A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

and Rouault. design. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns.A semicircular projection. arkhitektonikos. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. . Lancet and Tudor. architectonic (Gk. Degas. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. or organization. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. roofed with a half-dome. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists.e. Picasso. The adjective is apsidal. In Greek and Roman literature. the darker the tone). including Goya. Also known as an exedra. at the east end of a church behind the altar. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. There are several variants of the technique. The term applies also to a print made by this method. architrave (It. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. "architectural") Relating to structure. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). the moulding around a window or door. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. piers or pillars. arcus. which is fused to the plate by heating. the lowest part of the entablature). arcade (Lat. but in essence the process is as follows. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece.

the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. attribute (Lat. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated." from Gk. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. voltus. Ars Moriendi (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.archivolt (Ital. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "front arch. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). usually a saint." and Lat. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . "begin. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. aureolus. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attributum. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. archivolto. archeiu. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . "golden. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. aureole (Lat. dominate. In the case of martyrs.and the Comedy .are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Dante's Vita nuova . Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death.

which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. often anecdotal. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. or baldacchino (It. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The actual move was made in 1309.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. applied to the physically . Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. the god of wine and fertility. that of Cardano. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. baldachin. Six pontificates later. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. 'Captivity'. in 1377. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Later. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. paintings of everyday life. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. who had been residing in France since 1305. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events.

As eight follows the "complete" number.. seven. banderole (It. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. or connected with." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. such as those at Pisa. Spalato [Split. or forecourt. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Parma. Alg. built by Sixtus III. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. and Nocera in Italy. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. banderuola. Easter. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. Customarily. a church. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. el Kantara. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. set beneath a domical ciborium. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. pope between 432 and 440. and Epiphany. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. the Temple of Venus.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). . and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. France. Baalbek. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. and abject filthy things.g. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Florence. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. Pentecost. Croatia]. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. a visual metaphor for the number eight. beggars in rags. and Poitiers. Lebanon. AD 300). The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. or canopy. AD 273.

were often omitted entirely. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. the dramatic use of light and shadow. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Vermeer). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. which is reserved for the clergy. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. 1814-1875). it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. basilica (Gk. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. and increasingly elaborate decoration. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display.In the 10th century. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. 1810-1865). there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. southeast of Paris. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Originally. 1796-1875).an allusion to entering the Christian life. Jules Dupré (French. however. and (3) everyday realism. in its usual location near the church door . and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. barocco. baptisteries. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Also tunnel vault. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. and thus a church. Baroque (Port. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1817-1878). 1811-1889). Constant Troyon (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. usually facing east. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. or baptismal chapels. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. "king's hall") a church building. 1807-1876). Théodore Rousseau (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. Rubens). In architecture. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. in the 1840s and 1850s. stoa basilike. . with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Jean-François Millet (French. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. something of earlier symbolism survives. achieved through scale. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism.

The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. especially Spanish. were referred to by their specific contents. such as Waldmüller. in which still-life predominates. The term was mainly used up to c. such as those by Diego Velázquez. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Spanish still-lifes. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. particularly porcelain. and often sentimentality. Bodegónes. or which is to be left as it is. often with food and drink. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. also incorrectly called bisque. By association. domesticity. Biscuit porcelain. up until the mid-17th century. which is either not yet glazed. 1650 in Spain. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. Book of Hours . It takes its name from its grainy texture. as is to be expected. There were. however. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. bodegón Image.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. like their Dutch counterparts. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners.

coppery red. made as a study for a larger picture.by a variety of processes. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. Chantilly). durability. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. bozzetto(Italian. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. a rapid sketch in oil. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. . or seasons. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. though these are more often called 'modelli'. months. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. By extension. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. bozzetto Strictly speaking. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. but can also be used for painted sketches. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. days of the week. and the fact that it is easily workable . See flying buttress. varying from silverish to a rich.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts.both hot and cold .an advantage over marble sculpture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts .

Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. C cabinet A small. notable from Syria and Egypt. cameo Small relief made from gems. glass. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. and Giotto. caisson (Fr. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). casson. and work in precious metals. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Duccio. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. which was often allegorical. camera obscura . box") In architecture. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. private room where works of art. manuscript illuminations. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. mosaics. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. its forms highly stylized. "a chest. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. Among its most distinctive products were icons. ceramics. It also served to glorify the emperor.

Niepce created photography. as an aid to drawing. both of which have richly carved marble panels. by the 16th century. pl. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. usually with several branches or arms. usually decorated. only very rough effects will be obtainable. cantoria. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candlestick. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. campanile Bell tower. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral." and the earliest versions. candelabra. capital (Lat. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. The Latin name means "dark chamber. Portable versions were built. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually in a church.Ancestor of the photographic camera. usually built beside or attached to a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. and jute. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. candela. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. candelabrum (It. cantorie (It. . It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means.) A gallery for singers or musicians. "candle") A large. Structurally. sing. hemp. followed by smaller and even pocket models.-N. dating to antiquity. which was usually whitened. capitellum. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. which isolates the fabric from the paint. other materials used are cotton.

Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). the Carmelites were originally hermits.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. Fortitudo (Fortitude). cartellini In a painting. At the height of the Middle Ages. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. In fresco painting. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. or a motto. cardinalis.a humorous drawing or parody. near Grenoble. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. the date of the painting. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. The order combines reclusive and community life. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. cartone. pl. cartoon (It. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. details of the subject. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartellino. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Carmelites (Lat. the endeavour to attain true humanity. and humanism. cartouche . Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). tapestry. New Charterhouses.both Italians and artists from other countries . "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). or fresco. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting.

battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. linen. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. a cathedral always faces west . and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. castello (It. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. For reasons lost to time and tradition. and swags of fruit and flowers. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. palace. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. they were also used in other countries. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. or arms of the cross. cathedral (cathedra. decorated with gilt gesso. and many other items of her dowry.toward the setting sun. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. where the throne of the bishop is placed. The main body. Paolo Uccello. cassone (It. or nave. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese.) "castle". caryatid (Gk. Cascina. They contained the bride's clothes. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. . or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. In the 15th century. The altar is placed at the east end.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. putti (cupids). taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. These lead up to the north and south transepts.

