A acanthus (Lat. acanthus Gk. Akantha, "thorn") a thistle species very common in the Mediterranean.

Its large, jagged leaves, curving in slightly at the tips, have been a favorite ornamental pattern since classical antiquity. aedicula A shrine or niche framed by two columns, piers, or pilasters carrying an entablature and pediment (triangular or segmental). aerial perspective A way of suggesting the far distance in a landscape by using paler colours (sometimes tinged with blue), less pronounced tones, and vaguer forms. alb (Lat. alba tunica, "white garment") the white, ankle-length garment worn by priests during Mass, under the stole and chasuble. all' antica (It. "from the antique") (of an art work) based on or influenced by classical Greek or Roman art. allegory (Gk. allegorein, "say differently") A work of art which represents some abstract quality or idea, either by means of a single figure (personification) or by grouping objects and figures together. Renaissance allegories make frequent allusions both to both Greek and Roman legends and literature, and also to the wealth of Christian allegorical stories and symbols developed during the Middle Ages. altarpiece A picture or sculpture that stands on or is set up behind an altar. The term reredos is used for an ornamental screen or partition, not directly attached to the altar table but affixed to the wall behind it. A diptych is an altarpiece consisting of two panels, a triptych one of three panels, and a polyptych one of four or more panels.

From the 14th to 16th century, the altarpiece was one of the most important commissions in European art; it was through the altarpiece that some of the most decisive developments in painting and sculpture came about. ambulatory Semicircular or polygonal circulation space enclosing an apse or a straight-ended sanctuary. anamorphosis Device commonly used in 16th-century paintings and drawings whereby a figure or object is depicted not parallel to the pictorial plane but projected at an oblique angle to it, and so highly distorted. The viewer resolves the optical distortion of form that results by looking at the picture at the same oblique angle. Anghiari, battle of A Florentine and papal army defeated a Milanese force under Piccinino outside this town near Arezzo (29 June 1440). Macchiavelli, in his History of Florence, used it shamelessly as an example of the reluctance of mercenaries to risk death in battle: he put the casualties as 'one man killed, and he fell off his horse and was trampled to death', whereas sources available to him put the joint fatalities at some 300. It was a subject of a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (chosen because it was primarily a cavalry engagement and he could show horses in combat). The fresco rapidly decayed and its composition is best known from the sketch Rubens made of its central part. Annunciation the term for the event described in the Gospel according to St. Luke, when the Angel Gabriel brings the Virgin Mary the news that she is to bear her son, Jesus Christ. The Annunciation was among the most widespread pictorial subjects of European art during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Antique, Classical world (Lat. antiquus, "old") the classical age of Greece and Rome began with the Greek migrations of the 2nd millennium BC, and ended in the West in 476 AD with the deposition of the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus (c. 475 AD); in the East it ended in 529 AD when the Platonic Academy was closed by Justinian (482 - 565 AD). Antwerp Mannerists Group of Antwerp painters of the early 16th century whose work is characterized by Italianate ornamentation and affected attitudes. Unconnected with later Mannerism.

Apelles (c. 330 BC) one of the most famous painters of ancient Greece, noted above all for his startling realism. Painters of the Renaissance tried to reconstruct some of his compositions, which have come down to us in written accounts only. Apocalypse (Gk. apokalyptein, "reveal") the Revelation of St John, the last book of the New Testament. The wrath of God descending upon the earth is depicted in three visions; in the form of terrible natural catastrophes, in the battle between the forces and good and evil, and in the union of a new Heaven and new Earth in the Heavenly Jerusalem. The announcement of the Second Coming of Christ at the end of the world was intended to console the persecuted Christians and also prepare them for the horrors connected with the event. Apocalyptic Madonna the depiction of the Virgin Mary as the "Apocalyptic Woman" mentioned in the Revelation of St. John (Chapter 12, verse 1). She is "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars"; she is described as pregnant, and her enemy is a dragon. In the wake of Mariological interpretations of this passage, Gothic art increasingly gave the Woman of the Apocalypse the features of the Virgin Mary, and after the l4th century the devoted relationship of mother and child was emphasized in depictions of the Apocalyptic Madonna, with reference to the Biblical Song of Songs. Apocrypha (Gk. apokryphos, "hidden") Jewish or Christian additions to the Old and New Testaments excluded from the Canon. Apostle (Gk. apostolos, "messenger") one of the twelve disciples of Jesus, chosen personally by him from amongst his large crowd of followers in order to continue his work and preach the gospels. applied art Term describing the design or decoration of functional objects so as to make them aesthetically pleasing. It is used in distinction to fine art, although there is often no clear dividing line between the two terms. apse (Lat. absis, "arch, vault")

