus. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. its subjects considered morally elevating. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Jasper Cropsey. Morse. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. in his earlier work. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. In humanism. At the same time. F. S. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. In the second half of the 14th century. For instance. Human figures. originality. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. are also used in art literature. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century.g. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). investiture . usually the donors of a work of art. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. it denominates a kind of behaviour. soft style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. etc. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the pincers.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. The terms court style. with many further details added. invention. and the ladder. the ability to create. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. there are representations of the bundle of rods. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Derived from classical rhetoric. the hammer. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Donatallo. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. inventio (It. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. and they are also depicted on their own. the rooster of Peter's denial. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the veil of St. beautiful style. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Veronica. the scourge that was used in the scourging. or of other saints.
and Jan Asselijn. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Both and Berchem. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. . although they are usually called Romanists. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Jerome's writings. Italianizers Northern artists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Upon his return to Holland. Andries and Jan Both. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. generally Dutch or Flemish. Nicolaes Berchem. of Utrecht. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. bathed in a golden haze. The Both brothers. who traveled in Italy and. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. principally Dutch. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation).
They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. As their military role grew. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. liberal arts . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. John of Jerusalem . especially one at which the Bible is read. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. the rite of communion is based on this. encouraged by the Crusades. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Archbishop of Genoa.1519). lectern A reading stand or desk. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Legenda Aurea (Lat.
astronomy and music. comprising arithmetic.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. painting or sculptural decoration. Church (1826-1900). John F. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).grammar. It is related to. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Heade (1819-1904). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. often sublime. that may contain a window. commemorating a marriage. geometry. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. often standing in markets and town squares.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. . "little moon") In architecture. through the use of aerial perspective. loggia (It. first the preparatory trivium .g. lunette (Fr.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Kensett (1816-1872). and Frederick E. Maria Novella in Florence). Martin J. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. poetic atmosphere. together with identifying attributes (e.g. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. a semicircular space. rhetoric and dialectic. Pythagoras for arithmetic. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. then the basis of a philosophical training. its roof supported by columns. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. the quadrivium. Tubal for music). that could be used for public ceremonies.
for example. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. Specifically. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. "almond") . particularly such ware produced in Italy. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). madrigal A part song. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. and iron red. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. originally sung without accompaniment. and accompaniments. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). originating in Italy in the 14th century. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. When white is used for painting. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. antimony yellow. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. mandorla (It. 1855–65. manganese purple. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. "great mother") A mother goddess. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. usually for the lute. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. being written. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. magna mater (Lat. copper green. the goddess Cybele. historical subjects. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. and portraits as well as landscapes. active mainly in Florence c. and however bright their lighting effects. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but they painted genre scenes. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Silvestro Lega (1826–95).
El Greco and Tintoretto. In architecture. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. It reached to the knee or foot. often ornamented with decorative borders. in a specific sense. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. and literary texts. strong. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. the Codex manuscriptus. "manner. ecclesiastical. and crowned with thorns. which was quarried at Mount . the hand-written medieval book. depending on the social class of the wearer. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism (It. more strictly. In Mannerist painting. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. bound. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Burgundy. complex and crowded compositions.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. illuminated initials and miniatures. Developing out of the Renaissance. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. mantle An overcoat. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Parmigianino. Bronzino. marked by flagellation. worn open. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Flanders. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. maniera. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration.
It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. quarried at Massa. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. particularly by Michelangelo. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. a different design on the reverse. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. martyrion. Carrara. which were beginning to be reverently collected. medallion In architecture. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Without monetary value. marmi finti (It. sleek surface. "witness. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. having finished his training. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). martyrdom (Gk. The pure white Carrara marble. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.Pentelicon in Attica. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Like the finest Imperial coins. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. proof") the sufferings. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. an inscription running round the rim. the medal's purpose was commemorative.