In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. and perspicere. Both the statement of St. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. landscapes. or birdlike characteristics.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. central perspective (Lat. animal. champlevé (Fr. a throne bearer of the deity. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. and Islamic literature. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. buildings and figures that are being depicted. centralis. Relative to the observer. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. a celestial winged being with human. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. . Christian. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. as celestial attendants of God. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). continually praise him. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. in accordance with their distance from the observer. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. "in the centre". Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. rather than intercessory functions. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.

The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. replacing tempera. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights.chiaroscuro (It." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. North of the Alps. reserved for the clergy to pray together. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . Hans Burgkmair (1510). or for choral singing. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. "light dark") In painting. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. choir (Gk. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). choros." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. the Order of the Hospital of St. Lastly. Since Carolingian times. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade.

reversed volutes. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The Mexico cathedral (1718). a massing of carved angels. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. an architect. and garlands. gilded rays. became the most common motif. and the Churrigueresque column. which was shaped like an inverted cone. balustrades. stucco shells. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. ciborium . Sculpted clouds. is as typically Churrigueresque. The Transparente (completed 1732). and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. Very few still exist in their original positions. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. undulating cornices. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style.intersect). The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and repetition of pattern. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. undulating lines. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. further enriching the style. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross.

the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. who were raised to the status of a guild. beaters. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. but self-employed. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. High Renaissance). or achieve political representation. Without being members of a guild. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. In reaction to this revolutionary . popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. combers. Members of the lower classes. as also were those in the associated. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Their economic condition worsened. the wool carder Michele di Lando. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. including the ciompi. Then.and post-medieval Italy. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. on July 22. placing one of their members. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. etc. ciompi. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. controlled by the minor guilds. Quattrocento (1400s. craft of dyeing. The new government. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society.

where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. resembling a lyre. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. with Italian scholars.) An ancient musical instrument. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. philosophy. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. philosophy and art . literature. . clair-obscur (Fr. the ciompi guild was abolished. on which strings were plucked. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).episode. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. In the 15th century Greek literature. however.as in Italy these were dispensed with. scholars patiently finding. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). changed greatly from one period to the next. cithara (Gk. the black contours usually with a special line plate. and politics. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). Concepts of the classical.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. writers. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. editing and translating a wide range of texts. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. except in cases where . and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages.

sing. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). occasionally made of wood. cognoscenti. pl. . arch or ceiling. Green and red. concetti (It. terrorized the country. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. [hora] completa. compline (Lat. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. those with refined tastes. pl. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. blue and orange. condottieri (It. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. cognoscente (It. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. condottiere. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. The name was derived from the condotta.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. when set side by side. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. intensify one another. as well as from the Bible. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. literature or music. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Coffered ceilings. the church service at which these prayers are said. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. concetto." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. or "contract. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. a work's underlying theme. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.

e. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. . Muzio's son. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. confraternities Confraternities. Toward the end of the 15th century. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. in Venice. Spanish. Mark (1432). Umbria. By the end of the 14th century. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Francesco Sforza. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. in the service of Perugia.devastating Romagna. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. or with the spiritual assistance of. primarily for syphilitics. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. clergy. and his rival Braccio da Montone. By the 16th century. i. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. scuole. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. in the service of Naples. and Tuscany. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Martino). and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Carmagnola. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. often under the direction of. convents of convertite. which spread in the 15th century. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. who won control of Milan in 1450. flagellant confraternities. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. often called compagnie or. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. and German--the condottieri. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. disappeared.e. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. With no goal beyond personal gain. i.

and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. While the Doge ranked above the Council. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. but sometimes had their own premises.g. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. founded c. notwithstanding their location. contour. flat outlines.i. and refuges for maidens. e. Later. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. e. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. In medieval painting. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. while the Venetian government.g. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). "Council of Ten") established in 1310. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. the Florentine Neri. in Florence. contour (Fr. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their .e. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Confraternities. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. which accompanied condemned prisoners. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. 1514 in S. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. contrapposto (It. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. contours were initially regular. reformed prostitutes. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. Dorotea in Trastevere. however. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. the highest political decision-making body in Venice.

Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. started the process of inner reform in the Church. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. aes cyprium. Reform programs. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. whose names are inscribed on several works. 1100 and 1300. 1280). They are often ornamented. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Lat. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. large cornice or other feature. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. The style spread as far as England. declining moral standards. conventicle (Lat.weight on one leg. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. corbel In architecture. did not achieve any lasting results. . conventiculurn. cuprum. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. an engraving produced in this way. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. a bracket of stone.

usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. i. the most famous victim of crucifixion.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. There were various methods of performing the execution. D dado . a small dome. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. the condemned man. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Jews. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. the first Christian emperor. cupula. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. Constantine the Great. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop.e. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. after being whipped. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. or "scourged. "small vat") In architecture. reedy sound. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. An ancestor of the oboe. Usually. particularly among the Persians. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. Carthaginians. a semi-circular vault. Death. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Next. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. cupola (Lat. Seleucids. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft.

who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. design") In Renaissance art theory. "drawing. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Anglican and Orthodox churches. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. an expressive use of nature. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Gk. e. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. diptychum. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never .g. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Deësis (Gk. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. but the concept behind an art work. diptych (Lat. usually in matching pairs. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. disegno (It. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. Passau. diptychos. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). which was help to be the basis of all art. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. decorated diffrently from the upper section. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Germany. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. diakonos. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. often an altarpiece. deacon (Gk. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. danse macabre The dance of death.

