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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. the moulding around a window or door. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived.A semicircular projection. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. The term applies also to a print made by this method. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. but in essence the process is as follows. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. design. Lancet and Tudor. piers or pillars. There are several variants of the technique.e. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. or organization. arcus. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Degas. Picasso. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and Rouault. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. roofed with a half-dome. In Greek and Roman literature. the darker the tone). "architectural") Relating to structure. . arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. architectonic (Gk. architrave (It. The adjective is apsidal. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the lowest part of the entablature). arcade (Lat. including Goya. at the east end of a church behind the altar. which is fused to the plate by heating. Also known as an exedra. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. arkhitektonikos. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines.
are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. aureolus. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. archivolto." from Gk. "front arch." and Lat. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. usually a saint. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.and the Comedy . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. Ars Moriendi (Lat. dominate. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "golden. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. "begin. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Dante's Vita nuova . aureole (Lat. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . attribute (Lat. In the case of martyrs. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. voltus. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.archivolt (Ital. archeiu. attributum. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person.
applied to the physically . Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. the god of wine and fertility. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The actual move was made in 1309. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Six pontificates later. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. baldachin. who had been residing in France since 1305. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. or baldacchino (It. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. 'Captivity'. in 1377.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Later. often anecdotal. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. paintings of everyday life. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. that of Cardano. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. made in Rome in the mid-17th century.
in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. As eight follows the "complete" number. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. el Kantara. and abject filthy things. or forecourt.. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. and Nocera in Italy..malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). AD 300). or connected with. Customarily. Croatia]. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. or canopy. banderuola. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. the Temple of Venus. AD 273. . pope between 432 and 440. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Baalbek. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants.g. Alg. and Poitiers. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. Lebanon. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. banderole (It. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Easter. Florence. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. set beneath a domical ciborium. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. beggars in rags. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. Parma. Spalato [Split. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. seven. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. France. a church. and Epiphany. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. built by Sixtus III. Pentecost. such as those at Pisa.
achieved through scale. the dramatic use of light and shadow. "king's hall") a church building. . "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1817-1878). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. in the 1840s and 1850s. Constant Troyon (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Originally. 1807-1876). were often omitted entirely.an allusion to entering the Christian life. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Rubens). In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. basilica (Gk. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1811-1889). and (3) everyday realism. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. usually facing east. Baroque (Port. 1814-1875). southeast of Paris. barocco. Vermeer). in its usual location near the church door . Jules Dupré (French. 1810-1865).In the 10th century. which is reserved for the clergy. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Jean-François Millet (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. and thus a church. and increasingly elaborate decoration. however. 1796-1875). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. something of earlier symbolism survives. Also tunnel vault. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). or baptismal chapels. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Théodore Rousseau (French. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. stoa basilike. baptisteries. In architecture. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.
however. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The term was mainly used up to c. particularly porcelain. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. up until the mid-17th century. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Spanish still-lifes. like their Dutch counterparts. especially Spanish.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. There were. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. also incorrectly called bisque. It takes its name from its grainy texture. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. bodegón Image. as is to be expected. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. By association. Biscuit porcelain. Bodegónes. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). were referred to by their specific contents. and often sentimentality. which is either not yet glazed. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. 1650 in Spain. such as those by Diego Velázquez. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. in which still-life predominates. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. or which is to be left as it is. often with food and drink. Book of Hours . such as Waldmüller. domesticity.
illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. but can also be used for painted sketches. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. coppery red. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.by a variety of processes. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. bozzetto Strictly speaking. though these are more often called 'modelli'. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. durability. made as a study for a larger picture.both hot and cold . or seasons. bozzetto(Italian. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work.an advantage over marble sculpture. Chantilly). See flying buttress. . breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. and the fact that it is easily workable . usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. By extension. days of the week. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. a rapid sketch in oil. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. months. varying from silverish to a rich. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts.
It also served to glorify the emperor. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. glass. and Giotto. C cabinet A small. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). and work in precious metals. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. cameo Small relief made from gems.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. which was often allegorical. ceramics. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. mosaics. casson. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. caisson (Fr. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). its forms highly stylized. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. private room where works of art. notable from Syria and Egypt. manuscript illuminations. Among its most distinctive products were icons. camera obscura . a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. Duccio. box") In architecture. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. "a chest. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.
consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. which was usually whitened. usually decorated. cantoria. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. campanile Bell tower. by the 16th century. candelabrum (It. hemp. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. capitellum. followed by smaller and even pocket models. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. . cantorie (It. both of which have richly carved marble panels. dating to antiquity. as an aid to drawing. capital (Lat. The Latin name means "dark chamber. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. usually with several branches or arms. other materials used are cotton. sing. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up." and the earliest versions. candelabra. Structurally. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. Portable versions were built.Ancestor of the photographic camera.) A gallery for singers or musicians. pl. candela. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. usually built beside or attached to a church. candlestick. and jute. Niepce created photography. "candle") A large. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. which isolates the fabric from the paint. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting.-N. usually in a church. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. only very rough effects will be obtainable.
near Grenoble. cartoon (It. At the height of the Middle Ages. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Fortitudo (Fortitude). this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. Carthusian Order (Lat. monasteries containing separate hermitages. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. In fresco painting. cardinalis. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. cartouche . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . the date of the painting. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". New Charterhouses. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Carmelites (Lat. cartone. tapestry.both Italians and artists from other countries . Cardinal Virtues (Lat. pl. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . and humanism. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith).a humorous drawing or parody. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartellini In a painting. cartellino. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). details of the subject. or fresco. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. or a motto. The order combines reclusive and community life.
and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. linen. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. putti (cupids). and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. caryatid (Gk. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. Paolo Uccello. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. where the throne of the bishop is placed. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. decorated with gilt gesso. or arms of the cross. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and swags of fruit and flowers. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). The main body. or nave.) "castle". In the 15th century. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. They contained the bride's clothes. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Cascina. and many other items of her dowry.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese.toward the setting sun. These lead up to the north and south transepts. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. . Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. cathedral (cathedra. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. palace. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. The altar is placed at the east end. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. they were also used in other countries. castello (It. cassone (It. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. a cathedral always faces west . chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. For reasons lost to time and tradition. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature.
