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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
architectonic (Gk. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. at the east end of a church behind the altar. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. and Rouault. There are several variants of the technique. or organization. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. roofed with a half-dome. which is fused to the plate by heating. the moulding around a window or door. Also known as an exedra. Lancet and Tudor. .A semicircular projection. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. arcus. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. Picasso. The term applies also to a print made by this method. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). design. but in essence the process is as follows. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. In Greek and Roman literature.e. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. including Goya. architrave (It. the lowest part of the entablature). A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. arcade (Lat. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Degas. piers or pillars. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. The adjective is apsidal. the darker the tone). arkhitektonikos. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. "architectural") Relating to structure.
In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. archivolto. attributum. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. usually a saint. aureole (Lat. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . dominate. attribute (Lat. Ars Moriendi (Lat. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. In the case of martyrs." and Lat. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies." from Gk.archivolt (Ital. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "begin.and the Comedy . there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). voltus. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. aureolus. "front arch. Dante's Vita nuova . From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "golden. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. archeiu.
Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. in 1377. who had been residing in France since 1305. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. the god of wine and fertility. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. paintings of everyday life.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. 'Captivity'. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. that of Cardano. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The actual move was made in 1309. baldachin. Six pontificates later. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. applied to the physically . often anecdotal. or baldacchino (It. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Later. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome.
In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Alg. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Easter. or forecourt.. or canopy. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. built by Sixtus III. Parma. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. and Poitiers. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. a church. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. of the church and were often large and richly decorated.. the Temple of Venus. As eight follows the "complete" number. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. beggars in rags. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. and Epiphany. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. set beneath a domical ciborium. and abject filthy things. France.g. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Spalato [Split. banderole (It. el Kantara. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. AD 273. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and Nocera in Italy. a visual metaphor for the number eight. such as those at Pisa. Croatia]. Florence. . van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. or connected with. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. seven. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. pope between 432 and 440. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. AD 300). whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Customarily. Lebanon. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. banderuola. Pentecost. Baalbek.
Théodore Rousseau (French. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Originally. 1796-1875). in its usual location near the church door . Jules Dupré (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. or baptismal chapels. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. achieved through scale. which is reserved for the clergy. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. and increasingly elaborate decoration. 1810-1865). basilica (Gk. 1807-1876). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. and (3) everyday realism. "king's hall") a church building. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. something of earlier symbolism survives. usually facing east. 1811-1889). stoa basilike. baptisteries.an allusion to entering the Christian life. In architecture. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Vermeer). barocco. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and thus a church. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Baroque (Port. were often omitted entirely. Also tunnel vault. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). . and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1817-1878). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. in the 1840s and 1850s.In the 10th century. Jean-François Millet (French. Rubens). however. Constant Troyon (French. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1814-1875). the dramatic use of light and shadow. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. southeast of Paris. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt.
As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. however. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Spanish still-lifes. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. There were. 1650 in Spain. The term was mainly used up to c. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. in which still-life predominates. By association. like their Dutch counterparts. bodegón Image. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Biscuit porcelain. often with food and drink. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. were referred to by their specific contents.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Bodegónes. also incorrectly called bisque. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. and often sentimentality.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. which is either not yet glazed. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. domesticity. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. especially Spanish. particularly porcelain. as is to be expected. up until the mid-17th century. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. It takes its name from its grainy texture. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. Book of Hours . or which is to be left as it is. such as those by Diego Velázquez. such as Waldmüller.
bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.by a variety of processes. days of the week. though these are more often called 'modelli'. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. a rapid sketch in oil. months. and the fact that it is easily workable . By extension. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. varying from silverish to a rich.both hot and cold . The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. coppery red. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. or seasons. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. See flying buttress. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . durability. Chantilly). from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. bozzetto(Italian. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. . but can also be used for painted sketches. bozzetto Strictly speaking. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.an advantage over marble sculpture. made as a study for a larger picture.
valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. glass. caisson (Fr. box") In architecture. "a chest. It also served to glorify the emperor. and work in precious metals. mosaics. C cabinet A small. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. manuscript illuminations. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. and Giotto. cameo Small relief made from gems. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. camera obscura . Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. which was often allegorical. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). casson. Duccio. notable from Syria and Egypt. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Among its most distinctive products were icons.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. ceramics. its forms highly stylized. private room where works of art.
" and the earliest versions. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. "candle") A large. only very rough effects will be obtainable. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means.Ancestor of the photographic camera. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. as an aid to drawing. which isolates the fabric from the paint. both of which have richly carved marble panels.) A gallery for singers or musicians. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. usually with several branches or arms. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. The Latin name means "dark chamber. usually built beside or attached to a church.-N. capital (Lat. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candelabrum (It. campanile Bell tower. which was usually whitened. Portable versions were built. dating to antiquity. sing. by the 16th century. usually decorated. cantoria. usually in a church. cantorie (It. followed by smaller and even pocket models. other materials used are cotton. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. hemp. candlestick. candelabra. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. candela. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). Structurally. . and jute. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. Niepce created photography. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. pl. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. capitellum.
cartoon (It. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . the date of the painting. tapestry. and humanism. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. cardinalis. cartone. the Carmelites were originally hermits.both Italians and artists from other countries . Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). or fresco. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. near Grenoble. Fortitudo (Fortitude).who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century.a humorous drawing or parody. cartellino. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Carthusian Order (Lat. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. Carmelites (Lat. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. The order combines reclusive and community life. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. cartellini In a painting. cartouche . Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). pl. the endeavour to attain true humanity. or a motto. At the height of the Middle Ages. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. New Charterhouses. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. In fresco painting. details of the subject.
"priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. or arms of the cross. linen. Cascina. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. cathedral (cathedra. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. and many other items of her dowry. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. putti (cupids). Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. cassone (It. The altar is placed at the east end. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families.) "castle". caryatid (Gk. These lead up to the north and south transepts. decorated with gilt gesso. a cathedral always faces west . battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Paolo Uccello. In the 15th century. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. they were also used in other countries. palace. and swags of fruit and flowers. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. They contained the bride's clothes. . The main body.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. castello (It. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. or nave. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. For reasons lost to time and tradition. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. where the throne of the bishop is placed. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood).toward the setting sun. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures.
Relative to the observer. "in the centre". moral laxity in the clergy and so on). chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. champlevé (Fr. rather than intercessory functions. in accordance with their distance from the observer. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. as celestial attendants of God. and Islamic literature. landscapes. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. central perspective (Lat.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. buildings and figures that are being depicted. centralis. continually praise him. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. animal. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. a celestial winged being with human. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Both the statement of St. . these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. a throne bearer of the deity. or birdlike characteristics. Christian. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. and perspicere.
both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. "light dark") In painting. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. Hans Burgkmair (1510). encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. the Order of the Hospital of St. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. replacing tempera." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choros. Since Carolingian times. choir (Gk." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. Lastly. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry.chiaroscuro (It. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. or for choral singing. reserved for the clergy to pray together." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. North of the Alps. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights.
the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. Sculpted clouds. which was shaped like an inverted cone. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). an architect. a massing of carved angels. gilded rays. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. stucco shells. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Very few still exist in their original positions. is as typically Churrigueresque. and repetition of pattern. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. further enriching the style. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. reversed volutes. and the Churrigueresque column. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. The Transparente (completed 1732).intersect). and including the apse (a niche in the wall. undulating lines. became the most common motif. undulating cornices. balustrades. The Mexico cathedral (1718). and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. ciborium . is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and garlands. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Spanish Rococo style in architecture.
placing one of their members. but self-employed. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. In reaction to this revolutionary . Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the wool carder Michele di Lando. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. craft of dyeing. The new government.and post-medieval Italy. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. on July 22. as also were those in the associated. Without being members of a guild. ciompi. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. etc. beaters. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. combers. Members of the lower classes. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. including the ciompi. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. who were raised to the status of a guild. or achieve political representation. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. Their economic condition worsened. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. They were forbidden to form a trade association. High Renaissance). continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. controlled by the minor guilds. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Then. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. Quattrocento (1400s. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted.
and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. scholars patiently finding. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. resembling a lyre. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. philosophy. . Concepts of the classical. editing and translating a wide range of texts. clair-obscur (Fr.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. philosophy and art . and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.episode. changed greatly from one period to the next. with Italian scholars. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. except in cases where . writers. cithara (Gk. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). the black contours usually with a special line plate. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD.) An ancient musical instrument. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. however. and politics. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. In the 15th century Greek literature.as in Italy these were dispensed with. literature. the ciompi guild was abolished. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. on which strings were plucked. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity).
as well as from the Bible. or "contract. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Green and red. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. . complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. sing. concetti (It. pl. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. compline (Lat. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. Coffered ceilings. concetto. those with refined tastes. intensify one another. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. pl. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. when set side by side. [hora] completa. the church service at which these prayers are said. a work's underlying theme. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. blue and orange. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. condottieri (It. cognoscente (It. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. arch or ceiling.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. condottiere. literature or music. occasionally made of wood. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. terrorized the country. cognoscenti. The name was derived from the condotta. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.
(1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. i.e. commonly called either Compagnia di S. . the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. often called compagnie or. who won control of Milan in 1450. confraternities Confraternities. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. Muzio's son. often under the direction of. Spanish. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Umbria. and his rival Braccio da Montone. in the service of Naples. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. in the service of Perugia. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. Carmagnola. in Venice. i. flagellant confraternities. disappeared. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. By the 16th century. and Tuscany. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Martino). which spread in the 15th century. With no goal beyond personal gain. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly.e. convents of convertite. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. primarily for syphilitics. and German--the condottieri. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. clergy. Francesco Sforza. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. Mark (1432). although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. or with the spiritual assistance of. scuole. By the end of the 14th century.devastating Romagna. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. Toward the end of the 15th century. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'.
while the Venetian government. which accompanied condemned prisoners. 1514 in S. however. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. in Florence. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. notwithstanding their location. founded c. Later. e. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. In medieval painting.g.i. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. but sometimes had their own premises. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . and refuges for maidens. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. contour. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary.e. contrapposto (It. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds.g. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. the Florentine Neri. contours were initially regular. Confraternities. reformed prostitutes. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. e. flat outlines. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Dorotea in Trastevere. contour (Fr. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. While the Doge ranked above the Council.
conventiculurn. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. The style spread as far as England. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. 1100 and 1300. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. started the process of inner reform in the Church. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. corbel In architecture. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. declining moral standards. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. . executed by imported Italian craftsmen. a bracket of stone. did not achieve any lasting results. 1280). an engraving produced in this way. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. They are often ornamented. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. aes cyprium. conventicle (Lat. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. large cornice or other feature.weight on one leg. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Lat. Reform programs. whose names are inscribed on several works. cuprum. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull.
Constantine the Great. D dado . it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. Usually. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. a semi-circular vault. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the first Christian emperor. cupola (Lat. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. reedy sound. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. a small dome. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging.e. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. i. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Jews. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. "small vat") In architecture. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Next. There were various methods of performing the execution. Death. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. the condemned man. Seleucids. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. or "scourged. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. after being whipped. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. An ancestor of the oboe." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. particularly among the Persians. the most famous victim of crucifixion. Carthaginians. cupula.
Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room.g. disegno (It. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. Deësis (Gk. an expressive use of nature. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. which was help to be the basis of all art. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. Anglican and Orthodox churches. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . e. The term stresses not the literal drawing.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. often an altarpiece. diptychos. Gk. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. deacon (Gk. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. Passau. but the concept behind an art work. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. a favorite late medieval picture subject. danse macabre The dance of death. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. diakonos. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). decorated diffrently from the upper section. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Germany. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. diptychum. "drawing. diptych (Lat. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. design") In Renaissance art theory. usually in matching pairs. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg.
a 19th-century invention. Dominicans (Lat. when painters took to working out of doors. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. donor (Lat. formerly worn under armour. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. distemperare. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs.Thomas Aquinas. also used it on canvas. donator. The studio easel. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. distemper (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. such as we still use today. usually forming a ceiling or roof. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. doublet A male garment. which runs on castors or wheels. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. though a few artists. dome in architecture. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. is a heavy piece of furniture. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Ordo Praedictatorum. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions.fully realize. "to mix.
"word") . epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. and the cornice. full face. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. bound and flogged. eschatology (Gk. "last". sometimes combining panel painting. and logos. ensemble (Fr. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. epitaph (Gk. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. and architecture. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. It consists of the architrave. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. John (19. sculpture. entablature In classical architecture. the frieze. Hence. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. Ecce Homo (Lat. en face In portraiture. in art.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. a depiction of Jesus. fresco. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. eschaton.
Italy. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware.death and resurrection. which is called "maiolica. 4500 BCE. protector of shepherds. which was developed in the Near East ca. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Augustine.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. eu. "good. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Jerome. notably Cardinal Pole. farmers. Eucharist (Gk. and Scandinavia. particularly ware made in France. Marcantonio Flaminio. which is called "delftware. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. which was famous for maiolica. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Vittoria Colonna. Germany. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Spain." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Saints Ambrose." and charis. Carnesecchi and Ochino. and is named for Faenza. celebrated with bread and wine." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. Giovanni Morone. . Equated with the Greek god Pan. fields and livestock. and of the last things. Contarini. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy.
well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. drying to a slightly different tint. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). that of the others red. can in time be seen. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. a swag. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. war. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth.festoni (It. The colour of his horse is white. frescos in Italy . Their attributes are the bow. and flowers suspended in a loop. Only a small area can be painted in a day.8). leaves. relaxed. black and dun. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. famine and death. fluted of a column or pillar. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Committed to charitable and missionary work. sword and set of balances. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. such as plague. a technique known as a secco fresco. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). fresco (It. 2 . The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and these areas. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ.
) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. genre In a broad sense. a person's invisible tutelary god. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . landscape and portraiture. where the atmosphere was too damp. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. Genius in classical Rome. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. for example. both in churches and in private and public palaces. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Final details. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . covings and ceilings. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. usually childish figure. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. the intonaco. The technique of buon fresco. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). or fresco secco. are genres of painting. or true fresco. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. G Garter. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. In art from the classical period onwards. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women.Save in Venice. It was founded by Edward III in 1348.
to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. whether it must be connected with the public good. Gobelins . as well as writers and artists. how it differed from notoriety. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. Bernardo Daddi. As such. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Maso di Banco. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Maria Gloriosa). as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. in portraits and on tombs. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. and as spurring on men of action. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument.
the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. golden section (Lat. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Golden Fleece. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. thereafter it made only tapestries. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. still in existence today. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. This ratio is approximately 8:13. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Paris. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence.French tapestry manufactory. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. . Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. who appointed Lebrun Director. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. In other Italian cities. and although it reopened in 1699.
1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. that the effects are to be felt. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. painting. In particular. Nevertheless. Amiens. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. the superficial particularities of form. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. or the influence of one building. 1270. from the 13th until the 17th century. There is a transcendental quality. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. c. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Gothic Gothic. 1200 and c. . and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. In thinking of Nicola (d. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. In sculpture and in painting. like the cultural and commercial. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Denis. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. painting. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and lies much deeper than. The artistic. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated.
Such tours often took a year or more. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). and taste among the English. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Canaletto. . Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. These qualities.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. without visible brush marks. and Piranesi. to white or tinted paper and card and. Klee. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. the beau idéal of the French. Pannini. notably in the writings of Bellori. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Honey. are but different appellations of the same thing'. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. and the great style. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. genius. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. sometimes in the company of a tutor. starch. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. to silk. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. and above all Italy. with sable. and Morris Graves. Dubuffet. the Netherlands.and hog-hair brushes. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. occasionally. chiefly to France. if required. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. It is thinned with water for applying. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians.
the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. After the War of the Eight Saints. brother of Louis IX. usually gray. . underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. to Provence and Paris. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. which had recruited most of the merchant class. gris. however. Some writers. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. became an abiding feature of European politics. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. the parties taking a multitude of local names. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. after this. through central Italy. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. including text as well as illustrations. grisaille (Fr. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. and Waiblingen. In the context of the fine arts. Although its palace was rebuilt c. c. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. drawing and the various forms of engraving. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. internal factions in Florence went under other names. In another sense. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. then as now. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. 1216. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire.e.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. From 1266 to 1268. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. In Florence. exclude drawing from this definition. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy.
they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In Italy they go back a long way. trades. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. as some did). but in time they acquired other functions. goldsmiths. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. héraut. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. Guilds were also patrons of art. or professions. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. trade or profession (painters. and provided assistance to members in need. The guild also monitored standards of work. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. H hatching In a drawing. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. In 16th century Venice. [science] héraldique. for example. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. In some cities. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. "herald") . Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. The guilds were not equal. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. and greater hostility between master and man. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. surgeons. notably Florence in the 14th century.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft." from Fr. In Florence. heraldry (Fr. such as Brescia and Vicenza. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. print or painting. In some towns.
their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. indeed. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. head of the 'carnal Church'. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. with the rules governing their use.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. one great missionary community. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. together with brethren north of the Alps. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The main impact of the . divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. they were condemned in 1184. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. as Antichrist. from the start. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. By contrast. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. i. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. the Cathars were an anti-church. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. normative for churchmen. However. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. the Waldensian. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. while others merged with the Waldensians. d.