2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). formerly worn under armour. The studio easel. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. when painters took to working out of doors. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes.Thomas Aquinas. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. though a few artists. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. donator. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. such as we still use today. which runs on castors or wheels. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Dominicans (Lat. "to mix. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). As disegno appeals to the intellect. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. distemper (Lat. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. a 19th-century invention. also used it on canvas. dome in architecture. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). donor (Lat. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. usually forming a ceiling or roof.fully realize. is a heavy piece of furniture. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. distemperare. doublet A male garment. Ordo Praedictatorum.

"together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. a depiction of Jesus. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. and logos. ensemble (Fr. sculpture. entablature In classical architecture. eschatology (Gk. the frieze. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. in art. en face In portraiture. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. "last". sometimes combining panel painting. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. fresco. full face. bound and flogged. "word") . and the cornice. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. epitaph (Gk. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. It consists of the architrave. Ecce Homo (Lat.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. eschaton. Hence. and architecture. John (19. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing.

and is named for Faenza. particularly ware made in France.death and resurrection. celebrated with bread and wine. and of the last things." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. . Marcantonio Flaminio. Italy. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Vittoria Colonna. "good. which is called "delftware. notably Cardinal Pole. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Eucharist (Gk. eu. Saints Ambrose. and Scandinavia. 4500 BCE. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. farmers. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Spain. Equated with the Greek god Pan. which is called "maiolica. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Augustine. Germany. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. convinced of the inefficacy of human works." and that made in the Netherlands and England. Jerome. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Carnesecchi and Ochino. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine." and charis. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Giovanni Morone. which was famous for maiolica. fields and livestock. protector of shepherds. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. which was developed in the Near East ca. Contarini.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church.

and these areas. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. famine and death. fresco (It. and flowers suspended in a loop.festoni (It. leaves. relaxed. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. war. that of the others red. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. a technique known as a secco fresco. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). such as plague. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. 2 . and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. Their attributes are the bow. Only a small area can be painted in a day. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. frescos in Italy . it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fluted of a column or pillar.8). The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. black and dun. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). a swag. Committed to charitable and missionary work. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. can in time be seen. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. sword and set of balances. The colour of his horse is white. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. drying to a slightly different tint. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous.

Final details. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. landscape and portraiture. genre In a broad sense.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. or true fresco. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. a person's invisible tutelary god. In art from the classical period onwards. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. or fresco secco. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. for example. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. are genres of painting. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. both in churches and in private and public palaces. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . the intonaco. The technique of buon fresco. where the atmosphere was too damp. G Garter. usually childish figure. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. covings and ceilings.Save in Venice.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. Genius in classical Rome.

whether it must be connected with the public good. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. As such. Bernardo Daddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. in portraits and on tombs. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. Maso di Banco. and as spurring on men of action. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. Maria Gloriosa). how it differed from notoriety. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. as well as writers and artists.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Gobelins .

who appointed Lebrun Director. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. and although it reopened in 1699. Golden Fleece. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. . In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). In other Italian cities. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities.French tapestry manufactory. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Paris. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). still in existence today. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. golden section (Lat. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. This ratio is approximately 8:13. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. thereafter it made only tapestries. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring.

interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Nevertheless. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. painting. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. Gothic Gothic. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. like the cultural and commercial. the superficial particularities of form. that the effects are to be felt. Amiens. .The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. c. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. from the 13th until the 17th century. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. 1270. In sculpture and in painting. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. The artistic. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. In thinking of Nicola (d. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). 1200 and c. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. painting. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. There is a transcendental quality. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. In particular. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. Denis. and lies much deeper than. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. or the influence of one building. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture.

These qualities. Pannini. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. chiefly to France. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. with sable. and taste among the English. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. It is thinned with water for applying. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. are but different appellations of the same thing'. genius. and above all Italy. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and Morris Graves. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. the beau idéal of the French. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. notably in the writings of Bellori. occasionally. . the Netherlands. Canaletto. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Such tours often took a year or more. Honey. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. starch.and hog-hair brushes. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. without visible brush marks. if required. and the great style. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. to white or tinted paper and card and. to silk. and Piranesi. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Klee. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Dubuffet. sometimes in the company of a tutor.

the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. brother of Louis IX.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. gris. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. drawing and the various forms of engraving. became an abiding feature of European politics. and Waiblingen. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. 1216. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. . "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. however. Although its palace was rebuilt c. After the War of the Eight Saints. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. grisaille (Fr. to Provence and Paris. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. then as now. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. however. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. Some writers. after this. through central Italy. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. c. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. exclude drawing from this definition. including text as well as illustrations. which had recruited most of the merchant class.e. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. In the context of the fine arts. internal factions in Florence went under other names. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. the parties taking a multitude of local names. In another sense. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. usually gray. In Florence. From 1266 to 1268. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers.

such as Brescia and Vicenza. goldsmiths. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. and provided assistance to members in need. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. surgeons. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'." from Fr. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. "[knowledge of] heraldry. H hatching In a drawing. notably Florence in the 14th century. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. Guilds were also patrons of art. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. héraut. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In 16th century Venice. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. or professions. The guilds were not equal. The guild also monitored standards of work. trade or profession (painters. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In Florence. [science] héraldique. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In Italy they go back a long way. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. trades. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. as some did). The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. but in time they acquired other functions. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. "herald") . heraldry (Fr.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. In some cities. print or painting. for example. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. In some towns. and greater hostility between master and man.

