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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
Also known as an exedra. Lancet and Tudor. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. arcade (Lat. Degas. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. or organization. architectonic (Gk. the lowest part of the entablature). arcus. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. the darker the tone). which is fused to the plate by heating. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. There are several variants of the technique. . design. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). Picasso. "architectural") Relating to structure. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral.e. and Rouault. The term applies also to a print made by this method. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. the moulding around a window or door. In Greek and Roman literature. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. but in essence the process is as follows. piers or pillars. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). roofed with a half-dome. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i.A semicircular projection. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. architrave (It. arkhitektonikos. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. The adjective is apsidal. including Goya. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. at the east end of a church behind the altar.
these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. "begin. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "golden. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. voltus. "front arch.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).and the Comedy . Ars Moriendi (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. In the case of martyrs. aureolus. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. aureole (Lat. Dante's Vita nuova .archivolt (Ital. archeiu. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530." from Gk." and Lat. archivolto. dominate. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attributum. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. attribute (Lat. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. usually a saint. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person.
often anecdotal. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. in 1377. that of Cardano. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. paintings of everyday life. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. 'Captivity'. or baldacchino (It. baldachin. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Six pontificates later. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The actual move was made in 1309. the god of wine and fertility. applied to the physically . Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Later. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. who had been residing in France since 1305.
As eight follows the "complete" number. Easter. AD 300). "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Alg. Croatia]. Florence.g. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. the Temple of Venus. or forecourt. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and abject filthy things. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. banderuola. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and Poitiers. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. banderole (It. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. or canopy.. AD 273. Lebanon. . el Kantara. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. built by Sixtus III. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. set beneath a domical ciborium. France. Parma. beggars in rags.. Pentecost. or connected with. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Baalbek. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. and Nocera in Italy. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. a church. a visual metaphor for the number eight. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Customarily. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. and Epiphany. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. seven. Spalato [Split. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. such as those at Pisa. pope between 432 and 440. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642).
a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. southeast of Paris. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. were often omitted entirely. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. 1796-1875). however. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel.In the 10th century. Théodore Rousseau (French. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. which is reserved for the clergy. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. usually facing east. Vermeer). the dramatic use of light and shadow. and thus a church. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. in its usual location near the church door . The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). In architecture. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. 1817-1878). Constant Troyon (French. 1814-1875). 1811-1889). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Jules Dupré (French. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. or baptismal chapels. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. something of earlier symbolism survives. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and (3) everyday realism. Baroque (Port. . baptisteries. in the 1840s and 1850s. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. "king's hall") a church building. Rubens). and increasingly elaborate decoration. Jean-François Millet (French. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. 1810-1865). achieved through scale. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750.an allusion to entering the Christian life. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Originally. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. 1807-1876). barocco. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. basilica (Gk. stoa basilike. Also tunnel vault. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display.
biscuit Unglazed ceramic. There were. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. bodegón Image. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. domesticity. however. 1650 in Spain. in which still-life predominates. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. and often sentimentality. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). or which is to be left as it is. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. particularly porcelain. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. which is either not yet glazed. also incorrectly called bisque. as is to be expected. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. By association. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Bodegónes. Book of Hours . often with food and drink. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. The term was mainly used up to c. It takes its name from its grainy texture. were referred to by their specific contents. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. Spanish still-lifes. Biscuit porcelain. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. especially Spanish. up until the mid-17th century. such as those by Diego Velázquez. like their Dutch counterparts. such as Waldmüller. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense.
usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. bozzetto(Italian. a rapid sketch in oil. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry.by a variety of processes. but can also be used for painted sketches. though these are more often called 'modelli'. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. made as a study for a larger picture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. durability. Chantilly). months. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. See flying buttress. varying from silverish to a rich. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. or seasons. By extension. . days of the week. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. and the fact that it is easily workable . bozzetto Strictly speaking.an advantage over marble sculpture.both hot and cold . coppery red.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion.
Among its most distinctive products were icons. box") In architecture. manuscript illuminations. its forms highly stylized. ceramics. and Giotto. C cabinet A small. notable from Syria and Egypt. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. cameo Small relief made from gems. It also served to glorify the emperor. "a chest. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. mosaics. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. and work in precious metals. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. glass. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. casson. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. camera obscura .Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. caisson (Fr. Duccio. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. private room where works of art. which was often allegorical. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure.
capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. and jute. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. capital (Lat. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. dating to antiquity. pl. candelabrum (It. which was usually whitened. capitellum.-N. campanile Bell tower. The Latin name means "dark chamber. usually built beside or attached to a church. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means." and the earliest versions. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. hemp. other materials used are cotton. usually with several branches or arms. candlestick. only very rough effects will be obtainable.) A gallery for singers or musicians. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. which isolates the fabric from the paint.Ancestor of the photographic camera. "candle") A large. candelabra. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. as an aid to drawing. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. usually in a church. Portable versions were built. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. Niepce created photography. both of which have richly carved marble panels. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). followed by smaller and even pocket models. sing. cantoria. cantorie (It. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. by the 16th century. candela. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. Structurally. . usually decorated. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace.
At the height of the Middle Ages. tapestry.both Italians and artists from other countries . cartellini In a painting. the date of the painting. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. and humanism. cartoon (It. cartone. or fresco. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . near Grenoble. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. details of the subject. The order combines reclusive and community life. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the Carmelites were originally hermits. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. cartellino. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Fortitudo (Fortitude). Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Carmelites (Lat. In fresco painting. or a motto. New Charterhouses. the endeavour to attain true humanity. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). monasteries containing separate hermitages. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars.a humorous drawing or parody.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cardinalis. Carthusian Order (Lat. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). pl. cartouche . the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted.