Both the statement of St. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. . central perspective (Lat. buildings and figures that are being depicted. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Relative to the observer. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. or birdlike characteristics. and Islamic literature. champlevé (Fr. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. rather than intercessory functions. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. continually praise him. Christian. a throne bearer of the deity. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). a celestial winged being with human. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. centralis. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. in accordance with their distance from the observer. as celestial attendants of God. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. animal. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. "in the centre". In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. landscapes. and perspicere. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish.
or for choral singing. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. Lastly. choir (Gk. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. replacing tempera.chiaroscuro (It. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. the Order of the Hospital of St. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. choros." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). "light dark") In painting. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. Since Carolingian times. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. Hans Burgkmair (1510). chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. North of the Alps. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. reserved for the clergy to pray together. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior.
Sculpted clouds. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. reversed volutes. stucco shells. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). balustrades.intersect). whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and repetition of pattern. Very few still exist in their original positions. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. an architect. and garlands. and the Churrigueresque column. undulating lines. gilded rays. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. The Transparente (completed 1732). ciborium . historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. undulating cornices. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. a massing of carved angels. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). became the most common motif. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. further enriching the style. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. is as typically Churrigueresque. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area.
It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Quattrocento (1400s. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. on July 22. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. including the ciompi. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. The new government. or achieve political representation. High Renaissance). placing one of their members. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. but self-employed. Then. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. In reaction to this revolutionary . controlled by the minor guilds. They were forbidden to form a trade association. ciompi. craft of dyeing. Their economic condition worsened. etc. combers. as also were those in the associated. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. Without being members of a guild. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them.and post-medieval Italy. the wool carder Michele di Lando. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. who were raised to the status of a guild. beaters. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Members of the lower classes. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.
writers. . Concepts of the classical. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. and politics. resembling a lyre. In the 15th century Greek literature. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. clair-obscur (Fr. on which strings were plucked. except in cases where . however. scholars patiently finding. the black contours usually with a special line plate.as in Italy these were dispensed with. editing and translating a wide range of texts. changed greatly from one period to the next. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. the ciompi guild was abolished. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).episode.) An ancient musical instrument. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. philosophy and art . with Italian scholars. cithara (Gk. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). philosophy. literature. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.
The name was derived from the condotta. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. pl. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. a work's underlying theme. those with refined tastes. condottiere. Coffered ceilings. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. terrorized the country. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Green and red. as well as from the Bible. literature or music. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. pl. occasionally made of wood. intensify one another. cognoscenti. compline (Lat. the church service at which these prayers are said. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. cognoscente (It. arch or ceiling. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. concetto. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. . blue and orange. sing. when set side by side. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. [hora] completa. concetti (It." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. or "contract. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. condottieri (It.
often under the direction of. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. and Tuscany. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Carmagnola. Umbria.e. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. scuole. disappeared. Toward the end of the 15th century. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. in Venice. Martino). was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. By the end of the 14th century. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. often called compagnie or. in the service of Perugia. Muzio's son. which spread in the 15th century.devastating Romagna. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. i. .e. convents of convertite. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. flagellant confraternities. or with the spiritual assistance of. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. Francesco Sforza. confraternities Confraternities. commonly called either Compagnia di S. in the service of Naples. Spanish. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. i. primarily for syphilitics. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and his rival Braccio da Montone. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. who won control of Milan in 1450. By the 16th century. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. With no goal beyond personal gain. Mark (1432). who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. and German--the condottieri. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. clergy.
Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the Florentine Neri. Dorotea in Trastevere. Confraternities. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. contour. while the Venetian government.g. and refuges for maidens. contours were initially regular. notwithstanding their location. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. flat outlines. reformed prostitutes. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. contrapposto (It. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. founded c.g. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. e. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. e. however. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor.e. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). While the Doge ranked above the Council. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. 1514 in S. contour (Fr. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. In medieval painting. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital.i. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. in Florence. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Later. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. but sometimes had their own premises. which accompanied condemned prisoners.
did not achieve any lasting results. large cornice or other feature. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Lat. . Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. 1280). In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. aes cyprium. whose names are inscribed on several works. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). 1100 and 1300. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. They are often ornamented. conventicle (Lat.weight on one leg. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. declining moral standards. Reform programs. conventiculurn. The style spread as far as England. a bracket of stone. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. an engraving produced in this way. corbel In architecture. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. cuprum. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563.
the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Seleucids. An ancestor of the oboe. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. i. a small dome. or "scourged. the condemned man.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. Carthaginians. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. the most famous victim of crucifixion. reedy sound. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Constantine the Great. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. particularly among the Persians. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Next. D dado . Usually. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. the first Christian emperor. Death. cupola (Lat. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. cupula. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. Jews.e. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. a semi-circular vault. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. "small vat") In architecture. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. after being whipped. There were various methods of performing the execution. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop.
which was help to be the basis of all art. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. "drawing. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. but the concept behind an art work. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. diptych (Lat. Gk. diakonos. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Deësis (Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. and Linz possessed common characteristics. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. design") In Renaissance art theory. Passau. The term stresses not the literal drawing. disegno (It. diptychum. usually in matching pairs. diptychos. e. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. a favorite late medieval picture subject. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Anglican and Orthodox churches. deacon (Gk. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors.g. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. an expressive use of nature. danse macabre The dance of death.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. often an altarpiece. Germany.
Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. when painters took to working out of doors. As disegno appeals to the intellect. which runs on castors or wheels. usually forming a ceiling or roof. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). distemper (Lat. donor (Lat. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. dome in architecture. distemperare. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). is a heavy piece of furniture. "to mix. Ordo Praedictatorum. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Dominicans (Lat. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). a 19th-century invention. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. formerly worn under armour. The studio easel. donator. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages.fully realize. though a few artists. such as we still use today. also used it on canvas. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. doublet A male garment.Thomas Aquinas. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch.
the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. John (19. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. en face In portraiture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "last". engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. eschaton. and architecture. in art. and logos. eschatology (Gk. epitaph (Gk. ensemble (Fr. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. and the cornice. entablature In classical architecture. bound and flogged. Ecce Homo (Lat. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. sculpture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. the frieze. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. It consists of the architrave. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Hence. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. "word") . full face. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. sometimes combining panel painting. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. a depiction of Jesus. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. fresco.
Vittoria Colonna. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Marcantonio Flaminio. Eucharist (Gk. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Italy. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Augustine. Saints Ambrose. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Contarini. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Carnesecchi and Ochino." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Spain. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. "good. particularly ware made in France. eu. notably Cardinal Pole. and of the last things. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification." and charis. which is called "delftware. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. which was famous for maiolica. and Scandinavia. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. protector of shepherds. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. which was developed in the Near East ca. . and is named for Faenza. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. 4500 BCE. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. which is called "maiolica. Germany.death and resurrection. Equated with the Greek god Pan. farmers. celebrated with bread and wine. Giovanni Morone. fields and livestock. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Jerome.
Committed to charitable and missionary work. famine and death. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). relaxed. a technique known as a secco fresco. can in time be seen. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. Only a small area can be painted in a day. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. black and dun. that of the others red. frescos in Italy . a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. sword and set of balances. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance.festoni (It. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. a swag. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Their attributes are the bow.8). 2 . representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. drying to a slightly different tint. fluted of a column or pillar. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. The colour of his horse is white. war. fresco (It. and flowers suspended in a loop. such as plague. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. leaves. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. and these areas. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting.
a person's invisible tutelary god. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. or true fresco.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work.Save in Venice. G Garter.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. The technique of buon fresco. usually childish figure. Genius in classical Rome. the intonaco. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. landscape and portraiture. genre In a broad sense. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. or fresco secco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. both in churches and in private and public palaces. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. are genres of painting. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Final details. for example. In art from the classical period onwards. where the atmosphere was too damp. covings and ceilings.
The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. As such. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. how it differed from notoriety. Maso di Banco. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and as spurring on men of action. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. Gobelins . Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. in portraits and on tombs. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Bernardo Daddi. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. as well as writers and artists. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Maria Gloriosa). and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. whether it must be connected with the public good.
For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. thereafter it made only tapestries. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. golden section (Lat. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. This ratio is approximately 8:13. who appointed Lebrun Director. still in existence today. . 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Golden Fleece. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. In other Italian cities. and although it reopened in 1699. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class.French tapestry manufactory. Paris.
In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. that the effects are to be felt. In sculpture and in painting. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. Denis. 1270. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. or the influence of one building. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Nevertheless. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. and lies much deeper than. The artistic. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. There is a transcendental quality. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the superficial particularities of form. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. painting. Amiens. In thinking of Nicola (d. Gothic Gothic. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. In particular. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. painting. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. 1200 and c. like the cultural and commercial. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. c. . from the 13th until the 17th century. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.
and above all Italy. to silk. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. and Morris Graves. to white or tinted paper and card and.and hog-hair brushes.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. It is thinned with water for applying. the beau idéal of the French. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Canaletto. without visible brush marks. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. These qualities. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Dubuffet. Such tours often took a year or more. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Klee. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and taste among the English. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. and the great style. Honey. sometimes in the company of a tutor. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. notably in the writings of Bellori. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and Piranesi. if required. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Pannini. genius. starch. with sable. the Netherlands. . Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. chiefly to France. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. occasionally. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771).
Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. became an abiding feature of European politics. gris. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. From 1266 to 1268. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. exclude drawing from this definition. In another sense. c. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. however. Some writers. to Provence and Paris. which had recruited most of the merchant class. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. the parties taking a multitude of local names. however. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. . generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Although its palace was rebuilt c. 1216. In the context of the fine arts. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. In Florence. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. After the War of the Eight Saints. through central Italy. then as now. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. internal factions in Florence went under other names. and Waiblingen. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. drawing and the various forms of engraving.e. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. brother of Louis IX. grisaille (Fr. usually gray. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. after this. including text as well as illustrations.
and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. [science] héraldique. In Italy they go back a long way. and greater hostility between master and man. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. In some towns. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. The guild also monitored standards of work. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. heraldry (Fr. "herald") . In Florence. héraut. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers." from Fr. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and provided assistance to members in need. Guilds were also patrons of art. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. surgeons. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. print or painting. In 16th century Venice. trades.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. goldsmiths. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In some cities. or professions. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. notably Florence in the 14th century. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. H hatching In a drawing. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. "[knowledge of] heraldry. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. for example. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. trade or profession (painters. such as Brescia and Vicenza. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. as some did). The guilds were not equal. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. but in time they acquired other functions. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters.
Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. the Waldensian. they were condemned in 1184. with the rules governing their use. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. the followers of Juan de Valdes. normative for churchmen. head of the 'carnal Church'. the Cathars were an anti-church. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. and regarded themselves as forming. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. By contrast.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. However. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. i. from the start. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. indeed. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. one great missionary community. together with brethren north of the Alps. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. d. while others merged with the Waldensians. as Antichrist. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). The main impact of the .
history (usually classical history). It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Henry Inman. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. humanus. At the same time. B. F. F. my spouse'. Durand. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. S. humanism (Lat. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. the emancipation of man from God took place. In humanism. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Morse. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. hortus conclusus (Lat. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Kensett. Frederick E. and classical literature. working from 1825 to 1875. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. J. George Inness. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Church. Thomas Cole. and. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. its subjects considered morally elevating. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Germany. American painters were studying in Rome. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. Jasper Cropsey. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. in his earlier work. mainly in the south. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. it denominates a kind of behaviour. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. beautiful style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. the pincers. the rooster of Peter's denial. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. originality. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. usually the donors of a work of art. there are representations of the bundle of rods. with many further details added. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. etc. and they are also depicted on their own. In the second half of the 14th century.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. "invention") In Renaissance art theory.g. invention. Human figures. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the ability to create. the hammer. trecento rococo and lyrical style. soft style. Veronica. investiture . The terms court style. and the ladder. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. are also used in art literature. the veil of St. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. For instance. or of other saints. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Donatallo. inventio (It. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. the scourge that was used in the scourging. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Derived from classical rhetoric.
The Both brothers. although they are usually called Romanists. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Both and Berchem. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Nicolaes Berchem. generally Dutch or Flemish. bathed in a golden haze. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jerome's writings. who traveled in Italy and. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. . principally Dutch. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Italianizers Northern artists. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. of Utrecht. Andries and Jan Both. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Upon his return to Holland. and Jan Asselijn. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.
John of Jerusalem .as the Friars of the Hospital of St. liberal arts .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. encouraged by the Crusades. As their military role grew. especially one at which the Bible is read. Archbishop of Genoa. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. Legenda Aurea (Lat. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). lectern A reading stand or desk. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).1519). Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. the rite of communion is based on this. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
loggia (It. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Kensett (1816-1872). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). the quadrivium. painting or sculptural decoration. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. poetic atmosphere. a semicircular space. Maria Novella in Florence). that could be used for public ceremonies.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. It is related to. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. its roof supported by columns. often sublime. commemorating a marriage. Martin J. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). "little moon") In architecture. through the use of aerial perspective. often standing in markets and town squares. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. John F. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Church (1826-1900). and sometimes refers to Impressionism. .grammar.g. then the basis of a philosophical training. geometry. astronomy and music.g. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. first the preparatory trivium . together with identifying attributes (e.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Tubal for music). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. that may contain a window. Heade (1819-1904). comprising arithmetic. rhetoric and dialectic. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. and Frederick E. lunette (Fr.
being written. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). and portraits as well as landscapes. the goddess Cybele. originally sung without accompaniment. and however bright their lighting effects. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. mandorla (It. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. for example. and iron red. antimony yellow. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. originating in Italy in the 14th century. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. manganese purple. particularly such ware produced in Italy. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. When white is used for painting.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and accompaniments. usually for the lute. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. "almond") . but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Specifically. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. historical subjects. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. madrigal A part song. active mainly in Florence c. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. but they painted genre scenes. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. 1855–65. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. magna mater (Lat. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. copper green. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. "great mother") A mother goddess.
and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. worn open.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. In architecture. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Burgundy. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. bound. depending on the social class of the wearer. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. and crowned with thorns. illuminated initials and miniatures. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. which was quarried at Mount . and literary texts. in a specific sense. El Greco and Tintoretto. maniera. the Codex manuscriptus. more strictly. Developing out of the Renaissance. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. marked by flagellation. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Flanders. Bronzino. Parmigianino. the hand-written medieval book. It reached to the knee or foot. In Mannerist painting. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. mantle An overcoat. ecclesiastical. complex and crowded compositions. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism (It. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. "manner. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. often ornamented with decorative borders. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. strong. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly.
Carrara. Like the finest Imperial coins. The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. the medal's purpose was commemorative. martyrdom (Gk. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. particularly by Michelangelo. proof") the sufferings. sleek surface. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. quarried at Massa. marmi finti (It. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. which were beginning to be reverently collected. martyrion. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. having finished his training. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Without monetary value. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. "witness. medallion In architecture. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. a different design on the reverse. gained the rank of'master' in his guild.Pentelicon in Attica. an inscription running round the rim.
The process is essentially extinct today. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque.round the neck. perhaps oddly. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. for landscapes and portraits. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. the stress on individual character. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. It was. a Gorgon. 1467-688). who reflected them. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. no line drawing is employed. supposedly to petrify her enemies. 1640. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Her head features on Minerva's shield. particularly. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. . 14601528). of the person portrayed on the other side. Ludwig von Siegen. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. When Perseus cuts off her head. c. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. often anonymous. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. The work of these men. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. even grain. Medusa In Greek mythology. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. and of the many. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. 1425-1504). Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. c. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. In pure mezzotint. 1452-1526/27). hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. as it were. This yields a soft effect in the print. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. in England. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. A Dutch officer. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone.