By contrast. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. with the rules governing their use. The main impact of the . i. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. head of the 'carnal Church'. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. the followers of Juan de Valdes. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. and regarded themselves as forming. from the start. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. the Cathars were an anti-church. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. the Waldensian. normative for churchmen. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. together with brethren north of the Alps. one great missionary community. while others merged with the Waldensians. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. d. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. However. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. as Antichrist.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. they were condemned in 1184. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. indeed. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence.

Jasper Cropsey. Thomas Cole. Kensett. history (usually classical history). hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. and classical literature. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). the emancipation of man from God took place. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. working from 1825 to 1875. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. mainly in the south. and. George Inness. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. S. Frederick E. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . In humanism. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. F. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. American painters were studying in Rome. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. Church. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. humanism (Lat. Henry Inman. its subjects considered morally elevating. Morse. in his earlier work. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. my spouse'. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. hortus conclusus (Lat.movement upon the laity was in southern France. J. F. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Durand. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. Germany. humanus. B. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. At the same time.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. or of other saints. the rooster of Peter's denial. the scourge that was used in the scourging. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. In the second half of the 14th century. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. usually the donors of a work of art. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. beautiful style. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. and the ladder. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. For instance.g. invention. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). and they are also depicted on their own. the veil of St. investiture . it denominates a kind of behaviour. inventio (It. Donatallo. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. soft style. etc. trecento rococo and lyrical style. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. are also used in art literature. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. there are representations of the bundle of rods. Human figures. the pincers. with many further details added. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. Derived from classical rhetoric. Veronica. the hammer. the ability to create. The terms court style. originality.

Italianizers Northern artists. although they are usually called Romanists. Nicolaes Berchem. The Both brothers. Andries and Jan Both. Upon his return to Holland. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Jerome's writings. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. of Utrecht. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. . and Jan Asselijn. generally Dutch or Flemish. principally Dutch. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). bathed in a golden haze. who traveled in Italy and. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Both and Berchem. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.

Archbishop of Genoa. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. encouraged by the Crusades. especially one at which the Bible is read. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.1519). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). As their military role grew. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Legenda Aurea (Lat. lectern A reading stand or desk. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). liberal arts . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. the rite of communion is based on this. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. John of Jerusalem .to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.

first the preparatory trivium . through the use of aerial perspective.g. Church (1826-1900). often standing in markets and town squares. together with identifying attributes (e. loggia (It. often sublime. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. that could be used for public ceremonies. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. painting or sculptural decoration. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. Maria Novella in Florence). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. poetic atmosphere.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. its roof supported by columns. that may contain a window. Kensett (1816-1872).grammar. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). the quadrivium. Martin J. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. rhetoric and dialectic. and Frederick E. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). commemorating a marriage. "little moon") In architecture. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Tubal for music). John F. then the basis of a philosophical training. It is related to. astronomy and music. Pythagoras for arithmetic. Heade (1819-1904). a semicircular space. comprising arithmetic. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. lunette (Fr. .g. geometry.

especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. and accompaniments. historical subjects. usually for the lute. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. antimony yellow. madrigal A part song. particularly such ware produced in Italy. Specifically. manganese purple. and however bright their lighting effects. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. mandorla (It. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. for example. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). they never lost a sense of solidity of form. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. "great mother") A mother goddess. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. copper green. 1855–65. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. the goddess Cybele. originally sung without accompaniment. being written. active mainly in Florence c. but they painted genre scenes. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). They were influenced by the Barbizon School. and portraits as well as landscapes. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. and iron red. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. originating in Italy in the 14th century. When white is used for painting. "almond") . magna mater (Lat.

manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Mannerism (It. It reached to the knee or foot. ecclesiastical. often ornamented with decorative borders. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Burgundy. bound. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Bronzino. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. maniera. in a specific sense. more strictly. and literary texts. El Greco and Tintoretto. complex and crowded compositions. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Parmigianino. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. worn open.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. the hand-written medieval book. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. depending on the social class of the wearer. and crowned with thorns. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. Developing out of the Renaissance. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. In Mannerist painting. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. In architecture. marked by flagellation. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. "manner. illuminated initials and miniatures. strong. which was quarried at Mount . there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Flanders. the Codex manuscriptus. mantle An overcoat.

Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. particularly by Michelangelo. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. "witness. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). This was partly because ancient Roman coins. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. an inscription running round the rim. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. martyrdom (Gk. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). having finished his training. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). the medal's purpose was commemorative. Like the finest Imperial coins. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. sleek surface. proof") the sufferings. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. martyrion. medallion In architecture. The pure white Carrara marble. Carrara. a different design on the reverse.Pentelicon in Attica. Without monetary value. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. marmi finti (It. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. quarried at Massa.

the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Her head features on Minerva's shield. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. particularly. often anonymous. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. 1640. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. of the person portrayed on the other side. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. no line drawing is employed. A Dutch officer. perhaps oddly. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. and of the many. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. supposedly to petrify her enemies. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. the stress on individual character. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. as it were. When Perseus cuts off her head. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. . more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'.round the neck. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. 1452-1526/27). it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Medusa In Greek mythology. Ludwig von Siegen. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. The process is essentially extinct today. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. a Gorgon. It was. c. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. for landscapes and portraits. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. c. even grain. In pure mezzotint. This yields a soft effect in the print. 1425-1504). sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. who reflected them. in England. The work of these men. 1467-688). 14601528). every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career.

not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. painting in gouache on vellum or card. a branch of the Franciscan order. often quite highly finished. motto (Ital. usually portraits. e. Parmigianino (d. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Francis himself. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. executed on a very small scale. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. by Tiepolo and Rubens. saying") . miter A high. Many such small versions. a painting executed in a single color. "word. still exist. "one color") Painted in a single color. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. ink and paint.. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. monokhromatos. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. pointed headdress worn by bishops. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. monochrome (Gk. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.g.