Cascina. These lead up to the north and south transepts. Paolo Uccello.toward the setting sun. . a cathedral always faces west . A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. palace. In the 15th century. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. or nave. they were also used in other countries. They contained the bride's clothes. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. The altar is placed at the east end. where the throne of the bishop is placed. decorated with gilt gesso. and many other items of her dowry. For reasons lost to time and tradition.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. cassone (It. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. putti (cupids). caryatid (Gk. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular.) "castle". The main body. castello (It. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. or arms of the cross. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. and swags of fruit and flowers. linen. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. cathedral (cathedra. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo.
Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. champlevé (Fr. and Islamic literature. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). landscapes. .Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. a celestial winged being with human. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. continually praise him. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. and perspicere. centralis. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. as celestial attendants of God. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Christian. animal. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. a throne bearer of the deity. rather than intercessory functions. buildings and figures that are being depicted. or birdlike characteristics. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. "in the centre". Relative to the observer. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. in accordance with their distance from the observer. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Both the statement of St. central perspective (Lat.
The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . reserved for the clergy to pray together. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. choir (Gk. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. choros. North of the Alps. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Hans Burgkmair (1510). encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. replacing tempera. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. Lastly. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. Since Carolingian times." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. or for choral singing. "light dark") In painting. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. the Order of the Hospital of St. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade.chiaroscuro (It.
Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). an architect. The Mexico cathedral (1718). a massing of carved angels. undulating cornices. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. and the Churrigueresque column. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. stucco shells. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. ciborium . became the most common motif. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo.intersect). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Very few still exist in their original positions. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. The Transparente (completed 1732). further enriching the style. undulating lines. Sculpted clouds. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. and garlands. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. gilded rays. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. which was shaped like an inverted cone. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. reversed volutes. is as typically Churrigueresque. and repetition of pattern. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. balustrades. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments.
Their economic condition worsened. combers. controlled by the minor guilds. Then. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. but self-employed. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. on July 22. High Renaissance). The new government. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. beaters. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. craft of dyeing. as also were those in the associated. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. ciompi. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. In reaction to this revolutionary . It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Without being members of a guild. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the wool carder Michele di Lando. who were raised to the status of a guild. placing one of their members. Quattrocento (1400s. including the ciompi. Members of the lower classes. or achieve political representation. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. etc. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. They were forbidden to form a trade association. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination.and post-medieval Italy.
Concepts of the classical. however. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. In the 15th century Greek literature. changed greatly from one period to the next. resembling a lyre.as in Italy these were dispensed with. philosophy and art . writers. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. philosophy. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). cithara (Gk. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. editing and translating a wide range of texts.episode. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). literature. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. and politics. except in cases where . cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. on which strings were plucked. with Italian scholars. the ciompi guild was abolished. the black contours usually with a special line plate. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. scholars patiently finding. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). clair-obscur (Fr. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates.) An ancient musical instrument. .
The name was derived from the condotta. as well as from the Bible. pl. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. terrorized the country. concetto. pl. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. blue and orange. concetti (It. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. when set side by side. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. a work's underlying theme. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottieri (It. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. literature or music. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). sing. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. occasionally made of wood. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. . [hora] completa. arch or ceiling. Coffered ceilings. condottiere. intensify one another. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. those with refined tastes. cognoscente (It. Green and red. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. cognoscenti. or "contract. compline (Lat.
clergy. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri.devastating Romagna. Umbria. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. By the 16th century. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. With no goal beyond personal gain. in the service of Naples. and Tuscany. and German--the condottieri. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly.e. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. often under the direction of. Mark (1432). Spanish. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Muzio's son. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. i. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. confraternities Confraternities. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. often called compagnie or. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Francesco Sforza. who won control of Milan in 1450. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. in Venice. By the end of the 14th century. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. i. convents of convertite. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. Martino). It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline.e. . The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. or with the spiritual assistance of. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. which spread in the 15th century. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. scuole. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Toward the end of the 15th century. flagellant confraternities. disappeared. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. in the service of Perugia. and his rival Braccio da Montone. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. primarily for syphilitics. Carmagnola.
Later. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese.g. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contrapposto (It. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. 1514 in S. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. Dorotea in Trastevere. the Florentine Neri. however. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. notwithstanding their location. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. founded c. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in Florence. In medieval painting. e. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. contour (Fr. but sometimes had their own premises.i. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . and those which aided imprisoned debtors. while the Venetian government. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Confraternities. flat outlines. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contour. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. contours were initially regular. reformed prostitutes. While the Doge ranked above the Council. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. and refuges for maidens. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi.g.e. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. e. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention.
Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. The style spread as far as England. 1280). a bracket of stone.weight on one leg. cuprum. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. conventiculurn. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Reform programs. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. did not achieve any lasting results. whose names are inscribed on several works. aes cyprium. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. large cornice or other feature. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). declining moral standards. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. They are often ornamented. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. started the process of inner reform in the Church. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. an engraving produced in this way. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. 1100 and 1300. . conventicle (Lat. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. corbel In architecture. Lat. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c.
crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Death. particularly among the Persians. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. cupola (Lat. "small vat") In architecture. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. reedy sound. There were various methods of performing the execution. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Jews. a semi-circular vault. after being whipped. the condemned man. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Usually.e. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. i. Seleucids. cupula. the first Christian emperor. An ancestor of the oboe. the most famous victim of crucifixion. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Carthaginians. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Next. or "scourged. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Constantine the Great. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. a small dome. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. D dado .
consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. and Linz possessed common characteristics. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. Germany. diakonos. "drawing. Gk. Anglican and Orthodox churches. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. an expressive use of nature. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. disegno (It. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. deacon (Gk. often an altarpiece. diptychum. design") In Renaissance art theory.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. usually in matching pairs. decorated diffrently from the upper section. The term stresses not the literal drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Deësis (Gk. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. diptychos. diptych (Lat. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world.g. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Passau. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. which was help to be the basis of all art. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. e. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. a favorite late medieval picture subject. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. danse macabre The dance of death. but the concept behind an art work. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.