1425-1504). Medusa In Greek mythology. The process is essentially extinct today. c. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. who reflected them. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence.round the neck. as it were. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. particularly. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. of the person portrayed on the other side. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. and of the many. Her head features on Minerva's shield. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. even grain. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. The work of these men. 1640. 14601528). in England. no line drawing is employed. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. This yields a soft effect in the print. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. . When Perseus cuts off her head. a Gorgon. perhaps oddly. for landscapes and portraits. It was. 1452-1526/27). the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). the stress on individual character. often anonymous. In pure mezzotint. c. A Dutch officer. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. 1467-688). And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Ludwig von Siegen.
1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Francis himself.g. Parmigianino (d. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. "word. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. usually portraits. "one color") Painted in a single color. executed on a very small scale. a branch of the Franciscan order. miter A high. often quite highly finished. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. monokhromatos. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. Many such small versions.. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. pointed headdress worn by bishops. ink and paint. saying") . still exist. monochrome (Gk. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. e. a painting executed in a single color. motto (Ital.
from the Middle Ages. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. nave (from Lat. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. and Casino Massimo. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and two other members moved to Rome. Berlin. and is intersected by the transept. It may have parallel aisles on each side. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. In 1810 0verbeck. Nazarenes A group of young. 1816-17. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. often separated from it by pillars. but often insipid. . naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. 1817-29). Isidore. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. Rome. The invention of personal mottos. named after the patron saint of painting. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In general. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. navis. Pforr. naturalism (Fr.
the style of the Ancien Régime. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. nigellus. niello (Lat. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Nymphaeum (Gk. moreover. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. but their ideas continued to be influential. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). usually golden. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Popes. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. were usually old when elected. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). is as true as it is notorious. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. "aureole") The disc or halo. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.) . placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. nimbus (Lat. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768).
Greek goddesses of Nature. and its greater tonal range. walnut. O obsequies (Lat. inborn sin. . having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). The earliest. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. and entablatures. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. or poppy. orders of architecture In classical architecture. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. "services. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. obsequia.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). a more elaborate base. with a sturdy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. They are seen in the form of the columns. observances") Rites performed for the dead. the Doric order. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. fluted column and a plain capital. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. capital. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. the three basic styles of design. such as linseed. was the simplest. its richness of colour. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. a small private chapel.
The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. while shops came to be thought undignified. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. designed as a . Palazzo Strozzi). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. palazzo (It. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. and. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. P pala (Ital. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. and the main apartments above.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines.g. the Cancelleria). although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. tradition and social structure. standing at the foot of the Cross. with biforate windows. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). like cities. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.
more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Palazzo Massimi). meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. panel .g. like the colonnaded vestibule. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. e. In Venice.g. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. cornices and abutments. often built next to their titular churches. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. palmette. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. came to be applied all over Europe. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. and large households. like Genoa. evolved influential types. column-caps. especially after the Sack of Rome.scholarly retreat. and Palladio's in Vicenza. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Papal incentives to build. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Other cities. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Following Oriental patterns. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Movement of patrons and architects. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Rich. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). behind a sober Florentine façade.
or other rigid substance. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. teak. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. as it were. and modern painters have also used plywood. In the 20th century cedar. Many other types were used. the. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies.Term in painting for a support of wood. metal. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. fir. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Then. to influence popes in their favour. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. The third aspect was administrative. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. and spanned by a single dome. or the incidence of taxation. olive. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. including beech. and the pressure and temptations . On a larger scale. however. and walnut. the management of clerical dues and taxation. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. To maintain their authority. enforce law and order. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. chestnut. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. Having a circular plan. and dark walnut are favourites. as distinct from canvas. A number of matters. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. mahogany. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. secular rulers. slate has occasionally been used as a support. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. fibre-board. and other synthetic materials as supports. larch. As successors to St Peter. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. linden. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. cedar. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. so that they might have a voice at court. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. wooden panels were the standard support in painting.