Isidore. named after the patron saint of painting. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy.from the Middle Ages. 1817-29). and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. Nazarenes A group of young. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. and two other members moved to Rome. navis. and is intersected by the transept. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. often separated from it by pillars. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. . and Casino Massimo. naturalism (Fr. but often insipid. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Pforr. Rome. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). In 1810 0verbeck. The invention of personal mottos. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. 1816-17. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. In general. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. It may have parallel aisles on each side. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Berlin. nave (from Lat. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period.

usually golden. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). but their ideas continued to be influential. nimbus (Lat. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Nymphaeum (Gk. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power.) . The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. moreover. "aureole") The disc or halo. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. niello (Lat. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Popes. the style of the Ancien Régime. were usually old when elected. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. is as true as it is notorious. nigellus. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship.

or poppy. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. was the simplest. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. a small private chapel. The earliest. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. observances") Rites performed for the dead. the three basic styles of design. fluted column and a plain capital. O obsequies (Lat. with a sturdy. walnut. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). obsequia. its richness of colour. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. and its greater tonal range. Greek goddesses of Nature. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. orders of architecture In classical architecture. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. inborn sin. . They are seen in the form of the columns. "services. capital. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. the Doric order. such as linseed. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. a more elaborate base. and entablatures.

"panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). standing at the foot of the Cross. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. while shops came to be thought undignified. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.g. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. the Cancelleria). The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. like cities. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and. palazzo (It. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. P pala (Ital. designed as a . of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. tradition and social structure. with biforate windows. and the main apartments above. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. Palazzo Strozzi). Usually pointed or rounded at the top. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings.

cornices and abutments. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. column-caps. Rich. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. e. especially after the Sack of Rome. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. like Genoa. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Palazzo Massimi). behind a sober Florentine façade. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). like the colonnaded vestibule.scholarly retreat. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves.g. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). often built next to their titular churches. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. and Palladio's in Vicenza. Other cities. and large households. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm".g. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Papal incentives to build. Following Oriental patterns. palmette. panel . defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. Movement of patrons and architects. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). In Venice. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. evolved influential types. came to be applied all over Europe. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard.

enforce law and order. and other synthetic materials as supports. metal. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. the. so that they might have a voice at court. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. olive. Having a circular plan. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. including beech. the management of clerical dues and taxation. In the 20th century cedar. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. A number of matters. mahogany. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. as distinct from canvas. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. secular rulers. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). thanks to their possession of the Papal State. or the incidence of taxation. On a larger scale. linden. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. or other rigid substance. fibre-board. to influence popes in their favour. and the pressure and temptations . Then. Many other types were used. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. slate has occasionally been used as a support. fir. and spanned by a single dome. cedar. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. however. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. could lead to conflict with secular authorities.Term in painting for a support of wood. and dark walnut are favourites. To maintain their authority. as it were. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. chestnut. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. teak. As successors to St Peter. larch. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. and walnut. and modern painters have also used plywood. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. The third aspect was administrative. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other.

was long in doubt. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). would. So onerous. to be long delayed. from the point of view of its religious associations. the most appropriate . Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. in spite of further absences from Rome. As at Avignon. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith.as well. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. however. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. could supersede that of a pope. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. By then. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. if it did no serious damage to the faith. of individuals. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. at Avignon. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. however. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. however. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. which seems so inevitable. possess an authority which. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini.that could be applied to them. in the eyes of God. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. as such. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. To resolve the problem of divided authority. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. It was argued that such a council. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. Colonna and Caetani. which met at Constance 1414-18. There remained. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. the acceptance of the city as the most practical .

Parrhasius (c. and other animals. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari).by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. and with Zeuxis (c. goat. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. through lavish patronage of artists. nymphs. pastoral (Lat. However. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. the creation of a cultural capital. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. in classical literature. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. less frequently pig. Passion . scholars and men of letters. 400-300 BC). It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. as well as a governmental one. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. to a world peopled by shepherds. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. and satyrs.. pastor. it has also been used for painting. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life.

the crown of thorns. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Meanwhile. hence tent") A lightly constructed. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. patrician (Lat. "butterfly. 1478. but not necessarily a direct copy.) or pasticcio (It. a small. a prominent section of a monumental façade. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. projecting either centrally or at both ends. pavilion (Lat. such as a garden summerhouse.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. pastiche (fr. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. patricius. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. which focus on the Suffering Christ. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. wealthy citizen. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. . Portrayals of the Passion. a region in north-central Italy. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. 1478). and so on. and also the archbishop of Pisa. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. ornamental building. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.The events leading up to Good Friday. papilio. Francesco Salviati.

physis. and facere. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. concept or deity. perspicere. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. . and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. pergola (It. "person". The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). dependent") One of a pair of related art works. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. persona. "hanging.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. personification (Lat. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective).The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. pendant (Fr. and gnomon. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. physiognomy (Gk. or related elements within an art work. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. "nature". perspective (Lat. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. "to see through. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. in particular the face. that settled the religious conflict in the German states.

. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. A pier is generally larger than a column. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. pigment (Lat. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. curious details. remarkable for singularity.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. to be expressed in painting. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. but may consist of a cluster of columns. affording a good subject for a landscape. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. pigmentum. or resin to make paint. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. both real and painted. Pietà (Lat. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). containing the public rooms. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. Peter's.piano nobile (Ital. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. proper to take a landscape from. exemplified. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery.) The main floor of a building. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. striking the imagination with the force of painting. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. glue. but full of variety. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. Rome. usually above the ground floor. for example. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output.

swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. It is often fluted. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. perhaps. in October 1347. though in less widespread. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. however. Thenceforward. During 1348 the Black Death. "pillar") A flat. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. it has a base. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. and thereafter all Europe. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Rocco and Sebastian. the burning of 'infected' clothing. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. and capital. pilastrum. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. plague Plague. In the 15th century. despite regional variations. It seems probable. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. moreover. it is difficult to find. since. For this reason.pilaster (Lat. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. a shaft. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. for instance. outside Tuscany. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. such as Florence and Genoa. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. more sporadic outbreaks. also used in Spain's American colonies. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out).

Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. are the masterworks of the second style. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. heraldic escutcheons. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. like its successor. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The first phase. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. In contrast with Aristotle. or simply the Plateresque. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style).e. the Renaissance-Plateresque. and unified style using massive geometric forms. the Symposium. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. and sinuous scrolls. Theatetus and the Laws. Phaedo. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488).. A student of Socrates. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Timaeus. Phaedrus. The second phase. more severe. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. correct classical orders became frequent. composition. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. or appropriateness. which lasted only a few decades. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Diego evolved a purer. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Philebus. i. harmonious. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). lasted from about 1525 to 1560. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . placement. The first phase. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation.

1472-c. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. systematized and added to what Plato had done. Plotinus. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Iamblichus. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. including those of Plotinus. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. partially. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. all of which he also translated into Latin. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. the greatest of his ancient disciples. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Rather unsystematic. near Florence. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. and the Chaldaic Oracles. but not completely. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and Agostino Steuco (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. replaced Ficino's. and he utilized many other writings. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. A new Latin translation. Unlike the case of Aristotle. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source.1577) becoming particularly popular. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'.in Plato's thought. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century.

such as processions and consecrations. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. plinth (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. pointed arch In architecture. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. porticus. as in classical architecture). "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. pluvial (Med. poluptukhos. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. plinthos. polyptych (Gk. portico (Lat. pluviale. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. where a pectoral is used to close it. or statue. column. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. Lat. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. Frequently supports a pediment. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. Plato was read in the universities.

Cathedral) by Uccello. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Colleoni. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. and only a decorative accessory to form. Palazzo Farnese). the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. was revived in the 14th century. Mantua.e. Venice). decorating whole rooms. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. psychologically more complex. The 16th century portrait became generalized. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Siena. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Florence. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome.. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Florence (1486-90). Campidoglio). The realism of the clear. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. and the . flattened image. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Gattarnelata. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Group portraits. National Gallery).sculptors such as Donatello. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Maria Novella. inessential. The equestrian portrait. the Carracci. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. Desiderio da Settignano. 1328.

however. minatory exhortations. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. Charles Le Brun. was versed in classical and patristic . by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. bishops especially. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. 1494). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). but 16th century ones were more cautious here. and. several of whom became bishops. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. As Poussin was a Frenchman. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. not least those of statesmen and prelates. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Correggio. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. are not florid in style. Borromeo. The sermons of Visdomini. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. to discharge their preaching duties." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. of the sermon as an art form. abrasive even. bishop of Chioggia. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. star preachers journeyed all over Italy.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. and Peter Paul Rubens. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. bishop of Asti. from the secular clergy. primarily the mendicants. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. who had as their ideal masters Titian. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. together with the Dominican Savonarola." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Savonarola and Musso. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. The styles of S. Fiamma's sermons.

"altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . predella (It. though often relatively very wide . the temptations of Adam and Christ.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. Naples). as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. among them Holman Hunt. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Louis of Toulouse (1317. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. tapestries. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). however. Because of the small size of predelle . Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and so forth. The New Testament references in these would. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. prefiguration Typology . have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. Millais and Rossetti.g. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.rhetoric.

sculpture and architecture. notably David. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. proportio. which uses the square . "evenness") in painting. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the quadrature. again indicative of the purpose they served. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. the golden section. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Prix de Rome A scholarship. 2. profil perdu (Fr. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. Girardon. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. 3. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The following are important: 1. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. projecting shelf on which to kneel. Fragonard. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. proportion (Lat. and Houdon among sculptors. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. intended as complete works of art in themselves. these highly finished drawings. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. the Canon of Proportion.

It was common in Roman art. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. triangulation. 4. Unlike Pozzo. putto (It. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. a fifth = 2:3. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. for example). They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. harmonic proportions. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. Ignazio. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. provenance The origins of an art work. . a fourth = 3:4. the steward or treasurer of a church. "boys") Plump naked little boys. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. putti sing. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. one half the length of the other). architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Rome.as a unit of measurement. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. and 5.

R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). Fra Angelico and others. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. relevare. also known as the Realist school. the great orders of monks. canons regular. relief (Lat. hermits. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. and high relief (alto rilievo). Donatello. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. with the Anglican Church developing in England. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. In 16th century Europe. in particular works by Masaccio. in which figures are seen half round. Brunelleschi. relicquiae. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. refectory (Med. Botticelli. the object of particular veneration. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. Among the .g. friars and nuns. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. e. in which figures are almost detached from their background.Quattrocento (It. Lat. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. basso rilievo). or some item connected with a saint. relic (Lat. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. or the Jesuits.

there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. and the generally moderate Observants. Padua. After the repression of the Spirituals. i. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. who had no overall organization originally. the great patriarch of Venice. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. Salvatore. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Bernardino of Siena. which was to become the main Italian one. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Venice (1404). the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. That of S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Bologna (1419). He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. At the same time. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. 1012. Benedetto. Lucca. In 1504. In 1517. their resources being in the hands of trustees. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. it became the Cassinese congregation. various groups were fused in the latter body. The same bull . rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Giustina. The Conventuals. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. S. presided over by chapters general. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. Founded by St Romuald c.contemplative orders. The Benedictines.e. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. the Conventuals. The Silvestrines. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. Giorgio in Alga. was the congregation of S. Mantua. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. and their more institutionalized brethren. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Maria di Fregonaia. however. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. although technically of secular canons. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. the most notable being S.