It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . its subjects considered morally elevating. George Inness. Germany. F. In humanism. Durand. American painters were studying in Rome. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. working from 1825 to 1875. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. the emancipation of man from God took place. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Henry Inman. Thomas Cole.movement upon the laity was in southern France. Morse. F. At the same time. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. hortus conclusus (Lat. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Frederick E. history (usually classical history). Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. humanism (Lat. Kensett. my spouse'. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. J. and. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. and classical literature. Jasper Cropsey. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. Church. S. humanus. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. in his earlier work. B. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. mainly in the south. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Derived from classical rhetoric.g. usually the donors of a work of art. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. beautiful style. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. invention. the rooster of Peter's denial.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. the scourge that was used in the scourging. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. and they are also depicted on their own. are also used in art literature. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. Veronica. the veil of St. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. Donatallo. there are representations of the bundle of rods. inventio (It. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the ability to create. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. the hammer. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the pincers. originality. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. and the ladder. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. it denominates a kind of behaviour. or of other saints. In the second half of the 14th century. soft style. etc. investiture . The terms court style. trecento rococo and lyrical style. For instance. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Human figures. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. with many further details added. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e.
Andries and Jan Both. and Jan Asselijn. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). of Utrecht. Jerome's writings. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. who traveled in Italy and. Both and Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. although they are usually called Romanists. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. . Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The Both brothers. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. principally Dutch.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. Nicolaes Berchem. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Upon his return to Holland. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. bathed in a golden haze. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. generally Dutch or Flemish. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists.
Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. encouraged by the Crusades. John of Jerusalem . Archbishop of Genoa. Legenda Aurea (Lat.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. lectern A reading stand or desk. As their military role grew. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. liberal arts . especially one at which the Bible is read. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Emperor Maximilian I (1459.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. the rite of communion is based on this.1519).
or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Heade (1819-1904). . Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. lunette (Fr. Church (1826-1900). Martin J. often sublime. painting or sculptural decoration. that may contain a window.grammar. through the use of aerial perspective.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages.g.g. comprising arithmetic. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. then the basis of a philosophical training. It is related to. that could be used for public ceremonies. geometry. Kensett (1816-1872). Tubal for music). commemorating a marriage. John F. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. and Frederick E. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. loggia (It. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. poetic atmosphere. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. its roof supported by columns. rhetoric and dialectic. first the preparatory trivium . characterized by effects of light in landscapes. Pythagoras for arithmetic. together with identifying attributes (e. astronomy and music. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). the quadrivium. "little moon") In architecture. often standing in markets and town squares. a semicircular space.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Maria Novella in Florence).
copper green. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. originally sung without accompaniment. particularly such ware produced in Italy. usually for the lute. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. but they painted genre scenes. originating in Italy in the 14th century. magna mater (Lat. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. 1855–65. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. being written. and accompaniments. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. active mainly in Florence c. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. mandorla (It. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. Specifically. When white is used for painting. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). antimony yellow. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). and portraits as well as landscapes. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. for example. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. "almond") .M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and however bright their lighting effects. madrigal A part song. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). the goddess Cybele. manganese purple. "great mother") A mother goddess. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. historical subjects. and iron red.
marked by flagellation. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. "manner. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. the Codex manuscriptus. Parmigianino. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. often ornamented with decorative borders. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. bound. In Mannerist painting. Bronzino. Developing out of the Renaissance. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. In architecture. more strictly. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. and literary texts. mantle An overcoat. depending on the social class of the wearer. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. complex and crowded compositions. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. It reached to the knee or foot. maniera. Burgundy. El Greco and Tintoretto. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. worn open. illuminated initials and miniatures. in a specific sense. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. ecclesiastical. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Flanders. the hand-written medieval book. and crowned with thorns. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. which was quarried at Mount . Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Mannerism (It. strong. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque.
and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. "witness. having finished his training. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. which were beginning to be reverently collected. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. a different design on the reverse. martyrion. quarried at Massa. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. Carrara.Pentelicon in Attica. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. The pure white Carrara marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . martyrdom (Gk. medallion In architecture. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. sleek surface. proof") the sufferings. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. the medal's purpose was commemorative. marmi finti (It. an inscription running round the rim. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. particularly by Michelangelo. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). Like the finest Imperial coins. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. Without monetary value. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. and was much favoured in the Renaissance.
round the neck. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Medusa In Greek mythology. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. a Gorgon. for landscapes and portraits. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 1640. c. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. in England. In pure mezzotint. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). When Perseus cuts off her head. who reflected them. perhaps oddly. even grain. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. supposedly to petrify her enemies. c. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. . Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. the stress on individual character. 1425-1504). Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. It was. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. no line drawing is employed. particularly. This yields a soft effect in the print. 1452-1526/27). 14601528). is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. The work of these men. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Ludwig von Siegen. of the person portrayed on the other side. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. A Dutch officer. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. 1467-688). as it were. often anonymous. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. The process is essentially extinct today. and of the many.
often quite highly finished. painting in gouache on vellum or card. a painting executed in a single color. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. monochrome (Gk. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. usually portraits. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. ink and paint. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. by Tiepolo and Rubens. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. miter A high. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Parmigianino (d. saying") . 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. "word.. still exist. monokhromatos. e. a branch of the Franciscan order. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Francis himself. executed on a very small scale. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.g. motto (Ital. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. "one color") Painted in a single color. Many such small versions.