"to mix. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). when painters took to working out of doors. distemperare. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . The studio easel. is a heavy piece of furniture. also used it on canvas. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. dome in architecture. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. doublet A male garment.Thomas Aquinas. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Ordo Praedictatorum. formerly worn under armour. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. donor (Lat. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. donator. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. which runs on castors or wheels. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Dominicans (Lat. though a few artists. usually forming a ceiling or roof. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. a 19th-century invention. distemper (Lat. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. such as we still use today.fully realize. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. As disegno appeals to the intellect.
eschatology (Gk. and logos. eschaton. Hence. ensemble (Fr. sometimes combining panel painting. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. and the cornice. the frieze. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. in art. fresco. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "last". Ecce Homo (Lat. full face. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. John (19. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. epitaph (Gk. en face In portraiture. It consists of the architrave.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. entablature In classical architecture. sculpture. and architecture. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. bound and flogged. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. a depiction of Jesus. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. "word") . 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds.
Equated with the Greek god Pan. farmers. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther." and charis.death and resurrection. which is called "maiolica. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. . Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. eu. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. fields and livestock." and that made in the Netherlands and England. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. which is called "delftware. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. protector of shepherds. Marcantonio Flaminio. which was famous for maiolica. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Vittoria Colonna. Augustine. Eucharist (Gk. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. Saints Ambrose. and is named for Faenza. and Scandinavia. celebrated with bread and wine. Contarini. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. "good. notably Cardinal Pole. Jerome. particularly ware made in France. 4500 BCE. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. and of the last things. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Italy. Germany. Giovanni Morone. It developed in France in the early 16th century. which was developed in the Near East ca. Spain." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world.
it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. war. a swag. Only a small area can be painted in a day.festoni (It. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. fresco (It. frescos in Italy . well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. relaxed. sword and set of balances. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. The colour of his horse is white. famine and death. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. and these areas. drying to a slightly different tint. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. can in time be seen. Committed to charitable and missionary work.8). The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and flowers suspended in a loop. that of the others red. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. a technique known as a secco fresco. black and dun. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. 2 . "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fluted of a column or pillar. leaves. Their attributes are the bow. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. such as plague.
both in churches and in private and public palaces. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. In art from the classical period onwards.Save in Venice. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. the intonaco. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. The technique of buon fresco. for example. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or fresco secco. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. Final details. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. usually childish figure. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. genre In a broad sense. a person's invisible tutelary god. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. covings and ceilings. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. are genres of painting. or true fresco. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. landscape and portraiture. where the atmosphere was too damp. G Garter. Genius in classical Rome.
whether it must be connected with the public good. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Bernardo Daddi. Maria Gloriosa). but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. Maso di Banco. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Gobelins . Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. how it differed from notoriety. as well as writers and artists. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). in portraits and on tombs. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. and as spurring on men of action. As such. The nature of true gloria was much discussed.
The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. who appointed Lebrun Director. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. Golden Fleece. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. golden section (Lat. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture.French tapestry manufactory. thereafter it made only tapestries. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. In other Italian cities. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. and although it reopened in 1699. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. still in existence today. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. Paris. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. . In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. This ratio is approximately 8:13. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions.
In thinking of Nicola (d. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. that the effects are to be felt. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Amiens. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. like the cultural and commercial. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Nevertheless. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. and lies much deeper than. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. 1270. Gothic Gothic. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. In particular. painting. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). from the 13th until the 17th century. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Denis. the superficial particularities of form. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. . The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1200 and c. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and which then spread throughout northern Europe.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. painting. The artistic. In sculpture and in painting. c. There is a transcendental quality. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. or the influence of one building.
and taste among the English. starch. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and Morris Graves. Honey. genius. Dubuffet. to white or tinted paper and card and. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. . The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. and above all Italy. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. without visible brush marks. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Canaletto. if required. chiefly to France. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. to silk. Klee. the Netherlands. the beau idéal of the French. are but different appellations of the same thing'. Such tours often took a year or more. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. with sable. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and the great style. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Pannini. occasionally. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. notably in the writings of Bellori. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. These qualities. and Piranesi.and hog-hair brushes.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. It is thinned with water for applying. There was also a flourishing market in guide books.
underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. through central Italy. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. After the War of the Eight Saints. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the parties taking a multitude of local names. From 1266 to 1268. usually gray. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. In the context of the fine arts. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. exclude drawing from this definition. internal factions in Florence went under other names. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. c. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. which had recruited most of the merchant class. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. and Waiblingen. after this. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. Although its palace was rebuilt c. grisaille (Fr. . when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. including text as well as illustrations.e.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. drawing and the various forms of engraving. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. then as now. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. In Florence. 1216. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. In another sense. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. became an abiding feature of European politics. brother of Louis IX. gris. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. Some writers. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. however. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. however. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. to Provence and Paris.
guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. such as Brescia and Vicenza. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. heraldry (Fr. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. In some cities. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. Guilds were also patrons of art. In Italy they go back a long way. or professions. trades. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. trade or profession (painters. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. The guild also monitored standards of work. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. print or painting. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. In Florence. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. héraut. for example. The guilds were not equal. as some did). notably Florence in the 14th century. and greater hostility between master and man. goldsmiths. In some towns. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. "herald") . but in time they acquired other functions. surgeons. and provided assistance to members in need." from Fr. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. H hatching In a drawing. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. In 16th century Venice. "[knowledge of] heraldry. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. [science] héraldique. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds.