The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city.as well. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. which seems so inevitable. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. was long in doubt. however. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. however. as such. There remained. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. at Avignon. from the point of view of its religious associations. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. could supersede that of a pope. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. of individuals. So onerous. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. It was argued that such a council. possess an authority which. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. if it did no serious damage to the faith.that could be applied to them. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). the most appropriate . fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. As at Avignon. in the eyes of God. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. By then. To resolve the problem of divided authority. Colonna and Caetani. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. however. would. which met at Constance 1414-18. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. in spite of further absences from Rome. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. to be long delayed. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether.
However. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. goat. to a world peopled by shepherds. and with Zeuxis (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. scholars and men of letters. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum).. in classical literature. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. through lavish patronage of artists. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. pastor. pastoral (Lat. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. less frequently pig. and other animals. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. and satyrs. 400-300 BC). Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. nymphs. the creation of a cultural capital. Parrhasius (c. as well as a governmental one. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Passion . it has also been used for painting.
but not necessarily a direct copy. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. a region in north-central Italy. the crown of thorns. a small. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. such as a garden summerhouse. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Portrayals of the Passion. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. . other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. which focus on the Suffering Christ. projecting either centrally or at both ends. 1478). hence tent") A lightly constructed. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. and so on.) or pasticcio (It. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. and also the archbishop of Pisa.The events leading up to Good Friday. "butterfly. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. 1478. Meanwhile. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. patrician (Lat. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. pavilion (Lat. ornamental building. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. patricius. wealthy citizen. Francesco Salviati. papilio. pastiche (fr. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.
But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). Peace of Augsburg A treaty. and facere. persona. "to see through. pendant (Fr. physiognomy (Gk. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. concept or deity. physis. "nature". The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century).) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. personification (Lat. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. pergola (It. or related elements within an art work. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. and gnomon. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. perspicere. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. . perspective (Lat.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. "hanging. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. in particular the face. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "person".
and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. glue. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Peter's. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Pietà (Lat. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. proper to take a landscape from. curious details. remarkable for singularity. . Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). containing the public rooms. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. but full of variety. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A pier is generally larger than a column. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. striking the imagination with the force of painting. exemplified. usually above the ground floor. for example. pigment (Lat. to be expressed in painting. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. but may consist of a cluster of columns. both real and painted. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output.piano nobile (Ital. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. or resin to make paint.) The main floor of a building. affording a good subject for a landscape. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. pigmentum. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Rome. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.
and capital. and thereafter all Europe. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out).pilaster (Lat. it has a base. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. a shaft. despite regional variations. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. in October 1347. such as Florence and Genoa. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. since. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. perhaps. it is difficult to find. In the 15th century. outside Tuscany. For this reason. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. for instance. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. more sporadic outbreaks. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. "pillar") A flat. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Thenceforward. however. Rocco and Sebastian. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. though in less widespread. During 1348 the Black Death. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. the burning of 'infected' clothing. It seems probable. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. It is often fluted. also used in Spain's American colonies. plague Plague. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. pilastrum. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. moreover.
which lasted only a few decades. The first phase. more severe. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. or appropriateness. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Philebus. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Diego evolved a purer.e. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Theatetus and the Laws. harmonious. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Phaedo. the Renaissance-Plateresque. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. and unified style using massive geometric forms. i. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. correct classical orders became frequent. In contrast with Aristotle. Timaeus. Phaedrus. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The second phase. like its successor. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. placement. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. A student of Socrates. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. and sinuous scrolls. the Symposium. or simply the Plateresque. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). composition. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality.. The first phase. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. are the masterworks of the second style. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. heraldic escutcheons.
near Florence. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion.1577) becoming particularly popular. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. and the Chaldaic Oracles.in Plato's thought. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. systematized and added to what Plato had done. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. partially. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. and Agostino Steuco (c. including those of Plotinus. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). It was especially in a number of academies in France and . Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Iamblichus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. replaced Ficino's. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. 1472-c. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. the greatest of his ancient disciples. A new Latin translation. all of which he also translated into Latin. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and he utilized many other writings. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Rather unsystematic. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. but not completely. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. Plotinus.