Isidore. 1817-29). a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Pforr. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. The invention of personal mottos. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. It may have parallel aisles on each side. but often insipid. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings.from the Middle Ages. In 1810 0verbeck. Berlin. named after the patron saint of painting. and Casino Massimo. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. nave (from Lat. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. often separated from it by pillars. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). naturalism (Fr. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. In general. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and is intersected by the transept. . was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. 1816-17. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. navis. and two other members moved to Rome. Nazarenes A group of young. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Rome. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches.
To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. "aureole") The disc or halo. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Popes. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. the style of the Ancien Régime. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people.) . and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. usually golden.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. nigellus. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. niello (Lat. Nymphaeum (Gk. moreover. but their ideas continued to be influential. nimbus (Lat. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. were usually old when elected. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. is as true as it is notorious. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729).
The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). prayer and preaching being central to their mission. a more elaborate base. the three basic styles of design. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. Greek goddesses of Nature. and its greater tonal range. obsequia.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. The earliest. O obsequies (Lat. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. capital. They are seen in the form of the columns. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. inborn sin. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. observances") Rites performed for the dead. such as linseed. and entablatures. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. . oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. its richness of colour. walnut. a small private chapel. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. fluted column and a plain capital. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. the Doric order. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). with a sturdy. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. or poppy. orders of architecture In classical architecture. was the simplest. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. "services.
In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. palazzo (It.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. while shops came to be thought undignified. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. like cities. Palazzo Strozzi). In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. and the main apartments above. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. tradition and social structure. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. standing at the foot of the Cross. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. P pala (Ital. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. designed as a . although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. and. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. with biforate windows. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.g. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. the Cancelleria). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c.
meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Papal incentives to build. e. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. behind a sober Florentine façade. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Rich. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice.g. especially after the Sack of Rome. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. often built next to their titular churches. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. In Venice. panel . Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. like Genoa. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. column-caps. Other cities. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. evolved influential types. Palazzo Massimi).scholarly retreat. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and Palladio's in Vicenza. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. cornices and abutments. came to be applied all over Europe. like the colonnaded vestibule. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy.g. palmette. Following Oriental patterns. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. Movement of patrons and architects. and large households. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal.
linden. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. fibre-board. To maintain their authority. mahogany. cedar. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and the pressure and temptations . secular rulers. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. as it were. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. Then. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. to influence popes in their favour.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. On a larger scale. In the 20th century cedar. and spanned by a single dome. slate has occasionally been used as a support. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. A number of matters. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and walnut. the. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. The third aspect was administrative. and other synthetic materials as supports. Having a circular plan. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). larch. however. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. chestnut. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. As successors to St Peter. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. or the incidence of taxation. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. olive. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. enforce law and order.Term in painting for a support of wood. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. or other rigid substance. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. metal. so that they might have a voice at court. as distinct from canvas. fir. teak. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. Many other types were used. the management of clerical dues and taxation. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. and modern painters have also used plywood. and dark walnut are favourites. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. including beech.
however. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State.that could be applied to them. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. was long in doubt. As at Avignon. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. It was argued that such a council. So onerous. Colonna and Caetani. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. which seems so inevitable. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. which met at Constance 1414-18. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. in the eyes of God. in spite of further absences from Rome. from the point of view of its religious associations. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. however. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. as such. the most appropriate . considered perfectly suitable for the role played .base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. would. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. could supersede that of a pope. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). To resolve the problem of divided authority. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . to be long delayed. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and.as well. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. of individuals. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). By then. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. at Avignon. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. however. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. There remained. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. if it did no serious damage to the faith. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. possess an authority which. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss).
425 BC) and Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. as well as a governmental one. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. the creation of a cultural capital. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier.. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. and with Zeuxis (c.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. through lavish patronage of artists. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. However. pastor. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. 400-300 BC). to a world peopled by shepherds. it has also been used for painting. in classical literature. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. nymphs. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). scholars and men of letters. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). goat. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. pastoral (Lat. and satyrs. Parrhasius (c. Passion . and other animals. less frequently pig.
An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. Meanwhile. such as a garden summerhouse. hence tent") A lightly constructed. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. but not necessarily a direct copy. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. projecting either centrally or at both ends. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. "butterfly.The events leading up to Good Friday. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. pastiche (fr. which focus on the Suffering Christ. patrician (Lat. ornamental building. Portrayals of the Passion. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. and also the archbishop of Pisa. pavilion (Lat. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. a small. a region in north-central Italy. the crown of thorns. papilio. 1478). beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. 1478. a prominent section of a monumental façade. Francesco Salviati. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. . wealthy citizen.) or pasticcio (It. and so on. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. patricius. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government.
The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. "hanging. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. persona. "nature". and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. concept or deity. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. pergola (It. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. in particular the face. Peace of Augsburg A treaty.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. or related elements within an art work. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. and facere. pendant (Fr. personification (Lat. perspicere. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "person". "to see through. physis. perspective (Lat. . The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). physiognomy (Gk. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. and gnomon. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing.
but may consist of a cluster of columns. affording a good subject for a landscape. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. pigment (Lat. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.piano nobile (Ital. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. A pier is generally larger than a column. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. remarkable for singularity. pigmentum. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. both real and painted. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. but full of variety. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. Rome. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. exemplified. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. Peter's. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime).) The main floor of a building. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. curious details. for example. Pietà (Lat. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. proper to take a landscape from. to be expressed in painting. . or resin to make paint. striking the imagination with the force of painting. containing the public rooms. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. usually above the ground floor.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. glue.
pilaster (Lat. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. outside Tuscany. a shaft. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. also used in Spain's American colonies. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. however. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. the burning of 'infected' clothing. since. Rocco and Sebastian. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. it has a base. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It seems probable. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). for instance. "pillar") A flat. more sporadic outbreaks. In the 15th century. and capital. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. such as Florence and Genoa. For this reason. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. despite regional variations. plague Plague. in October 1347. and thereafter all Europe. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. perhaps. During 1348 the Black Death. it is difficult to find. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. It is often fluted. Thenceforward. though in less widespread. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. moreover. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. pilastrum. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s.