while others merged with the Waldensians. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. the Waldensian. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. as Antichrist. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. head of the 'carnal Church'. By contrast. one great missionary community. they were condemned in 1184.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. the Cathars were an anti-church. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. However. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. d. i. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. and regarded themselves as forming. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. together with brethren north of the Alps. The main impact of the . indeed. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. with the rules governing their use. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. from the start. the followers of Juan de Valdes. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. normative for churchmen.
working from 1825 to 1875. J. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). S. Henry Inman. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. B. humanus. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. its subjects considered morally elevating. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. F. and. hortus conclusus (Lat. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Church. F. Kensett. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . American painters were studying in Rome. humanism (Lat. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Germany. history (usually classical history). There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. Morse. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. In humanism. Jasper Cropsey. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden.movement upon the laity was in southern France. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. At the same time. in his earlier work. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. Thomas Cole. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. the emancipation of man from God took place. mainly in the south. George Inness. Frederick E. and classical literature. my spouse'. Durand.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
the veil of St. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. In the second half of the 14th century. investiture . usually the donors of a work of art. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the hammer. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. inventio (It. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. soft style. the pincers. Veronica. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. and the ladder. originality. Derived from classical rhetoric. beautiful style. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Human figures. are also used in art literature. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. or of other saints. trecento rococo and lyrical style. Donatallo. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. the scourge that was used in the scourging. and they are also depicted on their own. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. the rooster of Peter's denial. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. there are representations of the bundle of rods. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. For instance. The terms court style. invention. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. etc. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the ability to create. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. it denominates a kind of behaviour. with many further details added.g.
Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. who traveled in Italy and. . although they are usually called Romanists. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Upon his return to Holland. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Andries and Jan Both. and Jan Asselijn. generally Dutch or Flemish. Italianizers Northern artists. principally Dutch. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Both and Berchem. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Nicolaes Berchem. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Jerome's writings. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. The Both brothers. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. of Utrecht. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Jesuits The Society of Jesus.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. bathed in a golden haze. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side.
They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. lectern A reading stand or desk.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. liberal arts . and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. encouraged by the Crusades.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. John of Jerusalem .1519). Legenda Aurea (Lat. the rite of communion is based on this. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). As their military role grew. Archbishop of Genoa. especially one at which the Bible is read. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.
first the preparatory trivium . often sublime. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. the quadrivium.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). painting or sculptural decoration. astronomy and music. and Frederick E. that could be used for public ceremonies.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. often standing in markets and town squares. Tubal for music). Church (1826-1900). By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. then the basis of a philosophical training. comprising arithmetic. Pythagoras for arithmetic. that may contain a window. lunette (Fr. It is related to. poetic atmosphere. Maria Novella in Florence). loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Martin J. "little moon") In architecture. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. loggia (It. geometry.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. through the use of aerial perspective. its roof supported by columns. . rhetoric and dialectic. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). a semicircular space. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials.grammar. John F. together with identifying attributes (e.g. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Heade (1819-1904). such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Kensett (1816-1872). commemorating a marriage. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure.g. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.
magna mater (Lat. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. antimony yellow. copper green. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. being written. usually for the lute. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. originating in Italy in the 14th century. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. 1855–65. and accompaniments. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. particularly such ware produced in Italy. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. for example. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. active mainly in Florence c. and however bright their lighting effects. "great mother") A mother goddess. originally sung without accompaniment. madrigal A part song. and portraits as well as landscapes. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. the goddess Cybele. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. mandorla (It. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). "almond") . Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). they never lost a sense of solidity of form. but they painted genre scenes. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. When white is used for painting. manganese purple. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). and iron red. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). historical subjects. Specifically. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists.
mantle An overcoat. Bronzino. bound. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. It reached to the knee or foot. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. "manner. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. In Mannerist painting. the Codex manuscriptus. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. El Greco and Tintoretto. Flanders. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. marked by flagellation. which was quarried at Mount . maniera. and literary texts. complex and crowded compositions. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. the hand-written medieval book. and crowned with thorns. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. ecclesiastical. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. in a specific sense. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. often ornamented with decorative borders. strong. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Parmigianino. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Mannerism (It. depending on the social class of the wearer. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. In architecture. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. worn open. Burgundy. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. more strictly. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. illuminated initials and miniatures. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Developing out of the Renaissance.
when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. martyrdom (Gk. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Like the finest Imperial coins. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. medallion In architecture.Pentelicon in Attica. an inscription running round the rim. a different design on the reverse. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. martyrion. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The pure white Carrara marble. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). having finished his training. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. marmi finti (It. "witness. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. proof") the sufferings. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. sleek surface. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Without monetary value. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). This was partly because ancient Roman coins. particularly by Michelangelo. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Carrara. quarried at Massa. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work.