roofed with a half-dome. A metal plate is sprinkled with acid-resistant varnish. The adjective is apsidal. Degas. and Rouault. Picasso. and great variety of tone can be obtained by immersing in acid and varnishing in turn (the longer the add bites. the lowest part of the entablature). "arch") A series of arches supported by columns. "architectural") Relating to structure. but in essence the process is as follows. the darker the tone). an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds.e. architectonic (Gk. arch The pointed arch is widely regarded as the main identifiable feature of Gothic architecture (distinct from the round arch of the Romanesque period). arcade (Lat. which is fused to the plate by heating. . The term applies also to a print made by this method. Aquatint was invented around the middle of the 18th century. Lancet and Tudor. the moulding around a window or door. In a blind arcade the arches are built into a wall. In Greek and Roman literature. "chiefbeam") In classical architecture. and in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. and when the plate is immersed in an acid bath the acid bites between the tiny particles of resin and produces an evenly granulated surface. including Goya. arcus. The design is created by drawing on the plate with add-resistant varnish. architrave (It. Arcadia A mountainous area of Greece. aquatint An engraving method related to etching but producing finely granulated tonal areas rather than lines. piers or pillars. arkhitektonikos. design. There are several variants of the technique. Smaller subsidiary apses may be found around the choir or transepts.A semicircular projection. or organization. was highly popular in England for reproducing watercolours (colour could be added by hand or by using several plates with different coloured inks). The three most common Gothic arches are the Equilateral. It has also been used as an original creative medium (sometimes in conjunction with other graphic techniques) by many distinguished artists. a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived. Also known as an exedra. the main beam resting on the capitals of the columns (i. at the east end of a church behind the altar.

attributum. In Early Netherlandish art the archivolt is often depicted showing sculpted scenes relating to the central subject of a painting. aureole (Lat." and Lat. From bare accounts of land purchases and marriage settlements. drawn up largely by Philipp Melanchthon and approved by Luther himself. The Confessions of St Augustine provided the example of an inward autobiography . voltus. aureolus. "front arch. "added") A symbolic object which is conventionally used to identify a particular person. there had been relatively little of it in antiquity and even less in the Middle Ages. Late Medieval devotional tracts which described the battles between Heaven and Hell for the souls of the dying and recommended to Christians the proper way to behave at the hour of their death. it is usually the nature of their martyrdom. archeiu. attribute (Lat.and the Comedy . dominate. Records of business ventures and public offices were the starting point for autobiographies of external action: .archivolt (Ital. archivolto.are intensely autobiographical but are not autobiographies. like those of the early 15th century Florentine merchants Goro Dati and Giovanni Morelli. "begin. It was presented to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg 1530. autobiography Autobiography as a distinct literary genre was one of the more original products of the Renaissance. "the art of dying well") a small book on death. Ars Moriendi (Lat." from Gk. "golden. or the Zibaldone quaresimale of Giovanni Rucellai (1457-85). In the case of martyrs. The roots of the secular autobiography are to be found in the books of ricordanze (memoranda) kept by Italian professional and business men from the late 13th century. usually a saint. "turned") a set of concentric and projecting moldings with which the face of an arch is decorated. beautiful") a halo or "glory" enclosing the head or sometimes the whole body of a holy person. Augsburg confession A classic statement of Lutheran doctrine. Dante's Vita nuova . these personal notebooks could develop into family histories which might also contain soul-searching and self examinations.the story of the author's search for God but no imitator was able to approach its level of introspection until Petrarch's Letter to posterity and Secretum.

the Papacy was brought back to Rome by Gregory XI. like Petrarch's 'unholy Babylon'. leaving the character of the author to be deduced from his actions. or baldacchino (It. an architectural canopy of stone or wood set over a high altar or bishop's throne. which he likened to the harlot of the Apocalypse 'full of abominations and the filth of her fornication'. Between 1100 and 1309 the popes had only spent 82 years in Rome. who had been residing in France since 1305. made in Rome in the mid-17th century. Avignon gave them a long breathing space to assemble the machinery and the values which characterized the Renaissance Papacy after its final resettlement in Rome. Avignon The decision to move the Papacy here was made in August 1308 by Pope Clement V. in 1377. paintings of everyday life. All the popes elected at Avignon were French. the god of wine and fertility. that of Buonaccorso Pitti is a lively narrative of fortunes won and lost through trading and gambling (written 1412-22). The Commentaries of Enea Silvio Piccolomini (Pius II) similarly concentrate on events. was mainly a term of abuse directed at a Papacy that had acquired security enough to revive its legal and financial pretensions and to build lavishly and live well. Yet though the period has been called one of 'captivity' to France. The supreme example of the (apparently) unconsciously revealing autobiography is the famous Life of Cellini: of the deliberately revealing one. 'Captivity'. Later. that of Cardano. The city was not on French territory: it belonged to the Angevin princes of Naples. "brocade") Originally a textile canopy supported on poles and carried dignitaries and relics. The actual move was made in 1309. Bambocciati Group of relatively small. B Bacchus In Greek and Roman mythology. the Avignonese residence was not one of uninterrupted truckling to French kings. applied to the physically . balustrade A rail supported by a row of small posts or open-work panels. Six pontificates later. The word derives from the nickname "Il Bamboccio" ("Large Baby"). baldachin.while the Cronica of Jacopo Salviati is a fairly wooden account of captaincies and embassies 1398-1411. often anecdotal. Bacchic rites were often orgiastic. as were 113 of the 134 cardinals appointed during this time.