The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pluviale. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. as in classical architecture). "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. Lat. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pointed arch In architecture. polyptych (Gk. or statue. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. such as processions and consecrations. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. plinth (Gk.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. Frequently supports a pediment. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. column. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. poluptukhos. where a pectoral is used to close it. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. porticus. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. portico (Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Plato was read in the universities. pluvial (Med. plinthos.
Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Siena. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. was revived in the 14th century. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. National Gallery). Colleoni.e. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. and the . which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Group portraits. Gattarnelata. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Florence (1486-90). directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The realism of the clear. Venice). whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. 1328. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Mantua. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Maria Novella. the Carracci. Desiderio da Settignano.. Palazzo Farnese). the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Campidoglio). Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436.sculptors such as Donatello. and only a decorative accessory to form. decorating whole rooms. flattened image. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Cathedral) by Uccello. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. The equestrian portrait. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. inessential. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Florence. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. psychologically more complex. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474.
Charles Le Brun. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. The styles of S. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. and. together with the Dominican Savonarola. minatory exhortations. Fiamma's sermons. bishop of Chioggia. Savonarola and Musso. to discharge their preaching duties. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. who had as their ideal masters Titian." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. abrasive even. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. was versed in classical and patristic . star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. bishop of Asti. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). in their appeals for communal religious renewal. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The sermons of Visdomini. Correggio. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. As Poussin was a Frenchman. of the sermon as an art form. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. several of whom became bishops. and Peter Paul Rubens. 1494). Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. primarily the mendicants. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Cornelio Musso (1511-74). who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. are not florid in style. from the secular clergy. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Borromeo.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. bishops especially. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. however. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael.
as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.g. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Louis of Toulouse (1317. predella (It.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. the temptations of Adam and Christ. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. tapestries. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. prefiguration Typology .had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Naples). The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Because of the small size of predelle . disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Millais and Rossetti. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. The New Testament references in these would. among them Holman Hunt. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. however. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles.rhetoric.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). though often relatively very wide . and so forth.
projecting shelf on which to kneel.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Fragonard. and Houdon among sculptors. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. notably David. "evenness") in painting. Prix de Rome A scholarship. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. 2. intended as complete works of art in themselves. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The following are important: 1. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. which uses the square . the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. Girardon. proportion (Lat. again indicative of the purpose they served. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. the Canon of Proportion. proportio. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. the quadrature. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. profil perdu (Fr. the golden section. sculpture and architecture. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. 3. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. these highly finished drawings. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body.
4. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. triangulation. for example). harmonic proportions. provenance The origins of an art work. Unlike Pozzo. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works.as a unit of measurement. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. It was common in Roman art. Ignazio. one half the length of the other). a fourth = 3:4. the steward or treasurer of a church. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. a fifth = 2:3. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. putti sing. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Rome. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. putto (It. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. and 5. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. "boys") Plump naked little boys. . an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo.
Donatello. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Fra Angelico and others. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. refectory (Med. the great orders of monks. in which figures are almost detached from their background.Quattrocento (It. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. relic (Lat. relicquiae. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. hermits. friars and nuns. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. the object of particular veneration. Brunelleschi. In 16th century Europe. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. also known as the Realist school. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). or some item connected with a saint. relief (Lat. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. relevare. in particular works by Masaccio. and high relief (alto rilievo). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. e. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. or the Jesuits. canons regular. Lat. basso rilievo). Among the . "remains") a part of the body of a saint. Botticelli. with the Anglican Church developing in England. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. in which figures are seen half round.g. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission.
