A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

. the moulding around a window or door. the darker the tone). A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. Picasso. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). There are several variants of the technique. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. The adjective is apsidal. "architectural") Relating to structure. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. arcade (Lat. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arcus. or organization. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. the lowest part of the entablature). piers or pillars. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish.e. architrave (It. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). but in essence the process is as follows. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. architectonic (Gk. which is fused to the plate by heating. and Rouault. design. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. roofed with a half-dome. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. arkhitektonikos. Degas. In Greek and Roman literature. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Lancet and Tudor. The term applies also to a print made by this method. including Goya. at the east end of a church behind the altar.A semicircular projection. Also known as an exedra.

usually a saint.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself." and Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . In the case of martyrs. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). "front arch. attributum." from Gk. "golden. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance.archivolt (Ital. Ars Moriendi (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. aureolus. "begin. attribute (Lat. aureole (Lat. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. archeiu. dominate. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Dante's Vita nuova . archivolto.and the Comedy . voltus. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530.

or baldacchino (It. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Later. 'Captivity'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the god of wine and fertility. who had been residing in France since 1305. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). applied to the physically . was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. that of Cardano. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. Bambocciati Group of relatively small.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. in 1377. Six pontificates later. The actual move was made in 1309. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. often anecdotal. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. paintings of everyday life. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. baldachin. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings.

The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Spalato [Split. banderuola. or forecourt. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. a church. banderole (It. or connected with. beggars in rags. and Poitiers. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. . Customarily. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. and abject filthy things. Croatia].g. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Florence. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Alg. Parma. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. AD 300). AD 273. Lebanon. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Pentecost. pope between 432 and 440.. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). a baptistery was roofed with a dome.. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. set beneath a domical ciborium." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. such as those at Pisa. a visual metaphor for the number eight. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. As eight follows the "complete" number. el Kantara. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Baalbek. and Nocera in Italy. seven. or canopy. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Easter. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. built by Sixtus III. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. the Temple of Venus. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. France. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. and Epiphany.

a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). "king's hall") a church building. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Baroque (Port. in the 1840s and 1850s. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. In architecture. and thus a church. something of earlier symbolism survives. stoa basilike. and increasingly elaborate decoration. which is reserved for the clergy. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Vermeer).In the 10th century. or baptismal chapels. 1814-1875). Jean-François Millet (French. southeast of Paris. achieved through scale. . "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1811-1889). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. basilica (Gk. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. were often omitted entirely. in its usual location near the church door . and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1817-1878). barocco. Also tunnel vault. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. Constant Troyon (French. Rubens). however. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. usually facing east.an allusion to entering the Christian life. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Théodore Rousseau (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Jules Dupré (French. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. 1807-1876). There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and (3) everyday realism. Originally. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. baptisteries. 1796-1875). 1810-1865). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism.

Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. however. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. Bodegónes. Spanish still-lifes. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. in which still-life predominates. like their Dutch counterparts. It takes its name from its grainy texture. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. such as those by Diego Velázquez. bodegón Image. Book of Hours . or which is to be left as it is. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. 1650 in Spain. also incorrectly called bisque.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. particularly porcelain. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. domesticity. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. The term was mainly used up to c. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. up until the mid-17th century. There were. were referred to by their specific contents. Biscuit porcelain. and often sentimentality. which is either not yet glazed. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. often with food and drink. such as Waldmüller. as is to be expected. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). especially Spanish. By association.

buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. or seasons. By extension. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . months. durability.by a variety of processes. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. . often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. though these are more often called 'modelli'. Chantilly). days of the week. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. but can also be used for painted sketches.both hot and cold . bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. and the fact that it is easily workable . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. made as a study for a larger picture. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.an advantage over marble sculpture. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. a rapid sketch in oil. coppery red. varying from silverish to a rich. bozzetto(Italian. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. bozzetto Strictly speaking. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. See flying buttress. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.

C cabinet A small. and work in precious metals. manuscript illuminations.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. Duccio. casson. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. glass. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. cameo Small relief made from gems. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. notable from Syria and Egypt. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. "a chest. ceramics. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). its forms highly stylized. which was often allegorical. Among its most distinctive products were icons. camera obscura . caisson (Fr. It also served to glorify the emperor. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. and Giotto. box") In architecture. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. mosaics. private room where works of art. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. over time the term was used for the collections themselves.

The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. followed by smaller and even pocket models. usually built beside or attached to a church. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. candelabrum (It. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. cantorie (It. capital (Lat. usually with several branches or arms. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. cantoria." and the earliest versions.-N. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Niepce created photography. hemp. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. and jute.) A gallery for singers or musicians. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. candelabra. by the 16th century. sing. pl. usually decorated. candlestick. only very rough effects will be obtainable. which was usually whitened. as an aid to drawing. usually in a church. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. campanile Bell tower. Portable versions were built. "candle") A large. other materials used are cotton. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candela. which isolates the fabric from the paint. dating to antiquity. . both of which have richly carved marble panels. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. capitellum.Ancestor of the photographic camera. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. Structurally.

"hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartellini In a painting. In fresco painting. or fresco. the Carmelites were originally hermits. cartone. details of the subject. cartoon (It. the endeavour to attain true humanity. The order combines reclusive and community life. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. pl. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. tapestry. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. Carmelites (Lat. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). in the 16th century reforms introduced by St.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters .a humorous drawing or parody. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the date of the painting. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. and humanism. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. monasteries containing separate hermitages.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . near Grenoble. Carthusian Order (Lat. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. At the height of the Middle Ages. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cardinalis. or a motto. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans.both Italians and artists from other countries . Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cartouche . New Charterhouses. cartellino.

they were also used in other countries. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. where the throne of the bishop is placed. a cathedral always faces west . castello (It. cassone (It. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. The altar is placed at the east end. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures.toward the setting sun. palace. The main body. putti (cupids). and many other items of her dowry. caryatid (Gk. or nave. They contained the bride's clothes. Paolo Uccello. . the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Cascina. and swags of fruit and flowers.) "castle". Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. linen. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. decorated with gilt gesso. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. In the 15th century. cathedral (cathedra. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. or arms of the cross.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. These lead up to the north and south transepts.

a celestial winged being with human. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. Relative to the observer. and Islamic literature. and perspicere. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. . Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. landscapes.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. continually praise him. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. centralis. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. "in the centre". a throne bearer of the deity. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Christian. or birdlike characteristics. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. as celestial attendants of God. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. buildings and figures that are being depicted. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. Both the statement of St. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. rather than intercessory functions. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. central perspective (Lat. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). champlevé (Fr. animal. in accordance with their distance from the observer.

the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Hans Burgkmair (1510). replacing tempera. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. choir (Gk. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. the Order of the Hospital of St. Since Carolingian times. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars).chiaroscuro (It. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. choros. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. North of the Alps. Lastly. or for choral singing. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. "light dark") In painting. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. reserved for the clergy to pray together. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept .

seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. further enriching the style. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Very few still exist in their original positions. reversed volutes. a massing of carved angels. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. undulating cornices. gilded rays. and repetition of pattern. and garlands. an architect. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. is as typically Churrigueresque. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. became the most common motif. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. stucco shells. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. undulating lines. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. ciborium . balustrades. The Transparente (completed 1732). In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. and the Churrigueresque column. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. which was shaped like an inverted cone. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. Sculpted clouds. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that.intersect).

but self-employed. combers. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. Their economic condition worsened. High Renaissance). beaters. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. or achieve political representation. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. Then. including the ciompi. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. They were forbidden to form a trade association. craft of dyeing.and post-medieval Italy. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Without being members of a guild. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Quattrocento (1400s. on July 22. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. Members of the lower classes. the wool carder Michele di Lando. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. In reaction to this revolutionary . A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. controlled by the minor guilds. ciompi. The new government. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. placing one of their members. who were raised to the status of a guild. etc. as also were those in the associated. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.

clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). however. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.episode. literature. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). on which strings were plucked. cithara (Gk. .) An ancient musical instrument. the ciompi guild was abolished. scholars patiently finding.as in Italy these were dispensed with. philosophy. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. clair-obscur (Fr. In the 15th century Greek literature. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. with Italian scholars. writers. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. changed greatly from one period to the next. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. except in cases where . and politics. philosophy and art . Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. Concepts of the classical. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. editing and translating a wide range of texts. resembling a lyre. the black contours usually with a special line plate. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image.

were frequently used in Renaissance palaces.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. [hora] completa. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. or "contract. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. pl. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. those with refined tastes. literature or music. occasionally made of wood. Coffered ceilings. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. the church service at which these prayers are said. sing. arch or ceiling. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. concetto. when set side by side. concetti (It. condottiere. a work's underlying theme. pl. compline (Lat. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. . terrorized the country. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. cognoscente (It. The name was derived from the condotta. as well as from the Bible. condottieri (It. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. cognoscenti. intensify one another. blue and orange. Green and red." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day.

scuole. in Venice. which spread in the 15th century. Mark (1432). and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Carmagnola. often under the direction of. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. clergy. commonly called either Compagnia di S. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. With no goal beyond personal gain. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. primarily for syphilitics. confraternities Confraternities.e. and Tuscany. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. i. Spanish. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. or with the spiritual assistance of. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. i. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. and his rival Braccio da Montone. disappeared. Martino). The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. in the service of Naples. Toward the end of the 15th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Umbria. who won control of Milan in 1450.e. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. convents of convertite.devastating Romagna. Muzio's son. Francesco Sforza. in the service of Perugia. . The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. and German--the condottieri. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. often called compagnie or. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. flagellant confraternities. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. By the end of the 14th century. By the 16th century.

the Florentine Neri. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. While the Doge ranked above the Council. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. but sometimes had their own premises. and refuges for maidens. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. In medieval painting. Confraternities. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. however. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. contour. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. contours were initially regular. founded c.g. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. in Florence.i. while the Venetian government. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). e. notwithstanding their location. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. e. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. contour (Fr. contrapposto (It. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi.g. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . the Venetian parliament of noblemen.e. Later. 1514 in S. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. Dorotea in Trastevere. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. flat outlines. reformed prostitutes. "Council of Ten") established in 1310.

In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. cuprum. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. Lat. conventiculurn. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. . aes cyprium. 1100 and 1300. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. whose names are inscribed on several works. corbel In architecture. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. large cornice or other feature. an engraving produced in this way. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. They are often ornamented. declining moral standards. Reform programs. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages.weight on one leg. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). started the process of inner reform in the Church. conventicle (Lat. a bracket of stone. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. 1280). "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. did not achieve any lasting results. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. The style spread as far as England. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Copperplate engraving (late Lat.

Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. D dado . and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. cupula. particularly among the Persians. Seleucids. a small dome. Next. after being whipped. An ancestor of the oboe. Carthaginians. Death. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. the condemned man. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. reedy sound. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Constantine the Great. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. cupola (Lat. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Jews. or "scourged. There were various methods of performing the execution. the most famous victim of crucifixion. i. "small vat") In architecture. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. Usually. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. a semi-circular vault. the first Christian emperor. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries.e. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club.

and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art.g. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. and Linz possessed common characteristics. deacon (Gk.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. which was help to be the basis of all art. an expressive use of nature. The term stresses not the literal drawing. diakonos. often an altarpiece. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. e. usually in matching pairs. Gk. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptychos. Passau. a favorite late medieval picture subject. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. diptychum. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. but the concept behind an art work. decorated diffrently from the upper section. "drawing. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Germany. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. disegno (It. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. diptych (Lat. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Deësis (Gk. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Anglican and Orthodox churches. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. danse macabre The dance of death. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). design") In Renaissance art theory.

which runs on castors or wheels. when painters took to working out of doors. distemper (Lat. such as we still use today. a 19th-century invention. "to mix. The studio easel. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. As disegno appeals to the intellect. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. though a few artists. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. doublet A male garment. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. usually forming a ceiling or roof. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. is a heavy piece of furniture.Thomas Aquinas. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. Dominicans (Lat. also used it on canvas. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c.fully realize. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). donator. distemperare. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Ordo Praedictatorum. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. formerly worn under armour. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. dome in architecture. donor (Lat.

in art. en face In portraiture. fresco. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschaton. eschatology (Gk. and the cornice. Hence. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. full face. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. sometimes combining panel painting. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. epitaph (Gk.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. sculpture. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. It consists of the architrave. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. and logos. a depiction of Jesus. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. John (19. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. ensemble (Fr. bound and flogged. the frieze. entablature In classical architecture. Ecce Homo (Lat. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. and architecture. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "word") . "last".

notably Cardinal Pole. . Eucharist (Gk. Spain.death and resurrection. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification." and charis. Augustine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Jerome. fields and livestock. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. farmers. Vittoria Colonna. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Germany. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. which was developed in the Near East ca. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. and Scandinavia. Saints Ambrose. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. which is called "delftware. "good. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. Equated with the Greek god Pan. eu. Italy. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Contarini. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which was famous for maiolica. celebrated with bread and wine. Marcantonio Flaminio. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. which is called "maiolica. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. 4500 BCE. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and is named for Faenza. particularly ware made in France. Giovanni Morone. and of the last things. protector of shepherds.

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). drying to a slightly different tint. that of the others red. famine and death. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster.8). a technique known as a secco fresco. such as plague. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Only a small area can be painted in a day. war. black and dun. and flowers suspended in a loop. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. can in time be seen. Committed to charitable and missionary work. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. and these areas. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco).festoni (It. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. fluted of a column or pillar. relaxed. a swag. The colour of his horse is white. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. frescos in Italy . Their attributes are the bow. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. leaves. sword and set of balances. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fresco (It. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. 2 . it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful.

are genres of painting. Genius in classical Rome. The technique of buon fresco. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. the intonaco. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. Final details. genre In a broad sense. both in churches and in private and public palaces. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. covings and ceilings. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and to a lesser extent for tapestries. a person's invisible tutelary god. or true fresco. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. In art from the classical period onwards. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. usually childish figure. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. where the atmosphere was too damp. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. landscape and portraiture. or fresco secco. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. for example.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper.Save in Venice. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art.

and as spurring on men of action. Maso di Banco.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Gobelins . (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. as well as writers and artists. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Maria Gloriosa). where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. As such. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Bernardo Daddi. how it differed from notoriety. in portraits and on tombs. whether it must be connected with the public good. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents.

In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. who appointed Lebrun Director. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties.French tapestry manufactory. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In other Italian cities. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. . which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. This ratio is approximately 8:13. and although it reopened in 1699. Paris. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). still in existence today. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. thereafter it made only tapestries. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Golden Fleece. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. golden section (Lat. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean).

It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. Denis. the superficial particularities of form. 1270. Gothic Gothic. There is a transcendental quality. In sculpture and in painting. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In particular. 1200 and c. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. painting. . and lies much deeper than. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. The artistic. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. or the influence of one building. like the cultural and commercial. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. c. that the effects are to be felt. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. from the 13th until the 17th century. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. In thinking of Nicola (d. Amiens. Nevertheless. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. painting. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception.

It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. chiefly to France. It is thinned with water for applying. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. Pannini.and hog-hair brushes. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. with sable. the beau idéal of the French. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. and Morris Graves. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Klee. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and above all Italy. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. notably in the writings of Bellori. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Honey. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. Canaletto. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. if required. Such tours often took a year or more. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. and taste among the English. and the great style. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. These qualities. the Netherlands. occasionally. are but different appellations of the same thing'. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. genius. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. starch. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Dubuffet. and Piranesi. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. .gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. to silk. to white or tinted paper and card and. without visible brush marks.

gris. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. exclude drawing from this definition. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. brother of Louis IX. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. after this. and Waiblingen.e. usually gray. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. In Florence. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. . Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. became an abiding feature of European politics. grisaille (Fr. In the context of the fine arts. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. which had recruited most of the merchant class. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. Some writers. through central Italy. Although its palace was rebuilt c.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. drawing and the various forms of engraving. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. to Provence and Paris. then as now. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. 1216. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. however. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. however. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. In another sense. c. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. including text as well as illustrations. From 1266 to 1268. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. the parties taking a multitude of local names. After the War of the Eight Saints.

In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. or professions. as some did). print or painting. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. [science] héraldique. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In Italy they go back a long way." from Fr. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. H hatching In a drawing. and provided assistance to members in need. for example. and greater hostility between master and man. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. In some cities. trade or profession (painters. but in time they acquired other functions. goldsmiths. notably Florence in the 14th century. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. The guild also monitored standards of work. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In 16th century Venice. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. such as Brescia and Vicenza. In Florence. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. surgeons. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. trades. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. In some towns. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. "herald") . The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. heraldry (Fr. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. "[knowledge of] heraldry. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. héraut. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. Guilds were also patrons of art. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The guilds were not equal. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state.

