A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). Degas.A semicircular projection. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. at the east end of a church behind the altar. arcus. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). the lowest part of the entablature). It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. architectonic (Gk.e. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. "architectural") Relating to structure. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. and Rouault. or organization. design. The adjective is apsidal. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. the darker the tone). In Greek and Roman literature. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. but in essence the process is as follows. arcade (Lat. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. architrave (It. . roofed with a half-dome. which is fused to the plate by heating. Also known as an exedra. including Goya. the moulding around a window or door. Picasso. arkhitektonikos. piers or pillars. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. There are several variants of the technique. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Lancet and Tudor. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. The term applies also to a print made by this method.

dominate. "begin. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . Dante's Vita nuova . usually a saint. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. Ars Moriendi (Lat. "golden. voltus. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.archivolt (Ital. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. attribute (Lat. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting." and Lat.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. attributum. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. archeiu. In the case of martyrs. "the art of dying well") a small book on death.and the Comedy . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. aureole (Lat. aureolus. "front arch. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: ." from Gk. archivolto. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages.

made in Rome in the mid-17th century. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. 'Captivity'. applied to the physically . Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Later. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. that of Cardano. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Six pontificates later. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. paintings of everyday life. the god of wine and fertility. or baldacchino (It. who had been residing in France since 1305. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. often anecdotal. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The actual move was made in 1309.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. in 1377. baldachin. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby").

In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. seven. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. such as those at Pisa. Alg. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. Florence. the Temple of Venus.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. Croatia]. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. a church. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. Parma. AD 273. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. Spalato [Split. and Nocera in Italy. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. built by Sixtus III. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. pope between 432 and 440. set beneath a domical ciborium. Lebanon. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. banderuola. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. banderole (It. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. or connected with. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. or canopy. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. a visual metaphor for the number eight. . or forecourt. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Baalbek. AD 300). France. beggars in rags. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. and Epiphany. Pentecost. and Poitiers.. As eight follows the "complete" number. and abject filthy things.. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Easter. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. el Kantara. Customarily." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism.g. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome.

In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini.In the 10th century. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. and increasingly elaborate decoration. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. achieved through scale. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. southeast of Paris. 1814-1875).an allusion to entering the Christian life. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. which is reserved for the clergy. something of earlier symbolism survives. and (3) everyday realism. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. usually facing east. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Rubens). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. In architecture. . contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. Also tunnel vault. barocco. baptisteries. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. 1817-1878). 1807-1876). 1796-1875). or baptismal chapels. were often omitted entirely. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). Jules Dupré (French. Vermeer). barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. basilica (Gk. Constant Troyon (French. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. 1810-1865). "king's hall") a church building. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. in its usual location near the church door . and thus a church. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. Originally. however. stoa basilike. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. the dramatic use of light and shadow. Baroque (Port. 1811-1889). in the 1840s and 1850s. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). Jean-François Millet (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. Théodore Rousseau (French.

especially Spanish. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). were referred to by their specific contents. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. Bodegónes. in which still-life predominates. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. bodegón Image. or which is to be left as it is. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Biscuit porcelain. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. There were. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. domesticity. like their Dutch counterparts. particularly porcelain. however. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. also incorrectly called bisque. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). It takes its name from its grainy texture. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Spanish still-lifes. such as those by Diego Velázquez. up until the mid-17th century. Book of Hours . The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. 1650 in Spain. The term was mainly used up to c. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. often with food and drink. such as Waldmüller.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. and often sentimentality. which is either not yet glazed. By association. as is to be expected.

bozzetto Strictly speaking. or seasons. varying from silverish to a rich. See flying buttress. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. durability. Chantilly). Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. though these are more often called 'modelli'. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé.an advantage over marble sculpture. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. days of the week. months. . and the fact that it is easily workable . buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. but can also be used for painted sketches. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.both hot and cold .by a variety of processes. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. made as a study for a larger picture. a rapid sketch in oil. bozzetto(Italian. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. By extension. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . coppery red. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point.

an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. Among its most distinctive products were icons. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. which was often allegorical. and Giotto. private room where works of art. notable from Syria and Egypt. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. camera obscura . its forms highly stylized. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. Duccio. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. ceramics. casson. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. caisson (Fr. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. mosaics. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). "a chest. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. manuscript illuminations. and work in precious metals. It also served to glorify the emperor. C cabinet A small.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. cameo Small relief made from gems. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. box") In architecture. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. glass. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art.

usually in a church. candela. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. candlestick. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. capital (Lat. campanile Bell tower. other materials used are cotton. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. which was usually whitened." and the earliest versions. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). usually with several branches or arms. Portable versions were built. and jute. hemp.Ancestor of the photographic camera. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. sing. both of which have richly carved marble panels. cantorie (It. by the 16th century.) A gallery for singers or musicians. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. as an aid to drawing. cantoria. which isolates the fabric from the paint. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. candelabra.-N. Niepce created photography. pl. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. capitellum. Structurally. . usually built beside or attached to a church. dating to antiquity. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. usually decorated. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. candelabrum (It. The Latin name means "dark chamber. followed by smaller and even pocket models. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. only very rough effects will be obtainable. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. "candle") A large.

cartone.both Italians and artists from other countries . Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . cartoon (It. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended.a humorous drawing or parody. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. At the height of the Middle Ages. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). Fortitudo (Fortitude). Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". the Carmelites were originally hermits. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. the endeavour to attain true humanity. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. and humanism. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. monasteries containing separate hermitages. pl. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. the date of the painting. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . cartellini In a painting. or fresco. In fresco painting. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. Carthusian Order (Lat. cartouche . Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). New Charterhouses. cardinalis. The order combines reclusive and community life. details of the subject. Carmelites (Lat. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. tapestry.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. cartellino. or a motto. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. near Grenoble.

palace. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. cathedral (cathedra. decorated with gilt gesso. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. cassone (It. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Paolo Uccello. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. putti (cupids). A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. or arms of the cross. and many other items of her dowry. Cascina.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. or nave. The altar is placed at the east end. linen. In the 15th century. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. where the throne of the bishop is placed. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement.) "castle". These lead up to the north and south transepts. they were also used in other countries. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). and swags of fruit and flowers. The main body. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed.toward the setting sun. castello (It. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. a cathedral always faces west . . and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. They contained the bride's clothes. caryatid (Gk.

but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. and perspicere. . a celestial winged being with human. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. central perspective (Lat. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. continually praise him. animal. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. champlevé (Fr. Christian. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. landscapes. a throne bearer of the deity. "in the centre". rather than intercessory functions. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. and Islamic literature. in accordance with their distance from the observer. or birdlike characteristics. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. centralis. Both the statement of St. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). buildings and figures that are being depicted. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Relative to the observer. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. as celestial attendants of God.

Since Carolingian times. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. North of the Alps. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. "light dark") In painting. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20)." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. choros. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. Hans Burgkmair (1510). for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. Lastly.chiaroscuro (It. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). or for choral singing. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. replacing tempera. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. notably Lucas Cranach (1506)." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. reserved for the clergy to pray together. choir (Gk. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . the Order of the Hospital of St.

Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. The Transparente (completed 1732). In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. gilded rays. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Sculpted clouds. Very few still exist in their original positions. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. became the most common motif. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. an architect. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. undulating cornices. undulating lines. and repetition of pattern. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator.intersect). Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. balustrades. The Mexico cathedral (1718). stucco shells. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. and the Churrigueresque column. further enriching the style. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. reversed volutes. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. is as typically Churrigueresque. ciborium . and garlands. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. a massing of carved angels.

combers. ciompi. The new government. placing one of their members. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. Their economic condition worsened. but self-employed. including the ciompi. They were forbidden to form a trade association. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. the wool carder Michele di Lando. on July 22. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. Then. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. In reaction to this revolutionary . controlled by the minor guilds. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice.and post-medieval Italy. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. beaters. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. Quattrocento (1400s. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. or achieve political representation. Without being members of a guild. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. as also were those in the associated. Members of the lower classes. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. etc. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. craft of dyeing. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. who were raised to the status of a guild. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. High Renaissance).

philosophy and art . editing and translating a wide range of texts.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). scholars patiently finding. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. the ciompi guild was abolished. . in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. Concepts of the classical. the black contours usually with a special line plate. In the 15th century Greek literature. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. resembling a lyre. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.) An ancient musical instrument. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. however. and politics.episode. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. cithara (Gk. changed greatly from one period to the next. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. philosophy. on which strings were plucked. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. except in cases where . clair-obscur (Fr. with Italian scholars. literature. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance.as in Italy these were dispensed with. writers. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.

composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. concetti (It. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). . Green and red. The name was derived from the condotta. Coffered ceilings.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. the church service at which these prayers are said. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. as well as from the Bible. those with refined tastes. condottiere. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. [hora] completa. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. cognoscente (It. literature or music. cognoscenti. sing. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. arch or ceiling. compline (Lat. intensify one another. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. pl. when set side by side. pl. occasionally made of wood. condottieri (It. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. terrorized the country. a work's underlying theme. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. blue and orange. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. or "contract. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. concetto.

clergy. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. which spread in the 15th century. Carmagnola. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops.e. With no goal beyond personal gain. often called compagnie or. and his rival Braccio da Montone. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. . these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds.devastating Romagna. commonly called either Compagnia di S. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. often under the direction of. confraternities Confraternities. in Venice. i. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Mark (1432). The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. in the service of Perugia. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Spanish. scuole. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. primarily for syphilitics. Martino). although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. and Tuscany. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. By the 16th century. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. disappeared. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. who won control of Milan in 1450. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. flagellant confraternities. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Francesco Sforza. or with the spiritual assistance of. convents of convertite. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. and German--the condottieri. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. in the service of Naples.e. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. Toward the end of the 15th century. Muzio's son. Umbria. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. By the end of the 14th century. i.

its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Later.i. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. In medieval painting. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. e. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. contour.g. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). but sometimes had their own premises. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. contour (Fr.g. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. the Florentine Neri. flat outlines. e. 1514 in S. While the Doge ranked above the Council. contours were initially regular. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. which accompanied condemned prisoners.e. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. Confraternities. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. founded c. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. however. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Dorotea in Trastevere. notwithstanding their location. and refuges for maidens. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. contrapposto (It. while the Venetian government. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. in Florence. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. reformed prostitutes. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor.

The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). 1280). With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. Lat. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch.weight on one leg. conventiculurn. 1100 and 1300. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. conventicle (Lat. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. The style spread as far as England. a bracket of stone. large cornice or other feature. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. whose names are inscribed on several works. They are often ornamented. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. Reform programs. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. did not achieve any lasting results. an engraving produced in this way. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. cuprum. aes cyprium. corbel In architecture. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. . Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. declining moral standards. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses.

due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. Next. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Seleucids. D dado . Death. the most famous victim of crucifixion. cupula. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. particularly among the Persians. Jews. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Constantine the Great.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. An ancestor of the oboe. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. the condemned man. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. There were various methods of performing the execution. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. a small dome. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. cupola (Lat.e. "small vat") In architecture. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Carthaginians. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. a semi-circular vault. i. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. or "scourged. after being whipped. Usually. reedy sound. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. the first Christian emperor.

often an altarpiece. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. but the concept behind an art work. Germany. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Gk. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. which was help to be the basis of all art. "drawing. diptychos. The term stresses not the literal drawing. Anglican and Orthodox churches. danse macabre The dance of death. decorated diffrently from the upper section. usually in matching pairs. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. diakonos. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world.g. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. an expressive use of nature. diptych (Lat. diptychum. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. deacon (Gk. Deësis (Gk. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. e. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). Passau. disegno (It. and Linz possessed common characteristics. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. design") In Renaissance art theory. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing.

distemper (Lat. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. doublet A male garment. when painters took to working out of doors. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). usually forming a ceiling or roof. a 19th-century invention. such as we still use today. distemperare. also used it on canvas. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St.Thomas Aquinas. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). donor (Lat. As disegno appeals to the intellect. "to mix. dome in architecture. which runs on castors or wheels. Ordo Praedictatorum. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church.fully realize. formerly worn under armour. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. Dominicans (Lat. donator. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). The studio easel. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. though a few artists. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. is a heavy piece of furniture. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching.

The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. in art. eschatology (Gk. Hence. epitaph (Gk. en face In portraiture. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. and logos. full face. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. It consists of the architrave. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. the frieze. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. and the cornice. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. bound and flogged. "word") . fresco. ensemble (Fr. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. sometimes combining panel painting. a depiction of Jesus. eschaton. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. sculpture. Ecce Homo (Lat. "last". Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. and architecture. entablature In classical architecture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. John (19.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint.

Equated with the Greek god Pan. Jerome. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. which is called "delftware. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. protector of shepherds. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Marcantonio Flaminio. . Contarini. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. celebrated with bread and wine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Saints Ambrose. It developed in France in the early 16th century. and is named for Faenza. and of the last things. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Augustine. which is called "maiolica.death and resurrection. Germany. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. and Scandinavia." and charis. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Giovanni Morone. which was developed in the Near East ca. Italy. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. eu. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. particularly ware made in France. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. fields and livestock. Spain. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. farmers." and that made in the Netherlands and England. 4500 BCE. "good. notably Cardinal Pole. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Vittoria Colonna. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. which was famous for maiolica. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. Eucharist (Gk.

2 . relaxed. and these areas. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. a swag. Only a small area can be painted in a day. such as plague.festoni (It. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. can in time be seen. leaves. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. fluted of a column or pillar. drying to a slightly different tint. war. sword and set of balances. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. The colour of his horse is white. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. famine and death. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). fresco (It. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Their attributes are the bow. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. that of the others red. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. Committed to charitable and missionary work.8). frescos in Italy . a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. black and dun. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and flowers suspended in a loop. a technique known as a secco fresco.

The technique of buon fresco. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. genre In a broad sense. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. are genres of painting.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. the intonaco.Save in Venice. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. where the atmosphere was too damp. Final details. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. landscape and portraiture. usually childish figure. Genius in classical Rome. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. for example. In art from the classical period onwards. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. covings and ceilings. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or fresco secco. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. or true fresco. a person's invisible tutelary god. both in churches and in private and public palaces. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with .

as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. whether it must be connected with the public good. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Gobelins . in portraits and on tombs.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. and as spurring on men of action. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. As such. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. as well as writers and artists. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. Bernardo Daddi. Maria Gloriosa). Maso di Banco. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. how it differed from notoriety. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity.

In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole.French tapestry manufactory. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. In other Italian cities. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). Golden Fleece. and although it reopened in 1699. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. This ratio is approximately 8:13. . Paris. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. who appointed Lebrun Director. still in existence today. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. thereafter it made only tapestries. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. golden section (Lat. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order.

from the 13th until the 17th century. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. The artistic. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. There is a transcendental quality. or the influence of one building. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. In sculpture and in painting. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. the superficial particularities of form. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. like the cultural and commercial. painting.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. 1270. In particular. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. Gothic Gothic. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. Nevertheless. . In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Denis. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. and lies much deeper than. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. c. Amiens. that the effects are to be felt. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. 1200 and c. In thinking of Nicola (d. painting. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style.

and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. Such tours often took a year or more. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. and Morris Graves. to white or tinted paper and card and. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. Klee. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. without visible brush marks. to silk. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). . that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. chiefly to France. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. These qualities. sometimes in the company of a tutor. and Piranesi. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and above all Italy. notably in the writings of Bellori. are but different appellations of the same thing'. and the great style. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. the beau idéal of the French. and taste among the English. genius. Honey. Pannini. Dubuffet. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. occasionally. It is thinned with water for applying. the Netherlands. if required. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. Canaletto.and hog-hair brushes. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. with sable. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. starch.

generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. After the War of the Eight Saints. became an abiding feature of European politics. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. Some writers. exclude drawing from this definition. which had recruited most of the merchant class. after this. however.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. and Waiblingen. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. In another sense. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. 1216.e. In Florence. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. then as now. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. however. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. internal factions in Florence went under other names. From 1266 to 1268. . brother of Louis IX. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. gris. usually gray. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Although its palace was rebuilt c. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. c. In the context of the fine arts. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. to Provence and Paris. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. grisaille (Fr. the parties taking a multitude of local names. including text as well as illustrations. through central Italy. drawing and the various forms of engraving.

guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. The guild also monitored standards of work. surgeons. The guilds were not equal. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. "[knowledge of] heraldry. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. heraldry (Fr. goldsmiths." from Fr. for example. print or painting. as some did). and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. such as Brescia and Vicenza. héraut. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. In Italy they go back a long way. In some towns. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. In Florence. trade or profession (painters. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and greater hostility between master and man. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. In some cities. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. In 16th century Venice. [science] héraldique. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. but in time they acquired other functions. "herald") . there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. Guilds were also patrons of art. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. notably Florence in the 14th century. or professions. and provided assistance to members in need. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. H hatching In a drawing. trades.

they were condemned in 1184. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. and regarded themselves as forming. However. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. the Cathars were an anti-church. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. indeed. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). as Antichrist. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. together with brethren north of the Alps. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. with the rules governing their use. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. while others merged with the Waldensians. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. normative for churchmen. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. the Waldensian. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. By contrast. head of the 'carnal Church'. The main impact of the . they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. d. one great missionary community. from the start. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. i.

The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. humanus. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. history (usually classical history). humanism (Lat. my spouse'. Germany. At the same time. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. Frederick E. mainly in the south. American painters were studying in Rome. its subjects considered morally elevating. Church. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. and classical literature. Kensett. in his earlier work. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. S. F. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. F. working from 1825 to 1875. B. and. Jasper Cropsey. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. Morse. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden.movement upon the laity was in southern France. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Thomas Cole. hortus conclusus (Lat. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Durand. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. J. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Henry Inman. In humanism. George Inness. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. the emancipation of man from God took place. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

The terms court style. Donatallo. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. etc. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Veronica. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. Derived from classical rhetoric. soft style.g. there are representations of the bundle of rods. trecento rococo and lyrical style. For instance. the hammer. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. it denominates a kind of behaviour. invention. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. usually the donors of a work of art. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. are also used in art literature. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. beautiful style. the scourge that was used in the scourging. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. inventio (It. the veil of St. originality. with many further details added. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. and they are also depicted on their own. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. the rooster of Peter's denial. and the ladder. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. investiture . the pincers. In the second half of the 14th century. Human figures. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. or of other saints. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). the ability to create. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors.

but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. generally Dutch or Flemish. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Both and Berchem. bathed in a golden haze.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. although they are usually called Romanists. who traveled in Italy and. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. principally Dutch. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Italianizers Northern artists. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. The Both brothers. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Nicolaes Berchem. of Utrecht. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. and Jan Asselijn. Jerome's writings. Andries and Jan Both. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. . its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Upon his return to Holland. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St.

One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. especially one at which the Bible is read. Legenda Aurea (Lat. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. the rite of communion is based on this.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). Emperor Maximilian I (1459. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. John of Jerusalem . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. liberal arts . League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).1519). lectern A reading stand or desk. Archbishop of Genoa. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. As their military role grew. encouraged by the Crusades.

lunette (Fr. first the preparatory trivium . John F. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). astronomy and music. geometry.g. Kensett (1816-1872). the quadrivium.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. often standing in markets and town squares. rhetoric and dialectic. commemorating a marriage. a semicircular space. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. "little moon") In architecture. It is related to. together with identifying attributes (e. painting or sculptural decoration. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. often sublime. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes.g. . Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. that may contain a window. Church (1826-1900). its roof supported by columns. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. Heade (1819-1904). Tubal for music). and Frederick E. loggia (It. through the use of aerial perspective. Pythagoras for arithmetic. comprising arithmetic. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. that could be used for public ceremonies.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. poetic atmosphere. then the basis of a philosophical training.grammar. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Martin J. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. Maria Novella in Florence). whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. and sometimes refers to Impressionism.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides.

It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. originating in Italy in the 14th century. historical subjects. and however bright their lighting effects. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and iron red. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. madrigal A part song. mandorla (It. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). usually for the lute. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. and accompaniments. active mainly in Florence c. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. the goddess Cybele. being written. antimony yellow. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. originally sung without accompaniment. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. manganese purple. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. but they painted genre scenes. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. "great mother") A mother goddess. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. magna mater (Lat. and portraits as well as landscapes. copper green. for example. "almond") . particularly such ware produced in Italy. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. When white is used for painting. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. Specifically. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. 1855–65.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters.

style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. "manner. marked by flagellation. strong. more strictly. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Developing out of the Renaissance. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. El Greco and Tintoretto. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. which was quarried at Mount . and literary texts. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. In architecture. complex and crowded compositions. Burgundy. maniera. ecclesiastical. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. often ornamented with decorative borders.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Mannerism (It. mantle An overcoat. in a specific sense. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. It reached to the knee or foot. worn open. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. the hand-written medieval book. the Codex manuscriptus. Parmigianino. and crowned with thorns. depending on the social class of the wearer. bound. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. illuminated initials and miniatures. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. In Mannerist painting. Bronzino. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Flanders. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission.

particularly by Michelangelo. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. medallion In architecture. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. which were beginning to be reverently collected. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. quarried at Massa. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. a different design on the reverse. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. an inscription running round the rim. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. martyrdom (Gk. "witness. Carrara. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. martyrion.Pentelicon in Attica. The pure white Carrara marble. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Without monetary value. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. proof") the sufferings. Like the finest Imperial coins. having finished his training. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). the medal's purpose was commemorative. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. sleek surface. marmi finti (It. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble.

. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. In pure mezzotint. in England. 1467-688). 14601528). often anonymous. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. for landscapes and portraits. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. a Gorgon. supposedly to petrify her enemies. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. the stress on individual character. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. Ludwig von Siegen. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. of the person portrayed on the other side. c. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. This yields a soft effect in the print. as it were. A Dutch officer. c. 1640. perhaps oddly. It was. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. The process is essentially extinct today. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. who reflected them. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Her head features on Minerva's shield. even grain. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. The work of these men. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1425-1504). A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. particularly. When Perseus cuts off her head. and of the many. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Medusa In Greek mythology.round the neck. no line drawing is employed. 1452-1526/27).

usually portraits. a painting executed in a single color. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. motto (Ital. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. miter A high. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Parmigianino (d. "word. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. saying") . The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. monochrome (Gk. often quite highly finished. monokhromatos. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. a branch of the Franciscan order. still exist..g. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. by Tiepolo and Rubens. executed on a very small scale. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Francis himself. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. painting in gouache on vellum or card. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. e. pointed headdress worn by bishops. ink and paint. Many such small versions. "one color") Painted in a single color.

and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). "ship") the main interior space of a church building. 1816-17. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. nave (from Lat. navis. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Rome. 1817-29). the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. and Casino Massimo. but often insipid. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and two other members moved to Rome. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol.from the Middle Ages. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. and is intersected by the transept. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. named after the patron saint of painting. In general. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. The invention of personal mottos. . Nazarenes A group of young. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. Pforr. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. In 1810 0verbeck. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. Berlin. often separated from it by pillars. naturalism (Fr. Isidore.

It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. "aureole") The disc or halo. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. but their ideas continued to be influential. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. usually golden. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. Popes. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. is as true as it is notorious. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. moreover.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s.) . This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. were usually old when elected. nimbus (Lat. Nymphaeum (Gk. niello (Lat. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). the style of the Ancien Régime. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nigellus. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty.

the Doric order. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. such as linseed. "services. fluted column and a plain capital. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. a small private chapel. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. The earliest. walnut. . it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. or poppy. and its greater tonal range. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. the three basic styles of design. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. with a sturdy. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. a more elaborate base. They are seen in the form of the columns. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). obsequia. Greek goddesses of Nature. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. orders of architecture In classical architecture.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. and entablatures. capital. O obsequies (Lat. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. observances") Rites performed for the dead. was the simplest. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). inborn sin. its richness of colour.

Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. standing at the foot of the Cross. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. tradition and social structure. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. palazzo (It. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. and. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. P pala (Ital. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. with biforate windows. like cities. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. designed as a . Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.g. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. the Cancelleria). The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. Palazzo Strozzi). of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. while shops came to be thought undignified. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and the main apartments above. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.

and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. cornices and abutments. behind a sober Florentine façade.g. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. often built next to their titular churches. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). Rich.scholarly retreat. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Palazzo Massimi). defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. especially after the Sack of Rome. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Other cities. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. palmette. and Palladio's in Vicenza. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. In Venice. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. came to be applied all over Europe. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Papal incentives to build. column-caps. and large households. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. like Genoa. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus.g. like the colonnaded vestibule. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. Movement of patrons and architects. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. panel . evolved influential types. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. e. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). Following Oriental patterns.

could lead to conflict with secular authorities. linden. cedar. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. On a larger scale. to influence popes in their favour. mahogany. fir. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. Many other types were used. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. In the 20th century cedar. metal. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. so that they might have a voice at court. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and modern painters have also used plywood. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. and spanned by a single dome. As successors to St Peter. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. fibre-board. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. secular rulers. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. however. Having a circular plan. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). and walnut. and other synthetic materials as supports. the management of clerical dues and taxation. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. A number of matters. as distinct from canvas. or the incidence of taxation. teak. larch. or other rigid substance. The third aspect was administrative. including beech.Term in painting for a support of wood. and dark walnut are favourites. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. Then. olive. the. and the pressure and temptations . the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. To maintain their authority. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. as it were. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. chestnut. enforce law and order.

was long in doubt. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. So onerous. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). the most appropriate . criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. however. It was argued that such a council. however. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. considered perfectly suitable for the role played .base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. in the eyes of God. would. as such. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). of individuals. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. By then.as well. As at Avignon. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. which seems so inevitable. Colonna and Caetani. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. could supersede that of a pope. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). if it did no serious damage to the faith. possess an authority which. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. however. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40).that could be applied to them. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. There remained. at Avignon. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. in spite of further absences from Rome. which met at Constance 1414-18. to be long delayed. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. from the point of view of its religious associations. To resolve the problem of divided authority. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith.

nymphs. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. and other animals. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. and with Zeuxis (c. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. to a world peopled by shepherds. less frequently pig. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. Parrhasius (c. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. it has also been used for painting. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. goat. pastor. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. and satyrs.. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Passion . pastoral (Lat. as well as a governmental one. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. 400-300 BC). However. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. the creation of a cultural capital. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. in classical literature. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). through lavish patronage of artists. scholars and men of letters. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier.

ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. papilio. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. Francesco Salviati. pastiche (fr. pavilion (Lat.) or pasticcio (It. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. ornamental building. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. Meanwhile. 1478. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. such as a garden summerhouse. which focus on the Suffering Christ. "butterfly. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. a small. a region in north-central Italy. and also the archbishop of Pisa. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Portrayals of the Passion. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. . hence tent") A lightly constructed. patrician (Lat. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial.The events leading up to Good Friday. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. and so on. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. a prominent section of a monumental façade. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. but not necessarily a direct copy. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. the crown of thorns. wealthy citizen. patricius. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. projecting either centrally or at both ends. 1478). A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.

and facere. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. or related elements within an art work. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. "to see through. in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "nature". perspective (Lat. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. in particular the face. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. persona. . Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. "hanging. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. perspicere. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). concept or deity. physis. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. "person". pergola (It. physiognomy (Gk. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. pendant (Fr. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). and gnomon. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. personification (Lat. that settled the religious conflict in the German states.

Pietà (Lat. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. Rome. pigmentum. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. curious details. Peter's. usually above the ground floor. or resin to make paint. pigment (Lat. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. A pier is generally larger than a column. remarkable for singularity. exemplified. . affording a good subject for a landscape. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. for example. both real and painted. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. proper to take a landscape from. striking the imagination with the force of painting.) The main floor of a building.piano nobile (Ital. glue. containing the public rooms. but full of variety. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. to be expressed in painting. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. but may consist of a cluster of columns.

Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. In the 15th century. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Rocco and Sebastian. also used in Spain's American colonies. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. more sporadic outbreaks. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. since. For this reason. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. it has a base. such as Florence and Genoa. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. however. "pillar") A flat. in October 1347. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. It seems probable. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. Thenceforward. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s.pilaster (Lat. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. the burning of 'infected' clothing. and capital. plague Plague. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. despite regional variations. During 1348 the Black Death. a shaft. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). though in less widespread. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. moreover. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. outside Tuscany. perhaps. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. pilastrum. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. it is difficult to find. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. for instance. and thereafter all Europe. It is often fluted.

Diego evolved a purer. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland.e. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). like its successor. harmonious. A student of Socrates. Phaedrus. are the masterworks of the second style. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . The second phase. utilized Mudejar ornament -. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. In contrast with Aristotle. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. more severe. and unified style using massive geometric forms. placement. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. Phaedo. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. which lasted only a few decades. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The first phase. heraldic escutcheons. correct classical orders became frequent. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. i. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. composition. Philebus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The first phase. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. the Symposium. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. Theatetus and the Laws. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. or simply the Plateresque. Timaeus. and sinuous scrolls.. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. or appropriateness. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation.

but not completely.1577) becoming particularly popular. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. partially. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. including those of Plotinus. Plotinus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. replaced Ficino's. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1472-c. systematized and added to what Plato had done. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and the Chaldaic Oracles. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. all of which he also translated into Latin. and he utilized many other writings. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. A new Latin translation. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c.in Plato's thought. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. Rather unsystematic. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Iamblichus. near Florence. and Agostino Steuco (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . Unlike the case of Aristotle. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French.

Plato was read in the universities. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. such as processions and consecrations. column. where a pectoral is used to close it. as in classical architecture). portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Lat. pluvial (Med. or statue. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. porticus. polyptych (Gk. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. plinth (Gk. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. portico (Lat. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. poluptukhos. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. plinthos. pluviale. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Frequently supports a pediment. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pointed arch In architecture. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance.

Mantua. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Florence (1486-90). The equestrian portrait. National Gallery). Gattarnelata. and the .e. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. decorating whole rooms. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. The 16th century portrait became generalized.. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. 1328. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Cathedral) by Uccello. the Carracci. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. Florence. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Campidoglio). Group portraits. flattened image. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. Colleoni. Siena. Palazzo Farnese). inessential. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474.sculptors such as Donatello. The realism of the clear. Maria Novella. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. and only a decorative accessory to form. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Venice). Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Desiderio da Settignano. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. was revived in the 14th century. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. psychologically more complex. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers.

was versed in classical and patristic . Fiamma's sermons. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. abrasive even. from the secular clergy. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. not least those of statesmen and prelates. however. The sermons of Visdomini. who had as their ideal masters Titian. Savonarola and Musso. are not florid in style. As Poussin was a Frenchman. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. Correggio. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). 1494). to discharge their preaching duties. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. bishop of Chioggia. bishops especially. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Borromeo. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. and Peter Paul Rubens. minatory exhortations. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. of the sermon as an art form. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. star preachers journeyed all over Italy." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. several of whom became bishops. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. together with the Dominican Savonarola. The styles of S. primarily the mendicants. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). bishop of Asti. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. and. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Charles Le Brun. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque.

"altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.rhetoric. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. Louis of Toulouse (1317.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. though often relatively very wide .g. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. predella (It. Because of the small size of predelle . Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and so forth. presbyterion "Council of Elders") .had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Millais and Rossetti. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. among them Holman Hunt. Naples). have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Such a polyptych consists of a principal.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. tapestries. the temptations of Adam and Christ. The New Testament references in these would. however. prefiguration Typology . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.

The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. Girardon. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. 2. again indicative of the purpose they served. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Prix de Rome A scholarship. 3. Fragonard. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. intended as complete works of art in themselves. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). proportio. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. The following are important: 1. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. "evenness") in painting. proportion (Lat. sculpture and architecture. and Houdon among sculptors. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. profil perdu (Fr. these highly finished drawings. the golden section. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. notably David. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. the Canon of Proportion. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. the quadrature. which uses the square . the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. projecting shelf on which to kneel. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible.

a fifth = 2:3. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. putti sing. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo.as a unit of measurement. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. 4. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. harmonic proportions. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. for example). . an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. Ignazio. one half the length of the other). The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. a fourth = 3:4. triangulation. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. provenance The origins of an art work. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. putto (It. It was common in Roman art. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Rome. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. "boys") Plump naked little boys. Unlike Pozzo. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. the steward or treasurer of a church. and 5.

There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. Botticelli. canons regular. relevare. relicquiae. or some item connected with a saint. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Lat. the great orders of monks. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. relic (Lat. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Among the . refectory (Med. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. also known as the Realist school. the object of particular veneration. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. Donatello. e. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. friars and nuns. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. in which figures are almost detached from their background. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. "remains") a part of the body of a saint.g. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. hermits. with the Anglican Church developing in England. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. Fra Angelico and others. in which figures are seen half round. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface.Quattrocento (It. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). in particular works by Masaccio. relief (Lat. or the Jesuits. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. basso rilievo). In 16th century Europe. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Brunelleschi. and high relief (alto rilievo). Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century.

the most notable being S. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Lucca. Lorenzo Giustiniani. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. The same bull . the Conventuals. the great patriarch of Venice. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. although technically of secular canons. The Benedictines. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. Mantua. 1012. After the repression of the Spirituals. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. S. various groups were fused in the latter body. The Silvestrines. Bologna (1419). with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. Benedetto. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. In 1517. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals.contemplative orders. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. and their more institutionalized brethren. Padua. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. In 1504. Maria di Fregonaia. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. The Conventuals. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. which was to become the main Italian one. it became the Cassinese congregation. Giorgio in Alga. was the congregation of S. Giustina. Founded by St Romuald c. At the same time. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Bernardino of Siena. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. presided over by chapters general. Venice (1404). however. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. and the generally moderate Observants. i. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. That of S. Salvatore. their resources being in the hands of trustees. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations.e. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. who had no overall organization originally.

however. also. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. founded by S. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. Venice. Filippo Neri. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. S. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. a historical period.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The first. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Gaetano da Thiene. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Angela Merici. however. the Theatines. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. founded in 1535 by S. Gerolamo Aemiliani. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. Michele in Isola.

this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. All-Roundness. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. even Amoralism. and competition with. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. For long. . of 'darkness'. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. too long forgotten glories. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. which had begun early in the 14th century. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of an energetic revival of interest in. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Thereafter. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. was so vast and potent. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. as well as political. 1875-86). 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. of scholarship. increasingly. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. however. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). and his own as potentially one of light.century. the historical reality of antiquity. however. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. because its core of energy. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of arts. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. life. of letters. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man.

both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. The challenges are to be accepted. and is decorated with paintings. however. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. gratefully. though sometimes of metal. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance.erased.with all its shabbiness . etc. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Cathedral of SaintBavon. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. letters.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. congruence between. the previous record . The panel is usually made of wood or stone.) was the term chosen. Ghent). spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. retables can be detached and. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. especially in the High Gothic period. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. It is for this additional. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. and other liturgical objects. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Though thus challenged. candlesticks. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. (3) There is not a true. There was an early. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. in the more limited sense. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. let alone a uniform. etc. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. consist merely of a painting. of industrialization.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. statues. sometimes. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. mobilized nationalism. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. later still to Genoa. and mass media.

rilievo (It. and architecture dominating the 18th century. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. the first style to achieve such international currency. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century.in the 11th century. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. the St. literally. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). richly decorated with organic forms. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. retables have become extinct. like 'Gothic'. painting. More usually. Rococo A style of design. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Italy. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. however. Romanesque art. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806).of St Mark in Venice. and 'Romanesque'. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. rocaille (French. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. "relief") In painting. its mood lighthearted and witry. in several countries . Germany. Originally commissioned in 976. As the name suggests. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. With the development of freestanding altars. the impression that an object is three-dimensional.France. . that it stands out from its background fully rounded. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. is a typical product. Louis XV furniture. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Spain . almost simultaneously.

school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. . Q. Claude. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Pannini and Mengs. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. making it the centre of the High Renaissance.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. van Orley. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. Rome. M. they maintained. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. stylized design representing an open rose. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. the development of nationalistic pride. Massys and M. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Piranesi. In addition. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. B. van Heemskerk. such as red ochre. Mabuse. The aim of painting.

it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Clement escaped into Castel S. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. local saints. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. Subjects were nominally sacred. There were no limits on time. Eastern independent. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. and impoverished. and Protestant churches. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. Written primarily in ottava rima. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. multiple sets used in succession. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. Many compositions were anonymous. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista.greatly increased. Orthodox. and anointing of the sick. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints.expressed through gesture. gutted. confirmation. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. penance. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Sacra Conversazione (It. when it finally left the city it had devastated. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. but others were the work of well-known figures. In the . pious legend and hagiography. matrimony. holy orders. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. and Lorenzo de' Medici. from the Old and New Testaments. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). the Eucharist. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). glance and movement . The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. supported by lay confraternities. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527).

The classical Protestant churches (i. strictly speaking." sala (Ital. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. and sacraments. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Hence. in principle. as in the Church of the Brethren. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. was buried under a new fortress.i. Lutheran.e. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. the symbolic direction of Christ. Saracens . though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. They were still seeking aid. that the price of salt should be increased. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. notably from Florence and in Germany. The theology of the Orthodox Church.) Hall. and then face east.e. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. large room. sacraments. It is still practiced on special occasions. replaces the Lord's Supper. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments .early church the number of sacraments varied. the Rocca Paolina. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Thus. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Candidates first face west. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. the Bentivoglio. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. the sun of righteousness. chapter 13." which are called sacramentals. Salt War. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. The chief focus of discontent. Immediately following baptism. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. was not maintained as a sacrament. the Orthodox Church does not. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. which in the Gospel According to John. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Anglican. foot washing. as an excuse to revolt. make such strict distinctions.. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. baptism and the Eucharist.. used for drawing.

Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. human-like woodland deities with the ears. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and .c. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 45 BC). whose writings. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. pl. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. and many others. 160 . Little known in the Middle Ages. the Arabs or Muslims. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. The publication of Latin (1562. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). legs and horns of a goat. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. wood or terracotta. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. 270 BC). 360 .During the Middle Ages. satyr In Greek mythology. made of stone. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 210 AD). sarcophagus. the god of wine. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). are lost. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. sarcophagi (Gk. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb.c.

and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404).for example Pieter van Laer. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. As a result. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). the Florentines. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. 1386) and his son Ladislas. scholasticism . in June 1409. who had the support of the Avignon pope. with France and her allies Aragon. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. Schism. In northern Italy. However. for. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. than their medieval predecessors. and.they had individual Bentnames . Alexander V. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. but with little effect. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. on one side. while England. on the other. while devout Christians agonized. most of whom. being Frenchmen. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. one of the early leaders. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. who recognized the Roman pope. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. was called Bamboccio. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Charles III of Durazzo (d. from time to time both he and his opponents. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. Louis I (d.

celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. textual scholarship. Often called the burning ones.) . In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. the plaster had to be damped before painting. Serenissima (Ital. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. as it were. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. As such.moral philosophy. and theology. that scholasticism was left. notably Aquinas. if lime-water was used. university-based study. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. on one side. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding.The term is ambivalent.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. moreover. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. history and rhetoric . rather than wet plaster as in fresco. and Islamic literature. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. (See also: fresco. Padua. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Christian. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. None the less. Medieval scholars. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest.were different from those of medieval. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. as it is easier to add details in this way. It was because the central concerns of humanism . with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. because the secco technique is much less permanent.

sfumato A technique. Servite (Lat. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. in the period of classical antiquity. sibylla. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. there was only one Sibyl. Med. Lat. brass. In Christian legend. "the most serene republic of Venice"). an expression of Venetian self-confidence. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibyls (Gk. at the same time. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. "prophetess") In antiquity. Signoria (It. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. in use since the Middle Ages. the number gradually rose to ten. women who could prophesy. They first appear in alpine monasteries. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. and the delicate. usually presided over by individual families. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. Originally. Passion and Resurrection of Christ.. Sibyls foretold the Birth. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. sinopia . the governing body of some of the Italian city states. which were all identical in thickness. term.

Francis of Assisi. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.'Beautiful Madonnas'. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. sotto in sù (It. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. especially in the flow of drapery. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. stigmata. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. and. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). as the name implies. stigma (Gk. It is very closely related to International Gothic. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. staffage This word. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. . sing.) Wooden ceiling decoration. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. "mark. in other words. soffit (Lat. brand. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . Ital. pronounced as French. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. Stanze (Ital..

Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. studioli (It. with that for the Picturesque. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. Indeed. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. supremacy . The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). whose verses actually fabrications . John Milton. pl. In a looser sense. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. both external and internal. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. stucco A type of light. The vogue for the Sublime. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. studiolo.

and in literature. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. chiefly from Flanders. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. was being decorated with frescoes. The subject is underexplored. doubtless. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries.and. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. tempera (Lat. These were imported. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). then being replaced by oil paint. London. his own headquarters. i. 1407). the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545.e. . or cartoons. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. both for panel painting and fresco. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. Salviati and Allori. But the Italians did not make them. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. Tempera colors are bright and translucent.Historically. into Italy. temperare.

and other surfaces. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). It is used for architectural features and ornaments. quarter face. and later to subdivide gable ends. topia. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. figure of speech. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. tondo. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. and profile. pl. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. "fields. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. Trajan's Column . theme or motif. topos. "a commonplace") In literature. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. i. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. terraferma (Ital. in the architecture of ancient Rome. tondi (It.terracotta (It. topoi (Gk. model. pl.e. topiary (Gk. triumphal arch. and sculptures. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. vessels. walls. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. in art. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. widely used form.

in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. beside it the army of martyrs. "threefold") in Christianity. of both sexes'. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. "threefold") A painting in three sections. after 'a countless number of virgins. as it were. tryptychos. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. patriarchs and prophets. Meanwhile. usually an altarpiece. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. Battista Sforza. fame. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. of virtues and of the arts. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. time and eternity. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. a car so brave'.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. or wings.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. the Son and the Holy Spirit. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. behind it. chastity. trinitas. the military triumph became sublimated. Trinity (Lat. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. added to the glamour of the triumph. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court).and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. death. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' .' Before it go the apostles. . the wars by which they were won . triptych (Gk. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Disseminated soon after his death. into a number of less controversial forms. Early triptychs were often portable.

though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. enclosed by an arch. first recorded in 1232. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. "drum") In classical architecture. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. tromp l'oeil (Fr. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. it is usually decorated with carvings. often decorated with sculptures. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. In medieval architecture. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. tusche A thick. viscous black ink. Dating from classical times. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tympanum (Lat. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. through various naturalistic devices. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. typology . Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. It incorporates Renaissance features.

Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). and David. 1590-1624). and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).) The Renaissance "universal man". Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. In Christian thought. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. 1610). lanterns. U uomo universale (It.A system of classification. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. slayer of Goliath. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. each had access to his paintings. The numerous candles. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New.Dirck van Baburen (c. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). such as five works devoted to the senses. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. especially his half-length figural groups. Judith. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. e. killer of Holofernes. where they were most accessible. . but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. were popular with them also. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. knew his former patrons.g.

snuff boxes and other objects. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. carriages.). including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. it was used to decorate furniture. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. overturned vessels. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. often gold. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. Vespers (Lat. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. There are a wide range of forms. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. and the rib vault. the groin vault. mixed in. vanitas (Lat. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. "evening") . formed when two barrel vaults intersect. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. a work's richness of subject matter. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. and even flowers (which will soon fade). vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. guttering candles. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. vesper. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. hour-glasses and clocks. Also varietas (Lat. V vanishing point In perspective. Parisian craftsmen. varietà (It.

and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Prudence. "not exposed to winds". vita. actual or latent. for example. the church service at which these prayers are said. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Hope. Vestibule (Lat. The seven Virtues were: Faith. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. and Sloth. in which the word signifies efficacy. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. pl. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. and Justice. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Temperance. Covetousness. Lust. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Envy. "life") . virtù could be used.Prayers said in the evening. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. Gluttony. Charity. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. Fortitude. Anger. if you have it not'. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. vimperga Of German origin. In ancient Roman dwellings. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. vestibulum. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. 'Assume a virtue. vite (Lat.

No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. or recovery from illness has been made. a biography. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. The wars from 1494 do. published in 1550 and 1568.g. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. usually when a prayer for good fortune. and appalled recognition of. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. Marcus (1st cent.An account of someone's life and work. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. and of Ferrara. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. in fact. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. those of Volterera. 1482-84). 1472. protection from harm. Sculptors and Architects"). they were from the 18th century . Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. 1478-80. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. Vitruvius Pollio.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Westwerk German word. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. based on stylization of various animal forms. a philosophy of life. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. usually linear. usually restorers. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. "Western work of art". The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. pompous on the floor above. . treasury or a place where justice was administered. during its subsequent history.Weltanschauung (Gr. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. "world view") A comprehensive world view. gallery. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. woodcut A print made from a wood block. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. It was intended to have a variety of functions.