The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Ludwig von Siegen. particularly. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. A Dutch officer. c. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. . 1640. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. supposedly to petrify her enemies. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. The process is essentially extinct today. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Her head features on Minerva's shield. a Gorgon. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. Medusa In Greek mythology. This yields a soft effect in the print. 1425-1504). When Perseus cuts off her head. of the person portrayed on the other side. as it were. who reflected them. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. 1467-688). the stress on individual character.round the neck. 1452-1526/27). every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. It was. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. and of the many. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. even grain. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. 14601528). is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. for landscapes and portraits. In pure mezzotint. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. in England. no line drawing is employed. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. c. perhaps oddly. often anonymous. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. The work of these men.
monokhromatos. still exist. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. saying") . The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. pointed headdress worn by bishops. a branch of the Franciscan order. "word. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. Parmigianino (d. miter A high. motto (Ital. monochrome (Gk. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. "one color") Painted in a single color. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. ink and paint. e. executed on a very small scale. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. a painting executed in a single color. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.g. by Tiepolo and Rubens. usually portraits. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. Francis himself. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. often quite highly finished. Many such small versions. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch.
often separated from it by pillars. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. Isidore. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. 1816-17. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. The invention of personal mottos. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Berlin. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Rome. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. In general. naturalism (Fr. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. In 1810 0verbeck. and two other members moved to Rome. Nazarenes A group of young. and Casino Massimo.from the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. but often insipid. Pforr. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and is intersected by the transept. 1817-29). N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. . nave (from Lat. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. navis. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. named after the patron saint of painting. "ship") the main interior space of a church building.
and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). nimbus (Lat. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Popes. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). were usually old when elected. but their ideas continued to be influential. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. niello (Lat. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. nigellus.) . To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. usually golden. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. moreover. "aureole") The disc or halo. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. is as true as it is notorious. the style of the Ancien Régime. Nymphaeum (Gk. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay.
or poppy. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. . a more elaborate base. Greek goddesses of Nature. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. a small private chapel. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. inborn sin. and its greater tonal range. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. O obsequies (Lat. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). The Corinthian order was the most ornate. capital. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. They are seen in the form of the columns. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and entablatures. its richness of colour. the three basic styles of design. the Doric order. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. The earliest. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. with a sturdy. walnut. orders of architecture In classical architecture. fluted column and a plain capital. obsequia. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). was the simplest.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. "services. such as linseed.
palazzo (It. tradition and social structure. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. P pala (Ital. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. Palazzo Strozzi). On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. designed as a . with biforate windows. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines.g. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. the Cancelleria). standing at the foot of the Cross. while shops came to be thought undignified. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. like cities. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and the main apartments above. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. and.
the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Other cities.scholarly retreat. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. panel . tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. cornices and abutments. Palazzo Massimi). evolved influential types. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. especially after the Sack of Rome. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. and large households. like Genoa. Rich. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. behind a sober Florentine façade. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Movement of patrons and architects.g. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. came to be applied all over Europe. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). In Venice. column-caps. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). often built next to their titular churches. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). like the colonnaded vestibule. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. palmette.g. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. e. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Following Oriental patterns. Papal incentives to build. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks.
The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. as it were. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. Having a circular plan. The third aspect was administrative. Many other types were used. and walnut. To maintain their authority. the. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. or the incidence of taxation. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. olive. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and spanned by a single dome. enforce law and order. linden.Term in painting for a support of wood. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. On a larger scale.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Then. chestnut. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and other synthetic materials as supports. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. however. larch. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. teak. and the pressure and temptations . it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. mahogany. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. including beech. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. In the 20th century cedar. and dark walnut are favourites. or other rigid substance. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. secular rulers. fibre-board. and modern painters have also used plywood. A number of matters. so that they might have a voice at court. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. slate has occasionally been used as a support. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. as distinct from canvas. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. As successors to St Peter. metal. cedar. the management of clerical dues and taxation. fir. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. to influence popes in their favour.
So onerous. however. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. from the point of view of its religious associations. as such. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. if it did no serious damage to the faith. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). however. By then. would. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. It was argued that such a council. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence.that could be applied to them. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. to be long delayed. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. As at Avignon. which seems so inevitable. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. at Avignon. the most appropriate . the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. There remained. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. in the eyes of God. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. however.as well. could supersede that of a pope. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. possess an authority which. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. of individuals. Colonna and Caetani. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. was long in doubt. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. To resolve the problem of divided authority. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. which met at Constance 1414-18.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). in spite of further absences from Rome.
as well as a governmental one. pastoral (Lat. to a world peopled by shepherds. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. through lavish patronage of artists.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. However. less frequently pig. Parrhasius (c. Passion . and with Zeuxis (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). pastor. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. 400-300 BC). it has also been used for painting. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and satyrs. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. scholars and men of letters. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. in classical literature. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and other animals. nymphs. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. goat. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. the creation of a cultural capital. Skin had been used as a writng material before this..
"father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. pavilion (Lat. wealthy citizen. a prominent section of a monumental façade. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. and also the archbishop of Pisa. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. a small. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. the crown of thorns. such as a garden summerhouse. a region in north-central Italy. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. hence tent") A lightly constructed. Francesco Salviati. Meanwhile. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.The events leading up to Good Friday. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. but not necessarily a direct copy. 1478. projecting either centrally or at both ends. 1478). who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. "butterfly. which focus on the Suffering Christ.) or pasticcio (It. patrician (Lat. ornamental building. patricius. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. . Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. Portrayals of the Passion. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and so on. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. papilio. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. pastiche (fr.
The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). dependent") One of a pair of related art works. pergola (It. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. physis. personification (Lat. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "nature". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. and facere. . in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. persona. "hanging. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. concept or deity. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "person". The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. perspective (Lat. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. or related elements within an art work. in particular the face. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. pendant (Fr. and gnomon. perspicere.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. physiognomy (Gk. "to see through.
A pier is generally larger than a column. striking the imagination with the force of painting. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. or resin to make paint. Rome. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. usually above the ground floor. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). glue. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. but full of variety. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. pigmentum.) The main floor of a building. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. Pietà (Lat. . Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. to be expressed in painting. Developing in Germany in the 14th century.piano nobile (Ital. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. affording a good subject for a landscape. exemplified. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Peter's. remarkable for singularity. containing the public rooms. pigment (Lat. for example. proper to take a landscape from. curious details. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. but may consist of a cluster of columns. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. both real and painted. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.
Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. It is often fluted. and thereafter all Europe. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. since. such as Florence and Genoa. During 1348 the Black Death. for instance. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. It seems probable. in October 1347. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Rocco and Sebastian. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. moreover. more sporadic outbreaks. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Thenceforward. "pillar") A flat. however. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. a shaft. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries.pilaster (Lat. plague Plague. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. also used in Spain's American colonies. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. For this reason. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. though in less widespread. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. In the 15th century. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. despite regional variations. it is difficult to find. and capital. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. it has a base. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. outside Tuscany. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. pilastrum. perhaps. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. the burning of 'infected' clothing. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness.
The second phase. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. composition. or appropriateness. or simply the Plateresque. Philebus. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. are the masterworks of the second style. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. placement. In contrast with Aristotle. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. more severe.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. the Renaissance-Plateresque. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. like its successor. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. i. harmonious. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. A student of Socrates. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. which lasted only a few decades. heraldic escutcheons. Timaeus. The first phase. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. utilized Mudejar ornament -.e. The first phase. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). and unified style using massive geometric forms. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Diego evolved a purer. correct classical orders became frequent. Theatetus and the Laws. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. Phaedo. and sinuous scrolls. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. the Symposium. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality.. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Phaedrus. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy.
It was especially in a number of academies in France and . near Florence.in Plato's thought. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . the greatest of his ancient disciples. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. 1472-c.1577) becoming particularly popular. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. A new Latin translation. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. partially. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. but not completely. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Rather unsystematic. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. all of which he also translated into Latin. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Iamblichus. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and the Chaldaic Oracles. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. systematized and added to what Plato had done. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and Agostino Steuco (c. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. and he utilized many other writings. replaced Ficino's. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. including those of Plotinus. Plotinus.
poluptukhos. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pluvial (Med. portico (Lat.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. plinth (Gk. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. such as processions and consecrations. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. Lat. or statue. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. pluviale. Plato was read in the universities. column. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. pointed arch In architecture. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. porticus. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. as in classical architecture). polyptych (Gk. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . plinthos. where a pectoral is used to close it. Frequently supports a pediment.
Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. and the . Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Siena. The realism of the clear. Colleoni. psychologically more complex. Mantua. Florence (1486-90). whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground.sculptors such as Donatello. 1328. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. the Carracci. Group portraits. The equestrian portrait. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. was revived in the 14th century. Florence.e. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris.. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. National Gallery). Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo Farnese). and only a decorative accessory to form. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Venice). The 16th century portrait became generalized. Maria Novella. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Desiderio da Settignano. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. inessential. flattened image. Campidoglio). The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Gattarnelata. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. decorating whole rooms. Cathedral) by Uccello. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome.
primarily the mendicants. together with the Dominican Savonarola.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Correggio. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. Charles Le Brun. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. minatory exhortations. bishops especially. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. several of whom became bishops. The styles of S. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). and Peter Paul Rubens. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Borromeo. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. As Poussin was a Frenchman. of the sermon as an art form. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Fiamma's sermons. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). are not florid in style. was versed in classical and patristic . from the secular clergy. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. bishop of Chioggia. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). who had as their ideal masters Titian. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. but 16th century ones were more cautious here." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The sermons of Visdomini. abrasive even. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Savonarola and Musso. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. and. to discharge their preaching duties." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. 1494). star preachers journeyed all over Italy. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. however. bishop of Asti.
among them Holman Hunt. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. predella (It. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.g. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Louis of Toulouse (1317. however. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. the temptations of Adam and Christ.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. prefiguration Typology . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . The New Testament references in these would. Millais and Rossetti. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S.rhetoric. tapestries.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. Because of the small size of predelle . aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. and so forth. Naples). though often relatively very wide . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.
The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. 3. 2. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. profil perdu (Fr. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Girardon. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). which uses the square . the Canon of Proportion. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. and Houdon among sculptors. The following are important: 1. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. notably David. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. sculpture and architecture. the golden section. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. proportion (Lat. "evenness") in painting. Fragonard. proportio. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the quadrature. projecting shelf on which to kneel. these highly finished drawings. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. again indicative of the purpose they served. Prix de Rome A scholarship. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. intended as complete works of art in themselves.
putti sing. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations.as a unit of measurement. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. harmonic proportions. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). provenance The origins of an art work. It was common in Roman art. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. a fifth = 2:3. Unlike Pozzo. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. the steward or treasurer of a church. and 5. "boys") Plump naked little boys. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. 4. putto (It. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. a fourth = 3:4. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. . one half the length of the other). for example). Rome. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. triangulation. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Ignazio. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works.
religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. refectory (Med. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). the great orders of monks. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. also known as the Realist school. Donatello. in which figures are seen half round. hermits. Botticelli. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Among the . relevare. and high relief (alto rilievo). canons regular. Fra Angelico and others. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. friars and nuns. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. relicquiae. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. with the Anglican Church developing in England. basso rilievo). e. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Lat. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. in particular works by Masaccio. in which figures are almost detached from their background. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. relief (Lat. relic (Lat. or the Jesuits. Brunelleschi. In 16th century Europe. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.Quattrocento (It. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. the object of particular veneration. or some item connected with a saint.g.