In contrast with Aristotle. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. The first phase. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Timaeus. Diego evolved a purer. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. harmonious. like its successor. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. more severe. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. or simply the Plateresque. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. Phaedo. or appropriateness. Phaedrus. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). i.e. are the masterworks of the second style. the Renaissance-Plateresque. composition. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). heraldic escutcheons. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. correct classical orders became frequent.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. the Symposium. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. The second phase. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Philebus. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. Theatetus and the Laws. which lasted only a few decades. utilized Mudejar ornament -. The first phase. placement. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character.. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and sinuous scrolls. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). A student of Socrates. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance.
1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. all of which he also translated into Latin. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. 1472-c. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. near Florence.in Plato's thought. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. Rather unsystematic. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Iamblichus. Plotinus. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. replaced Ficino's. A new Latin translation. including those of Plotinus. partially. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Unlike the case of Aristotle. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . but not completely. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato.1577) becoming particularly popular. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. and the Chaldaic Oracles. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and he utilized many other writings. and Agostino Steuco (c.
The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . poluptukhos. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. plinth (Gk. porticus. or statue.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. as in classical architecture). It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. pointed arch In architecture. where a pectoral is used to close it. Plato was read in the universities. pluviale. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. column. plinthos. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. portico (Lat. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Frequently supports a pediment. polyptych (Gk. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. pluvial (Med. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. such as processions and consecrations. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. Lat.
Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. decorating whole rooms. Palazzo Farnese). 1328. Group portraits. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. and only a decorative accessory to form.. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Siena. Cathedral) by Uccello. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Maria Novella. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. The equestrian portrait. inessential. flattened image. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. the Carracci. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Mantua. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. and the . whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. The 16th century portrait became generalized. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Venice). Desiderio da Settignano. Colleoni. National Gallery). The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. was revived in the 14th century. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. psychologically more complex. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.e.sculptors such as Donatello. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. The realism of the clear. Campidoglio). Florence. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Florence (1486-90). Gattarnelata. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting.
The sermons of Visdomini. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Charles Le Brun. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). together with the Dominican Savonarola. Fiamma's sermons. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. of the sermon as an art form. Savonarola and Musso. who had as their ideal masters Titian. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Correggio. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. however." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. bishops especially. from the secular clergy.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. abrasive even. primarily the mendicants. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. and Peter Paul Rubens." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. and. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. are not florid in style. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. The styles of S. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. bishop of Asti. several of whom became bishops. minatory exhortations. to discharge their preaching duties. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). As Poussin was a Frenchman. 1494). bishop of Chioggia. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Borromeo. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). was versed in classical and patristic . Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. in their appeals for communal religious renewal.
central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.g. predella (It. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. prefiguration Typology . Because of the small size of predelle . Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . and so forth.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Naples). The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. though often relatively very wide . The New Testament references in these would. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. the temptations of Adam and Christ. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. tapestries. however. Millais and Rossetti.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. among them Holman Hunt.rhetoric.
the quadrature. 2. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Fragonard. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. the Canon of Proportion. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. proportio. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). the golden section. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. sculpture and architecture. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. Prix de Rome A scholarship. these highly finished drawings.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Girardon. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. projecting shelf on which to kneel. The following are important: 1. "evenness") in painting. again indicative of the purpose they served. notably David. 3. profil perdu (Fr. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. proportion (Lat. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. which uses the square . and Houdon among sculptors. intended as complete works of art in themselves.
triangulation. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. It was common in Roman art. . Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. Ignazio. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. in whose celebrated ceiling in S.as a unit of measurement. 4. putto (It. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. a fifth = 2:3. the steward or treasurer of a church. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. putti sing. a fourth = 3:4. Unlike Pozzo. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. "boys") Plump naked little boys. and 5. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). provenance The origins of an art work. Rome. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. harmonic proportions. for example). one half the length of the other). an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy.
Donatello. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. in particular works by Masaccio. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. canons regular. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. relief (Lat. Botticelli. Brunelleschi. the great orders of monks. Among the . in which figures are seen half round. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. refectory (Med. and high relief (alto rilievo). refectorium) Monastic dining hall. relic (Lat. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. the object of particular veneration. Fra Angelico and others. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in which figures are almost detached from their background. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. or the Jesuits. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). basso rilievo). denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. In 16th century Europe. relevare. friars and nuns. hermits. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. or some item connected with a saint. relicquiae. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). e. Lat.Quattrocento (It. with the Anglican Church developing in England.g. also known as the Realist school. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief.
rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. it became the Cassinese congregation. Mantua. That of S. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. which was to become the main Italian one. their resources being in the hands of trustees. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. S. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The Benedictines. In 1504. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. After the repression of the Spirituals. the Conventuals. various groups were fused in the latter body. i. the great patriarch of Venice. presided over by chapters general. 1012. Padua. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. was the congregation of S. The same bull .contemplative orders. At the same time. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Founded by St Romuald c. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. and the generally moderate Observants. Maria di Fregonaia. Giorgio in Alga. although technically of secular canons. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Bologna (1419). who had no overall organization originally. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. Bernardino of Siena. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Benedetto. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life.e. however. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Silvestrines. and their more institutionalized brethren. Venice (1404). Salvatore. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. The Conventuals. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Giustina. Lucca. In 1517. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. the most notable being S.
