This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
piers or pillars. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.e. "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. or organization. In Greek and Roman literature. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. "architectural") Relating to structure. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). arcus. arkhitektonikos. design. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. The term applies also to a print made by this method. architrave (It.A semicircular projection. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. roofed with a half-dome. the lowest part of the entablature). at the east end of a church behind the altar. but in essence the process is as follows. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. There are several variants of the technique. an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. arcade (Lat. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Lancet and Tudor. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). which is fused to the plate by heating. The adjective is apsidal. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. Degas. the moulding around a window or door. and Rouault. . the darker the tone). architectonic (Gk. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. Picasso. including Goya. Also known as an exedra. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.
It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. "golden.and the Comedy .archivolt (Ital." and Lat. Ars Moriendi (Lat. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. archivolto. attributum.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. voltus. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography ." from Gk. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: . attribute (Lat. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. dominate. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. aureole (Lat. usually a saint. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. In the case of martyrs. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. "front arch. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. archeiu. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. Dante's Vita nuova . aureolus. "begin. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine.
made in Rome in the mid-17th century. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. The actual move was made in 1309. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. in 1377. or baldacchino (It. Six pontificates later. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. baldachin. that of Cardano. applied to the physically . paintings of everyday life. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. the god of wine and fertility. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. often anecdotal. who had been residing in France since 1305.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). Later. 'Captivity'. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V.
their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. Lebanon. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. seven. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. built by Sixtus III. AD 300). and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. banderole (It. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. beggars in rags. and abject filthy things. As eight follows the "complete" number. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Croatia]. el Kantara. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642).. or connected with. Easter. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Baalbek. AD 273. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. a church. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Customarily. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. . or canopy. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Spalato [Split. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. France. pope between 432 and 440. Pentecost. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. Parma. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. set beneath a domical ciborium. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. Alg. and Nocera in Italy.g." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. or forecourt.. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. Florence. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. the Temple of Venus. and Poitiers. banderuola. and Epiphany. such as those at Pisa. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan.
a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. 1810-1865). southeast of Paris. in the 1840s and 1850s. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. Jean-François Millet (French. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. usually facing east. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). however. basilica (Gk. something of earlier symbolism survives. 1817-1878). Vermeer). Rubens). The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). 1796-1875). and Charles-François Daubigny (French. stoa basilike. . Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Constant Troyon (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. Jules Dupré (French. Baroque (Port. barocco. Also tunnel vault. in its usual location near the church door . barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. the dramatic use of light and shadow. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. and thus a church. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. 1807-1876). and (3) everyday realism. 1814-1875). 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Originally. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. which is reserved for the clergy. In architecture. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. "king's hall") a church building. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. baptisteries. were often omitted entirely. and increasingly elaborate decoration.an allusion to entering the Christian life. Théodore Rousseau (French. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. 1811-1889).In the 10th century. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. or baptismal chapels. achieved through scale. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism.
were referred to by their specific contents. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. however. which is either not yet glazed. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Book of Hours .Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. The term was mainly used up to c. Spanish still-lifes. Bodegónes. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). as is to be expected. also incorrectly called bisque. It takes its name from its grainy texture. and often sentimentality. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. bodegón Image. Biscuit porcelain. particularly porcelain. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. like their Dutch counterparts. especially Spanish. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. in which still-life predominates. domesticity. such as Waldmüller. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. There were. such as those by Diego Velázquez. or which is to be left as it is. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. up until the mid-17th century. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. By association. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). 1650 in Spain. often with food and drink.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes.
Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. coppery red. or seasons. but can also be used for painted sketches. By extension. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. made as a study for a larger picture. bozzetto Strictly speaking. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin.by a variety of processes. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. days of the week. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks.A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and the fact that it is easily workable . containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. bozzetto(Italian. Chantilly). . from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. See flying buttress. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present.both hot and cold . bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. varying from silverish to a rich. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . months. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. though these are more often called 'modelli'. a rapid sketch in oil.an advantage over marble sculpture. durability. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height.
camera obscura . cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. cameo Small relief made from gems. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. glass. manuscript illuminations. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. mosaics. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. It also served to glorify the emperor. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. Duccio. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. notable from Syria and Egypt. Among its most distinctive products were icons. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. its forms highly stylized. "a chest. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. and Giotto. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. C cabinet A small. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. ceramics. box") In architecture. casson. and work in precious metals. private room where works of art. which was often allegorical. caisson (Fr.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium).
which was usually whitened. candlestick. pl. as an aid to drawing. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. cantoria. other materials used are cotton. candelabra. Niepce created photography. candelabrum (It. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. sing. only very rough effects will be obtainable. capitellum. which isolates the fabric from the paint. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. usually built beside or attached to a church. and jute. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. usually decorated.Ancestor of the photographic camera. by the 16th century. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. followed by smaller and even pocket models. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. Portable versions were built. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. hemp. both of which have richly carved marble panels. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. Structurally. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy)." and the earliest versions.) A gallery for singers or musicians. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. cantorie (It. campanile Bell tower. "candle") A large. . The best-quality canvas is made of linen. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. candela. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. usually with several branches or arms. dating to antiquity.-N. The Latin name means "dark chamber. usually in a church. capital (Lat. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole.
who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. the date of the painting. near Grenoble. Carthusian Order (Lat. the endeavour to attain true humanity. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. and humanism. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. or a motto. or fresco. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartoon (It. cartellini In a painting. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel". cardinalis. cartellino. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. tapestry. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity).both Italians and artists from other countries .Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . cartouche . were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. New Charterhouses. details of the subject. The order combines reclusive and community life. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. At the height of the Middle Ages. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. cartone. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). Carmelites (Lat.a humorous drawing or parody. In fresco painting. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. pl. monasteries containing separate hermitages. Fortitudo (Fortitude).