Giustina. although technically of secular canons. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation.contemplative orders. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Maria di Fregonaia. the great patriarch of Venice. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. presided over by chapters general. various groups were fused in the latter body. and the generally moderate Observants. Salvatore. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals.e. Mantua. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. i. The Silvestrines. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Giorgio in Alga. which was to become the main Italian one. The same bull . At the same time. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. and their more institutionalized brethren. 1012. who had no overall organization originally. Venice (1404). whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. it became the Cassinese congregation. the Conventuals. In 1504. Padua. Bernardino of Siena. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. their resources being in the hands of trustees. was the congregation of S. The Conventuals. Benedetto. In 1517. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. Lucca. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. After the repression of the Spirituals. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. Founded by St Romuald c. Lorenzo Giustiniani. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. The Benedictines. the most notable being S. however. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. That of S. Bologna (1419).
For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Filippo Neri. Gaetano da Thiene. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. however. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Gerolamo Aemiliani. however. Angela Merici. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. the Theatines. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. founded by S. founded in 1535 by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. a historical period. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. The first. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Venice. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Michele in Isola. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. S. also.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule.
Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. 1875-86). To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). too long forgotten glories. of arts. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. however. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Thereafter. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. life. the historical reality of antiquity.century. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and competition with. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. of scholarship. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. increasingly. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. which had begun early in the 14th century. of an energetic revival of interest in. of letters. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. . Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. however. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. as well as political. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. All-Roundness. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. was so vast and potent. For long. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. because its core of energy. even Amoralism. of 'darkness'. and his own as potentially one of light.
however. in the more limited sense. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). etc. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. statues. mobilized nationalism. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. The challenges are to be accepted. congruence between. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. sometimes. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Though thus challenged. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. and other liturgical objects.) was the term chosen. the previous record . repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. It is for this additional. consist merely of a painting. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. letters. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. and is decorated with paintings. candlesticks. let alone a uniform. retables can be detached and. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . of industrialization.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. and mass media. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. etc. Cathedral of SaintBavon. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. later still to Genoa. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. gratefully. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. There was an early. (3) There is not a true. especially in the High Gothic period.erased. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole.with all its shabbiness . spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. though sometimes of metal. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Ghent). Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period.
Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. painting. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). As the name suggests. the first style to achieve such international currency. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Romanesque art. Rococo A style of design. like 'Gothic'. . and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. the St.France.in the 11th century. rilievo (It. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. and 'Romanesque'. More usually. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Italy. rocaille (French. is a typical product. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. With the development of freestanding altars. in several countries . with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. literally. retables have become extinct. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. and architecture dominating the 18th century. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. "relief") In painting. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. almost simultaneously. Originally commissioned in 976. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. however. Louis XV furniture. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Spain . richly decorated with organic forms. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.of St Mark in Venice. its mood lighthearted and witry. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Germany.
the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. In addition. such as red ochre. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. . van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Rome. the development of nationalistic pride. Piranesi. Massys and M. B. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist).Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. they maintained. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Claude. stylized design representing an open rose. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Mabuse. The aim of painting. van Orley. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Q. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Pannini and Mengs. van Heemskerk. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity.
and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. and Protestant churches. Clement escaped into Castel S. and Lorenzo de' Medici. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. but others were the work of well-known figures. penance. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. and impoverished. matrimony. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. gutted. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. In the . Orthodox. holy orders. multiple sets used in succession. Many compositions were anonymous. pious legend and hagiography. from the Old and New Testaments. local saints. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. There were no limits on time. when it finally left the city it had devastated. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Subjects were nominally sacred. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). Eastern independent.greatly increased. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Sacra Conversazione (It. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. confirmation. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work.expressed through gesture. and anointing of the sick. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Written primarily in ottava rima. supported by lay confraternities. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. glance and movement . the Eucharist. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault.
large room. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. make such strict distinctions." which are called sacramentals. the Orthodox Church does not.early church the number of sacraments varied. sacraments. the Bentivoglio.i. that the price of salt should be increased. The chief focus of discontent. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family." sala (Ital. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. Thus. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . The classical Protestant churches (i.e. was not maintained as a sacrament. foot washing. They were still seeking aid. It is still practiced on special occasions. Anglican. Lutheran. chapter 13. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church.) Hall. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. baptism and the Eucharist. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. which in the Gospel According to John. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. used for drawing. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. the symbolic direction of Christ. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. strictly speaking.e. The theology of the Orthodox Church. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. the Rocca Paolina. was buried under a new fortress.. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. Immediately following baptism. in principle. as an excuse to revolt. and then face east. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. notably from Florence and in Germany. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. and sacraments. as in the Church of the Brethren.. Salt War. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. Candidates first face west. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. the sun of righteousness. replaces the Lord's Supper. Saracens . Hence. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries.
270 BC). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. 45 BC).c. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. legs and horns of a goat. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. human-like woodland deities with the ears. wood or terracotta. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. and many others.c. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Little known in the Middle Ages. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. The publication of Latin (1562. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. sarcophagi (Gk. the god of wine. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. whose writings. 160 . Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . sarcophagus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. satyr In Greek mythology. made of stone. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. 360 . 210 AD). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.During the Middle Ages. pl. the Arabs or Muslims. are lost.
The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages.they had individual Bentnames . on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. In northern Italy. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Alexander V. with France and her allies Aragon. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. As a result. on one side. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. Schism. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. but with little effect. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. for. while devout Christians agonized. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. the Florentines. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). 1386) and his son Ladislas. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. and. in June 1409. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402.for example Pieter van Laer. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. than their medieval predecessors. who recognized the Roman pope. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Louis I (d. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. being Frenchmen. on the other. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. However. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. from time to time both he and his opponents. one of the early leaders. most of whom. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. scholasticism . Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. was called Bamboccio. while England.
a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. moreover. if lime-water was used. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. and Islamic literature. As such. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. university-based study.were different from those of medieval. on one side. because the secco technique is much less permanent. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. that scholasticism was left. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. Padua. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio).) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.The term is ambivalent. as it is easier to add details in this way. Medieval scholars.moral philosophy. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. and theology. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Christian. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. notably Aquinas. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. the plaster had to be damped before painting.) . seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Often called the burning ones. (See also: fresco. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). as it were. Serenissima (Ital. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. textual scholarship. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. It was because the central concerns of humanism . with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. None the less. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. history and rhetoric . especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship.
the governing body of some of the Italian city states. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. "the most serene republic of Venice"). in the period of classical antiquity. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. They first appear in alpine monasteries. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sinopia . the number gradually rose to ten. Servite (Lat. Lat. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. term. Med. brass. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sibylla. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. which were all identical in thickness. at the same time. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. sibyls (Gk. in use since the Middle Ages. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. In Christian legend.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Originally. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. sfumato A technique. there was only one Sibyl. women who could prophesy. "prophetess") In antiquity. usually presided over by individual families. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Signoria (It. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. and the delicate.
and by a sweet and playful sentiment. in other words. sotto in sù (It.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. It is very closely related to International Gothic.) Wooden ceiling decoration. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. soffit (Lat. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. "mark. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . brand. especially in the flow of drapery. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. and. pronounced as French. sing. stigmata. . hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case.'Beautiful Madonnas'. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. as the name implies. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. staffage This word. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). Francis of Assisi. Stanze (Ital. stigma (Gk. Ital. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.
the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. In a looser sense. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. stucco A type of light. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. both external and internal. studiolo. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Indeed. supremacy . Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The vogue for the Sublime. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. John Milton. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. pl. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. with that for the Picturesque. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). whose verses actually fabrications . The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. studioli (It. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).
To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. The subject is underexplored. or cartoons. But the Italians did not make them. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. London. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. i. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino.e. 1407). tempera (Lat. doubtless. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. temperare. both for panel painting and fresco. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. These were imported. his own headquarters. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Salviati and Allori. then being replaced by oil paint. and in literature. was being decorated with frescoes. into Italy. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.Historically. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England.and. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. . Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. chiefly from Flanders. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .
Trajan's Column . gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. i. widely used form. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. pl. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. and later to subdivide gable ends. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. vessels. pl. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.e. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "fields. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. and other surfaces. in the architecture of ancient Rome. "a commonplace") In literature. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face.terracotta (It. and profile. tondo. walls. theme or motif. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. terraferma (Ital. quarter face. topoi (Gk. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. topos. and sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. topiary (Gk. model. tondi (It. triumphal arch. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. figure of speech. topia. in art. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted.
come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. death. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. . as it were. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. "threefold") A painting in three sections. added to the glamour of the triumph. triptych (Gk. fame. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. after 'a countless number of virgins. tryptychos. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. into a number of less controversial forms. behind it. trinitas. or wings. Trinity (Lat. beside it the army of martyrs. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. the military triumph became sublimated. chastity. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. the wars by which they were won . in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Battista Sforza.' Before it go the apostles. of both sexes'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. a car so brave'. "threefold") in Christianity.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Disseminated soon after his death. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Meanwhile. Early triptychs were often portable. the Son and the Holy Spirit. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. time and eternity. usually an altarpiece. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. of virtues and of the arts. patriarchs and prophets. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court).A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.
triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. typology . Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. enclosed by an arch. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. tusche A thick. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Dating from classical times. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. In medieval architecture. tromp l'oeil (Fr. viscous black ink. often decorated with sculptures. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "drum") In classical architecture. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tympanum (Lat. it is usually decorated with carvings. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. It incorporates Renaissance features. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. first recorded in 1232. through various naturalistic devices. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative.
U uomo universale (It. especially his half-length figural groups.A system of classification. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). slayer of Goliath. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . Judith. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. such as five works devoted to the senses. 1610). 1590-1624). each had access to his paintings. e. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. lanterns. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. . the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. knew his former patrons. In Christian thought.) The Renaissance "universal man". tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. killer of Holofernes. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). were popular with them also.Dirck van Baburen (c. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and David. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513.g. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . The numerous candles. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. where they were most accessible.
with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. There are a wide range of forms. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. hour-glasses and clocks. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. "evening") . Vespers (Lat. often gold. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. snuff boxes and other objects. guttering candles. it was used to decorate furniture. carriages. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. V vanishing point In perspective. Also varietas (Lat. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. a work's richness of subject matter. overturned vessels. vesper. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. vanitas (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. and the rib vault. the groin vault. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches.). varietà (It. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. and even flowers (which will soon fade). Parisian craftsmen. mixed in.
actual or latent. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Gluttony. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. In ancient Roman dwellings. The seven Virtues were: Faith. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. the church service at which these prayers are said. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Prudence. "life") . in which the word signifies efficacy. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). for example. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. pl.Prayers said in the evening. vita. and Sloth. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. 'Assume a virtue. vestibulum. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Fortitude. vimperga Of German origin. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Charity. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. "not exposed to winds". virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. and Justice. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Temperance. if you have it not'. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Covetousness. Anger. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Vestibule (Lat. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Lust. virtù could be used. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Envy. vite (Lat. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Hope.
those of Volterera. they were from the 18th century . Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. protection from harm. published in 1550 and 1568. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers.An account of someone's life and work. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1478-80. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Vitruvius Pollio. and appalled recognition of. and of Ferrara. Sculptors and Architects"). the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. usually when a prayer for good fortune. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. The wars from 1494 do. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. in fact. 1472. a biography. or recovery from illness has been made. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. 1482-84). W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. Marcus (1st cent. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529.g. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Weltanschauung (Gr. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. Westwerk German word. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. It was intended to have a variety of functions. during its subsequent history. . They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. gallery. pompous on the floor above. woodcut A print made from a wood block. based on stylization of various animal forms. "Western work of art". While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. a philosophy of life. usually restorers. usually linear. "world view") A comprehensive world view.