a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Angela Merici. however. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Michele in Isola. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Gaetano da Thiene. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. the Theatines. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. however. S. a historical period.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. The first. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . founded in 1535 by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Filippo Neri. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Other orders of Friars were the Minims. also. Venice. Gerolamo Aemiliani.
and competition with. however. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of letters. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. of scholarship. and his own as potentially one of light. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. life. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. because its core of energy. of an energetic revival of interest in. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. which had begun early in the 14th century. All-Roundness. the historical reality of antiquity. increasingly. 1875-86). Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. as well as political. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. Thereafter. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. of arts. however. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. of 'darkness'. . For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. For long. even Amoralism. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came).century. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. was so vast and potent. too long forgotten glories. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity).
subjective reason a term to be used with caution. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .erased. etc.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.with all its shabbiness . letters. in the more limited sense. later still to Genoa. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. though sometimes of metal. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Though thus challenged. and is decorated with paintings. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. consist merely of a painting. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. especially in the High Gothic period. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Cathedral of SaintBavon. It is for this additional. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. candlesticks. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. Ghent). of industrialization. There was an early.) was the term chosen. etc. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. sometimes. congruence between. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. and mass media. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. (3) There is not a true. the previous record . the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. let alone a uniform. statues. retables can be detached and. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). gratefully. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. The challenges are to be accepted. however. mobilized nationalism. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. and other liturgical objects. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject.
often considered the last stage of the Baroque. painting. is a typical product. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. Louis XV furniture. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative.of St Mark in Venice. the first style to achieve such international currency. Germany. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. its mood lighthearted and witry. "relief") In painting. like 'Gothic'. Italy. the St. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. With the development of freestanding altars. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. More usually. retables have become extinct. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. in several countries . which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. Rococo A style of design. Spain . for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. however. As the name suggests. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. rocaille (French. Romanesque art. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. richly decorated with organic forms. and 'Romanesque'. rilievo (It. and architecture dominating the 18th century. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806).in the 11th century. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. almost simultaneously. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. literally. . Originally commissioned in 976.France.
van Orley. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Rome. B. Piranesi. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. such as red ochre. . romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. the development of nationalistic pride. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Pannini and Mengs. In addition. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. they maintained. van Heemskerk. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The aim of painting. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. M. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Claude. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. stylized design representing an open rose. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. Mabuse. Massys and M. Q. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution.
and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May.greatly increased. penance. the Eucharist. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. holy orders. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. glance and movement .S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). from the Old and New Testaments. Sacra Conversazione (It. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. local saints. Orthodox. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. confirmation. and anointing of the sick. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. gutted. Clement escaped into Castel S. when it finally left the city it had devastated. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. In the . and impoverished. Written primarily in ottava rima. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. and Lorenzo de' Medici. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. Subjects were nominally sacred. Eastern independent. pious legend and hagiography. matrimony. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . and Protestant churches. There were no limits on time.expressed through gesture. supported by lay confraternities. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. but others were the work of well-known figures. multiple sets used in succession. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Many compositions were anonymous.
which in the Gospel According to John. used for drawing. the Bentivoglio. Salt War. and then face east. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. in principle. Thus. The chief focus of discontent. strictly speaking. Candidates first face west. make such strict distinctions. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. baptism and the Eucharist. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. as an excuse to revolt. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan.i. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. They were still seeking aid.. as in the Church of the Brethren. foot washing. The theology of the Orthodox Church. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family.. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it." which are called sacramentals. and sacraments. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540.early church the number of sacraments varied. Lutheran. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the symbolic direction of Christ. Anglican. that the price of salt should be increased. the sun of righteousness. replaces the Lord's Supper. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. large room.e. Saracens . was buried under a new fortress.e. Hence. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the Orthodox Church does not. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. sacraments. was not maintained as a sacrament. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . It is still practiced on special occasions. notably from Florence and in Germany. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.) Hall. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. Immediately following baptism. the Rocca Paolina." sala (Ital. The classical Protestant churches (i. chapter 13.
the Arabs or Muslims. whose writings. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. pl. and many others. 45 BC). owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. human-like woodland deities with the ears. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. sarcophagi (Gk. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. satyr In Greek mythology.c. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. legs and horns of a goat. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. The publication of Latin (1562. are lost.During the Middle Ages. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 210 AD).c. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. wood or terracotta. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . 360 . 270 BC). made of stone. Little known in the Middle Ages. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. the god of wine. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. sarcophagus. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. 160 .
than their medieval predecessors. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. for. the Florentines. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. most of whom. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. Charles III of Durazzo (d. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. one of the early leaders. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). However. Louis I (d. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. In northern Italy. on the other.for example Pieter van Laer. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). with France and her allies Aragon. while devout Christians agonized. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. Schism. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. who had the support of the Avignon pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. in June 1409. As a result. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. Alexander V. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. who recognized the Roman pope. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. being Frenchmen. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. from time to time both he and his opponents. while England. scholasticism . It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. but with little effect.they had individual Bentnames . on one side. 1386) and his son Ladislas. was called Bamboccio. and. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban.
were different from those of medieval. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. history and rhetoric .) . arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster.moral philosophy. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. university-based study. Padua. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. It was because the central concerns of humanism . In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. and Islamic literature. Often called the burning ones. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). because the secco technique is much less permanent. notably Aquinas. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.The term is ambivalent. textual scholarship. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. Serenissima (Ital. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). as it is easier to add details in this way. None the less. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. moreover. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Christian. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. the plaster had to be damped before painting. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. Medieval scholars. as it were. that scholasticism was left. As such. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. on one side. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. if lime-water was used. (See also: fresco. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. and theology. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.