Giustina. Padua. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Salvatore. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. In 1504. Giorgio in Alga. S. the Conventuals. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. it became the Cassinese congregation. 1012. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. The Silvestrines. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. i. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. various groups were fused in the latter body. Founded by St Romuald c. presided over by chapters general. Bernardino of Siena. which was to become the main Italian one. Benedetto. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. and their more institutionalized brethren. That of S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. and the generally moderate Observants. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the most notable being S. The Benedictines.contemplative orders. however. Venice (1404). The Conventuals. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Bologna (1419).e. Lucca. At the same time. The same bull . the great patriarch of Venice. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Maria di Fregonaia. who had no overall organization originally. In 1517. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Mantua. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. although technically of secular canons. was the congregation of S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. After the repression of the Spirituals.
provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. founded by S. however. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. founded in 1535 by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. also. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Gaetano da Thiene. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Angela Merici. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. however. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the Theatines. a historical period. Michele in Isola. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). Filippo Neri. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Gerolamo Aemiliani. The first. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Venice. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule.
however.century. even Amoralism. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. because its core of energy. of scholarship. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of an energetic revival of interest in. of letters. Thereafter. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. increasingly. the historical reality of antiquity. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. life. as well as political. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of 'darkness'. . and competition with. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). All-Roundness. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. 1875-86). was so vast and potent. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. however. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. and his own as potentially one of light. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. too long forgotten glories. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. For long. of arts. which had begun early in the 14th century. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy.
Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. statues.with all its shabbiness . the previous record . repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. later still to Genoa. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Ghent). Cathedral of SaintBavon. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. and is decorated with paintings. and mass media. sometimes. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. especially in the High Gothic period. (3) There is not a true.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). in the more limited sense. let alone a uniform. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject.) was the term chosen. The challenges are to be accepted. consist merely of a painting. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. mobilized nationalism. candlesticks. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. Though thus challenged. and other liturgical objects. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. etc.erased. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. congruence between. however. of industrialization. There was an early. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. retables can be detached and. It is for this additional. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). etc. letters. gratefully. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. though sometimes of metal. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity.
the first style to achieve such international currency. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. the St. Louis XV furniture. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. almost simultaneously. . the impression that an object is three-dimensional. retables have become extinct. Italy. and architecture dominating the 18th century. is a typical product. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. richly decorated with organic forms. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Germany. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Originally commissioned in 976. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. like 'Gothic'. literally. rilievo (It.in the 11th century. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. "relief") In painting. its mood lighthearted and witry. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Spain . Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. With the development of freestanding altars. rocaille (French. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.France. As the name suggests. in several countries .of St Mark in Venice. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Rococo A style of design. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. painting. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. More usually. and 'Romanesque'. however. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Romanesque art.
usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Massys and M. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. van Heemskerk.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Q. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Pannini and Mengs. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. . The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. B. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. M. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Piranesi. they maintained. Rome. van Orley. The aim of painting. Mabuse. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. such as red ochre. Claude. stylized design representing an open rose. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). In addition. ruddle Any red-earth pigment.
The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. from the Old and New Testaments. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. In the . hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Eastern independent.expressed through gesture. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. multiple sets used in succession. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. gutted. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. and Lorenzo de' Medici. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. matrimony. supported by lay confraternities. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Orthodox. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Clement escaped into Castel S. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Written primarily in ottava rima.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable.greatly increased. Sacra Conversazione (It. when it finally left the city it had devastated. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). penance. but others were the work of well-known figures. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. glance and movement . the Eucharist. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and anointing of the sick. holy orders. and impoverished. pious legend and hagiography. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. There were no limits on time. and Protestant churches. local saints. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). confirmation. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Many compositions were anonymous. Subjects were nominally sacred.
was not maintained as a sacrament. Immediately following baptism.. Candidates first face west. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. Anglican." which are called sacramentals." sala (Ital. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. as in the Church of the Brethren. Salt War. that the price of salt should be increased. sacraments. Hence. Saracens . Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the symbolic direction of Christ. and sacraments. the Bentivoglio. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. The chief focus of discontent. used for drawing. the Rocca Paolina. large room. They were still seeking aid.) Hall. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. foot washing. baptism and the Eucharist. which in the Gospel According to John.e. Thus. The classical Protestant churches (i. in principle. as an excuse to revolt. It is still practiced on special occasions. strictly speaking. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. and then face east. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .early church the number of sacraments varied. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. was buried under a new fortress.i. the sun of righteousness. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. The theology of the Orthodox Church. notably from Florence and in Germany. make such strict distinctions. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. replaces the Lord's Supper. Lutheran. chapter 13. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. the Orthodox Church does not. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests.e.
sarcophagus. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. the god of wine. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. 45 BC). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity.c.c. satyr In Greek mythology. sarcophagi (Gk. The publication of Latin (1562. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . whose writings. the Arabs or Muslims. wood or terracotta. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 160 . made of stone. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 210 AD). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. 270 BC). Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).During the Middle Ages. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). are lost. 360 . and many others. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. pl. legs and horns of a goat. Little known in the Middle Ages.
most of whom. while England. on one side. than their medieval predecessors. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. who had the support of the Avignon pope.for example Pieter van Laer. being Frenchmen. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support.they had individual Bentnames . 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. but with little effect. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. However. Charles III of Durazzo (d. Schism. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. with France and her allies Aragon. 1386) and his son Ladislas. In northern Italy. and. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. one of the early leaders. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who recognized the Roman pope. scholasticism . Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. was called Bamboccio. while devout Christians agonized. in June 1409. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. on the other. from time to time both he and his opponents. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. for. the Florentines. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Louis I (d. As a result. Alexander V. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place.
) . seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. Medieval scholars. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. (See also: fresco. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. that scholasticism was left. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. on one side. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. as it is easier to add details in this way. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). Padua. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. Christian. as it were. the plaster had to be damped before painting. Serenissima (Ital. textual scholarship. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. It was because the central concerns of humanism . But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. university-based study. and theology. if lime-water was used. history and rhetoric . theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. None the less. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. and Islamic literature. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. Often called the burning ones. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). notably Aquinas.were different from those of medieval. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. because the secco technique is much less permanent. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. As such. moreover. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought.moral philosophy.The term is ambivalent. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries.
brass. in use since the Middle Ages. usually presided over by individual families. Originally. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. They first appear in alpine monasteries. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibyls (Gk. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. In Christian legend. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. at the same time. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. in the period of classical antiquity. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. sinopia . silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. which were all identical in thickness. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. "prophetess") In antiquity.. term. Sibyls foretold the Birth. sfumato A technique. Lat. Signoria (It.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. women who could prophesy. Med. sibylla. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. "the most serene republic of Venice"). single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. there was only one Sibyl. the number gradually rose to ten. Servite (Lat.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. and the delicate.
at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Stanze (Ital. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.'Beautiful Madonnas'. pronounced as French. especially in the flow of drapery. . and. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. "mark. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . the red chalk used to make such a drawing.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. stigmata. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. soffit (Lat. stigma (Gk. sing. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. sotto in sù (It. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). Francis of Assisi. in other words. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. brand.. It is very closely related to International Gothic. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Ital. as the name implies. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. staffage This word.) Wooden ceiling decoration. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter.
with that for the Picturesque. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. stucco A type of light.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. pl. supremacy . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. The vogue for the Sublime. John Milton. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. both external and internal. Indeed. whose verses actually fabrications . usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. studiolo. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In a looser sense. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studioli (It.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.
But the Italians did not make them. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Salviati and Allori. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.e. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. London. into Italy. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. was being decorated with frescoes. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. his own headquarters. These were imported. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. i. . doubtless. or cartoons. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. 1407). tempera (Lat. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source.and. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . then being replaced by oil paint. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. and in literature. The subject is underexplored. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). temperare. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534.Historically. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. chiefly from Flanders. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. both for panel painting and fresco.
e. triumphal arch. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. terraferma (Ital. tondi (It. widely used form. pl. in the architecture of ancient Rome.terracotta (It. topoi (Gk. vessels. and sculptures. topos. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. theme or motif. "a commonplace") In literature. i. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. pl. walls. tondo. quarter face. and later to subdivide gable ends. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. model. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). figure of speech. in art. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topia. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. topiary (Gk. "fields. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and other surfaces. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. and profile. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Trajan's Column . "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.
the wars by which they were won . that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. death. or wings. fame. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. after 'a countless number of virgins.' Before it go the apostles. "threefold") in Christianity. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Battista Sforza. trinitas. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. . Early triptychs were often portable.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. the military triumph became sublimated. as it were. Trinity (Lat. the Son and the Holy Spirit. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. behind it. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. beside it the army of martyrs.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. "threefold") A painting in three sections. into a number of less controversial forms.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. tryptychos. of virtues and of the arts. usually an altarpiece. triptych (Gk. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. patriarchs and prophets. Disseminated soon after his death. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. of both sexes'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. Meanwhile. added to the glamour of the triumph. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. a car so brave'. time and eternity. chastity.
In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. often decorated with sculptures. enclosed by an arch. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. It incorporates Renaissance features. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In medieval architecture. typology . The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). "drum") In classical architecture.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. Dating from classical times. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tympanum (Lat. tusche A thick. it is usually decorated with carvings. through various naturalistic devices. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. viscous black ink. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. first recorded in 1232. tromp l'oeil (Fr.
. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. 1590-1624). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works.Dirck van Baburen (c. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and David. In Christian thought. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. The numerous candles. U uomo universale (It. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. killer of Holofernes. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. where they were most accessible.A system of classification. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. lanterns. slayer of Goliath. e. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. knew his former patrons. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. each had access to his paintings.) The Renaissance "universal man". of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). Judith. 1610). especially his half-length figural groups. were popular with them also. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. such as five works devoted to the senses.g. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.
Also varietas (Lat. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and the rib vault. Parisian craftsmen. and even flowers (which will soon fade). vanitas (Lat. it was used to decorate furniture. guttering candles. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. "evening") . and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements.). Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. snuff boxes and other objects. There are a wide range of forms. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. vesper. the groin vault. Vespers (Lat. a work's richness of subject matter. mixed in. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. hour-glasses and clocks. V vanishing point In perspective. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. often gold. carriages. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. varietà (It. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. overturned vessels. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque.
The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Prudence. Lust. Anger. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Vestibule (Lat. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. for example. "life") . Envy. Charity. "not exposed to winds". Hope. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. vestibulum. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. in which the word signifies efficacy. Fortitude.Prayers said in the evening. Covetousness. and Sloth. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. vite (Lat. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. The seven Virtues were: Faith. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. In ancient Roman dwellings. vita. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. virtù could be used. 'Assume a virtue. Gluttony. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. vimperga Of German origin. actual or latent. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. if you have it not'. the church service at which these prayers are said. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. and Justice. pl. Temperance.
No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte.An account of someone's life and work. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. those of Volterera. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. protection from harm. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. in fact. Marcus (1st cent. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1478-80. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. they were from the 18th century . Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. The wars from 1494 do. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. or recovery from illness has been made. 1472.g. Sculptors and Architects"). the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. and of Ferrara. published in 1550 and 1568. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. and appalled recognition of. a biography. 1482-84). usually when a prayer for good fortune. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. Vitruvius Pollio. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
gallery. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. treasury or a place where justice was administered. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. usually linear. "Western work of art". a philosophy of life. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. usually restorers. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. based on stylization of various animal forms. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament.Weltanschauung (Gr. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. . Westwerk German word. "world view") A comprehensive world view. during its subsequent history. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. pompous on the floor above. woodcut A print made from a wood block. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. It was intended to have a variety of functions. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting.
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