While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. the Theatines. a historical period. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. founded in 1535 by S. Filippo Neri. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. Venice. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. founded by S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. also.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Michele in Isola. Angela Merici. The first. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. however. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. however. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Gerolamo Aemiliani. Gaetano da Thiene. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524.

morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. even Amoralism. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. and his own as potentially one of light. which had begun early in the 14th century. 1875-86). as well as political. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. was so vast and potent. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. life. . it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. of arts. of letters. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). All-Roundness. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. of an energetic revival of interest in. the historical reality of antiquity. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. of scholarship. Thereafter.century. however. of 'darkness'. however. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. For long. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. and competition with. because its core of energy. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. too long forgotten glories. increasingly.

Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. and mass media. especially in the High Gothic period. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). gratefully. congruence between. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. (3) There is not a true.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. of industrialization. sometimes. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. the previous record . mobilized nationalism.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). etc. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. in the more limited sense. candlesticks. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. Ghent). (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. retables can be detached and. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. The challenges are to be accepted. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. etc. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. though sometimes of metal. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.with all its shabbiness .erased. consist merely of a painting. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. There was an early. letters. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. statues.) was the term chosen. Though thus challenged. Cathedral of SaintBavon. and other liturgical objects. and is decorated with paintings. later still to Genoa. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. let alone a uniform. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. however. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. It is for this additional. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points.

which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. however. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. the first style to achieve such international currency. in several countries . More usually. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. retables have become extinct. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art.in the 11th century. rocaille (French. Rococo A style of design.France. is a typical product. Originally commissioned in 976. and architecture dominating the 18th century. its mood lighthearted and witry. painting. the St. rilievo (It. Romanesque art. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. With the development of freestanding altars. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. "relief") In painting. literally. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.of St Mark in Venice. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Germany. richly decorated with organic forms. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. and 'Romanesque'. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. As the name suggests. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. . like 'Gothic'. Spain . Italy. Louis XV furniture. almost simultaneously.

rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Massys and M. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Q. In addition. Claude. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. . The aim of painting. they maintained. B. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. such as red ochre. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Pannini and Mengs. van Heemskerk. van Orley. Rome. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. stylized design representing an open rose. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. the development of nationalistic pride. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). Mabuse. M. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. Piranesi. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect.

though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . Written primarily in ottava rima. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. the Eucharist. In the . a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. when it finally left the city it had devastated. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista.expressed through gesture. confirmation. and Lorenzo de' Medici. penance. glance and movement . The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528.greatly increased. from the Old and New Testaments. holy orders. gutted. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Eastern independent. Clement escaped into Castel S. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. multiple sets used in succession. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Sacra Conversazione (It. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. matrimony. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. pious legend and hagiography. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and anointing of the sick. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. and Protestant churches. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Many compositions were anonymous. local saints. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Subjects were nominally sacred. and impoverished. supported by lay confraternities. but others were the work of well-known figures. There were no limits on time. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Orthodox.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy.

the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. and sacraments. used for drawing. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540.e.. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. replaces the Lord's Supper. Candidates first face west. large room. as an excuse to revolt. Anglican. and then face east. Immediately following baptism. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. They were still seeking aid. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. the symbolic direction of Christ.i. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Hence. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. as in the Church of the Brethren. the Bentivoglio. in principle. sacraments.early church the number of sacraments varied. The theology of the Orthodox Church.e. notably from Florence and in Germany. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. the Rocca Paolina. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. strictly speaking. It is still practiced on special occasions. was buried under a new fortress. The classical Protestant churches (i. chapter 13. which in the Gospel According to John. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. make such strict distinctions. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. foot washing. Saracens . The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Thus. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. that the price of salt should be increased." which are called sacramentals." sala (Ital. the sun of righteousness. was not maintained as a sacrament. The chief focus of discontent.) Hall. Salt War.. baptism and the Eucharist. Lutheran. the Orthodox Church does not.

sarcophagus.c. pl. the god of wine. 45 BC). Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. 360 . wood or terracotta. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). the Arabs or Muslims. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. The publication of Latin (1562. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. satyr In Greek mythology. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. whose writings. 160 . made of stone. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and many others. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. legs and horns of a goat. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 270 BC). 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. 210 AD).c. Little known in the Middle Ages.During the Middle Ages. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. are lost. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. sarcophagi (Gk. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . human-like woodland deities with the ears.

on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. who recognized the Roman pope. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. from time to time both he and his opponents. while devout Christians agonized. However. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). Louis I (d. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. the Florentines. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. while England. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. than their medieval predecessors. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Schism. on the other. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. one of the early leaders. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. for. with France and her allies Aragon. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement.for example Pieter van Laer. who had the support of the Avignon pope. scholasticism . It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope.they had individual Bentnames . Alexander V. in June 1409. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Charles III of Durazzo (d. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. In northern Italy. being Frenchmen. and. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. on one side. As a result. was called Bamboccio. most of whom. but with little effect. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII).

moreover. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. if lime-water was used. as it were. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. textual scholarship. on one side. and theology. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. university-based study. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Medieval scholars.were different from those of medieval. It was because the central concerns of humanism . But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. history and rhetoric . that scholasticism was left. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. notably Aquinas.moral philosophy.) . such passages have frequently flaked off with time. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. Padua. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Serenissima (Ital. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). as it is easier to add details in this way. because the secco technique is much less permanent. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. and Islamic literature. (See also: fresco. As such. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. the plaster had to be damped before painting. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.The term is ambivalent. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. Christian. None the less. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. Often called the burning ones. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought.