Francis himself. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Parmigianino (d. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. a painting executed in a single color. Many such small versions. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. "one color") Painted in a single color. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. e. often quite highly finished.g. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. a branch of the Franciscan order. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. miter A high. by Tiepolo and Rubens. executed on a very small scale. saying") . monokhromatos. motto (Ital. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. ink and paint. monochrome (Gk. painting in gouache on vellum or card. usually portraits. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. pointed headdress worn by bishops. still exist. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators.. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. "word.
and Casino Massimo. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. but often insipid. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and is intersected by the transept. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. nave (from Lat. and two other members moved to Rome. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In 1810 0verbeck. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Rome. In general. Pforr. 1817-29). N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. The invention of personal mottos. often separated from it by pillars. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Isidore. navis. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. named after the patron saint of painting. . and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. 1816-17. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Berlin. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. naturalism (Fr. It may have parallel aisles on each side. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and their work is clear and prettily coloured.from the Middle Ages. Nazarenes A group of young.
but their ideas continued to be influential. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. nimbus (Lat. "aureole") The disc or halo. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Nymphaeum (Gk. nigellus. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. were usually old when elected. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). the style of the Ancien Régime. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. is as true as it is notorious. moreover. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.) . Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. usually golden. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. niello (Lat. Popes. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him.
with a sturdy. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The earliest. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. They are seen in the form of the columns. walnut.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. such as linseed. or poppy. Greek goddesses of Nature. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. observances") Rites performed for the dead. fluted column and a plain capital. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. O obsequies (Lat. was the simplest. the three basic styles of design. its richness of colour. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. obsequia. the Doric order. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. orders of architecture In classical architecture. inborn sin. and entablatures. and its greater tonal range. . a more elaborate base. capital. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). a small private chapel. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. "services.
and large windows appeared on the ground floor. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. standing at the foot of the Cross.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). designed as a . reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. with biforate windows. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. the Cancelleria). and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and. tradition and social structure. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. P pala (Ital. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. while shops came to be thought undignified. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. Palazzo Strozzi). There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. like cities. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. palazzo (It. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. and the main apartments above. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines.g.
In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". palmette. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). like Genoa. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Rich. Palazzo Massimi). meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. Movement of patrons and architects. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. and large households. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). column-caps. like the colonnaded vestibule. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice.g. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. especially after the Sack of Rome. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. e.g.scholarly retreat. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. often built next to their titular churches. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Papal incentives to build. evolved influential types. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. cornices and abutments. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Following Oriental patterns. panel . meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. behind a sober Florentine façade. Other cities. In Venice. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. came to be applied all over Europe.
secular rulers. teak. and the pressure and temptations . notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. as it were.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. and spanned by a single dome. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. or the incidence of taxation. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. Having a circular plan. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. metal. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the. fibre-board. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. or other rigid substance. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. fir. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. On a larger scale. and dark walnut are favourites. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used.Term in painting for a support of wood. chestnut. the management of clerical dues and taxation. as distinct from canvas. A number of matters. and walnut. and other synthetic materials as supports. cedar. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. linden. olive. enforce law and order. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. The third aspect was administrative. mahogany. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). To maintain their authority. Then. to influence popes in their favour. Many other types were used. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. so that they might have a voice at court. As successors to St Peter. larch. In the 20th century cedar. and modern painters have also used plywood. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. slate has occasionally been used as a support. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. however. including beech.
So onerous. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.as well. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. By then. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. at Avignon. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. in the eyes of God. To resolve the problem of divided authority. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). which met at Constance 1414-18. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. as such. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). if it did no serious damage to the faith. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. which seems so inevitable. the most appropriate . Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. It was argued that such a council. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. would. could supersede that of a pope. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. in spite of further absences from Rome. As at Avignon. of individuals. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. There remained. possess an authority which. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. however. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. to be long delayed.that could be applied to them. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. however. Colonna and Caetani. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. however. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. from the point of view of its religious associations. was long in doubt. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were.
but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Passion . Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. to a world peopled by shepherds. Parrhasius (c. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. 400-300 BC). the creation of a cultural capital. pastor.. in classical literature. less frequently pig. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and with Zeuxis (c. and satyrs. scholars and men of letters. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. nymphs. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. it has also been used for painting. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. However. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. pastoral (Lat. and other animals. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. through lavish patronage of artists. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. goat. as well as a governmental one. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book.
An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. Meanwhile. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. patrician (Lat. pastiche (fr. wealthy citizen. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. Francesco Salviati. "butterfly. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. a small. projecting either centrally or at both ends. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. which focus on the Suffering Christ. a prominent section of a monumental façade.The events leading up to Good Friday. . But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Portrayals of the Passion. 1478). but not necessarily a direct copy. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. and so on. pavilion (Lat.) or pasticcio (It. patricius. hence tent") A lightly constructed. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. such as a garden summerhouse. and also the archbishop of Pisa. ornamental building. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. a region in north-central Italy.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. papilio. the crown of thorns. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. 1478. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.
pendant (Fr. "hanging. "to see through. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. personification (Lat. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. or related elements within an art work. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. physiognomy (Gk. concept or deity. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physis. . and facere. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. "nature". The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). in particular the face. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. perspective (Lat. perspicere. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "person".) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. persona. and gnomon. pergola (It.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence.
proper to take a landscape from. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. or resin to make paint. glue. Peter's. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. to be expressed in painting. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. exemplified. containing the public rooms. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. remarkable for singularity. . and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. both real and painted. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. but full of variety. affording a good subject for a landscape. usually above the ground floor. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Pietà (Lat. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. striking the imagination with the force of painting.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. pigmentum. Rome. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. A pier is generally larger than a column. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. for example. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. curious details. pigment (Lat. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).) The main floor of a building. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands.piano nobile (Ital. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. but may consist of a cluster of columns.