1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. from the start. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The main impact of the . which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. d. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. together with brethren north of the Alps. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. one great missionary community. indeed. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. as Antichrist.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. normative for churchmen. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). head of the 'carnal Church'. the Cathars were an anti-church. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. By contrast. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. i. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. with the rules governing their use. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. However. while others merged with the Waldensians. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. the Waldensian. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. they were condemned in 1184.

may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Henry Inman. in his earlier work. J. Frederick E. mainly in the south. and. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. In humanism. Morse. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Kensett. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. the emancipation of man from God took place. Jasper Cropsey. my spouse'. American painters were studying in Rome.movement upon the laity was in southern France. humanus. humanism (Lat. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Durand. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Germany. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Church. working from 1825 to 1875. B. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. F. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. its subjects considered morally elevating. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. George Inness. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Thomas Cole. S. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. and classical literature. At the same time. history (usually classical history). hortus conclusus (Lat. F. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. are also used in art literature. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. there are representations of the bundle of rods. or of other saints. originality. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. etc. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. investiture . soft style. usually the donors of a work of art. the hammer. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. For instance. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. the veil of St.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Veronica. Human figures. In the second half of the 14th century. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. invention. trecento rococo and lyrical style. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. beautiful style. the rooster of Peter's denial. Donatallo. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. with many further details added. the scourge that was used in the scourging. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. and they are also depicted on their own. inventio (It. the pincers. The terms court style.g. Derived from classical rhetoric. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the ability to create. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. and the ladder.

its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Nicolaes Berchem. of Utrecht. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. who traveled in Italy and. Italianizers Northern artists. Andries and Jan Both. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Both and Berchem. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. and Jan Asselijn. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. bathed in a golden haze. although they are usually called Romanists. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Upon his return to Holland. Jerome's writings. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. principally Dutch. The Both brothers. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. . Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. generally Dutch or Flemish. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St.

The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. especially one at which the Bible is read.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Archbishop of Genoa. liberal arts . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. lectern A reading stand or desk.1519). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. As their military role grew. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Legenda Aurea (Lat. encouraged by the Crusades. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Emperor Maximilian I (1459. John of Jerusalem . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). the rite of communion is based on this. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.as the Friars of the Hospital of St.

comprising arithmetic. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Pythagoras for arithmetic. its roof supported by columns.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.g. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. It is related to. astronomy and music. Kensett (1816-1872). or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). that could be used for public ceremonies. Church (1826-1900). first the preparatory trivium . the quadrivium. lunette (Fr. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. rhetoric and dialectic. "little moon") In architecture. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865).) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. . Maria Novella in Florence). Martin J. and Frederick E. through the use of aerial perspective. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. a semicircular space. commemorating a marriage.g. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. loggia (It. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. together with identifying attributes (e. then the basis of a philosophical training. often sublime. often standing in markets and town squares. poetic atmosphere.grammar. characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Heade (1819-1904). painting or sculptural decoration. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. geometry.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Tubal for music). John F. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. that may contain a window. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s.

originally sung without accompaniment. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. and however bright their lighting effects. the goddess Cybele. copper green. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. antimony yellow. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. When white is used for painting. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. and accompaniments. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. Specifically. and iron red. active mainly in Florence c. "almond") . The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. particularly such ware produced in Italy. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). but they painted genre scenes. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. for example. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. and portraits as well as landscapes. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. madrigal A part song. being written. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). magna mater (Lat.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. "great mother") A mother goddess. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. originating in Italy in the 14th century. 1855–65. usually for the lute. historical subjects. manganese purple. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. mandorla (It. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC.

sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Parmigianino. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. ecclesiastical. Flanders. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. In Mannerist painting. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. mantle An overcoat. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. El Greco and Tintoretto. Bronzino. the hand-written medieval book. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Mannerism (It. Burgundy. depending on the social class of the wearer. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. worn open. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. It reached to the knee or foot. Developing out of the Renaissance. strong. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. bound. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. complex and crowded compositions. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. and crowned with thorns. more strictly. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. In architecture.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. which was quarried at Mount . the Codex manuscriptus. marked by flagellation. and literary texts. in a specific sense. "manner. maniera. often ornamented with decorative borders. illuminated initials and miniatures.

Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. "witness. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. which were beginning to be reverently collected. particularly by Michelangelo. having finished his training. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. The pure white Carrara marble. Without monetary value. the medal's purpose was commemorative. Like the finest Imperial coins. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. martyrdom (Gk. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. an inscription running round the rim. quarried at Massa. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . martyrion. a different design on the reverse. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. gained the rank of'master' in his guild.Pentelicon in Attica. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. medallion In architecture. marmi finti (It. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. proof") the sufferings. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). sleek surface. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary.

Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. This yields a soft effect in the print. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. in England. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. and of the many. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. for landscapes and portraits. c. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. When Perseus cuts off her head. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. It was. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. c. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. 1467-688). 1452-1526/27). In pure mezzotint. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. 1425-1504). the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Her head features on Minerva's shield. 1640. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. even grain. the stress on individual character. particularly. as it were. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto.round the neck. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. supposedly to petrify her enemies. A Dutch officer. 14601528). every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. The process is essentially extinct today. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. no line drawing is employed. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. a Gorgon. The work of these men. often anonymous. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. . The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. of the person portrayed on the other side. who reflected them. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Ludwig von Siegen. perhaps oddly. Medusa In Greek mythology. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi).

Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. saying") . 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Parmigianino (d. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.g. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. Francis himself. "one color") Painted in a single color. still exist. monokhromatos. monochrome (Gk. painting in gouache on vellum or card. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. ink and paint. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Many such small versions. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. usually portraits. a painting executed in a single color. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. miter A high.. by Tiepolo and Rubens. a branch of the Franciscan order. motto (Ital. e. "word. executed on a very small scale. pointed headdress worn by bishops. often quite highly finished.