made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. Originally. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate.. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. in use since the Middle Ages. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. brass. Lat. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. sibyls (Gk. usually presided over by individual families. which were all identical in thickness. the number gradually rose to ten. Servite (Lat. the governing body of some of the Italian city states.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. Sibyls foretold the Birth. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. and the delicate. "the most serene republic of Venice"). in the period of classical antiquity. sfumato A technique. "prophetess") In antiquity.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Signoria (It. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. term. sibylla. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. In Christian legend. Med. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. at the same time. They first appear in alpine monasteries. there was only one Sibyl. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. sinopia . women who could prophesy. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper.

is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. soffit (Lat.'Beautiful Madonnas'. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Ital. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. It is very closely related to International Gothic. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. brand. staffage This word. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. . soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. in other words.) Wooden ceiling decoration. pronounced as French. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. stigma (Gk. as the name implies. "mark. Francis of Assisi. sing. and. stigmata. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. Stanze (Ital. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. especially in the flow of drapery.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. sotto in sù (It.. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael.

This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. stucco A type of light. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. studiolo. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. The vogue for the Sublime. In a looser sense. Indeed. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. pl. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). whose verses actually fabrications . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. both external and internal. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). John Milton. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. with that for the Picturesque. supremacy . studioli (It. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble.

many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. then being replaced by oil paint. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. or cartoons. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. into Italy. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. his own headquarters. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). .Historically. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. These were imported. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. The subject is underexplored. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545.e. i. and in literature. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. temperare. was being decorated with frescoes. tempera (Lat. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. But the Italians did not make them. both for panel painting and fresco. doubtless. London. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . 1407). though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua.and. chiefly from Flanders. Salviati and Allori. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions.

the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. in the architecture of ancient Rome. and later to subdivide gable ends. tondo. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. in art. quarter face. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. topos. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. and sculptures. theme or motif. terraferma (Ital. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. topiary (Gk. i. and other surfaces. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory.terracotta (It. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. widely used form. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. "fields. topia. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. vessels. figure of speech. triumphal arch. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. pl. Trajan's Column . the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. pl. topoi (Gk. model.e. walls. "a commonplace") In literature. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and profile. tondi (It.

tryptychos. fame. Meanwhile. Battista Sforza. Trinity (Lat. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Disseminated soon after his death. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. the Son and the Holy Spirit. of both sexes'. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. behind it.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. of virtues and of the arts. "threefold") in Christianity. death. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). usually an altarpiece. . chastity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. patriarchs and prophets. time and eternity. "threefold") A painting in three sections. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. into a number of less controversial forms. Early triptychs were often portable.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. the wars by which they were won . most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. trinitas. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. beside it the army of martyrs. the military triumph became sublimated. triptych (Gk.' Before it go the apostles. as it were. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. added to the glamour of the triumph. after 'a countless number of virgins. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. or wings. a car so brave'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous.

they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. In medieval architecture. "drum") In classical architecture. viscous black ink. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. through various naturalistic devices. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. it is usually decorated with carvings. Dating from classical times.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. enclosed by an arch. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. typology . though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. tusche A thick. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. It incorporates Renaissance features. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. first recorded in 1232. often decorated with sculptures. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. tympanum (Lat. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre.

where they were most accessible. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Judith. and David. Their subjects are frequently religious ones.Dirck van Baburen (c. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned.) The Renaissance "universal man". e. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. U uomo universale (It. slayer of Goliath. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. killer of Holofernes. The numerous candles. lanterns. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . were popular with them also. In Christian thought.g.A system of classification. knew his former patrons. 1590-1624). a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. 1610). each had access to his paintings. such as five works devoted to the senses. especially his half-length figural groups. .

often gold. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. a work's richness of subject matter. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. guttering candles. There are a wide range of forms.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. V vanishing point In perspective.). carriages. vanitas (Lat. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. mixed in. vesper. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. and the rib vault. Vespers (Lat. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. varietà (It. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. and even flowers (which will soon fade). the groin vault. "evening") . painting at both the Dutch and English courts. it was used to decorate furniture. Parisian craftsmen. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. snuff boxes and other objects. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. overturned vessels. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. hour-glasses and clocks. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. Also varietas (Lat. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque.

Covetousness. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Vestibule (Lat. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Envy. vita. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). vimperga Of German origin. "life") . In ancient Roman dwellings. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vestibulum. Anger. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Gluttony. Temperance. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Fortitude. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. vite (Lat. for example. Charity. if you have it not'. the church service at which these prayers are said. pl. 'Assume a virtue. actual or latent. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna.Prayers said in the evening. Hope. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. and Justice. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Lust. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. virtù could be used. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. and Sloth. Prudence. in which the word signifies efficacy. "not exposed to winds".

Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. or recovery from illness has been made. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. protection from harm. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. in fact.g. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. 1478-80.An account of someone's life and work. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. and of Ferrara. Vitruvius Pollio. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and appalled recognition of. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. a biography. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. usually when a prayer for good fortune. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. 1472. those of Volterera. Marcus (1st cent. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. Sculptors and Architects"). published in 1550 and 1568. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. they were from the 18th century . The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. 1482-84). The wars from 1494 do. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

usually restorers. "Western work of art". wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. usually linear. treasury or a place where justice was administered. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. gallery. . based on stylization of various animal forms. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. "world view") A comprehensive world view. during its subsequent history. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. woodcut A print made from a wood block. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. pompous on the floor above. a philosophy of life. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. It was intended to have a variety of functions. Westwerk German word.Weltanschauung (Gr.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful