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Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.
From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.
Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")
and Rouault. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. In Greek and Roman literature. at the east end of a church behind the altar. Lancet and Tudor. roofed with a half-dome. Degas. There are several variants of the technique. The adjective is apsidal. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts. Also known as an exedra.A semicircular projection. design. which is fused to the plate by heating. arcade (Lat. The term applies also to a print made by this method.e. piers or pillars. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. the lowest part of the entablature). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. arcus. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). the moulding around a window or door. the darker the tone). architectonic (Gk. or organization. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. Picasso. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds. "architectural") Relating to structure. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. architrave (It. . In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. arkhitektonikos. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. but in essence the process is as follows. including Goya. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish.
autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. aureolus. dominate.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli.and the Comedy .archivolt (Ital. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated." and Lat. archeiu. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. aureole (Lat. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. "golden. "begin. voltus. Ars Moriendi (Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. usually a saint. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . attribute (Lat. "front arch." from Gk. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. In the case of martyrs. Dante's Vita nuova . it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. attributum. archivolto. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85).are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .
The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. the god of wine and fertility. in 1377. often anecdotal. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. Later. baldachin. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. applied to the physically . "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The actual move was made in 1309. who had been residing in France since 1305. that of Cardano. paintings of everyday life. or baldacchino (It. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. Six pontificates later. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. 'Captivity'.
Parma. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. Spalato [Split. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. Croatia]. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. or canopy.. and Epiphany. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. seven. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. such as those at Pisa. Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. France. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Easter. Pentecost. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. . banderuola.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. set beneath a domical ciborium. and abject filthy things. Florence. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. the Temple of Venus. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent. AD 273. Alg. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures.. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. AD 300). and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. and Nocera in Italy. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. As eight follows the "complete" number. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. Customarily. or connected with. pope between 432 and 440. el Kantara. Lebanon. Baalbek. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. and Poitiers.g. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. built by Sixtus III. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. a church. banderole (It. beggars in rags. or forecourt.
which is reserved for the clergy. 1796-1875). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. were often omitted entirely. . and increasingly elaborate decoration. Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. southeast of Paris. stoa basilike. 1814-1875). and thus a church. Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. 1811-1889). In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Also tunnel vault. Jean-François Millet (French. in the 1840s and 1850s. when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. Rubens).In the 10th century. Baroque (Port. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. usually facing east. 1817-1878). Originally. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. and (3) everyday realism. baptisteries. In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories. the dramatic use of light and shadow. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). 1807-1876). In architecture. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. Théodore Rousseau (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. "king's hall") a church building. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. basilica (Gk. something of earlier symbolism survives. achieved through scale. Constant Troyon (French. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. however. Jules Dupré (French. 1810-1865).an allusion to entering the Christian life. a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. Vermeer). Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. barocco. or baptismal chapels. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. in its usual location near the church door . it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians.
such as those by Diego Velázquez. such as Waldmüller. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. By association. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. particularly porcelain. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. bodegón Image. often with food and drink.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene. Biscuit porcelain. Bodegónes. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. were referred to by their specific contents. also incorrectly called bisque. like their Dutch counterparts. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. especially Spanish. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. 1650 in Spain. Book of Hours . The term was mainly used up to c. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. as is to be expected. The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. however. which is either not yet glazed. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. domesticity. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. and often sentimentality. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. in which still-life predominates. Spanish still-lifes. It takes its name from its grainy texture. There were. or which is to be left as it is. up until the mid-17th century.
though these are more often called 'modelli'.by a variety of processes. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. days of the week. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. and the fact that it is easily workable .A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. durability. a rapid sketch in oil. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. made as a study for a larger picture. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. bozzetto(Italian. See flying buttress. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day.both hot and cold . but can also be used for painted sketches.an advantage over marble sculpture. months. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. or seasons. bozzetto Strictly speaking. coppery red. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. By extension. They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. varying from silverish to a rich. Chantilly). . sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work.
which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. Among its most distinctive products were icons. It also served to glorify the emperor. C cabinet A small. notable from Syria and Egypt. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. cameo Small relief made from gems. box") In architecture. private room where works of art. and work in precious metals. mosaics. glass. "a chest. casson. an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire. and Giotto. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. Duccio. manuscript illuminations. ceramics. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. its forms highly stylized. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. caisson (Fr. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). which was often allegorical. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. camera obscura . Based largely on Roman and Greek art.
candlestick. usually built beside or attached to a church. candelabrum (It. The Latin name means "dark chamber. cantorie (It. sing. usually in a church. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. cantoria. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. campanile Bell tower. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). only very rough effects will be obtainable. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. and jute. which was usually whitened.) A gallery for singers or musicians.-N. capital (Lat. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. which isolates the fabric from the paint. followed by smaller and even pocket models. . dating to antiquity. Structurally. usually with several branches or arms. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. pl. usually decorated. hemp. other materials used are cotton. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. both of which have richly carved marble panels. Niepce created photography. Portable versions were built. candela. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. as an aid to drawing. "candle") A large. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments." and the earliest versions. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. by the 16th century. capitellum.Ancestor of the photographic camera. candelabra.
the Carmelites were originally hermits. tapestry. The order combines reclusive and community life. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartellini In a painting. Carthusian Order (Lat. the date of the painting. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. near Grenoble.a humorous drawing or parody. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). cardinalis. Fortitudo (Fortitude). "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). or fresco. pl. At the height of the Middle Ages. monasteries containing separate hermitages.both Italians and artists from other countries . Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). cartellino. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. cartone. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. cartouche . In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century. New Charterhouses. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. details of the subject. and humanism. In fresco painting. a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars. cartoon (It. Carmelites (Lat. the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. or a motto. the endeavour to attain true humanity.
linen. Paolo Uccello. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). decorated with gilt gesso. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. a cathedral always faces west . chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures. seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. cathedral (cathedra. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. or nave. These lead up to the north and south transepts. where the throne of the bishop is placed. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom. The main body. cassone (It.) "castle". Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. The altar is placed at the east end.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. . and many other items of her dowry. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. In the 15th century. Worked on at intervals 1504-06. they were also used in other countries.toward the setting sun. For reasons lost to time and tradition. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. or arms of the cross. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. caryatid (Gk. They contained the bride's clothes. Cascina. palace. and swags of fruit and flowers. castello (It. putti (cupids).
continually praise him. animal. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. as celestial attendants of God. central perspective (Lat. a throne bearer of the deity. Relative to the observer. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. and Islamic literature. champlevé (Fr. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. in accordance with their distance from the observer. rather than intercessory functions. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. or birdlike characteristics. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. Christian. Both the statement of St. chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. and perspicere. buildings and figures that are being depicted. . "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. a celestial winged being with human. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. landscapes. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. centralis. "in the centre".
The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. or for choral singing. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. Lastly. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. the Order of the Hospital of St. North of the Alps. Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. "light dark") In painting. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges. the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. choros. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. reserved for the clergy to pray together. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . replacing tempera." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. Hans Burgkmair (1510). both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land.chiaroscuro (It. Since Carolingian times. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). choir (Gk. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars).
roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. further enriching the style. The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. Very few still exist in their original positions. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. undulating cornices. which was shaped like an inverted cone. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. became the most common motif. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. Sculpted clouds. is as typically Churrigueresque. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque.intersect). a massing of carved angels. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). and garlands. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. reversed volutes. ciborium . The Transparente (completed 1732). the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style. The Mexico cathedral (1718). designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. an architect. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. and the Churrigueresque column. and repetition of pattern. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. balustrades. undulating lines. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. stucco shells. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. gilded rays.
of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. ciompi. craft of dyeing. combers. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. In reaction to this revolutionary . continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. Then. High Renaissance). and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. Without being members of a guild.and post-medieval Italy. Their economic condition worsened. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. or achieve political representation. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. but self-employed. placing one of their members. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. Members of the lower classes. as also were those in the associated. on July 22. The new government.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. who were raised to the status of a guild. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. Quattrocento (1400s. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. including the ciompi. and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. controlled by the minor guilds. etc. the wool carder Michele di Lando. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. beaters. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. They were forbidden to form a trade association. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers.
however. cithara (Gk. and politics. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). clair-obscur (Fr. cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. the ciompi guild was abolished. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry.) An ancient musical instrument. philosophy. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. the black contours usually with a special line plate. Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. except in cases where . changed greatly from one period to the next. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. literature. . writers. in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect. In the 15th century Greek literature. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity).episode. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. Concepts of the classical. scholars patiently finding. resembling a lyre.as in Italy these were dispensed with. philosophy and art . with Italian scholars. on which strings were plucked. editing and translating a wide range of texts. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings.
blue and orange. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces. condottiere. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. as well as from the Bible. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. intensify one another. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. condottieri (It. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. concetto. pl. occasionally made of wood. a work's underlying theme. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south. compline (Lat. or "contract. the church service at which these prayers are said. Coffered ceilings. cognoscenti. composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. those with refined tastes.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. The name was derived from the condotta. when set side by side. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. pl. terrorized the country. concetti (It. Green and red. literature or music. sing. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. arch or ceiling. [hora] completa. ." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). cognoscente (It.
confraternities Confraternities. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. i. Martino). when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities. Mark (1432). were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Muzio's son. disappeared. flagellant confraternities. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. Spanish. in Venice. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Francesco Sforza. who won control of Milan in 1450.e. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. in the service of Naples. The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. commonly called either Compagnia di S. Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. primarily for syphilitics. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. or with the spiritual assistance of. and German--the condottieri. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. By the 16th century. which spread in the 15th century. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S. i. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260. in the service of Perugia. often called compagnie or.e. and Tuscany. . Carmagnola. By the end of the 14th century. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. often under the direction of.devastating Romagna. and his rival Braccio da Montone. scuole. With no goal beyond personal gain. convents of convertite. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. Toward the end of the 15th century. the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. Umbria. clergy. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises.
"placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. In medieval painting. contrapposto (It. Confraternities. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. founded c. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. and refuges for maidens. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . contour. e. but sometimes had their own premises. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies.i. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. notwithstanding their location. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. contour (Fr. the Florentine Neri. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. Later. flat outlines. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds. To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. contours were initially regular. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. e. in Florence. reformed prostitutes.g.e. 1514 in S. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. however.g. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic. While the Doge ranked above the Council. while the Venetian government. Dorotea in Trastevere. which accompanied condemned prisoners. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement.
The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. whose names are inscribed on several works. . in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s. cuprum. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. started the process of inner reform in the Church. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. a bracket of stone. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. They are often ornamented. large cornice or other feature. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. Reform programs. aes cyprium. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. The style spread as far as England. declining moral standards. an engraving produced in this way. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages.weight on one leg. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. 1100 and 1300. corbel In architecture. conventiculurn. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. 1280). such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). Lat. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventicle (Lat. did not achieve any lasting results.
cupola (Lat. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. Usually. Carthaginians. the condemned man. due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. i. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. reedy sound. There were various methods of performing the execution. the first Christian emperor. or "scourged." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Next.e. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. Jews. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. Seleucids. particularly among the Persians. Death. "small vat") In architecture. a small dome. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. a semi-circular vault. cupula. the most famous victim of crucifixion. after being whipped. D dado . where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground. Constantine the Great. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. An ancestor of the oboe. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD.
design") In Renaissance art theory. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. a favorite late medieval picture subject. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diptychum. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. decorated diffrently from the upper section. usually in matching pairs. an expressive use of nature. deacon (Gk. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. danse macabre The dance of death.g. Anglican and Orthodox churches. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. disegno (It. who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. Germany. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. Deësis (Gk. which was help to be the basis of all art. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. often an altarpiece. The term stresses not the literal drawing. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. Passau. diakonos. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. and Linz possessed common characteristics. e. diptych (Lat. diptychos. "drawing. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Gk. but the concept behind an art work. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never .