Baptisteries were among the most symbolic of all Christian architectural forms. such as those at Pisa. and Poitiers.malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95-1642). In Renaissance art they are often held by angels. a baptistery was roofed with a dome. Because van Laer and his followers depicted scenes of the Roman lower classes in a humorous or even grotesque fashion. Easter. The baptismal font was usually octagonal. pope between 432 and 440. and the characteristic design that was developed by the 4th century AD can be seen today in what is probably the earliest extant example. After the 6th century they were gradually reduced to the status of small chapels inside churches. The painter Salvator Rosa was particularly savage in his comments about the later followers of the style. AD 273. Baptisteries commonly adjoined the atrium.. but because baptism originally was performed on only three holidays. banderole (It. Spalato [Split. France. circular Roman buildings that were designated for religious purposes (e. of the church and were often large and richly decorated. Customarily. a church. or canopy.g. Florence. Lebanon. Parma. el Kantara. Alg. the symbol of the heavenly realm toward which the Christian progresses after the first step of baptism. The form of the baptistery originally evolved from small. built by Sixtus III. which symbolized in Christian numerology a new beginning. or connected with. As eight follows the "complete" number. Baalbek. the baptistery of the Lateran palace in Rome. so the beginning of the Christian life follows baptism. beggars in rags. the Temple of Venus. in which the sacrament of baptism is administered. or forecourt. AD 300). set beneath a domical ciborium. The baptistery was commonly octagonal in plan. van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the pictorial cohesiveness of Caravaggio's dramatic tenebrist lighting. a visual metaphor for the number eight. Croatia]. their works were condemned by both court critics and the leading painters of the classicist-idealist school as indecorous and ridiculous.. Pentecost." The Bamboccianti (painters of Bambocciati) influenced such Dutch genre painters as Adriaen Brouwer and Adriaen van Ostade. seven. "small flag") A long flag or scroll (usually forked at the end) bearing an inscription. and Epiphany. banderuola. and the Mausoleum of Diocletian. baptistery Hall or chapel situated close to. and encircled by columns and an ambulatory--features that were first used in the baptistery by the Byzantines when they altered Roman structures. enlargement of the older Roman buildings became necessary to accommodate the growing numbers of converts. whom he criticized for painting "baggy pants. and abject filthy things. . and Nocera in Italy. Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent.

and increasingly elaborate decoration. it then became a place of assembly for the early Christians. In architecture. The development of the Baroque reflects the period's religious tensions (Catholic versus Protestant). the dramatic use of light and shadow. "an irregular pearl or stone") The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. Also tunnel vault. 1817-1878). In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: (1) sumptuous display. a new and more expansive world view based on science and exploration. something of earlier symbolism survives. Daubigny was the first of the plein air painters. and Charles-François Daubigny (French. usually facing east. "king's hall") a church building. Constant Troyon (French. a village on the outskirts of the Forest of Fontainebleu. barocco. the basilica was an ancient Greek administrative building. basilica (Gk. (2) dramatic realism (Caravaggio). achieved through scale. or baptismal chapels. Originally. 1796-1875). when baptism by affusion (pouring liquid over the head) became standard practice in the church. 1814-1875). Other members of the group were Jean-Baptist Corot (French. In most modern churches the font alone serves for baptism. Jules Dupré (French. 1811-1889). In this sense the term covers a wide range of styles and artists. 1807-1876). a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe (Bernini. Barbizon School A group of naturalist landscape painters who worked in the vicinity of Barbizon. and the growth of absolutist monarchies. and thus a church. Jean-François Millet (French. however. with a tall main nave and two or four side aisles of lesser height. Vermeer). which is reserved for the clergy. 1810-1865). Narcisse Diaz de la Pena (French. and the Romans used this form for markets and law courts. were often omitted entirely. baptisteries. stoa basilike. 1812-1867) was the founder of the group. Baroque (Port. contrasted with vaults that are supported on ribs or a series of arches. in the 1840s and 1850s. southeast of Paris.In the 10th century. in its usual location near the church door .an allusion to entering the Christian life. There may also be a transept between the nave and the choir. and (3) everyday realism. Rubens). Their approach constituted an art movement which eventually led to both Realism and Impressionism. there was an emphasis on expressiveness and grandeur. barrel vault A ceiling that is like a continuous circular arch or tunnel. Théodore Rousseau (French. a development seen in particular in Holland (Rembrandt. . In a more limited sense the term Baroque often refers to the first of these categories.

such as those by Diego Velázquez. Bolognese school In the most restricted sense. such as Waldmüller. Book of Hours . The term is sometimes extended to cover the work of artists in other countries. who personified the solid yet philistine qualities of the bourgeois middle classes. It takes its name from its grainy texture. often with food and drink. the term was applied to a wide range of genre paintings depicting figures of humble origin. especially Spanish. Biedermeier Term applied to a style characteristic of much German and Austrian art and interior decoration in the period roughly between the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) and the Year of Revolutions (1848). like their Dutch counterparts. The term was mainly used up to c.and early 17th-century Italian painters Lodovico Carracci and his cousins. domesticity. and the art to which he lent his name eschewed flights of the imagination in favour of sobriety. As early as the 1590s Flemish and Italian kitchen and market scenes were referred to as bodegónes in Spanish inventories. biscuit Unglazed ceramic. up until the mid-17th century. were referred to by their specific contents. particularly porcelain. in which still-life predominates. Due to the still-life aspects of bodegónes. or which is to be left as it is. however. were often regarded as inconsequential and even disreputable by contemporary society. These genre scenes were sometimes set in the rough public eating establishments from which they take their name. also incorrectly called bisque. no major painters associated with Biedermeier but many excellent practitioners. bodegón Image. over time the term came to refer to still-lifes in general. the brothers Agostino and Annibale Carracci. Bodegónes. Such paintings were imitated by Spanish artists. the works produced and the theories expounded by the late 16th. Spanish still-lifes. as is to be expected. They were generally monochromatic so as to emphasize relief and volume. The name derives from a fictional character called Gottlieb Biedermaier (sic) from the journal Fliegende Elssner (Flying Leaves). Biscuit porcelain. There were. 1650 in Spain.Battle of Lepanto Naval battle during the course of which the 208 ships belonging to the Holy League gained a decisive victory on 7 October 1571 over the 210 ships of the Ottoman Turkish fleet on the edge of the Gulf of Corinth. which is either not yet glazed. and often sentimentality. is often employed to make miniature versions of marble statuary. By association. though it is often part of a kitchen or eating scene.

by a variety of processes. By extension.both hot and cold . but can also be used for painted sketches. usually necessary to strengthen those of great height. days of the week.an advantage over marble sculpture. sketch) Usually applied to models for sculpture. It is easier to cast than copper because it has a lower melting-point. illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé. or seasons. bronze An alloy of copper (usually about 90 per cent) and tin. durability. a rapid sketch in oil. months. often also containing small amounts of other metals such as lead or zinc. containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day. breviary A book of daily prayers and readings used by priest and monks. and its surface beauty can be enhanced when it acquires a patina. made as a study for a larger picture. though these are more often called 'modelli'. and the fact that it is easily workable . Since antiquity it has been the metal most commonly used in cast sculpture because of its strength. a small three-dimensional sketch in wax or clay made by a sculptor in preparation for a larger and more finished work. The colour of bronze is affected by the proportion of tin or other metals present. See flying buttress. Chantilly).A prayer book used by laymen for private devotion. buttress A mass of stone built up to support a wall. varying from silverish to a rich. bottom view A form of perspective in painting that takes account of the viewer's position well below the level of the picture. coppery red. and its great tensile strength makes possible the protrusion of unsupported parts . They became so popular in the 15th century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts. bozzetto(Italian. . bozzetto Strictly speaking. from the late 15th century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts.

box") In architecture. ceramics. private room where works of art. The strong influence of the Byzantine style on medieval Italian painting can be seen in the works of Cimabue. Duccio. a fact usually reflected in a highly finished style and the subject matter. camera obscura . an attribute of Mercury and a symbol of healing and of peace. or shell having layers of different colours and carved so that the design stands out in one colour against a background in another. from the 5th century to the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. C cabinet A small. over time the term was used for the collections themselves. which had its capital in Constantinople (Byzantium). mosaics. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries. a sunken panel in a ceiling or vault. caisson (Fr. and work in precious metals. valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure. hieratic and unchanging (central images were thought to derive from original portraits). manuscript illuminations. caduceus A rod entwined with a pair of snakes. Byzantine art also absorbed a wide of influences. It also served to glorify the emperor. Based largely on Roman and Greek art. cabinet painting A small painting which was intended to be viewed closely and at leisure in a Renaissance cabinet. Byzantine art was essentially a spiritual and religious art. cameo Small relief made from gems. and Giotto. its forms highly stylized. "a chest. glass. casson. notable from Syria and Egypt. Among its most distinctive products were icons. which was often allegorical. Cabinet paintings and pieces first occur in the 15th century and are associated with the development of private collections.Byzantine art The art ofthe Byzantine Empire.

-N. followed by smaller and even pocket models. It is now so familiar a material that the word 'canvas' has become almost a synonym for an oil painting. both of which have richly carved marble panels. capitellum. dating to antiquity. The result was that an inverted image of the outside scene was cast on the opposite wall. usually built beside or attached to a church. Niepce created photography. The Latin name means "dark chamber. the word is most often used in connection with Italian architecture. candelabra. "little head") The head or crowning feature of a column or pillar. candelabrum (It. by the 16th century. capital (Lat. cantorie (It. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral. The best-quality canvas is made of linen. otherwise it will absorb too much paint. For centuries the technique was used for viewing eclipses of the Sun without endangering the eyes and. The introduction of a light-sensitive plate by J. capitals broaden the area of a column so that it can more easily bear the weight of the arch or entablature it supports. as an aid to drawing.Ancestor of the photographic camera. usually in a church. only very rough effects will be obtainable. campanile Bell tower. but it was not until around 1500 that it began to rival the wooden panel (which was more expensive and took longer to prepare) as the standard support for movable paintings (the transition came later in Northern Europe than in Italy). other materials used are cotton. Structurally. candela. and parts of the fabric may be rotted by the pigments. "candle") A large. pl.) A gallery for singers or musicians. the subject was posed outside and the image reflected on a piece of drawing paper for the artist to trace. canvas A woven cloth used as a support for painting. cantoria. the interior of the box was painted black and the image reflected by an angled mirror so that it could be viewed right side up. Canvas is not suitable for painting on until it has been coated with a ground. Portable versions were built. which was usually whitened. consisted of small darkened rooms with light admitted through a single tiny hole. usually decorated." and the earliest versions. and jute. usually with several branches or arms. . hemp. sing. which isolates the fabric from the paint. It must also be made taut on a stretcher or by some other means. candlestick.

and the order became receptive to late medieval mysticism. In the 19th centurry designs submitted in a competition for frescos in the Houses of Parliament in London were parodied in the magazine Punch. Carthusian Order (Lat. in the 16th century reforms introduced by St. The order combines reclusive and community life. the endeavour to attain true humanity. near Grenoble. Prudentia (Prudence) and Justitia (Justice) that were adopted from Plato (427-347 BC) in Christian ethics. "pasteboard") A full-scale preparatory drawing for a painting. Gregory the Great (540604 AD) added the three so-called Theological Virtues of Fides (Faith). In fresco painting. Ordo Fratrum Beatae Mariae Virginis de Monte Carmelo) "Brothers of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel".both Italians and artists from other countries . a Roman Catholic order of contemplative mendicant friars.who imitated the style of Caravaggio in the early 17th century. Spes (Hope) and Caritas (Love/Charity). details of the subject. Founded in Palestine in the 12th century. Cardinal Virtues (Lat. In the 13th century the order was refounded as an order resembling the Dominicans and Franciscans. Fortitudo (Fortitude). New Charterhouses. or a motto.a humorous drawing or parody. the Carmelites were originally hermits. Carmelites (Lat. cartoon (It. a simulated piece of paper that carries an inscription bearing the artist's signature. and humanism. At the height of the Middle Ages.Caravaggists The term 'Caravaggisti' is applied to painters . "hinge") the four principle virtues of Temperantia (Temperance). the design was transferred to the wall by making small holes along the contour lines and then powdering them with charcoal in order to leave an outline on the surface to be painted. cardinalis. were built in the 14th and 15th centuries. cartone. the date of the painting. cartouche . monasteries containing separate hermitages. Teresa of Ávila led to the creation of the Barefoot (Discalced) Carmelites. or fresco. Ordo Cartusiensis strict Catholic monastic order founded in 1084 by Bruno of Cologne (1032-1101) in the Grande Chartreuse. this Christian system of Virtues was further extended. cartellino. pl. cartellini In a painting. tapestry. From this the word has acquired its most common meaning today . An order of Carmelite sisters was founded in the 15th century.