Pforr. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. 1817-29). as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and is intersected by the transept. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. navis. nave (from Lat. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. and two other members moved to Rome. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles.from the Middle Ages. The invention of personal mottos. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. but often insipid. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. In 1810 0verbeck. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. naturalism (Fr. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Rome. It may have parallel aisles on each side. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. Isidore. and Casino Massimo. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. In general. Berlin. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). named after the patron saint of painting. 1816-17. . Nazarenes A group of young. often separated from it by pillars. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others.

usually golden. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Popes. moreover. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. but their ideas continued to be influential. "aureole") The disc or halo. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). nigellus. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825).) . nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). is as true as it is notorious. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. niello (Lat. were usually old when elected. Nymphaeum (Gk. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. nimbus (Lat. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. the style of the Ancien Régime.

the Doric order. Greek goddesses of Nature. such as linseed. a more elaborate base. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. orders of architecture In classical architecture. a small private chapel. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. . "services. inborn sin. O obsequies (Lat. observances") Rites performed for the dead. walnut. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). prayer and preaching being central to their mission. and its greater tonal range.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. capital. The earliest. fluted column and a plain capital. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. and entablatures. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. or poppy. They are seen in the form of the columns. obsequia. with a sturdy. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. its richness of colour. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. the three basic styles of design. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. was the simplest.

reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. with biforate windows. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. tradition and social structure. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. designed as a . and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. like cities. palazzo (It. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. standing at the foot of the Cross. and. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. the Cancelleria). a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. and the main apartments above. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. while shops came to be thought undignified. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. Palazzo Strozzi). A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. P pala (Ital. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.g. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.

and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Papal incentives to build. especially after the Sack of Rome. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. column-caps. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. often built next to their titular churches. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. palmette. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. evolved influential types. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). panel . Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. e. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Movement of patrons and architects. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Following Oriental patterns. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Other cities.scholarly retreat. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. and large households. cornices and abutments. came to be applied all over Europe. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. behind a sober Florentine façade. like the colonnaded vestibule. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. In Venice. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces.g.g. Rich. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). like Genoa. Palazzo Massimi). Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system.

For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. larch. On a larger scale. and modern painters have also used plywood. the. fir. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. teak. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. fibre-board. however. olive. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. linden. to influence popes in their favour. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). could lead to conflict with secular authorities. cedar. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. enforce law and order. and dark walnut are favourites. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. and the pressure and temptations . analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. The third aspect was administrative. as it were. and spanned by a single dome. chestnut. and other synthetic materials as supports. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. Having a circular plan. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law.Term in painting for a support of wood. as distinct from canvas. As successors to St Peter. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. In the 20th century cedar. Many other types were used. Then. A number of matters. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. or other rigid substance. the management of clerical dues and taxation. mahogany. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. or the incidence of taxation. including beech. secular rulers. so that they might have a voice at court. To maintain their authority. slate has occasionally been used as a support. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. metal. and walnut.

As at Avignon. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. as such. however. possess an authority which. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. in the eyes of God. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. So onerous. in spite of further absences from Rome. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . if it did no serious damage to the faith. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). however. To resolve the problem of divided authority. would. of individuals.that could be applied to them. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. however. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. at Avignon. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. By then. It was argued that such a council. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. to be long delayed. There remained. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. could supersede that of a pope. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. which met at Constance 1414-18. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. considered perfectly suitable for the role played .base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Colonna and Caetani. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. which seems so inevitable. the most appropriate . was long in doubt.as well. from the point of view of its religious associations. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss).

parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. in classical literature. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and other animals. and with Zeuxis (c. pastor. through lavish patronage of artists. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. pastoral (Lat. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood.. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). goat. as well as a governmental one. 400-300 BC). less frequently pig. the creation of a cultural capital. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. to a world peopled by shepherds. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. nymphs. Passion . It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. Parrhasius (c. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). scholars and men of letters. However. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. it has also been used for painting. and satyrs. 425 BC) and Apelles (c.

But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. a prominent section of a monumental façade. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. ornamental building. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. hence tent") A lightly constructed. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. such as a garden summerhouse. patrician (Lat. projecting either centrally or at both ends. a small. pastiche (fr. 1478. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. but not necessarily a direct copy.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. the crown of thorns. "butterfly. Meanwhile. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. 1478). "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. Francesco Salviati. . patricius. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. which focus on the Suffering Christ. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. a region in north-central Italy. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. Portrayals of the Passion.The events leading up to Good Friday. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. and so on.) or pasticcio (It. wealthy citizen. papilio. pavilion (Lat. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. and also the archbishop of Pisa.

personification (Lat. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). dependent") One of a pair of related art works. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "hanging. and gnomon. pendant (Fr. perspicere. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. persona. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. . Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. pergola (It. in particular the face. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. physiognomy (Gk. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "person". or related elements within an art work. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. "nature". and facere. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. physis. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "to see through.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. perspective (Lat. concept or deity. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people.

or resin to make paint. curious details. affording a good subject for a landscape. Rome.) The main floor of a building. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. pigmentum. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Pietà (Lat. glue. usually above the ground floor. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. to be expressed in painting. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. for example. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.piano nobile (Ital. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. but may consist of a cluster of columns. both real and painted. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Peter's. . and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. A pier is generally larger than a column. remarkable for singularity. exemplified. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigment (Lat. but full of variety. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. containing the public rooms. proper to take a landscape from.

plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. also used in Spain's American colonies. It seems probable. Rocco and Sebastian. more sporadic outbreaks. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. In the 15th century. It is often fluted. such as Florence and Genoa. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. During 1348 the Black Death. the burning of 'infected' clothing. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. outside Tuscany. plague Plague.pilaster (Lat. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). it is difficult to find. and capital. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. since. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. it has a base. Thenceforward. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. moreover. for instance. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. "pillar") A flat. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. pilastrum. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. a shaft. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. however. perhaps. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. in October 1347. despite regional variations. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. For this reason. and thereafter all Europe. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. though in less widespread.