donor (Lat. distemperare. "to mix. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). donator. It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. such as we still use today. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . Ordo Praedictatorum. doublet A male garment. a 19th-century invention. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue. As disegno appeals to the intellect. distemper (Lat. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. which runs on castors or wheels. formerly worn under armour. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. when painters took to working out of doors. "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances.fully realize. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. usually forming a ceiling or roof. The studio easel.Thomas Aquinas. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. though a few artists. also used it on canvas. dome in architecture. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). is a heavy piece of furniture. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Dominicans (Lat.
engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. the frieze. It consists of the architrave. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. John (19. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. en face In portraiture. and logos. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. ensemble (Fr. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. in art. Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. "last". sculpture. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. eschaton. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off. and the cornice. Ecce Homo (Lat. Hence. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. "word") . entablature In classical architecture. epitaph (Gk. fresco. full face. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. sometimes combining panel painting. eschatology (Gk. and architecture. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. a depiction of Jesus.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. bound and flogged.
4500 BCE. . Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism. Giovanni Morone. which is called "maiolica. protector of shepherds. Marcantonio Flaminio. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware." and charis. "good. Eucharist (Gk. Germany. Italy. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. celebrated with bread and wine. Contarini. which is called "delftware. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther." and that made in the Netherlands and England. which was famous for maiolica. Augustine. Carnesecchi and Ochino. Jerome. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. and is named for Faenza. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. Equated with the Greek god Pan. and of the last things. It developed in France in the early 16th century. he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. eu. and Scandinavia.death and resurrection. Vittoria Colonna. Saints Ambrose." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. particularly ware made in France. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. farmers. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. fields and livestock. which was developed in the Near East ca.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. Spain. notably Cardinal Pole. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion.
fluted of a column or pillar. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. and flowers suspended in a loop. The colour of his horse is white.8). famine and death. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. relaxed. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223). and these areas. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. frescos in Italy . that of the others red. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. black and dun. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Committed to charitable and missionary work. war. sword and set of balances. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. Only a small area can be painted in a day. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. can in time be seen. such as plague. fresco (It.festoni (It. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). 2 . a technique known as a secco fresco. Their attributes are the bow. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. a swag. leaves. drying to a slightly different tint. Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre.
just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. covings and ceilings. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. a person's invisible tutelary god.Save in Venice. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. are genres of painting. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . where the atmosphere was too damp. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. Final details. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. G Garter. the intonaco. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. In art from the classical period onwards. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. for example. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. or true fresco. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. usually childish figure. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. It was founded by Edward III in 1348. both in churches and in private and public palaces. or fresco secco. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature. The technique of buon fresco. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. genre In a broad sense. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. landscape and portraiture. Genius in classical Rome. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil).
such artists as Pieter Bruegel. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. As such. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. in portraits and on tombs. how it differed from notoriety. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. as well as writers and artists. Maria Gloriosa). but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements. whether it must be connected with the public good. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. and as spurring on men of action. Maso di Banco. Bernardo Daddi. (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. Gobelins . it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. The nature of true gloria was much discussed.
a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. Golden Fleece. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. In other Italian cities. Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order. . The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). still in existence today. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. who appointed Lebrun Director. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. golden section (Lat. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. This ratio is approximately 8:13. thereafter it made only tapestries. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. and although it reopened in 1699. sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. Paris.French tapestry manufactory. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art.
like the cultural and commercial. Denis. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. that the effects are to be felt. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. 1200 and c. c. The artistic. In thinking of Nicola (d. In particular. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. 1270. There is a transcendental quality. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. Nevertheless. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. from the 13th until the 17th century. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. or the influence of one building. the superficial particularities of form. In sculpture and in painting. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Amiens. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. and lies much deeper than. . In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. painting. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. Gothic Gothic. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. painting. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated.
with sable. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. and Piranesi. and taste among the English. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. without visible brush marks. Such tours often took a year or more. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians.and hog-hair brushes. sometimes in the company of a tutor. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. Dubuffet. It is thinned with water for applying. to white or tinted paper and card and. if required. These qualities. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). to silk. and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. . Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. and Morris Graves. chiefly to France. It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. the Netherlands. Klee. Pannini. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. genius. the beau idéal of the French. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. and the great style. are but different appellations of the same thing'. starch. occasionally. and above all Italy. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. Canaletto. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Honey. notably in the writings of Bellori. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry.
1216. became an abiding feature of European politics. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. to Provence and Paris. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. then as now. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. however. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. In Florence. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. In the context of the fine arts. Some writers. which had recruited most of the merchant class. . when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. after this. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. usually gray. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans. In 1266-67 the Guelf party.e. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. internal factions in Florence went under other names. including text as well as illustrations. grisaille (Fr. the parties taking a multitude of local names. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. however. From 1266 to 1268. c. After the War of the Eight Saints. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry. gris. In another sense. drawing and the various forms of engraving. through central Italy. Although its palace was rebuilt c. it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. exclude drawing from this definition. and Waiblingen. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. brother of Louis IX. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples.
outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. In 16th century Venice. goldsmiths. "[knowledge of] heraldry. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. and provided assistance to members in need. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. trade or profession (painters. héraut. print or painting. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. In some cities. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. "herald") ." from Fr. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. H hatching In a drawing. The guild also monitored standards of work. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. The guilds were not equal. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. surgeons. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. such as Brescia and Vicenza. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. but in time they acquired other functions. Guilds were also patrons of art. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. heraldry (Fr. In Italy they go back a long way. for example. notably Florence in the 14th century. In Florence. [science] héraldique. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. In some towns. as some did). commissioning paintings for guildhalls. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. or professions. trades. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. and greater hostility between master and man. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence.
The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism. and regarded themselves as forming. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. By contrast. they were condemned in 1184. from the start. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. the Cathars were an anti-church. while others merged with the Waldensians. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. together with brethren north of the Alps. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. the Waldensian. i. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. one great missionary community. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. the followers of Juan de Valdes. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. indeed. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. head of the 'carnal Church'. The main impact of the . with the rules governing their use. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. However. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. as Antichrist. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. d.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). normative for churchmen. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church.
The 19th-century romantic movements of England. humanus. its subjects considered morally elevating. F. and. Germany. humanism (Lat. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. At the same time. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty. mainly in the south. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. and classical literature. B. working from 1825 to 1875. history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. American painters were studying in Rome. Frederick E. From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. In humanism. Durand. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Kensett. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. George Inness. and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Jasper Cropsey. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. the emancipation of man from God took place. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. history (usually classical history). hortus conclusus (Lat. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B.movement upon the laity was in southern France. my spouse'. S. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. F. Morse. Thomas Cole. Church. in his earlier work. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). Henry Inman. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years. J.
and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to
follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence
In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows
Donatallo. soft style. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. there are representations of the bundle of rods. inventio (It. trecento rococo and lyrical style. and the ladder. are also used in art literature. the pincers. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. investiture . and they are also depicted on their own. beautiful style. the ability to create. Human figures. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. originality. the scourge that was used in the scourging. with many further details added. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. Veronica. etc. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. or of other saints. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. the hammer.g. For instance. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. invention. In the second half of the 14th century. it denominates a kind of behaviour. usually the donors of a work of art. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Derived from classical rhetoric. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary. the veil of St. the rooster of Peter's denial. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. The terms court style. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.
Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. who traveled in Italy and. of Utrecht. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. Nicolaes Berchem. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. The Both brothers. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. generally Dutch or Flemish. principally Dutch. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). Ignatius Loyola in 1534. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. . Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. bathed in a golden haze. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. although they are usually called Romanists. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. Andries and Jan Both. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. and Jan Asselijn. Jerome's writings. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. Upon his return to Holland. Both and Berchem. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn. Italianizers Northern artists. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins.
encouraged by the Crusades. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. the rite of communion is based on this. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513). especially one at which the Bible is read. Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516). One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. Legenda Aurea (Lat.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land. John of Jerusalem . Archbishop of Genoa. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. As their military role grew. liberal arts . The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date). published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils.as the Friars of the Hospital of St. lectern A reading stand or desk. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends.1519). Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.
painting or sculptural decoration. It is related to. Maria Novella in Florence).grammar. commemorating a marriage. astronomy and music. Pythagoras for arithmetic. . and Frederick E.g. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. often sublime. comprising arithmetic. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). a semicircular space. Heade (1819-1904). characterized by effects of light in landscapes.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. together with identifying attributes (e. then the basis of a philosophical training. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. poetic atmosphere. lunette (Fr. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. John F. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. often standing in markets and town squares. Martin J.g. Tubal for music). through the use of aerial perspective. that may contain a window. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. Church (1826-1900). geometry.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. "little moon") In architecture. loggia (It. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. the quadrivium. its roof supported by columns. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. rhetoric and dialectic. Kensett (1816-1872). Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). first the preparatory trivium . that could be used for public ceremonies. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e.
manganese purple. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. madrigal A part song. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. particularly such ware produced in Italy. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. but they painted genre scenes. "almond") . It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. and iron red. antimony yellow. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. active mainly in Florence c. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. originating in Italy in the 14th century. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. historical subjects. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. "great mother") A mother goddess. 1855–65. for example. Specifically. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). with white provided by the tin-glaze material. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. mandorla (It. originally sung without accompaniment. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. copper green. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. being written. magna mater (Lat. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. When white is used for painting. usually for the lute. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue. the goddess Cybele. and portraits as well as landscapes. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. and accompaniments. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. and however bright their lighting effects. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters.
Parmigianino. often ornamented with decorative borders. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. illuminated initials and miniatures. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism (It. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. bound. the Codex manuscriptus. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. Developing out of the Renaissance. In Mannerist painting. Bronzino. more strictly. and crowned with thorns. In architecture. mantle An overcoat. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. and literary texts. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. It reached to the knee or foot. complex and crowded compositions. in a specific sense. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. the hand-written medieval book. maniera. marked by flagellation. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. "manner. depending on the social class of the wearer. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. El Greco and Tintoretto. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. strong. worn open. Flanders. Burgundy. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. ecclesiastical. it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. which was quarried at Mount .
Carrara. Without monetary value. a different design on the reverse. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn . Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. an inscription running round the rim. having finished his training.Pentelicon in Attica. martyrion. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. the medal's purpose was commemorative. medallion In architecture. quarried at Massa. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. Like the finest Imperial coins. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. marmi finti (It. masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. "witness. proof") the sufferings. martyrdom (Gk. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). particularly by Michelangelo. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. sleek surface. The pure white Carrara marble. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles.
the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. A Dutch officer. 1425-1504). 14601528). The process is essentially extinct today. the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. This yields a soft effect in the print. as it were. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. 1640. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. 1467-688). . Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. In pure mezzotint. supposedly to petrify her enemies. particularly. c. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. Medusa In Greek mythology. often anonymous. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli.round the neck. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. It was. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. for landscapes and portraits. Her head features on Minerva's shield. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Ludwig von Siegen. a Gorgon. The work of these men. c. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. of the person portrayed on the other side. who reflected them. the stress on individual character. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. 1452-1526/27). even grain. no line drawing is employed. in England. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. perhaps oddly. When Perseus cuts off her head. 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. and of the many.
1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror. Many such small versions. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.g. still exist. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. "one color") Painted in a single color. executed on a very small scale. ink and paint. monochrome (Gk. often quite highly finished. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. e. motto (Ital. monokhromatos. Francis himself. pointed headdress worn by bishops. "word..miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. saying") . usually portraits. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators. a branch of the Franciscan order. by Tiepolo and Rubens. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. a painting executed in a single color. Parmigianino (d. miter A high. painting in gouache on vellum or card. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk.
N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. In general. . and Casino Massimo. and two other members moved to Rome. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. 1816-17. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. nave (from Lat. idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. Rome. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible. The invention of personal mottos. In 1810 0verbeck. Berlin. Nazarenes A group of young. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. named after the patron saint of painting. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. 1817-29). where they occupied the disused monastery of S. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches. navis.from the Middle Ages. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. It may have parallel aisles on each side. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. naturalism (Fr. Pforr. Isidore. often separated from it by pillars. and is intersected by the transept. but often insipid.
Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. nigellus. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). is as true as it is notorious. niello (Lat. Nymphaeum (Gk. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). "aureole") The disc or halo. were usually old when elected. Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals.) . Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. nimbus (Lat. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. Popes. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. usually golden.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. the style of the Ancien Régime. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. moreover. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. but their ideas continued to be influential.
. the Doric order. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. the three basic styles of design. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. a more elaborate base. and entablatures. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. was the simplest. observances") Rites performed for the dead. and its greater tonal range.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. Greek goddesses of Nature. with a sturdy. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. such as linseed. They are seen in the form of the columns. "services. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. walnut. or poppy. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). inborn sin. and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. capital. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. orders of architecture In classical architecture. its richness of colour. The earliest. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. O obsequies (Lat. a small private chapel. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. obsequia. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). fluted column and a plain capital.
The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house. Alberti described the palace as a city in little.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced. while shops came to be thought undignified. and large windows appeared on the ground floor. the Cancelleria). reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. P pala (Ital. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. Palazzo Strozzi). In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. designed as a . tradition and social structure. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. palazzo (It. standing at the foot of the Cross. related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. 'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations.g. with biforate windows. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. and. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). like cities. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. and the main apartments above. Usually pointed or rounded at the top. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration.
originally evolved in response to specific conditions. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome.g. behind a sober Florentine façade. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy.scholarly retreat. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation. Palazzo Massimi). column-caps. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. e. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). and large households. the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. and Palladio's in Vicenza. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Rich. Other cities. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. especially after the Sack of Rome. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). cornices and abutments. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. came to be applied all over Europe. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. often built next to their titular churches. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. like the colonnaded vestibule. lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Papal incentives to build. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. like Genoa. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces. panel . Following Oriental patterns. Movement of patrons and architects. Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. evolved influential types. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. palmette. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves.g. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. In Venice.
the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish.Term in painting for a support of wood. fibre-board. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. As successors to St Peter. as it were. Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). as distinct from canvas. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. or the incidence of taxation. A number of matters. however. fir. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. the management of clerical dues and taxation. Then. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. On a larger scale. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe. including beech. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. The third aspect was administrative. linden. Having a circular plan. and the pressure and temptations . so that they might have a voice at court. the. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. In the 20th century cedar. could lead to conflict with secular authorities. olive. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. enforce law and order. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. chestnut. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth. and walnut. secular rulers. larch. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. teak. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. to influence popes in their favour. and modern painters have also used plywood. mahogany. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. and other synthetic materials as supports. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. or other rigid substance. slate has occasionally been used as a support. cedar. To maintain their authority. and spanned by a single dome. Many other types were used. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. metal. and dark walnut are favourites. wooden panels were the standard support in painting.
however. To resolve the problem of divided authority. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. in spite of further absences from Rome. could supersede that of a pope. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. would. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. of individuals. The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. which met at Constance 1414-18. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority. in the eyes of God. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). from the point of view of its religious associations. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. the most appropriate . Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. It was argued that such a council. however. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. was long in doubt. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). Colonna and Caetani. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. the acceptance of the city as the most practical . Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. to be long delayed. as such. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. By then. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. As at Avignon. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. possess an authority which. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months.that could be applied to them. So onerous. There remained. if it did no serious damage to the faith. however. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. at Avignon. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). which seems so inevitable.as well.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France.
It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. less frequently pig. in classical literature. the creation of a cultural capital. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century.. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. and with Zeuxis (c. 425 BC) and Apelles (c. However. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. Passion . nymphs. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. goat. through lavish patronage of artists. scholars and men of letters. it has also been used for painting. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. pastoral (Lat. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. to a world peopled by shepherds. and other animals. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. 400-300 BC). Parrhasius (c. pastor. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. as well as a governmental one. and satyrs. and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf.
projecting either centrally or at both ends. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. 1478. 1478). pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. a prominent section of a monumental façade. But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. papilio. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. which focus on the Suffering Christ. but not necessarily a direct copy. Portrayals of the Passion. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.) or pasticcio (It. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. ornamental building. and so on. such as a garden summerhouse. and also the archbishop of Pisa. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. pastiche (fr. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. pavilion (Lat. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence.The events leading up to Good Friday.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. hence tent") A lightly constructed. "butterfly. the crown of thorns. wealthy citizen. . Meanwhile. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Francesco Salviati. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. a region in north-central Italy. a small. patrician (Lat. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. patricius.
in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. dependent") One of a pair of related art works. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. "to see through. . though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. physiognomy (Gk. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. persona. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. personification (Lat.) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective). "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. pergola (It. The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. and gnomon. or related elements within an art work. "person". perspective (Lat. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. physis. concept or deity. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. in particular the face. "nature". and facere. "hanging. see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. perspicere. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. pendant (Fr. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century.
in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner. glue. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. Peter's. much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. containing the public rooms. pigmentum. affording a good subject for a landscape. but may consist of a cluster of columns.piano nobile (Ital. remarkable for singularity. for example. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). or resin to make paint. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. exemplified. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. A pier is generally larger than a column. Rome. but full of variety. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. curious details. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. proper to take a landscape from. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. . "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. pigment (Lat. both real and painted.) The main floor of a building. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. striking the imagination with the force of painting. to be expressed in painting. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. usually above the ground floor. Pietà (Lat.
but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. a shaft. the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. it is difficult to find. Thenceforward. plague Plague. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. moreover. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. such as Florence and Genoa. despite regional variations. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. outside Tuscany. Rocco and Sebastian. in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. For this reason. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. perhaps. the burning of 'infected' clothing. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. pilastrum. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. In the 15th century.pilaster (Lat. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. It seems probable. and capital. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. however. for instance. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. "pillar") A flat. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). though in less widespread. also used in Spain's American colonies. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. since. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. and thereafter all Europe. more sporadic outbreaks. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. it has a base. It is often fluted. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. in October 1347. During 1348 the Black Death. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7.
and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. composition. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. lasted from about 1525 to 1560. heraldic escutcheons. Theatetus and the Laws. placement. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. correct classical orders became frequent. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. or appropriateness. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. Phaedrus. The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). Timaeus. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings. utilized Mudejar ornament -. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. are the masterworks of the second style. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. A student of Socrates. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. or simply the Plateresque. harmonious. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399.. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. like its successor. Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The second phase. Phaedo. The first phase. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. which lasted only a few decades. and unified style using massive geometric forms. the Renaissance-Plateresque. i. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens.e. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. The first phase. Philebus. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. Diego evolved a purer.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. and sinuous scrolls. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. In contrast with Aristotle. the Symposium. the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. more severe.
for example with Symphorian Champier (c. Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. and the Chaldaic Oracles. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. and he utilized many other writings. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century. and Agostino Steuco (c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. systematized and added to what Plato had done. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. partially. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. Plotinus. including those of Plotinus. but not completely. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. the greatest of his ancient disciples. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. 1472-c. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. all of which he also translated into Latin. near Florence. replaced Ficino's. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe.in Plato's thought. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Rather unsystematic. Iamblichus.1577) becoming particularly popular. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). A new Latin translation. Unlike the case of Aristotle. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction.
polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. where a pectoral is used to close it. as in classical architecture).Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Frequently supports a pediment. Plato was read in the universities. plinthos. poluptukhos. porticus. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. Some polyptychs were very elaborate. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. portico (Lat. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . Lat. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. plinth (Gk. portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. or statue. such as processions and consecrations. pointed arch In architecture. column. pluviale. pluvial (Med. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. polyptych (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses.
Group portraits. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground.e. Florence (1486-90). Desiderio da Settignano. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. Colleoni. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. 1328. Cathedral) by Uccello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. and the . The 16th century portrait became generalized. the Carracci. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. Palazzo Farnese). directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome.. Mantua. National Gallery). psychologically more complex. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael. decorating whole rooms. Florence. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. was revived in the 14th century. and only a decorative accessory to form. Campidoglio). painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers. The realism of the clear. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. The equestrian portrait. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. Maria Novella. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello.sculptors such as Donatello. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. Siena. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. inessential. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. flattened image. Gattarnelata. Venice).
The styles of S. Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary. are not florid in style. to discharge their preaching duties. Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. several of whom became bishops. Charles Le Brun. 1494). Fiamma's sermons. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. bishop of Chioggia. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. was versed in classical and patristic . sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). As Poussin was a Frenchman. took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. together with the Dominican Savonarola. bishop of Asti." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. bishops especially. of the sermon as an art form. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. Correggio. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). and. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. from the secular clergy. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. who had as their ideal masters Titian.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. minatory exhortations. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Savonarola and Musso. in their appeals for communal religious renewal. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. The sermons of Visdomini. abrasive even. however. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. Borromeo. and Peter Paul Rubens. not least those of statesmen and prelates. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. primarily the mendicants.
central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. Naples). Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). Because of the small size of predelle . The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. the temptations of Adam and Christ. and so forth. Louis of Toulouse (1317. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. The New Testament references in these would. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above. Millais and Rossetti. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act. though often relatively very wide . presbyterion "Council of Elders") . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. prefiguration Typology . who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome.rhetoric. predella (It.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . Such a polyptych consists of a principal.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. however.g. Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. tapestries. among them Holman Hunt. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals.
sculpture and architecture. and Houdon among sculptors. intended as complete works of art in themselves. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). The following are important: 1. the Canon of Proportion. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. again indicative of the purpose they served. these highly finished drawings. Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. Prix de Rome A scholarship. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). notably David. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. Fragonard. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. proportion (Lat. proportio. the quadrature. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. projecting shelf on which to kneel. 2. the golden section. 3. "evenness") in painting. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. Girardon. The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. which uses the square . profil perdu (Fr. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters.
the steward or treasurer of a church. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. for example).as a unit of measurement. architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura. a fifth = 2:3. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century. a fourth = 3:4. putti sing. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. harmonic proportions. and 5. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. . for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. putto (It. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. 4. Rome. one half the length of the other). Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. It was common in Roman art. Unlike Pozzo. triangulation. provenance The origins of an art work. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. Ignazio. "boys") Plump naked little boys. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus).
A congregation may be either a subsection of an order.Quattrocento (It. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. e. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. the object of particular veneration. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. with the Anglican Church developing in England. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. Donatello. "remains") a part of the body of a saint.g. or some item connected with a saint. Among the . canons regular. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. basso rilievo). in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. also known as the Realist school. friars and nuns. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. in which figures are seen half round. Botticelli. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. in particular works by Masaccio. relief (Lat. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the great orders of monks. in which figures are almost detached from their background. hermits. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). relic (Lat. refectory (Med. Fra Angelico and others. and high relief (alto rilievo). Lat. or the Jesuits. In 16th century Europe. relevare. relicquiae. Brunelleschi.
the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. Maria di Fregonaia. which was to become the main Italian one. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. however. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. Benedetto. Bernardino of Siena.e.contemplative orders. was the congregation of S. The same bull . the great issue of contention being the strict observance. it became the Cassinese congregation. who had no overall organization originally. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Giustina. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. various groups were fused in the latter body. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. The Conventuals. Mantua. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. presided over by chapters general. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. the most notable being S. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. S. Venice (1404). having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. At the same time. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. That of S. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. and their more institutionalized brethren. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. Giorgio in Alga. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. The Silvestrines. Padua. the Conventuals. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. their resources being in the hands of trustees. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. Lorenzo Giustiniani. In 1504. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals. In 1517. The Benedictines. and the generally moderate Observants. Bologna (1419). Lucca. Founded by St Romuald c. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. 1012. the great patriarch of Venice. developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. After the repression of the Spirituals. i. Salvatore. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. although technically of secular canons. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal.
Michele in Isola. The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. The first. Gaetano da Thiene. also. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. founded in 1535 by S. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. however. founded by S. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. Venice. a historical period. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. however.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. Filippo Neri. the Theatines. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. Gerolamo Aemiliani. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. S. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. Angela Merici.
he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. of an energetic revival of interest in. life. the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. Thereafter. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. the historical reality of antiquity. however. For long. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. too long forgotten glories. and competition with. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. which had begun early in the 14th century. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. because its core of energy. even Amoralism. 1875-86). Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. of 'darkness'. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. was so vast and potent. All-Roundness. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. as well as political. and his own as potentially one of light. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it.century. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). however. increasingly. of arts. of letters. of scholarship. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. .
later still to Genoa. sometimes. though sometimes of metal. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. congruence between. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. candlesticks. because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal. however. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). Though thus challenged. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. in the more limited sense. and is decorated with paintings. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. gratefully. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. Ghent). Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity.) was the term chosen. The panel is usually made of wood or stone. It is for this additional. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside. letters. of industrialization. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. and mass media. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. especially in the High Gothic period. etc. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions.with all its shabbiness . consist merely of a painting. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. The challenges are to be accepted. and other liturgical objects. the previous record .erased. statues. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. mobilized nationalism. Cathedral of SaintBavon. as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. let alone a uniform. retables can be detached and. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. (3) There is not a true. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. There was an early. etc.
Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized.France. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. and 'Romanesque'. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. its mood lighthearted and witry. More usually. Italy. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged.in the 11th century. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism. . is a typical product. rilievo (It. "relief") In painting. almost simultaneously.of St Mark in Venice. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. Louis XV furniture. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. Romanesque art. literally. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. like 'Gothic'. Originally commissioned in 976. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. Rococo A style of design. As the name suggests. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. in several countries . With the development of freestanding altars. and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). and architecture dominating the 18th century. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). often considered the last stage of the Baroque. however. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. that it stands out from its background fully rounded. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. retables have become extinct. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Germany. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. it indicates a derivation from Roman art. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. the St. rocaille (French. Spain . painting. the first style to achieve such international currency. richly decorated with organic forms. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries.
Claude. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. Rome. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Massys and M. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. they maintained. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The aim of painting. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. M. making it the centre of the High Renaissance. Mabuse. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. . in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. stylized design representing an open rose. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome. Q. Piranesi. the development of nationalistic pride. van Heemskerk. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. van Orley. Pannini and Mengs. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. In addition. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. such as red ochre. B.
gutted. There were no limits on time. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. holy orders. Orthodox.expressed through gesture. Eastern independent.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. when it finally left the city it had devastated. The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. Sacra Conversazione (It. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84). A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. Clement escaped into Castel S. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions. but others were the work of well-known figures. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). penance. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army. The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. matrimony. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. pious legend and hagiography. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. confirmation. Many compositions were anonymous. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. and Protestant churches. local saints. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. Subjects were nominally sacred. Written primarily in ottava rima. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. from the Old and New Testaments. multiple sets used in succession. but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. the Eucharist. and impoverished. and Lorenzo de' Medici. In the . sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. glance and movement . supported by lay confraternities.greatly increased. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. and anointing of the sick. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants .
" which are called sacramentals. They were still seeking aid. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger... the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.e. baptism and the Eucharist. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper.e. as in the Church of the Brethren. chapter 13. that the price of salt should be increased. The classical Protestant churches (i. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. Immediately following baptism. strictly speaking. notably from Florence and in Germany. used for drawing. Saracens . Thus. Candidates first face west. large room.) Hall. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. fixed the number of sacraments at seven. make such strict distinctions. and sacraments. the Orthodox Church does not. the Bentivoglio. was not maintained as a sacrament. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology.i. was buried under a new fortress. replaces the Lord's Supper. as an excuse to revolt. Lutheran." sala (Ital. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. which in the Gospel According to John. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not.early church the number of sacraments varied. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. foot washing. The theology of the Orthodox Church. Anglican. in principle. The chief focus of discontent. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. the symbolic direction of Christ. It is still practiced on special occasions. the sun of righteousness. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. and then face east. sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. Hence. Salt War. sacraments. the Rocca Paolina.
210 AD). in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. 360 . the Arabs or Muslims. wood or terracotta. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).During the Middle Ages. Little known in the Middle Ages. made of stone. and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.c. pl. 45 BC). 270 BC). are lost. legs and horns of a goat. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition. whose writings. sarcophagus. and many others. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. the god of wine. Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. sarcophagi (Gk. The publication of Latin (1562. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. satyr In Greek mythology. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. 160 . The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ).c. human-like woodland deities with the ears.
with France and her allies Aragon. Alexander V. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. while England. and. was called Bamboccio. who had the support of the Avignon pope. Charles III of Durazzo (d. who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. the Florentines. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. from time to time both he and his opponents. As a result. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). for. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals.they had individual Bentnames . Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. while devout Christians agonized. but with little effect. on the other. than their medieval predecessors. being Frenchmen. on one side. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). In northern Italy. one of the early leaders. 1386) and his son Ladislas. Schism. who recognized the Roman pope. This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. However. in June 1409. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). most of whom. Louis I (d. Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. scholasticism . the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban.for example Pieter van Laer. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome.
such passages have frequently flaked off with time. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. (See also: fresco. Medieval scholars. In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. and Islamic literature. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. if lime-water was used. notably Aquinas. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. It was because the central concerns of humanism .The term is ambivalent.) . and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition. university-based study. As such.were different from those of medieval. Christian. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). as it is easier to add details in this way. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish.moral philosophy. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. Padua. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. and theology. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. that scholasticism was left. textual scholarship. Serenissima (Ital. moreover. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. the plaster had to be damped before painting. Often called the burning ones. because the secco technique is much less permanent. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. history and rhetoric . Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). as it were. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. on one side. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. None the less. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia).
in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface.. "the most serene republic of Venice"). or bronze with a silver tip fused to it. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. the number gradually rose to ten. which were all identical in thickness. sfumato A technique. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. Servite (Lat. and the delicate. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. at the same time. Lat. sibyls (Gk. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. "prophetess") In antiquity. Sibyls foretold the Birth. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. Originally. Signoria (It. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. They first appear in alpine monasteries.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. brass. just as the male prophets of the Bible did. sibylla. in use since the Middle Ages. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. sinopia . sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. there was only one Sibyl. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. women who could prophesy. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. term. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. In Christian legend.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. usually presided over by individual families. Med. in the period of classical antiquity.
Francis of Assisi. in other words. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . sotto in sù (It. "mark.The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. soffit (Lat. sing. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil). is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. stigma (Gk. especially in the flow of drapery. Stanze (Ital. staffage This word.'Beautiful Madonnas'. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. stigmata.. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet. It is very closely related to International Gothic. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. pronounced as French. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. Ital. . as the name implies.) Wooden ceiling decoration. and. brand. Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting.
This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. supremacy . Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization. helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. Indeed. The vogue for the Sublime. pl.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. studiolo.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. both external and internal.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). studioli (It. John Milton. By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. whose verses actually fabrications . sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer). notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. In a looser sense. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). stucco A type of light. The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. with that for the Picturesque. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757).
chiefly from Flanders. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. both for panel painting and fresco. and in literature. i. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. Salviati and Allori. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. But the Italians did not make them. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries.e. or cartoons. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara . T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c.Historically. These were imported. doubtless. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. his own headquarters. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. was being decorated with frescoes. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. 1407). temperare. into Italy. tempera (Lat. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk).and. London. . The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. The subject is underexplored. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. then being replaced by oil paint. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones.e. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. i. Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. vessels. walls. and later to subdivide gable ends. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. in the architecture of ancient Rome. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tondi (It. figure of speech. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. and other surfaces. topia. pl. "a commonplace") In literature. terraferma (Ital. "fields. pl. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. in art. tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. quarter face. tondo. triumphal arch. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. topos. Trajan's Column . a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. and profile. widely used form. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topiary (Gk. model.terracotta (It. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. and sculptures. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. topoi (Gk. theme or motif. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. It is used for architectural features and ornaments. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen).
' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror. Disseminated soon after his death. Trinity (Lat. death. time and eternity.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. behind it. or wings. the wars by which they were won . Early triptychs were often portable. usually an altarpiece. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons. triptych (Gk. tryptychos. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. as it were. of both sexes'. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. . after 'a countless number of virgins. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. the Son and the Holy Spirit. beside it the army of martyrs. trinitas.' Before it go the apostles. into a number of less controversial forms. chastity. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. Battista Sforza. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. patriarchs and prophets. added to the glamour of the triumph. a car so brave'. fame. "threefold") in Christianity.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. Meanwhile. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. the military triumph became sublimated. of virtues and of the arts. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself.
creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. "drum") In classical architecture. tusche A thick. enclosed by an arch. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. through various naturalistic devices.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Dating from classical times. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. viscous black ink. tympanum (Lat. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. it is usually decorated with carvings. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. It incorporates Renaissance features. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. first recorded in 1232. In medieval architecture. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. often decorated with sculptures. tromp l'oeil (Fr. typology . a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses.
slayer of Goliath.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. In Christian thought. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. were popular with them also. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. The numerous candles. the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. Judith. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453). Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). each had access to his paintings. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences.g. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. knew his former patrons. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21).Dirck van Baburen (c. and David.) The Renaissance "universal man". and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). where they were most accessible.A system of classification. and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . e. 1610). and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. killer of Holofernes. . especially his half-length figural groups. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. lanterns. 1590-1624). U uomo universale (It. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . such as five works devoted to the senses. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.
Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. it was used to decorate furniture. varietà (It.). vanitas (Lat. hour-glasses and clocks. There are a wide range of forms. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. V vanishing point In perspective. Vespers (Lat. vesper. vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. the groin vault. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. carriages. The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. Also varietas (Lat. and even flowers (which will soon fade). Parisian craftsmen. overturned vessels. often gold. snuff boxes and other objects. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. a work's richness of subject matter. guttering candles. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. "evening") . and the rib vault.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. mixed in. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches.
to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. and Sloth. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. "life") . Gluttony. Charity. In ancient Roman dwellings. Fortitude. if you have it not'. Vestibule (Lat. Hope. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. vita. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vestibulum. Covetousness. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs.Prayers said in the evening. The seven Virtues were: Faith. in which the word signifies efficacy. Lust. vite (Lat. Prudence. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. vimperga Of German origin. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. Anger. virtù could be used. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. Temperance. pl. rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. for example. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. the church service at which these prayers are said. actual or latent. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. "not exposed to winds". and Justice. Envy. 'Assume a virtue.
as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. 1472. The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. and the occasional wars thereafter (e. 1482-84). W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. The wars from 1494 do. and of Ferrara. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. or recovery from illness has been made.An account of someone's life and work. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables.g. a biography. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. they were from the 18th century . the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. usually when a prayer for good fortune. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. Sculptors and Architects"). 1478-80. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. those of Volterera. Marcus (1st cent. and appalled recognition of. in fact. Vitruvius Pollio. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. protection from harm. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. published in 1550 and 1568. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari.
until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.
Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.
A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.
Weltanschauung (Gr. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. "Western work of art". based on stylization of various animal forms. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist. gallery. Westwerk German word. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. during its subsequent history. usually linear. It was intended to have a variety of functions. "world view") A comprehensive world view. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. woodcut A print made from a wood block. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. treasury or a place where justice was administered. . they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. pompous on the floor above. a philosophy of life. usually restorers. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it.