They contained the bride's clothes. linen. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno.) "castle". and many other items of her dowry. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). putti (cupids). cathedral (cathedra. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. Cascina. a cathedral always faces west . Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. palace.toward the setting sun. cassone (It. and swags of fruit and flowers. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. castello (It. Paolo Uccello. or nave. The main body. where the throne of the bishop is placed. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. The altar is placed at the east end. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. or arms of the cross. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. caryatid (Gk. they were also used in other countries. For reasons lost to time and tradition. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. decorated with gilt gesso.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. These lead up to the north and south transepts. In the 15th century. . the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest.
a throne bearer of the deity. central perspective (Lat. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. and perspicere. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. landscapes. Christian. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. and Islamic literature. buildings and figures that are being depicted. continually praise him. rather than intercessory functions. Relative to the observer. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. animal. . The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Both the statement of St. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. centralis. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. in accordance with their distance from the observer. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. a celestial winged being with human. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. as celestial attendants of God. or birdlike characteristics. "in the centre". moral laxity in the clergy and so on). in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. champlevé (Fr. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses.
"choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars). The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III.chiaroscuro (It. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. or for choral singing." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. "light dark") In painting. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. choros. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. Hans Burgkmair (1510). North of the Alps. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. replacing tempera. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Since Carolingian times. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. reserved for the clergy to pray together. the Order of the Hospital of St. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. choir (Gk. Lastly.
intersect). Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. is as typically Churrigueresque. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. which was shaped like an inverted cone. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. and repetition of pattern. The Mexico cathedral (1718). Very few still exist in their original positions. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. an architect. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. balustrades. ciborium . further enriching the style. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. undulating cornices. a massing of carved angels. reversed volutes. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. and garlands. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. stucco shells. undulating lines. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. Sculpted clouds. gilded rays. and the Churrigueresque column. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. became the most common motif. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. The Transparente (completed 1732).
Members of the lower classes. Then. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture.and post-medieval Italy. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. controlled by the minor guilds. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. etc. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. who were raised to the status of a guild. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. ciompi. High Renaissance). beaters. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. but self-employed. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. The new government. as also were those in the associated. Without being members of a guild. combers. In reaction to this revolutionary . continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. placing one of their members. Their economic condition worsened. including the ciompi. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. craft of dyeing. the wool carder Michele di Lando. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. on July 22. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. Quattrocento (1400s. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. or achieve political representation. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. They were forbidden to form a trade association.
however.) An ancient musical instrument. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). Concepts of the classical. the ciompi guild was abolished. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. philosophy. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. cithara (Gk. editing and translating a wide range of texts. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. except in cases where . writers. . clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle).together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. changed greatly from one period to the next. philosophy and art . cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. resembling a lyre. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. on which strings were plucked.episode. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.as in Italy these were dispensed with. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. and politics. scholars patiently finding. literature. the black contours usually with a special line plate. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. In the 15th century Greek literature. with Italian scholars. clair-obscur (Fr. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque.
coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. occasionally made of wood. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. . pl. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. or "contract. concetto. Green and red. those with refined tastes. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. cognoscenti. as well as from the Bible. literature or music. blue and orange. concetti (It." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. arch or ceiling. cognoscente (It. intensify one another. condottiere. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. The name was derived from the condotta. compline (Lat. terrorized the country. the church service at which these prayers are said. condottieri (It. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. [hora] completa. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). pl. sing. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. a work's underlying theme. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. when set side by side. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. Coffered ceilings.
was one of the most successful of all the condottieri.devastating Romagna. disappeared. and German--the condottieri. . It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. and his rival Braccio da Montone. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. Spanish. often called compagnie or. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. By the 16th century. in the service of Naples. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Carmagnola. which spread in the 15th century. scuole. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Muzio's son. primarily for syphilitics. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. i. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. Martino). in the service of Perugia. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Mark (1432). or with the spiritual assistance of. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno.e. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. Umbria. Francesco Sforza. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. convents of convertite. and Tuscany. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity.e. confraternities Confraternities. who won control of Milan in 1450. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. With no goal beyond personal gain. Toward the end of the 15th century. clergy. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. i. in Venice. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. often under the direction of. By the end of the 14th century. flagellant confraternities. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy.
Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate.e. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. e. contour (Fr. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds.g. reformed prostitutes. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. In medieval painting. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. which accompanied condemned prisoners. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. Confraternities. contours were initially regular. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. in Florence. e. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role.g. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. founded c. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. 1514 in S.i. flat outlines. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. however. While the Doge ranked above the Council. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. contour. and refuges for maidens. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. contrapposto (It. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. the Florentine Neri. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. but sometimes had their own premises. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). while the Venetian government. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. Dorotea in Trastevere. notwithstanding their location. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Later.
Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. an engraving produced in this way. conventiculurn. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. They are often ornamented. The style spread as far as England. whose names are inscribed on several works. Reform programs. cuprum. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. large cornice or other feature. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. 1100 and 1300. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. a bracket of stone. . Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. started the process of inner reform in the Church. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. conventicle (Lat.weight on one leg. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. declining moral standards. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. corbel In architecture. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. did not achieve any lasting results. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Lat. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. 1280). aes cyprium. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses.
The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. Constantine the Great. An ancestor of the oboe. i. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Carthaginians. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. the most famous victim of crucifixion. Death. cupola (Lat. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. Jews. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. a small dome. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. D dado . he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. cupula. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. particularly among the Persians. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. There were various methods of performing the execution. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. after being whipped. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. Usually. the condemned man. reedy sound. "small vat") In architecture.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint.e. Next. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. the first Christian emperor. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Seleucids. a semi-circular vault. or "scourged.