The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). In contrast with Aristotle.. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Philebus. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). utilized Mudejar ornament -. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . are the masterworks of the second style. like its successor. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedo. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. which lasted only a few decades. The first phase. harmonious. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. the Symposium. The first phase. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. Timaeus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. and sinuous scrolls. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. Diego evolved a purer. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. i. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. correct classical orders became frequent. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. heraldic escutcheons. and unified style using massive geometric forms. The second phase. more severe. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. or simply the Plateresque. composition. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. A student of Socrates. or appropriateness.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. placement. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. Theatetus and the Laws. Phaedrus.e. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). the Renaissance-Plateresque. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding.

while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. all of which he also translated into Latin. including those of Plotinus. Rather unsystematic. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. but not completely. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. and the Chaldaic Oracles. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. and Agostino Steuco (c. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and .1577) becoming particularly popular. Iamblichus. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 1472-c. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. and he utilized many other writings. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. A new Latin translation. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. Plotinus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries.in Plato's thought. near Florence. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Unlike the case of Aristotle. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. partially. replaced Ficino's. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance.

where a pectoral is used to close it. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. poluptukhos. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Some polyptychs were very elaborate. Frequently supports a pediment. polyptych (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. pluviale. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. portico (Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. as in classical architecture). plinth (Gk. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. plinthos. column. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. porticus. or statue. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. pointed arch In architecture. pluvial (Med. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Lat. such as processions and consecrations. Plato was read in the universities. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses.

sculptors such as Donatello. flattened image. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. psychologically more complex. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Venice). Colleoni. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Group portraits. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. National Gallery). Florence. The equestrian portrait. Campidoglio). the Carracci. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Maria Novella. The realism of the clear. Siena. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. and the . whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. 1328. Mantua. Gattarnelata. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. was revived in the 14th century. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. and only a decorative accessory to form. decorating whole rooms. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers.e. Cathedral) by Uccello. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. Desiderio da Settignano. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.. Palazzo Farnese). Florence (1486-90). Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The 16th century portrait became generalized. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. inessential. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c.

" preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. together with the Dominican Savonarola. Fiamma's sermons. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Charles Le Brun. abrasive even. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. bishop of Asti. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. primarily the mendicants. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and Peter Paul Rubens. The sermons of Visdomini. bishops especially. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. Correggio.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). star preachers journeyed all over Italy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. to discharge their preaching duties. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. of the sermon as an art form. was versed in classical and patristic . but 16th century ones were more cautious here. and. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Borromeo. however. from the secular clergy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. 1494). Cornelio Musso (1511-74). by contrast with the mendicant preachers. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. As Poussin was a Frenchman. minatory exhortations." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. The styles of S. several of whom became bishops. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. bishop of Chioggia. are not florid in style. Savonarola and Musso. who had as their ideal masters Titian. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d.

predella (It. though often relatively very wide .they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. presbyterion "Council of Elders") .rhetoric. and so forth. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Naples).the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament .they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. among them Holman Hunt. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Millais and Rossetti. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. the temptations of Adam and Christ. however. The New Testament references in these would. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. tapestries. prefiguration Typology . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.g. Louis of Toulouse (1317.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Because of the small size of predelle . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.

The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). these highly finished drawings. Girardon. 3. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). the Canon of Proportion. proportion (Lat. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. intended as complete works of art in themselves. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. the golden section. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. notably David. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. 2. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. Fragonard. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. proportio. Prix de Rome A scholarship. the quadrature. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. "evenness") in painting. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. which uses the square . profil perdu (Fr. again indicative of the purpose they served. and Houdon among sculptors.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. sculpture and architecture. The following are important: 1. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. projecting shelf on which to kneel. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work.

for example). provenance The origins of an art work. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Rome. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. It was common in Roman art. . many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Unlike Pozzo. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. and 5. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. putto (It. 4. "boys") Plump naked little boys. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. one half the length of the other). Ignazio. a fifth = 2:3. the steward or treasurer of a church. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity.as a unit of measurement. putti sing. a fourth = 3:4. harmonic proportions. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. triangulation.

Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. hermits. e. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. refectory (Med. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. basso rilievo). relief (Lat. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. friars and nuns. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Lat. the object of particular veneration. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. canons regular.g. and high relief (alto rilievo). the great orders of monks. Fra Angelico and others. relic (Lat. Brunelleschi. relicquiae. Donatello. or some item connected with a saint. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Botticelli. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. in particular works by Masaccio. or the Jesuits. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background.Quattrocento (It. Among the . in which figures are seen half round. In 16th century Europe. with the Anglican Church developing in England. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. in which figures are almost detached from their background. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. also known as the Realist school. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). relevare. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief.

having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. and their more institutionalized brethren. After the repression of the Spirituals. the Conventuals. Salvatore. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Lorenzo Giustiniani. various groups were fused in the latter body. presided over by chapters general. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. The Conventuals. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. it became the Cassinese congregation. 1012. who had no overall organization originally. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. The Benedictines. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. the most notable being S. At the same time.e. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life.contemplative orders. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. the great patriarch of Venice. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. i. That of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Venice (1404). Founded by St Romuald c. The Silvestrines. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Mantua. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. Maria di Fregonaia. although technically of secular canons. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Giorgio in Alga. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Bernardino of Siena. Padua. S. which was to become the main Italian one. In 1504. however. Giustina. their resources being in the hands of trustees. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Benedetto. was the congregation of S. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. and the generally moderate Observants. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Bologna (1419). In 1517. The same bull . Lucca. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century.

an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). founded by S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. also. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Gaetano da Thiene. however. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. founded in 1535 by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. Venice. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. a historical period. S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Angela Merici. Gerolamo Aemiliani. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Filippo Neri. The first. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the Theatines. however. Michele in Isola.

man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. because its core of energy. and competition with. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. . The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. however. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. life. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. increasingly. of an energetic revival of interest in. however. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. For long. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Thereafter. as well as political. which had begun early in the 14th century. and his own as potentially one of light. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. was so vast and potent. even Amoralism. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. too long forgotten glories. of scholarship. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. All-Roundness. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. 1875-86). whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. of 'darkness'.century. the historical reality of antiquity. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of arts. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of letters. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus.

the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Ghent). mobilized nationalism. let alone a uniform. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. There was an early.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). letters. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. especially in the High Gothic period. of industrialization. (3) There is not a true. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style.) was the term chosen. and other liturgical objects. retables can be detached and. The challenges are to be accepted. though sometimes of metal. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. sometimes. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. consist merely of a painting. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. etc. the previous record . statues. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. later still to Genoa. Though thus challenged. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start.with all its shabbiness . in the more limited sense. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. candlesticks. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. etc. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. and is decorated with paintings. gratefully. however. It is for this additional. congruence between. Cathedral of SaintBavon. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.erased. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. and mass media.

its mood lighthearted and witry. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. With the development of freestanding altars. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). like 'Gothic'. Italy. richly decorated with organic forms. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. almost simultaneously. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. "relief") In painting. Romanesque art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. . As the name suggests. Originally commissioned in 976. retables have become extinct. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. in several countries . It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. painting.France. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. however. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. rilievo (It. literally. Louis XV furniture. Rococo A style of design. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. and 'Romanesque'. More usually. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). the St. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period.in the 11th century. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Germany. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. the first style to achieve such international currency. rocaille (French. Spain . is a typical product.of St Mark in Venice.

school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Rome. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. stylized design representing an open rose. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. such as red ochre. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. B. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). M. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. In addition. Mabuse. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Claude. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Pannini and Mengs. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Piranesi. The aim of painting. the development of nationalistic pride. they maintained. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. van Heemskerk. Q. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Massys and M. . van Orley. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious.

Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. holy orders. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. penance. Many compositions were anonymous. Written primarily in ottava rima. and Protestant churches. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. confirmation. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Subjects were nominally sacred. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. multiple sets used in succession. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and impoverished. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. There were no limits on time. local saints. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Sacra Conversazione (It.greatly increased. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and Lorenzo de' Medici.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. Eastern independent. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. matrimony. pious legend and hagiography. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. Clement escaped into Castel S. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. glance and movement . whose Rappresentazione dei SS. the Eucharist.expressed through gesture. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. In the . supported by lay confraternities. Orthodox. and anointing of the sick. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. gutted. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). from the Old and New Testaments. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. but others were the work of well-known figures.

. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge." which are called sacramentals. notably from Florence and in Germany. sacraments. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. that the price of salt should be increased. Immediately following baptism. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. was buried under a new fortress. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. was not maintained as a sacrament. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. The theology of the Orthodox Church.i. Lutheran. as an excuse to revolt. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. Saracens .e. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. Hence. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. It is still practiced on special occasions. which in the Gospel According to John. Thus. in principle. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. strictly speaking. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . the sun of righteousness. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.early church the number of sacraments varied.e.. and then face east. baptism and the Eucharist. used for drawing. and sacraments. make such strict distinctions. the Bentivoglio. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The classical Protestant churches (i. The chief focus of discontent. foot washing. the Orthodox Church does not. the symbolic direction of Christ. Candidates first face west. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. large room. replaces the Lord's Supper. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Rocca Paolina. They were still seeking aid.) Hall. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Anglican. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Salt War. chapter 13." sala (Ital. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.

160 . Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Little known in the Middle Ages. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. and many others. wood or terracotta. sarcophagus. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. human-like woodland deities with the ears. 360 . whose writings. 45 BC). Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. satyr In Greek mythology. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy.During the Middle Ages. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. are lost. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion.c. 270 BC). The publication of Latin (1562. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 210 AD). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. sarcophagi (Gk. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. legs and horns of a goat. the Arabs or Muslims. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). made of stone. the god of wine. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. pl.c. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD).

was called Bamboccio. who recognized the Roman pope. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. than their medieval predecessors. while devout Christians agonized. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. with France and her allies Aragon. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. and therefore far more purely Italian princes.for example Pieter van Laer. Schism. from time to time both he and his opponents. for. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Louis I (d. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. on one side. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. most of whom. Charles III of Durazzo (d. However. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. on the other. in June 1409. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. while England. being Frenchmen. In northern Italy. the Florentines. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Alexander V. and. who had the support of the Avignon pope. As a result. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages.they had individual Bentnames . scholasticism . Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. one of the early leaders. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). but with little effect. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources.

In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. university-based study. None the less. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. the plaster had to be damped before painting. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. textual scholarship. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). rather than wet plaster as in fresco. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. (See also: fresco. notably Aquinas. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.) . as it were. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. on one side. history and rhetoric .moral philosophy. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). and Islamic literature. and theology. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. It was because the central concerns of humanism . Padua. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Medieval scholars. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. As such. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. that scholasticism was left. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. if lime-water was used.The term is ambivalent. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. Serenissima (Ital. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. as it is easier to add details in this way. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. Christian. Often called the burning ones. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. because the secco technique is much less permanent. moreover.were different from those of medieval.

They first appear in alpine monasteries. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. women who could prophesy. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. usually presided over by individual families. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. and the delicate. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sibylla. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. brass. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. sfumato A technique. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Med. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century.. sibyls (Gk.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. at the same time. Servite (Lat. "prophetess") In antiquity. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sinopia . Originally. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. Lat. the number gradually rose to ten. "the most serene republic of Venice"). In Christian legend. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. Signoria (It. there was only one Sibyl. in the period of classical antiquity. term. which were all identical in thickness. Sibyls foretold the Birth. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. in use since the Middle Ages. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.

whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. soffit (Lat. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. staffage This word. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. as the name implies. sing. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. brand. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. and. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. sotto in sù (It. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. in other words.'Beautiful Madonnas'. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. Francis of Assisi. Ital. . Stanze (Ital. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. "mark. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . stigma (Gk. It is very closely related to International Gothic. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. especially in the flow of drapery.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear.. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms.) Wooden ceiling decoration. pronounced as French. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. stigmata. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade.

supremacy . By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. both external and internal.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). whose verses actually fabrications . notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. with that for the Picturesque.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. stucco A type of light. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. In a looser sense. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. The vogue for the Sublime. pl. Indeed. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studiolo. John Milton. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). studioli (It. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination.

Salviati and Allori. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. both for panel painting and fresco. temperare. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. into Italy. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. doubtless. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. or cartoons.Historically. his own headquarters. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. . the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. was being decorated with frescoes. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). London. The subject is underexplored.and.e. and in literature. chiefly from Flanders. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. i. 1407). then being replaced by oil paint. But the Italians did not make them. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. tempera (Lat. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. These were imported. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being.

triumphal arch. figure of speech. terraferma (Ital. theme or motif. and later to subdivide gable ends. model. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. i. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. in the architecture of ancient Rome. quarter face. "a commonplace") In literature. pl. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. tondi (It. vessels. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). walls. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. topia. "fields. pl. widely used form. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures.e. topos. and other surfaces. in art. Trajan's Column . In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tondo. topoi (Gk. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. and profile. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. topiary (Gk. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. and sculptures. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. usually those of animals or geometrical forms.terracotta (It.

usually an altarpiece. tryptychos. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. fame. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. . Battista Sforza. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. triptych (Gk. of both sexes'. chastity. added to the glamour of the triumph. "threefold") in Christianity. of virtues and of the arts. Meanwhile. time and eternity. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Disseminated soon after his death. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. as it were. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. the wars by which they were won . only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. into a number of less controversial forms. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. patriarchs and prophets. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. or wings. behind it. Early triptychs were often portable.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. after 'a countless number of virgins. a car so brave'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. trinitas. the Son and the Holy Spirit. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). death. the military triumph became sublimated. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. beside it the army of martyrs. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one.' Before it go the apostles. Trinity (Lat. "threefold") A painting in three sections.

first recorded in 1232. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tympanum (Lat. tusche A thick. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. enclosed by an arch. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. It incorporates Renaissance features. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. viscous black ink. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. "drum") In classical architecture. In medieval architecture. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. typology . often decorated with sculptures.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. it is usually decorated with carvings. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. through various naturalistic devices. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Dating from classical times.

the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. 1590-1624). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). 1610). slayer of Goliath. U uomo universale (It. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). killer of Holofernes.g.A system of classification. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . each had access to his paintings.Dirck van Baburen (c. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . such as five works devoted to the senses. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). The numerous candles. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. In Christian thought. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and David.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. . knew his former patrons. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Judith. e.) The Renaissance "universal man". especially his half-length figural groups. were popular with them also. where they were most accessible. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. lanterns. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.

with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. There are a wide range of forms. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. and even flowers (which will soon fade). Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. and the rib vault. often gold. "evening") . carriages. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. V vanishing point In perspective. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. hour-glasses and clocks. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Parisian craftsmen. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. guttering candles. Also varietas (Lat.). Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. varietà (It. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. vesper. a work's richness of subject matter. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. snuff boxes and other objects. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. Vespers (Lat. vanitas (Lat. the groin vault. mixed in. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. overturned vessels. it was used to decorate furniture. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers.

the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. vita. Envy. Fortitude. Anger. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. vestibulum. Charity. Gluttony. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Lust. "life") . The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. if you have it not'. vimperga Of German origin. and Sloth. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vite (Lat. In ancient Roman dwellings. Covetousness. virtù could be used. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Hope. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Prudence. in which the word signifies efficacy. Temperance. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. The seven Virtues were: Faith. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). and Justice. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Vestibule (Lat.Prayers said in the evening. the church service at which these prayers are said. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. "not exposed to winds". actual or latent. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. 'Assume a virtue. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. for example. pl. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross.

fall into a different category from those that preceded them. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. The wars from 1494 do. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. 1478-80. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. those of Volterera. they were from the 18th century . Marcus (1st cent. usually when a prayer for good fortune. and appalled recognition of. a biography. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. or recovery from illness has been made. in fact.An account of someone's life and work. protection from harm. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Vitruvius Pollio. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1472. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. Sculptors and Architects").g. published in 1550 and 1568. 1482-84). and of Ferrara. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.Weltanschauung (Gr. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. gallery. "world view") A comprehensive world view. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. based on stylization of various animal forms. Westwerk German word. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. It was intended to have a variety of functions. "Western work of art". during its subsequent history. . leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. pompous on the floor above. a philosophy of life. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. woodcut A print made from a wood block. usually linear. usually restorers. treasury or a place where justice was administered.