Rocco and Sebastian. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. more sporadic outbreaks. plague Plague. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. the burning of 'infected' clothing. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. It seems probable. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. though in less widespread. For this reason. despite regional variations. in October 1347. outside Tuscany. moreover. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. During 1348 the Black Death. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. and capital. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. also used in Spain's American colonies. since. a shaft. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). "pillar") A flat. such as Florence and Genoa. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). Thenceforward. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. pilastrum. it is difficult to find. It is often fluted. it has a base. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. for instance. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. In the 15th century. however. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. perhaps. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families.pilaster (Lat. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. and thereafter all Europe. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380.
termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I.. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. The first phase. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. composition. In contrast with Aristotle. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). and sinuous scrolls. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Diego evolved a purer. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Phaedrus. heraldic escutcheons. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Theatetus and the Laws. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. placement. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. or simply the Plateresque. A student of Socrates. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. the Symposium. utilized Mudejar ornament -. harmonious. like its successor. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. the Renaissance-Plateresque. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. correct classical orders became frequent. more severe. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. which lasted only a few decades. Phaedo. or appropriateness. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. The first phase. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. i. and unified style using massive geometric forms. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The second phase. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality.e. Philebus. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Timaeus. are the masterworks of the second style.
AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. Iamblichus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi.in Plato's thought. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Plotinus. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. near Florence. systematized and added to what Plato had done. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. including those of Plotinus. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. A new Latin translation. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 1472-c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source.1577) becoming particularly popular. and Agostino Steuco (c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. replaced Ficino's. partially. all of which he also translated into Latin. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. Rather unsystematic. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. and the Chaldaic Oracles. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and he utilized many other writings. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . but not completely. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved.
"folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. pluvial (Med.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. Frequently supports a pediment. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. as in classical architecture). porticus. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. where a pectoral is used to close it. polyptych (Gk. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. Plato was read in the universities. such as processions and consecrations. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. plinthos. poluptukhos. plinth (Gk. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. column. pointed arch In architecture. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. portico (Lat. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. pluviale. or statue. Lat. Some polyptychs were very elaborate.
The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. decorating whole rooms. Colleoni. 1328. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Siena. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. inessential. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. flattened image. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Venice). The realism of the clear. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Gattarnelata. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Cathedral) by Uccello. and the . Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Florence. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Maria Novella. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Mantua. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. National Gallery). such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Florence (1486-90). Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Palazzo Farnese).e. Desiderio da Settignano. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Campidoglio). was revived in the 14th century. Group portraits. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. psychologically more complex. the Carracci.. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. and only a decorative accessory to form.sculptors such as Donatello. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. The equestrian portrait.
Charles Le Brun. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. bishops especially. 1494). The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. The styles of S. however. and. abrasive even. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). minatory exhortations. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). to discharge their preaching duties. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. are not florid in style. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Borromeo. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. not least those of statesmen and prelates. of the sermon as an art form. bishop of Chioggia. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Correggio. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. and Peter Paul Rubens. several of whom became bishops. was versed in classical and patristic . Savonarola and Musso. As Poussin was a Frenchman. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. bishop of Asti. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. from the secular clergy. Fiamma's sermons. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The sermons of Visdomini. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. primarily the mendicants.
they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.rhetoric. Naples). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. however. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Louis of Toulouse (1317. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. among them Holman Hunt. the temptations of Adam and Christ. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. Because of the small size of predelle . Millais and Rossetti. Such a polyptych consists of a principal.g. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. and so forth. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. prefiguration Typology .the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The New Testament references in these would. tapestries. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. predella (It. though often relatively very wide . presbyterion "Council of Elders") .
Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. Fragonard. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. "evenness") in painting. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. the golden section. The following are important: 1. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. the Canon of Proportion. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). proportion (Lat. these highly finished drawings. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the quadrature. profil perdu (Fr. which uses the square . and Houdon among sculptors. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Girardon. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. proportio. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. again indicative of the purpose they served. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. 2. intended as complete works of art in themselves. sculpture and architecture. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Prix de Rome A scholarship. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. notably David.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. 3. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low.
one half the length of the other). a fifth = 2:3. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. . They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). in whose celebrated ceiling in S. "boys") Plump naked little boys. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. a fourth = 3:4. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. triangulation. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. Ignazio. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. and 5. putti sing. It was common in Roman art. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. provenance The origins of an art work. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. Unlike Pozzo. harmonic proportions. for example). Rome. putto (It. 4. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms.
relief (Lat. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Botticelli. relevare. In 16th century Europe. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. with the Anglican Church developing in England. basso rilievo). Donatello. the great orders of monks. Fra Angelico and others. the object of particular veneration. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission.g. or the Jesuits. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. relic (Lat. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. and high relief (alto rilievo). e. Lat. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. hermits. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. Brunelleschi. also known as the Realist school. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). friars and nuns. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. refectory (Med. Among the . in which figures are seen half round. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. relicquiae. or some item connected with a saint.Quattrocento (It. in which figures are almost detached from their background. in particular works by Masaccio. canons regular.
At the same time. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. although technically of secular canons. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. the great patriarch of Venice.contemplative orders. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. After the repression of the Spirituals. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. the Conventuals. and their more institutionalized brethren. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Maria di Fregonaia. S. the most notable being S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. various groups were fused in the latter body. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Lucca. presided over by chapters general. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Bologna (1419). The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. and the generally moderate Observants. That of S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Venice (1404). Founded by St Romuald c. In 1504. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Bernardino of Siena.e. The Silvestrines. their resources being in the hands of trustees. In 1517. who had no overall organization originally. Lorenzo Giustiniani. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. was the congregation of S. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Padua. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Giorgio in Alga. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. i. Giustina. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Mantua. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. it became the Cassinese congregation. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. 1012. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. The Benedictines. The same bull . however. which was to become the main Italian one. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. The Conventuals. Benedetto. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Salvatore.
The first. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Filippo Neri. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. founded in 1535 by S.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Angela Merici. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Venice. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Gaetano da Thiene. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. however. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. the Theatines. however. founded by S. also. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Michele in Isola. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. a historical period. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work.
a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. however. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). even Amoralism. however. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. All-Roundness. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. Thereafter. . and competition with. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. too long forgotten glories. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. life. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep.century. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of scholarship. of an energetic revival of interest in. because its core of energy. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. and his own as potentially one of light. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. increasingly. of 'darkness'. the historical reality of antiquity. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. was so vast and potent. For long. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). of arts. as well as political. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. which had begun early in the 14th century. 1875-86). Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. of letters.
) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. however. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. gratefully. let alone a uniform. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). letters. mobilized nationalism. of industrialization. Ghent). though sometimes of metal. etc. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. (3) There is not a true. and is decorated with paintings.with all its shabbiness . consist merely of a painting. sometimes. and mass media.) was the term chosen. There was an early. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. congruence between. Though thus challenged. Cathedral of SaintBavon. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. later still to Genoa. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. and other liturgical objects. candlesticks. The challenges are to be accepted. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. statues. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.erased. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. the previous record . Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. retables can be detached and. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. etc. It is for this additional. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . in the more limited sense. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. especially in the High Gothic period. subjective reason a term to be used with caution.
literally. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Originally commissioned in 976. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200.in the 11th century. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. in several countries . richly decorated with organic forms. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. . Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. More usually. painting. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. the first style to achieve such international currency.France. Italy. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith.of St Mark in Venice. the St. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Spain . is a typical product. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Germany. With the development of freestanding altars. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. and 'Romanesque'. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Romanesque art. rocaille (French. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. retables have become extinct. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. like 'Gothic'. As the name suggests. almost simultaneously. however. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. rilievo (It. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Louis XV furniture. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. its mood lighthearted and witry. "relief") In painting. Rococo A style of design. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated.
The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. M. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. In addition. Rome.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. the development of nationalistic pride. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The aim of painting. they maintained. Q. such as red ochre. . in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Piranesi. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. van Orley. Claude. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. van Heemskerk. Massys and M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. B. stylized design representing an open rose. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Pannini and Mengs. Mabuse. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect.
In the . local saints. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Eastern independent. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. multiple sets used in succession. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. confirmation.greatly increased. the Eucharist. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Written primarily in ottava rima. and impoverished. but others were the work of well-known figures. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Subjects were nominally sacred. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). supported by lay confraternities. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Sacra Conversazione (It. holy orders. and Lorenzo de' Medici. There were no limits on time. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. and anointing of the sick. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. pious legend and hagiography. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted.expressed through gesture. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. when it finally left the city it had devastated. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). penance. gutted. Clement escaped into Castel S. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). from the Old and New Testaments. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. matrimony. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Orthodox. glance and movement . The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and Protestant churches. Many compositions were anonymous.
when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Saracens . Thus. notably from Florence and in Germany. Anglican. chapter 13. the Rocca Paolina. sacraments. in principle. as an excuse to revolt. and then face east. and sacraments. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. as in the Church of the Brethren.e. baptism and the Eucharist. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. which in the Gospel According to John. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. They were still seeking aid. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.early church the number of sacraments varied. the symbolic direction of Christ. foot washing. the sun of righteousness. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Candidates first face west. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. replaces the Lord's Supper. that the price of salt should be increased. large room. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Lutheran. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. Hence. It is still practiced on special occasions.) Hall." sala (Ital. make such strict distinctions. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. the Bentivoglio.. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. used for drawing. The classical Protestant churches (i.. was buried under a new fortress." which are called sacramentals. Salt War. strictly speaking. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.i. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.e. The chief focus of discontent. The theology of the Orthodox Church. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. was not maintained as a sacrament. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. Immediately following baptism. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. the Orthodox Church does not.
made of stone. pl.c. 160 . The publication of Latin (1562. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 360 . the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance.During the Middle Ages. are lost. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and many others. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the Arabs or Muslims. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). the god of wine. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. legs and horns of a goat. wood or terracotta. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). 270 BC). 210 AD). Little known in the Middle Ages. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. 45 BC). whose writings. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.c. satyr In Greek mythology. sarcophagus. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. sarcophagi (Gk.
who had the support of the Avignon pope. Alexander V. being Frenchmen. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. who recognized the Roman pope. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. In northern Italy. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. in June 1409. scholasticism . 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. and. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). was called Bamboccio. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. but with little effect. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. for. However. on the other. while England.they had individual Bentnames . Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. the Florentines. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. Charles III of Durazzo (d. while devout Christians agonized. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. than their medieval predecessors. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. on one side. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. and therefore far more purely Italian princes.for example Pieter van Laer. Louis I (d. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. As a result. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). one of the early leaders. most of whom. Schism. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. with France and her allies Aragon. from time to time both he and his opponents. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages.
the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. As such. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. and theology. It was because the central concerns of humanism . that scholasticism was left. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. if lime-water was used. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. as it were. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old.The term is ambivalent.were different from those of medieval. Medieval scholars.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. the plaster had to be damped before painting. Padua. as it is easier to add details in this way. because the secco technique is much less permanent. Serenissima (Ital. university-based study. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Often called the burning ones. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. textual scholarship. notably Aquinas. on one side. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. and Islamic literature. history and rhetoric .moral philosophy. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. None the less. (See also: fresco. rather than wet plaster as in fresco.) . Christian. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. moreover. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.
in use since the Middle Ages. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sibyls (Gk. there was only one Sibyl. in the period of classical antiquity. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. and the delicate. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Servite (Lat. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. They first appear in alpine monasteries. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect.. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. term. which were all identical in thickness. Sibyls foretold the Birth. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. the number gradually rose to ten. Signoria (It. at the same time. sfumato A technique. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Med.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. In Christian legend. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. women who could prophesy. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. "the most serene republic of Venice"). largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. sinopia . in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Lat. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. sibylla. brass. "prophetess") In antiquity. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. usually presided over by individual families. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Originally.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233.
staffage This word. Francis of Assisi. . tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. Stanze (Ital. Ital. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. sing. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. stigmata. "mark. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. soffit (Lat.. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). pronounced as French. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. It is very closely related to International Gothic. especially in the flow of drapery.) Wooden ceiling decoration. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. sotto in sù (It.'Beautiful Madonnas'. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. in other words. as the name implies. stigma (Gk. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. and. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. brand.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.
notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. stucco A type of light.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. both external and internal. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The vogue for the Sublime. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. studiolo. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). whose verses actually fabrications . the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. supremacy . studioli (It. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. John Milton. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. pl. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. with that for the Picturesque. In a looser sense. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Indeed.
the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio).Historically. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. into Italy. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. and in literature. both for panel painting and fresco. tempera (Lat. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. These were imported. London. was being decorated with frescoes.and. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. his own headquarters. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. i. chiefly from Flanders. temperare. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The subject is underexplored. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . Salviati and Allori. But the Italians did not make them. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. or cartoons. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. 1407). "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk).e. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. doubtless. then being replaced by oil paint. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. .
pl. and later to subdivide gable ends. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. vessels. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "fields. in the architecture of ancient Rome. topiary (Gk. and profile. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. pl. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. terraferma (Ital. and other surfaces. in art. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. widely used form. i.terracotta (It. topia. and sculptures. topos. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. triumphal arch. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. quarter face. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. figure of speech. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. tondi (It. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. theme or motif. model.e. walls. topoi (Gk. tondo. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). "a commonplace") In literature. Trajan's Column .
beside it the army of martyrs. after 'a countless number of virgins.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. a car so brave'. added to the glamour of the triumph. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). of virtues and of the arts. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous.' Before it go the apostles.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. tryptychos. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. "threefold") in Christianity. or wings. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Disseminated soon after his death. as it were. the military triumph became sublimated. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . the wars by which they were won . Battista Sforza. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. patriarchs and prophets. Trinity (Lat. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. usually an altarpiece. into a number of less controversial forms. of both sexes'. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. behind it. time and eternity. fame. triptych (Gk.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Early triptychs were often portable. death. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. trinitas. "threefold") A painting in three sections. . Meanwhile. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. chastity.
Tudor An obscure Welsh family. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. enclosed by an arch. tusche A thick. first recorded in 1232. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. In medieval architecture. tympanum (Lat. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. "drum") In classical architecture. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. typology . marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Dating from classical times. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. it is usually decorated with carvings. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. tromp l'oeil (Fr.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. viscous black ink. It incorporates Renaissance features. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. through various naturalistic devices. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. often decorated with sculptures.
of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.Dirck van Baburen (c. such as five works devoted to the senses. were popular with them also. especially his half-length figural groups. where they were most accessible. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).) The Renaissance "universal man". and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . e. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1590-1624). U uomo universale (It. knew his former patrons. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature).g. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). 1610). lanterns. and David. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. each had access to his paintings. killer of Holofernes.A system of classification. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. Judith. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. . the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. The numerous candles. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). slayer of Goliath. In Christian thought.
V vanishing point In perspective. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. carriages. varietà (It. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Also varietas (Lat. vesper. it was used to decorate furniture. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. often gold. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the groin vault. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. Parisian craftsmen. vanitas (Lat. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. a work's richness of subject matter. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. hour-glasses and clocks. "evening") . the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. snuff boxes and other objects. and the rib vault. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. There are a wide range of forms. mixed in. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch.). Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. overturned vessels. guttering candles. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. Vespers (Lat. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time.
even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Prudence. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. vestibulum. "life") . Envy. Hope. vite (Lat. if you have it not'. and Sloth. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Temperance. the church service at which these prayers are said. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Lust. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. for example. Charity. Vestibule (Lat. Fortitude. and Justice. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. In ancient Roman dwellings. vimperga Of German origin. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic.Prayers said in the evening. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. 'Assume a virtue. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Covetousness. actual or latent. Gluttony. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. vita. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Anger. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. virtù could be used. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. "not exposed to winds". in which the word signifies efficacy. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. pl. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art.
W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1478-80. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. they were from the 18th century . the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. a biography.An account of someone's life and work. those of Volterera. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. usually when a prayer for good fortune. protection from harm. in fact. and of Ferrara. 1482-84). 1472. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. Marcus (1st cent. Sculptors and Architects"). and the occasional wars thereafter (e. Vitruvius Pollio. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. or recovery from illness has been made. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. and appalled recognition of. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before.g. published in 1550 and 1568. The wars from 1494 do. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. "Western work of art". pompous on the floor above. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Westwerk German word. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. a philosophy of life. usually linear. based on stylization of various animal forms. . "world view") A comprehensive world view. treasury or a place where justice was administered. usually restorers. gallery. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. It was intended to have a variety of functions. woodcut A print made from a wood block. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. during its subsequent history.Weltanschauung (Gr. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design.
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