The term stresses not the literal drawing. diptychos. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. e. Germany. which was help to be the basis of all art. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. often an altarpiece. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never . disegno (It. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. deacon (Gk. Anglican and Orthodox churches. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. and Linz possessed common characteristics. Gk. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. an expressive use of nature. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diptych (Lat. danse macabre The dance of death. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). design") In Renaissance art theory.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase.g. Passau. diakonos. usually in matching pairs. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. "drawing. but the concept behind an art work. Deësis (Gk. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. decorated diffrently from the upper section. diptychum.
a 19th-century invention. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. when painters took to working out of doors. such as we still use today. "to mix. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. distemperare. donor (Lat. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. which runs on castors or wheels. doublet A male garment. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket.fully realize. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). distemper (Lat. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). Dominicans (Lat. is a heavy piece of furniture. As disegno appeals to the intellect. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. also used it on canvas. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. dome in architecture. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. The studio easel. though a few artists. donator. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries.Thomas Aquinas. Ordo Praedictatorum. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. formerly worn under armour. usually forming a ceiling or roof.
fresco. epitaph (Gk. John (19. eschaton. sculpture. "last". and the cornice.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. bound and flogged. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. entablature In classical architecture. full face. "word") . ensemble (Fr. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. It consists of the architrave. Hence. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. eschatology (Gk. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. the frieze. and architecture. in art. Ecce Homo (Lat. a depiction of Jesus. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. sometimes combining panel painting. and logos. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. en face In portraiture.
particularly ware made in France. "good. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. protector of shepherds. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. which was famous for maiolica. which is called "maiolica. and Scandinavia. Italy. Contarini." and charis. which was developed in the Near East ca. Germany. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Eucharist (Gk. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Vittoria Colonna.death and resurrection. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Giovanni Morone. notably Cardinal Pole. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. It developed in France in the early 16th century. Augustine. Marcantonio Flaminio. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. fields and livestock. 4500 BCE. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. Spain." and that made in the Netherlands and England. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. farmers. Saints Ambrose.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Carnesecchi and Ochino. celebrated with bread and wine. eu. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. . they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. which is called "delftware. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. and of the last things. Jerome. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Equated with the Greek god Pan. and is named for Faenza.
a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. Only a small area can be painted in a day. fresco (It. black and dun. sword and set of balances. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. 2 . The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. and flowers suspended in a loop. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. a swag. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. fluted of a column or pillar. and these areas. that of the others red. drying to a slightly different tint.8). Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. relaxed. a technique known as a secco fresco. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. war. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. Committed to charitable and missionary work. leaves. Their attributes are the bow. such as plague. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. can in time be seen. famine and death. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. frescos in Italy . they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. The colour of his horse is white.festoni (It. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo.
During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. The technique of buon fresco. both in churches and in private and public palaces. landscape and portraiture.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper.Save in Venice. Final details. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. are genres of painting. Genius in classical Rome. a person's invisible tutelary god. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or fresco secco. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. where the atmosphere was too damp. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. for example. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. covings and ceilings. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. usually childish figure. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. or true fresco. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. In art from the classical period onwards. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. genre In a broad sense. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). the intonaco. G Garter. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.
The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. whether it must be connected with the public good. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. as well as writers and artists. Gobelins . Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. Maso di Banco. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. how it differed from notoriety. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. Bernardo Daddi. Maria Gloriosa). in portraits and on tombs. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. and as spurring on men of action. as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. As such. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position.
golden section (Lat.French tapestry manufactory. This ratio is approximately 8:13. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. Paris. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. In other Italian cities. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. . In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. Golden Fleece. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. who appointed Lebrun Director. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. thereafter it made only tapestries. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. and although it reopened in 1699. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). still in existence today. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order.
whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. In sculpture and in painting. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). . whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. from the 13th until the 17th century. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. 1200 and c. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. that the effects are to be felt. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. There is a transcendental quality. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. the superficial particularities of form. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. In particular. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. Gothic Gothic. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. c. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. and lies much deeper than. Nevertheless. 1270. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. or the influence of one building. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Denis. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. painting. The artistic. like the cultural and commercial. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. Amiens. In thinking of Nicola (d. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. painting. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris.
Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. occasionally. notably in the writings of Bellori. to silk. and Morris Graves. and the great style. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. sometimes in the company of a tutor. the beau idéal of the French. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. and above all Italy. and Piranesi. These qualities. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Dubuffet. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. genius. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Honey. if required. Canaletto. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. and taste among the English. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. Pannini. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. starch. It is thinned with water for applying. with sable. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. chiefly to France. Such tours often took a year or more. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. without visible brush marks. the Netherlands. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. . It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. are but different appellations of the same thing'. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771).and hog-hair brushes. to white or tinted paper and card and. Klee.
however. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. Although its palace was rebuilt c.e. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. however. Some writers. which had recruited most of the merchant class. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. usually gray. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. After the War of the Eight Saints. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. and Waiblingen. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. In Florence. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. . when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. including text as well as illustrations. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. In another sense. From 1266 to 1268. exclude drawing from this definition. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. brother of Louis IX. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. grisaille (Fr. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. 1216. after this. the parties taking a multitude of local names. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. c. then as now. In the context of the fine arts. drawing and the various forms of engraving. gris. through central Italy. became an abiding feature of European politics. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. to Provence and Paris. internal factions in Florence went under other names.
but in time they acquired other functions. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. for example. "[knowledge of] heraldry. In Florence. The guild also monitored standards of work. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. or professions. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. surgeons." from Fr. trade or profession (painters. notably Florence in the 14th century. Guilds were also patrons of art. goldsmiths. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. "herald") . such as Brescia and Vicenza. print or painting. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. trades. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. and provided assistance to members in need. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In some towns. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. In Italy they go back a long way. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. [science] héraldique. In 16th century Venice. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. H hatching In a drawing. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. The guilds were not equal. heraldry (Fr. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. as some did). and greater hostility between master and man. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. héraut. In some cities.
One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. the Cathars were an anti-church. with the rules governing their use. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. However. By contrast. while others merged with the Waldensians. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. d. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. they were condemned in 1184. i. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. the followers of Juan de Valdes. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. together with brethren north of the Alps. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. one great missionary community. The main impact of the . which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. head of the 'carnal Church'. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. normative for churchmen. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. from the start. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. the Waldensian. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. and regarded themselves as forming. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). as Antichrist. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. indeed. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism.
hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. in his earlier work. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. Henry Inman. American painters were studying in Rome. Durand. S. B. F. Jasper Cropsey. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. In humanism. my spouse'. Morse. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. humanus. Kensett. Frederick E. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). J. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. its subjects considered morally elevating. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. Germany. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. Thomas Cole. At the same time. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. mainly in the south. and classical literature.movement upon the laity was in southern France. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. and. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. humanism (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. history (usually classical history). Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. Church. F. working from 1825 to 1875. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. hortus conclusus (Lat. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. the emancipation of man from God took place. George Inness.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
and they are also depicted on their own. with many further details added. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. the rooster of Peter's denial. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. the ability to create. For instance.g. usually the donors of a work of art. investiture . International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. the veil of St. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. the scourge that was used in the scourging. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. beautiful style. In the second half of the 14th century. originality. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. and the ladder. the hammer. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Donatallo. invention. Veronica. it denominates a kind of behaviour. soft style.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. The terms court style. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. or of other saints. are also used in art literature. Human figures. etc. Derived from classical rhetoric. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). inventio (It. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. there are representations of the bundle of rods. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. the pincers. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. trecento rococo and lyrical style.
and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. Jerome's writings. although they are usually called Romanists. . principally Dutch. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. of Utrecht. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. who traveled in Italy and.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Italianizers Northern artists. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. generally Dutch or Flemish. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Andries and Jan Both. Both and Berchem. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. bathed in a golden haze. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The Both brothers. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Nicolaes Berchem. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. and Jan Asselijn. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Upon his return to Holland. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn.
Emperor Maximilian I (1459. especially one at which the Bible is read. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . John of Jerusalem . lectern A reading stand or desk.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. encouraged by the Crusades. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine.1519). and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. Archbishop of Genoa. Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. As their military role grew. liberal arts . They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). Legenda Aurea (Lat. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. the rite of communion is based on this. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).
Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. . often sublime. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. painting or sculptural decoration. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. lunette (Fr. that may contain a window. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. poetic atmosphere. through the use of aerial perspective. Tubal for music).g. Kensett (1816-1872). Pythagoras for arithmetic. rhetoric and dialectic. its roof supported by columns. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Maria Novella in Florence). characterized by effects of light in landscapes. the quadrivium. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). John F. Martin J. a semicircular space. Church (1826-1900). then the basis of a philosophical training.g.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. It is related to. first the preparatory trivium . loggia (It. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. Heade (1819-1904). astronomy and music. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). that could be used for public ceremonies. often standing in markets and town squares. and Frederick E. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. comprising arithmetic. "little moon") In architecture. together with identifying attributes (e.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. geometry. commemorating a marriage.grammar. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars.
It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. originally sung without accompaniment. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. historical subjects. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga).M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. "almond") . manganese purple. being written. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. the goddess Cybele. copper green. madrigal A part song. but they painted genre scenes. originating in Italy in the 14th century. mandorla (It. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. and portraits as well as landscapes. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. "great mother") A mother goddess. 1855–65. and iron red. When white is used for painting. active mainly in Florence c. Specifically. and however bright their lighting effects. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. usually for the lute. particularly such ware produced in Italy. for example. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. magna mater (Lat. antimony yellow. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. and accompaniments. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting.
maniera. depending on the social class of the wearer. and literary texts. the hand-written medieval book. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. sometimes harsh or discordant colors.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. In architecture. ecclesiastical. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. strong. more strictly. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Developing out of the Renaissance. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. complex and crowded compositions. illuminated initials and miniatures. which was quarried at Mount . "manner. marked by flagellation. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. worn open. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and crowned with thorns. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. Burgundy. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. It reached to the knee or foot. Parmigianino. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. Mannerism (It. Bronzino. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. bound. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. mantle An overcoat. El Greco and Tintoretto. In Mannerist painting. in a specific sense. often ornamented with decorative borders. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. the Codex manuscriptus. Flanders.
sleek surface. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. a different design on the reverse. Like the finest Imperial coins. martyrdom (Gk. medallion In architecture. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. Without monetary value. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Carrara. proof") the sufferings. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary.Pentelicon in Attica. quarried at Massa. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. "witness. particularly by Michelangelo. which were beginning to be reverently collected. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. marmi finti (It. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. an inscription running round the rim. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. the medal's purpose was commemorative. The pure white Carrara marble. martyrion. having finished his training. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC.
sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. of the person portrayed on the other side. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. This yields a soft effect in the print. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. as it were. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. who reflected them. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Her head features on Minerva's shield. a Gorgon. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. Medusa In Greek mythology. Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. It was. The process is essentially extinct today. for landscapes and portraits. the stress on individual character. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. 1425-1504).round the neck. perhaps oddly. no line drawing is employed. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. particularly. 1452-1526/27). When Perseus cuts off her head. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. The work of these men. A Dutch officer. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. 1467-688). Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. c. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. . supposedly to petrify her enemies. in England. often anonymous. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. 14601528). and of the many. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. 1640. In pure mezzotint. Ludwig von Siegen. even grain.
but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. often quite highly finished. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. "word. monokhromatos.. a branch of the Franciscan order. painting in gouache on vellum or card. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. monochrome (Gk. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. pointed headdress worn by bishops. motto (Ital. "one color") Painted in a single color. executed on a very small scale. saying") . still exist. ink and paint. Many such small versions. miter A high.g. e. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Parmigianino (d. Francis himself. usually portraits. a painting executed in a single color. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. by Tiepolo and Rubens.
The invention of personal mottos. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. and Casino Massimo.from the Middle Ages. In 1810 0verbeck. 1817-29). and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. and two other members moved to Rome. Isidore. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. In general. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. naturalism (Fr. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. Pforr. It may have parallel aisles on each side. Rome. . The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. Berlin. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. 1816-17. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. but often insipid. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. and is intersected by the transept. nave (from Lat. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. where they occupied the disused monastery of S. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. navis. Nazarenes A group of young. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. named after the patron saint of painting. often separated from it by pillars.
that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo.) . placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. moreover. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. the style of the Ancien Régime. is as true as it is notorious. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822).The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. niello (Lat. usually golden. Popes. were usually old when elected. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. nigellus. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. but their ideas continued to be influential. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. "aureole") The disc or halo. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). Nymphaeum (Gk. nimbus (Lat.
an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. a more elaborate base. was the simplest. or poppy. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). capital. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. its richness of colour. fluted column and a plain capital. and its greater tonal range. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. observances") Rites performed for the dead. orders of architecture In classical architecture. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. the three basic styles of design. such as linseed.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. The earliest. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. O obsequies (Lat. Greek goddesses of Nature. "services. walnut. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). the Doric order. They are seen in the form of the columns. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. a small private chapel. with a sturdy. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. . obsequia. inborn sin. and entablatures.
In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). designed as a . who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. tradition and social structure. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. while shops came to be thought undignified. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. P pala (Ital. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. the Cancelleria). and the main apartments above. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. like cities. with biforate windows.g. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. palazzo (It. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. and. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. Palazzo Strozzi). The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. standing at the foot of the Cross. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.
Palazzo Massimi). cornices and abutments. e. often built next to their titular churches. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. especially after the Sack of Rome. and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. panel .g. column-caps. like the colonnaded vestibule. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). In Venice. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. Movement of patrons and architects. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Other cities. behind a sober Florentine façade. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall.scholarly retreat. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. evolved influential types. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Following Oriental patterns. Rich. palmette. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. like Genoa. and Palladio's in Vicenza. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s).g. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. and large households. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). came to be applied all over Europe. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. Papal incentives to build.
The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. enforce law and order. mahogany. and walnut. or the incidence of taxation. or other rigid substance. and dark walnut are favourites. secular rulers. teak. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. so that they might have a voice at court. and the pressure and temptations . and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. and modern painters have also used plywood. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. fir. The third aspect was administrative. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. Many other types were used. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. A number of matters. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. to influence popes in their favour.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. Having a circular plan. slate has occasionally been used as a support. chestnut. As successors to St Peter. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. however. and other synthetic materials as supports. linden. cedar. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. and spanned by a single dome. To maintain their authority. Then. could lead to conflict with secular authorities.Term in painting for a support of wood. as it were. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. the management of clerical dues and taxation. olive. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. larch. fibre-board. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. as distinct from canvas. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. metal. including beech. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. In the 20th century cedar. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. On a larger scale. the.
the most appropriate . however. By then. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole.as well. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. was long in doubt. in spite of further absences from Rome. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. which met at Constance 1414-18. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). could supersede that of a pope. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. As at Avignon. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. There remained. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. if it did no serious damage to the faith. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. however. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. To resolve the problem of divided authority. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. the acceptance of the city as the most practical .base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). would. Colonna and Caetani. at Avignon. from the point of view of its religious associations. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France.that could be applied to them. to be long delayed. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. possess an authority which. It was argued that such a council. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. however. So onerous. in the eyes of God. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. as such. of individuals. which seems so inevitable. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint.
and satyrs. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. it has also been used for painting. Skin had been used as a writng material before this.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. through lavish patronage of artists. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. 400-300 BC). However. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). pastoral (Lat. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. to a world peopled by shepherds. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. as well as a governmental one. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. Parrhasius (c. the creation of a cultural capital. goat. scholars and men of letters. less frequently pig.. and with Zeuxis (c. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). in classical literature. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. and other animals. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. nymphs. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. pastor. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. Passion . paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture.
ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. a small. patricius. projecting either centrally or at both ends. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded.) or pasticcio (It.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Meanwhile. patrician (Lat. which focus on the Suffering Christ. papilio. and so on. a region in north-central Italy. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. the crown of thorns. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. a prominent section of a monumental façade. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. pavilion (Lat. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Francesco Salviati. ornamental building. "butterfly. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence.The events leading up to Good Friday. but not necessarily a direct copy. hence tent") A lightly constructed. 1478). 1478. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. such as a garden summerhouse. . and also the archbishop of Pisa. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. Portrayals of the Passion. wealthy citizen. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. pastiche (fr.
that settled the religious conflict in the German states. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). "nature". perspicere. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. "to see through. or related elements within an art work. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. personification (Lat. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. in particular the face. physiognomy (Gk.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. pergola (It. and facere. "person". though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. physis. and gnomon. persona. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. . in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. concept or deity. "hanging. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. pendant (Fr. perspective (Lat.
proper to take a landscape from.) The main floor of a building. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. glue. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. curious details. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. pigment (Lat. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. remarkable for singularity. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Rome. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. striking the imagination with the force of painting. Peter's. for example. but full of variety. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. A pier is generally larger than a column. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. containing the public rooms.piano nobile (Ital. both real and painted. usually above the ground floor. or resin to make paint. exemplified. affording a good subject for a landscape. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. pigmentum. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. to be expressed in painting. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. . Pietà (Lat. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period.
pilastrum. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). "pillar") A flat. in October 1347. For this reason. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. it has a base. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. plague Plague. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. Thenceforward. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. it is difficult to find. though in less widespread. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. despite regional variations. also used in Spain's American colonies. since. During 1348 the Black Death. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. a shaft. such as Florence and Genoa. It seems probable. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. and capital. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. moreover. more sporadic outbreaks. perhaps. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. It is often fluted. the burning of 'infected' clothing. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. Rocco and Sebastian. outside Tuscany. however. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. In the 15th century. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. and thereafter all Europe. for instance. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals.pilaster (Lat. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague.
and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53).e. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle.. and sinuous scrolls. In contrast with Aristotle. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Diego evolved a purer. The first phase. Philebus. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. Phaedrus. correct classical orders became frequent. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. The second phase. placement. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. composition. are the masterworks of the second style. harmonious. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. or appropriateness. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Phaedo. A student of Socrates. utilized Mudejar ornament -. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. like its successor.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. or simply the Plateresque. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. The first phase. more severe. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). i. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. the Symposium. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. Timaeus. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. which lasted only a few decades. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Theatetus and the Laws. heraldic escutcheons. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.
Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Unlike the case of Aristotle. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. including those of Plotinus. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. and he utilized many other writings. all of which he also translated into Latin. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. and Agostino Steuco (c. but not completely. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Iamblichus. near Florence. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. the greatest of his ancient disciples. Plotinus.in Plato's thought. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. Rather unsystematic.1577) becoming particularly popular. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. partially. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. and the Chaldaic Oracles. replaced Ficino's. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. 1472-c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. systematized and added to what Plato had done. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. A new Latin translation. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world.
porticus. pluviale. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. plinth (Gk. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. where a pectoral is used to close it. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. Frequently supports a pediment. poluptukhos. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. pluvial (Med. Lat. portico (Lat. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. plinthos.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . column. Plato was read in the universities. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. such as processions and consecrations. or statue. pointed arch In architecture. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. polyptych (Gk. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. as in classical architecture).
Cathedral) by Uccello.e. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. Siena. Colleoni. 1328. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The realism of the clear. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. flattened image. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Desiderio da Settignano. Gattarnelata. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. decorating whole rooms.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Farnese). Florence (1486-90). Campidoglio). painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. was revived in the 14th century. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. inessential. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. the Carracci. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. psychologically more complex. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. National Gallery). Mantua. Venice). The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. The equestrian portrait. Maria Novella. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. and only a decorative accessory to form. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. The 16th century portrait became generalized. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. Group portraits. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. Florence. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. and the . The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s..
Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. 1494). sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. together with the Dominican Savonarola.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Savonarola and Musso. bishops especially. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. Correggio. however." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. minatory exhortations. from the secular clergy. and. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. As Poussin was a Frenchman. who had as their ideal masters Titian." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. Borromeo. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. several of whom became bishops. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. of the sermon as an art form. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. bishop of Chioggia. abrasive even. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. are not florid in style. bishop of Asti. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. to discharge their preaching duties. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Charles Le Brun. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. The sermons of Visdomini. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). whereas drawing satisfies the mind. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The styles of S. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. and Peter Paul Rubens. was versed in classical and patristic . star preachers journeyed all over Italy. not least those of statesmen and prelates. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. Fiamma's sermons. primarily the mendicants.
"altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. tapestries. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). Because of the small size of predelle . as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. The New Testament references in these would. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.g.rhetoric. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. and so forth. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. the temptations of Adam and Christ. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. predella (It. Naples). however. Louis of Toulouse (1317. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. though often relatively very wide . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . Such a polyptych consists of a principal. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Millais and Rossetti. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. among them Holman Hunt. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. presbytery (or choir) (Gk. prefiguration Typology . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood.
seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. sculpture and architecture. proportio. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. notably David. profil perdu (Fr. again indicative of the purpose they served. The following are important: 1. these highly finished drawings. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). and Ingres among painters and Clodion. the quadrature. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Girardon. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. which uses the square . The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. the golden section. Prix de Rome A scholarship. intended as complete works of art in themselves. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. proportion (Lat. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. and Houdon among sculptors. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. the Canon of Proportion. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters. 3. "evenness") in painting. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. 2. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. Fragonard. projecting shelf on which to kneel.
in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. harmonic proportions. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. for example). The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. one half the length of the other). "boys") Plump naked little boys. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. and 5. putto (It. the steward or treasurer of a church.as a unit of measurement. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. Unlike Pozzo. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. triangulation. provenance The origins of an art work. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. Ignazio. putti sing. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. Rome. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. a fourth = 3:4. a fifth = 2:3. . They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). 4. It was common in Roman art. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments.
"to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. or some item connected with a saint. Brunelleschi. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. relic (Lat. Among the . relief (Lat. Donatello. in which figures are seen half round. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in particular works by Masaccio. canons regular. Botticelli. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. and high relief (alto rilievo). the great orders of monks. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). in which figures are almost detached from their background. also known as the Realist school. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relevare. or the Jesuits. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. refectory (Med.Quattrocento (It. the object of particular veneration. Fra Angelico and others. Lat. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). hermits. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. friars and nuns. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. e. In 16th century Europe. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. relicquiae. with the Anglican Church developing in England. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. basso rilievo). denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked.g. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life.
A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. the Conventuals. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. In 1504. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. After the repression of the Spirituals. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. Maria di Fregonaia. The Benedictines. Giorgio in Alga. Founded by St Romuald c. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. however. The same bull . Lucca. although technically of secular canons. Padua. and the generally moderate Observants. and their more institutionalized brethren. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. Bernardino of Siena. presided over by chapters general. various groups were fused in the latter body. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. their resources being in the hands of trustees. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. The Conventuals. who had no overall organization originally. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. Bologna (1419). He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. it became the Cassinese congregation. the most notable being S. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. i. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. the great patriarch of Venice. The Silvestrines. In 1517. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. 1012. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. That of S. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. Mantua. Giustina. Salvatore. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. whose friaries were corporate property-owners.e. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. S. At the same time. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. was the congregation of S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. which was to become the main Italian one. Benedetto.contemplative orders. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Venice (1404). The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars.
Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. The first. the Theatines. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. founded in 1535 by S. S. Filippo Neri. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Michele in Isola. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. a historical period. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Venice. also. founded by S. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. however. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. Angela Merici. however. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. Gaetano da Thiene. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Gerolamo Aemiliani. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule.
1875-86). however. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. of 'darkness'. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. of an energetic revival of interest in. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. as well as political. and his own as potentially one of light. . Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. Thereafter. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. was so vast and potent. the historical reality of antiquity. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. which had begun early in the 14th century. increasingly. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. however. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. All-Roundness. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. of scholarship. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. and competition with. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. because its core of energy. even Amoralism. For long. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. of arts. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. of letters.century. too long forgotten glories. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. life. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts.
however. etc. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. in the more limited sense. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. Cathedral of SaintBavon. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. and mass media. congruence between. sometimes. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. statues.erased. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. (3) There is not a true. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. let alone a uniform. It is for this additional. and other liturgical objects. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. especially in the High Gothic period. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica .) was the term chosen. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. retables can be detached and. and is decorated with paintings.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. the previous record . Though thus challenged. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. mobilized nationalism. The challenges are to be accepted. gratefully. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. Ghent). of industrialization. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. letters. candlesticks. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. consist merely of a painting. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. There was an early. later still to Genoa. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep.with all its shabbiness . the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. etc. though sometimes of metal. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance.
however. it indicates a derivation from Roman art.of St Mark in Venice. retables have become extinct. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. "relief") In painting. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. Rococo A style of design. and 'Romanesque'. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. Spain . and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. its mood lighthearted and witry. the St. Romanesque art. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. Germany. rocaille (French.in the 11th century. and architecture dominating the 18th century. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. With the development of freestanding altars. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. richly decorated with organic forms. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. like 'Gothic'. the first style to achieve such international currency. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. More usually. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. As the name suggests. in several countries . Originally commissioned in 976. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. is a typical product. painting. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. almost simultaneously. .France. literally. Italy. Louis XV furniture. rilievo (It. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century.
van Heemskerk. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. The aim of painting. Piranesi. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. Pannini and Mengs. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. M. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. the development of nationalistic pride. B. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. stylized design representing an open rose. In addition. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. . usually as a result of a visit to Italy. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Rome. Q. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. they maintained. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. Massys and M. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. van Orley. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. Mabuse. Claude. such as red ochre.
Many compositions were anonymous. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents.greatly increased. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Eastern independent. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). from the Old and New Testaments. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. penance. and Lorenzo de' Medici. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. and anointing of the sick. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. when it finally left the city it had devastated. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . confirmation. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Protestant churches.expressed through gesture. Orthodox. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. glance and movement . and impoverished. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. There were no limits on time. Clement escaped into Castel S. holy orders.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. multiple sets used in succession. Written primarily in ottava rima. matrimony. In the . and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. but others were the work of well-known figures. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. supported by lay confraternities. gutted. pious legend and hagiography. Sacra Conversazione (It. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. the Eucharist. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). local saints. Subjects were nominally sacred.
used for drawing.early church the number of sacraments varied. They were still seeking aid. as in the Church of the Brethren. the sun of righteousness. The classical Protestant churches (i. and sacraments. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. the Orthodox Church does not. baptism and the Eucharist. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. Anglican. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. was buried under a new fortress. the Rocca Paolina. Immediately following baptism. which in the Gospel According to John.e. the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. Hence. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. replaces the Lord's Supper. foot washing. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. Saracens .. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit.) Hall. The chief focus of discontent. strictly speaking. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. Candidates first face west. It is still practiced on special occasions. notably from Florence and in Germany. make such strict distinctions. Thus. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. the symbolic direction of Christ. in principle.. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. large room. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. as an excuse to revolt. was not maintained as a sacrament. the Bentivoglio. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors. that the price of salt should be increased." sala (Ital. The theology of the Orthodox Church. chapter 13. and then face east. Lutheran. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. Salt War. sacraments. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology.e." which are called sacramentals. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.i.
Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). 360 . 45 BC). scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. Little known in the Middle Ages. 270 BC). the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. whose writings. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge.During the Middle Ages. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. and many others. The publication of Latin (1562. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy.c. 210 AD). legs and horns of a goat. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. wood or terracotta. the god of wine. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. pl. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 160 . Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). satyr In Greek mythology. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. made of stone.c. the Arabs or Muslims. are lost. sarcophagus. sarcophagi (Gk. human-like woodland deities with the ears. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible.
than their medieval predecessors. being Frenchmen. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy.they had individual Bentnames . in June 1409. but with little effect. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. However. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. scholasticism . practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. the Florentines. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. from time to time both he and his opponents. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. and. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). and therefore far more purely Italian princes. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. for. while England. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. In northern Italy. with France and her allies Aragon.for example Pieter van Laer. Alexander V. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. Louis I (d. was called Bamboccio. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. Schism. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. As a result. on the other. 1386) and his son Ladislas. who recognized the Roman pope. while devout Christians agonized. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. on one side. one of the early leaders. Charles III of Durazzo (d. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). most of whom.
It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). It was because the central concerns of humanism . As such. that scholasticism was left. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. as it is easier to add details in this way. textual scholarship. because the secco technique is much less permanent. history and rhetoric .) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. (See also: fresco. if lime-water was used. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. Christian. Medieval scholars. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. on one side. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. Often called the burning ones.moral philosophy.The term is ambivalent. the plaster had to be damped before painting. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. university-based study.) . In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. and theology. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. None the less. notably Aquinas. and Islamic literature. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. Serenissima (Ital. as it were. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. moreover. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). Padua.were different from those of medieval. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia).
light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Med. and the delicate. sfumato A technique. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. in use since the Middle Ages. which were all identical in thickness. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. Lat. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. women who could prophesy. "the most serene republic of Venice"). Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.. In Christian legend. Sibyls foretold the Birth. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. sibylla. the number gradually rose to ten. Signoria (It. there was only one Sibyl. They first appear in alpine monasteries. usually presided over by individual families. brass. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. term. in the period of classical antiquity. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. at the same time.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. sinopia . just as the male prophets of the Bible did. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. "prophetess") In antiquity. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. Originally. Servite (Lat. sibyls (Gk.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it.
figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. Ital.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). sing. soffit (Lat. as the name implies. stigma (Gk. and. sotto in sù (It. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. in other words. Stanze (Ital. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. It is very closely related to International Gothic. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen .. especially in the flow of drapery. staffage This word. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage.) Wooden ceiling decoration. stigmata. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. . pronounced as French. brand. Francis of Assisi. "mark. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case.'Beautiful Madonnas'.
and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. both external and internal. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. pl. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). studiolo.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. with that for the Picturesque.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. Indeed. stucco A type of light. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. whose verses actually fabrications . supremacy . It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. John Milton. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. In a looser sense. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. studioli (It. The vogue for the Sublime. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism.
Salviati and Allori. or cartoons. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. was being decorated with frescoes. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. These were imported. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. i. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. London.and. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). and in literature. . now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. both for panel painting and fresco. chiefly from Flanders. temperare. doubtless.Historically. then being replaced by oil paint. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk).e. The subject is underexplored. 1407). tempera (Lat. his own headquarters. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. into Italy. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. But the Italians did not make them.
"firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. and later to subdivide gable ends. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. vessels. in the architecture of ancient Rome. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. terraferma (Ital. quarter face. and profile. topia. widely used form. topiary (Gk. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. Trajan's Column . Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. pl. model. tondi (It. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. and other surfaces.terracotta (It. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. walls. usually those of animals or geometrical forms.e. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). and sculptures. "a commonplace") In literature. topos. topoi (Gk. i. pl. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. figure of speech. "fields. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. tondo. triumphal arch. in art. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. theme or motif.
Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. chastity. death. added to the glamour of the triumph. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. into a number of less controversial forms.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. behind it. fame. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. the military triumph became sublimated. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. tryptychos. of virtues and of the arts. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). decorated marriage chests and other paintings. beside it the army of martyrs. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. . and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. after 'a countless number of virgins. "threefold") A painting in three sections. a car so brave'.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. time and eternity. Early triptychs were often portable. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife.' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. trinitas. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. Meanwhile. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. Disseminated soon after his death. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. usually an altarpiece. the wars by which they were won . or wings. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. as it were. patriarchs and prophets. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . the Son and the Holy Spirit. of both sexes'. Battista Sforza. Trinity (Lat. triptych (Gk. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. "threefold") in Christianity.' Before it go the apostles. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love.
creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. tusche A thick. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. typology . that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. "drum") In classical architecture. through various naturalistic devices. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. It incorporates Renaissance features. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. tromp l'oeil (Fr. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. tympanum (Lat. In medieval architecture. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. often decorated with sculptures. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. it is usually decorated with carvings. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. Dating from classical times. first recorded in 1232. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. viscous black ink. enclosed by an arch.
the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). U uomo universale (It. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. . In Christian thought. 1610). killer of Holofernes. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection. and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. knew his former patrons.A system of classification. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). especially his half-length figural groups.) The Renaissance "universal man". So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano.g. e. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. each had access to his paintings. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. slayer of Goliath. Judith. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. The numerous candles. were popular with them also. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. where they were most accessible. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . 1590-1624). but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. such as five works devoted to the senses. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church.Dirck van Baburen (c. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and David. lanterns.
including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. hour-glasses and clocks. Vespers (Lat. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. vesper. "evening") . vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. mixed in. it was used to decorate furniture. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. carriages. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. Also varietas (Lat. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. guttering candles. Parisian craftsmen. snuff boxes and other objects. overturned vessels. and even flowers (which will soon fade). vanitas (Lat. often gold. the groin vault. V vanishing point In perspective. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. varietà (It. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. a work's richness of subject matter.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. and the rib vault. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. There are a wide range of forms.). veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified.
Temperance.Prayers said in the evening. 'Assume a virtue. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. vita. and Justice. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. The seven Virtues were: Faith. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. actual or latent. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. Anger. Fortitude. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. for example. Lust. Gluttony. in which the word signifies efficacy. In ancient Roman dwellings. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. "life") . Charity. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. vestibulum. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Hope. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). if you have it not'. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. pl. the church service at which these prayers are said. virtù could be used. Envy. and Sloth. Prudence. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. Covetousness. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. vimperga Of German origin. "not exposed to winds". Vestibule (Lat. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. vite (Lat. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art.
as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1482-84). The wars from 1494 do. 1478-80. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters.An account of someone's life and work. a biography. usually when a prayer for good fortune. Sculptors and Architects"). those of Volterera. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. and appalled recognition of. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. they were from the 18th century . The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. 1472. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. protection from harm. published in 1550 and 1568. in fact. Vitruvius Pollio. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. and of Ferrara.g. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. or recovery from illness has been made. Marcus (1st cent. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. It was intended to have a variety of functions. usually linear. during its subsequent history.Weltanschauung (Gr. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. treasury or a place where justice was administered. woodcut A print made from a wood block. "world view") A comprehensive world view. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. Westwerk German word. pompous on the floor above. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. usually restorers. a philosophy of life. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. gallery. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. "Western work of art". . based on stylization of various animal forms.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.