"the most serene republic of Venice"). Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages.. at the same time. the number gradually rose to ten. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Lat. Sibyls foretold the Birth. Servite (Lat. sibylla. and the delicate. Signoria (It. women who could prophesy. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. usually presided over by individual families. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. term. sinopia .Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. which were all identical in thickness. sibyls (Gk. in use since the Middle Ages. brass. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. Originally. They first appear in alpine monasteries. "prophetess") In antiquity. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. there was only one Sibyl. sfumato A technique. In Christian legend. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. in the period of classical antiquity. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. Med. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.
In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). sing.. "mark. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. brand. staffage This word. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. especially in the flow of drapery. in other words. It is very closely related to International Gothic. Ital. soffit (Lat.'Beautiful Madonnas'. Stanze (Ital. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. stigmata. sotto in sù (It. as the name implies. . figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St.) Wooden ceiling decoration. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. pronounced as French. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Francis of Assisi. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. and. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. stigma (Gk. the red chalk used to make such a drawing.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.
By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. studiolo. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. both external and internal. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. studioli (It.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. supremacy . stucco A type of light. In a looser sense. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. pl. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. with that for the Picturesque. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). John Milton. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. whose verses actually fabrications .stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Indeed. The vogue for the Sublime. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines.
temperare. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. doubtless. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . These were imported. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. tempera (Lat. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. or cartoons. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. i. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). 1407). then being replaced by oil paint.Historically. Salviati and Allori. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. into Italy. his own headquarters. was being decorated with frescoes.and. and in literature. But the Italians did not make them. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. . the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. chiefly from Flanders. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence.e. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. London. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. both for panel painting and fresco. The subject is underexplored. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
usually those of animals or geometrical forms. model. tondo. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. in art. triumphal arch. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. figure of speech. and profile. Trajan's Column . walls. i. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). theme or motif. and later to subdivide gable ends. quarter face.e. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. pl. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. "a commonplace") In literature. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. and sculptures. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. vessels. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. tondi (It.terracotta (It. topia. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. "fields. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. widely used form. topos. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. topoi (Gk. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. topiary (Gk. and other surfaces. terraferma (Ital. in the architecture of ancient Rome.
fame. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. behind it. tryptychos. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Meanwhile. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. triptych (Gk. into a number of less controversial forms.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. of virtues and of the arts. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. beside it the army of martyrs. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. the military triumph became sublimated. added to the glamour of the triumph. loot and prisoners was given sparingly.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. or wings. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. chastity. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). as it were. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. after 'a countless number of virgins. Disseminated soon after his death. death. a car so brave'. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ.' Before it go the apostles. the wars by which they were won . of both sexes'. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. patriarchs and prophets. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. . Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . "threefold") A painting in three sections. "threefold") in Christianity. the Son and the Holy Spirit. Trinity (Lat. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Battista Sforza. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. trinitas. time and eternity. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Early triptychs were often portable. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. usually an altarpiece.
a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. through various naturalistic devices. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. tusche A thick. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. viscous black ink. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. tromp l'oeil (Fr. "drum") In classical architecture. It incorporates Renaissance features.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. enclosed by an arch. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. it is usually decorated with carvings. first recorded in 1232. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tympanum (Lat. In medieval architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. Dating from classical times. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. typology . The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). often decorated with sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure.
lanterns. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. were popular with them also. 1590-1624). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).Dirck van Baburen (c. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) .g. such as five works devoted to the senses. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.) The Renaissance "universal man". each had access to his paintings. U uomo universale (It. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Their subjects are frequently religious ones.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. where they were most accessible. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). knew his former patrons. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. . but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . and David. especially his half-length figural groups. killer of Holofernes.A system of classification. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. e. 1610). In Christian thought. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. slayer of Goliath. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. The numerous candles. Judith. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory.
overturned vessels. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. vanitas (Lat. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. and the rib vault. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. mixed in. "evening") . formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. hour-glasses and clocks. snuff boxes and other objects. Parisian craftsmen. and even flowers (which will soon fade). often gold. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. painting at both the Dutch and English courts.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. varietà (It.). the groin vault. vesper. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. carriages. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. guttering candles. Also varietas (Lat. V vanishing point In perspective. Vespers (Lat. it was used to decorate furniture. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. a work's richness of subject matter. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. There are a wide range of forms.
but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Lust. vite (Lat. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Prudence. in which the word signifies efficacy. "life") . pl. Hope. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. the church service at which these prayers are said. Fortitude. Covetousness. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. and Justice. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Anger. vestibulum. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross.Prayers said in the evening. if you have it not'. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. "not exposed to winds". for example. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. 'Assume a virtue. Gluttony. In ancient Roman dwellings. Vestibule (Lat. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Charity. Envy. vimperga Of German origin. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. vita. actual or latent. The seven Virtues were: Faith. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Temperance. virtù could be used. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. and Sloth.
And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. they were from the 18th century . The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Sculptors and Architects"). No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. and of Ferrara. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529.g. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. in fact. 1482-84). scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. 1478-80. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. 1472. protection from harm. usually when a prayer for good fortune. published in 1550 and 1568. Vitruvius Pollio. and appalled recognition of. or recovery from illness has been made. The wars from 1494 do. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. those of Volterera.An account of someone's life and work. Marcus (1st cent. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. a biography.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
pompous on the floor above. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. gallery. a philosophy of life. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. "Western work of art". usually linear. treasury or a place where justice was administered. . based on stylization of various animal forms. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. woodcut A print made from a wood block. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting.Weltanschauung (Gr. Westwerk German word. "world view") A comprehensive world view. It was intended to have a variety of functions. usually restorers. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. during its subsequent history. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.
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