seat or throne) The principal church of a province or diocese. castello (It. Florentine artists such as Sandro Botticelli. Sixteenth-century cassoni were elaborately carved with mythological and grotesque figures.An ornate painted panel on which an inscription can be written. For reasons lost to time and tradition. and Donatello were employed to decorate cassoni with paintings set in an architectural framework. palace. They contained the bride's clothes. and from the contemporary fame the cartoon acquired for its treatment of the abruptly alerted bathers. cassone (It. caryatid (Gk. or nave. when the greatest importance was attached to suitable marital alliances between Florence's wealthiest families. Although the finest marriage chests came from Italy. or arms of the cross. and many other items of her dowry. Worked on at intervals 1504-06.) "castle". These lead up to the north and south transepts. battle of The Florentines defeated a Pisan force here on 28 July 1364. and the most elaborately decorated piece of furniture of the Renaissance. where the throne of the bishop is placed. In the 15th century. The altar is placed at the east end. this remained unfinished and is known (partly)only from a somewhat later copy of the cartoon. of the cathedral is usually divided into one main and two side aisles. The engagement is best known as the subject of a fresco commissioned for the Palazzo Vecchio from Michelangelo. they were also used in other countries. chest) Usually used as a marriage chest. "priestess") A carved female figure used in architecture as a column to support an entablature. A number of paintings from cassoni of this period have been preserved. cathedral (cathedra. decorated with gilt gesso. putti (cupids). the shape in which a cathedral is usually formed. a cathedral always faces west . the cassone reached great heights of artistic achievement. and swags of fruit and flowers. or enriched with intarsia (mosaics of wood). Cassoni traditionally were made in pairs and sometimes bore the respective coats of arms of the bride and groom.toward the setting sun. taking some of them by surprise while they bathed in the Arno. Paolo Uccello. . Battle scenes and classical and literary themes were especially popular. The main body. Cascina. linen.

The precious stones and elaborate carvings employed for the embellishment of chalices have made them an important part of the history of ecclesiastical art. . these celestial beings serve important liturgical and intercessory functions in the hierarchy of angels. and perspicere. in accordance with their distance from the observer. all the converging lines lead toward a single vanishing point at the centre of the composition. champlevé (Fr. or birdlike characteristics. The glass powder melts filling the carved areas with solid glass. "see clearly') a scientific and mathematical method of three-dimensional representation developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1376 -1446) at the beginning of the 15th century. It was not until the recognition of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century that silver and gold became the usual materials for the chalice. in which grooves cut in the surface of a thick metal plaque (usually of bronze or copper. landscapes. but sometimes of gold) are filled with enamel and fired. cherub (plural cherubim) In Jewish. a celestial winged being with human. central perspective (Lat. 'raised ground') A technique dating from Roman times or earlier. In Christianity the cherubim are ranked among the higher orders of angels and. as celestial attendants of God. continually praise him. centralis. a throne bearer of the deity. "in the centre". buildings and figures that are being depicted. In the Middle Ages the legend of the Holy Grail surrounded the origins of the eucharistic chalice with a magical aura. Paul about "the cup of blessing which we bless" (1 Corinthians 10:16) and the accounts of the institution of the Eucharist in the first three Gospels indicate that special rites of consecration attended the use of the chalice from the beginning. Old Testament descriptions of the cherubim emphasize their supernatural mobility and their cultic role as throne bearers of God. moral laxity in the clergy and so on). chalice A cup used in the celebration of the Christian Eucharist. An illusion of depth is created on two-dimensional picture surfaces by precise foreshortening and proportioning of the objects. animal. rather than intercessory functions. Derived from ancient Near Eastern mythology and iconography. Relative to the observer. Christian.Catholic reform Attempts between the 15th and 16th centuries to eliminate deficiencies within the Roman Catholic Church (such as financial abuses. and Islamic literature. Both the statement of St.

the word came to be used in its general sense of "courtesy. The introduction of oil paints in the 15th century. The court of chivalry instituted by Edward III. reserved for the clergy to pray together. notably Lucas Cranach (1506). The primary sense of the term in the European Middle Ages is "knights. chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition. each producing a different tone of the same color so as to create tonal modeling. various painters experimented with using blocks of different color to produce novel artistic emphases." or "fully armed and mounted fighting men. but Ugo da Carpi's claims to have invented it in Venice in 1516 were generally accepted. Lastly. encouraged the development of chiaroscuro." Thence the term came to mean the gallantry and honour expected of knights. When the contrast of light and dark is strong. which led to the founding of the earliest orders of chivalry. for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. chivalry The knightly class of feudal times. "light dark") In painting. chiaroscuro woodcut A printing technique in which several printing blocks are used. choir (Gk. usually raised and set apart from the rest of the church. The concept of chivalry in the sense of "honourable and courteous conduct expected of a knight" was perhaps at its height in the 12th and 13th centuries and was strengthened by the Crusades. Since Carolingian times. the Order of the Hospital of St. with the lord high constable and earl marshal of England as joint judges.chiaroscuro (It. North of the Alps. the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. John of Jerusalem (Hospitalers) and the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Templars)." In English law "chivalry" meant the tenure of land by knights' service. had summary jurisdiction in all cases of offenses of knights and generally as to military matters. "choir" has been the word for the part of the central nave of the church extending over the crossing (the place where nave and transept . Hans Wechtlin experimented with the process in Strassburg between 1504 and 1526. choros. and Albrecht Altdorfer (1511/20). Hans Burgkmair (1510). or for choral singing. In the 14th and 15th centuries the ideals of chivalry came to be associated increasingly with aristocratic display and public ceremony rather than service in the field. replacing tempera. "group of singers and dancers") the part of a church interior. both originally devoted to the service of pilgrims to the Holy Land.

undulating cornices. most of the surviving examples having been cut down in size and transferred to chapels or sacristies. whereas the Triumphans type represents Him with open eyes and outstretched arms standing on (rather than hangign from) the Cross. became the most common motif. Although the name of the style comes from the family name of José Benito Churriguera. Churrigueresque Spanish Churrigueresco. In the sacristy of the Cartuja of Granada (1727-64). stucco shells.intersect). In Spanish America tendencies from both the native art of the Americas and the ever-present Mudéjar (Moorish art) have been incorporated. seen both by the congregation and the pilgrim. Very few still exist in their original positions. is among the masterpieces of Churrigueresque. The Christus Patiens (Suffering Christ) represents Christ as dead on the cross. undulating lines. Sculpted clouds. and San Martín at San Luis Potosí (1764) are excellent examples of Churrigueresque in Mexico. designed by Narciso Tomé for the cathedral in Toledo. gilded rays. An early example is provided by the work of Giunta Pisano. and the Churrigueresque column. Santa Prisca at Taxco (1758). The dramatic emphasis of the Patiens type is certainly to be connected with the influence of St Francis of Assisi. Restraint was totally abandoned in a conscious effort to overwhelm the spectator. Spanish Rococo style in architecture. reversed volutes. The Mexico cathedral (1718). balustrades. if not as delicate or as ingenious as that designed by Tomé. surfaces bristle with such devices as broken pediments. The Transparente (completed 1732). ciborium . The architects drew from other sources for the thick moldings. In addition to a plethora of compressed ornament. is as typically Churrigueresque. roofed with a half dome) that often stands at the end of this area. Tomé created an arrangement in which the Holy Sacrament could be placed within a transparent vessel that was visible from both the high altar and the ambulatory. and repetition of pattern. Luis de Arévalo and Francisco Manuel Vásquez created an interior that. further enriching the style. and garlands. and including the apse (a niche in the wall. a massing of carved angels. Christus Patiens and Christus Triumphans are the names given to the two main types of the very large painted crucifixes which normally stood on the rood-screens of medieval churches. which was shaped like an inverted cone. and architecturally directed natural light combine to produce a mystical and spiritual effect. historically a late Baroque return to the aesthetics of the earlier Plateresque style. an architect. the Churriguera family members are not the most representative masters of the style.

the wool carder Michele di Lando. the interval falling between the Gothic and Renaissance periods) are useful in suggesting the changing intellectual and cultural outlooks of late. in the important executive office of gonfaloniere of justice. and the new government failed to implement all their demands. beaters. Then. In reaction to this revolutionary . and of the uneasy transition to Mannerism in the visual arts. Cinquecento Designations such as Cinquecento (1500s. none could seek redress save from the Arte della Lana. They presented a series of petitions to the Signoria (executive council of Florence) demanding a more equitable fiscal policy and the right to establish guilds for those groups not already organized. on July 22. They were forbidden to form a trade association. In the latter sense the word is not easily distinguished from baldacchino. the manufacturers' corporation which employed them. or achieve political representation. Quattrocento (1400s. combers. A struggle between factions within the major ruling guilds triggered the uprising. The Cinquecento delimits a period of intense and violent changes in the whole fabric of Italian culture. Their economic condition worsened. On August 31 a large group of the ciompi that had gathered in the Piazza della Signoria was easily routed by the combined forces of the major and minor guilds. ciompi Ciompi was the name given to the most numerous class of day-labourers (dismissible without notice) in 14th century Florence's chief industry: those employed in the manufacture of woollen cloth as weavers. Early Renaissance) and the earlier Trecento (1300s. continued to agitate on their own during the month of July. who were raised to the status of a guild. but self-employed. etc. popular particularly in Italy in the Romanesque and Gothic periods. The new government. including the ciompi. revolt of the Insurrection of the lower classes of Florence in 1378 that briefly brought to power one of the most democratic governments in Florentine history. called upon to take part in the revolt in late June. craft of dyeing. placing one of their members.A term applied to both a liturgical vessel used for holding the consecrated Host and an altar canopy supported on columns. as also were those in the associated. and they were defeated by the more conservative elements in Florentine society. It refers to the century of the Protestant Reformation. Without being members of a guild. ciompi. High Renaissance).and post-medieval Italy. But the ciompi were soon disillusioned. of Spanish and Habsburg political domination. The ciompi ("wool carders") were the most radical of the groups that revolted. Members of the lower classes. controlled by the minor guilds. the lower classes forcibly took over the government. was novel in that for the first time it represented all the classes of society. Conflicting interests of the minor guilds and the ciompi became evident.

with Italian scholars. on which strings were plucked. classical Relating to the culture of ancient Greece and Rome (classical Antiquity). scholars patiently finding. changed greatly from one period to the next. except in cases where . Roman literature provided the starting point in the 14th century. In coloured prints the coloured areas are printed with clay plates. "light-dark") woodcut technique based on the reproduction of light and dark in drawings. and within four years the dominance of the major guilds was restored. the black contours usually with a special line plate. editing and translating a wide range of texts. the ciompi guild was abolished.together with the close study of the remains of Roman buildings and sculptures-expanded the concept of the classical and ensured it remained a vital source of ideas and inspiration. philosophy. In the 15th century Greek literature. clair-obscur (Fr. in which the various colours are separated by metal wire or strips soldered to the plaque. . cithara (Gk.episode. In clair-obscur prints the light areas are carved out of the printing plate. Concepts of the classical. philosophy and art . The classical world played a profoundly important role in the Renaissance. however. The classical world was considered the golden age for the arts.as in Italy these were dispensed with. cloth of honour a cloth of valuable material held up behind a distinguished person to set them apart visually from others (a custom deriving from classical antiquity). cloisonné (French: partitioned) A technique dating from the 6th century AD. where the effect depends on using the base of the drawing in the design of the image. resembling a lyre. They were often used to accompany a singer or someone reciting poetry. and artists seeing their own period as the rebirth (the "renaissance") of classical values after the Middle Ages. and politics.) An ancient musical instrument. literature. writers. clerestory A row of windows in the upper part of the wall of a basilicas nave (main aisle). in order to allow the white of the paper to take effect.

arch or ceiling. Luke) The painters' guild in Florence (named after St. "leader") Leader of a band of mercenaries engaged to fight in numerous wars among the Italian states from the mid-14th to the 16th century." by which the condottieri put themselves in the service of a city or of a lord. those with refined tastes. were frequently used in Renaissance palaces.coffering An ornamental system of deep panels recessed into a vault. literature or music. The first mercenary armies in Italy (often called free companies) were made up of foreigners. the intellectual or narrative program behind a work. pl. Compagnia de San Luca (Guild of St. complementary colours Pairs of colours that have the maximum contrast and so. the church service at which these prayers are said. compline (Lat. Green and red. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome. Luke because he was believed to have painted a portrait of the Virgin Mary). a work's underlying theme. and yellow and violet are complementary colours. Coffered ceilings. intensify one another. blue and orange. or "contract. sing. condottieri (It. as well as from the Bible. The name was derived from the condotta. "concept") In Renaissance art theory. cognoscente (It. colonnade Row of columns with a straight entablature and no arches. terrorized the country. . composed mainly of Germans and Hungarians. [hora] completa. occasionally made of wood. concetto. pl. "completed [hour]") The last prayers of the day. when set side by side. In the mid-14th century the Grand Company. condottiere. "those who know") Connoisseurs of art. concetti (It. cognoscenti. The earliest (1303) was composed of Catalans who had fought in the dynastic wars of the south.

the armies of the condottieri often changed sides. often under the direction of. Mark (1432). in the first place relief of the poveri vergognosi or 'shamefaced poor'. which spread in the 15th century. these functioned more as mutual aid societies and as administrators of charitable funds. and soon condottieri were conquering principalities for themselves. who won control of Milan in 1450. respectable people who had to be aided discreetly. i. Umbria. With no goal beyond personal gain. Martino). The Venetian scuole grandi were especially prestigious examples. By the 16th century. disappeared. or with the spiritual assistance of. The organization of the companies was perfected in the early 15th century by Muzio Attendolo Sforza. (2) Confraternite del Rosario. clergy. In the 16th century they also promoted hospitals of the incurabili. (1) Compagnie dei disciplinati or dei laudesi. who proved unequal to the gendarmery of France and the improved Italian troops. and German--the condottieri. confraternities Confraternities. although flagellant practices were retained in some cases. in the service of Naples. primarily for syphilitics. being primarily promoted by the Dominicans. in the service of Perugia. . Several major historic waves of foundations can be distinguished. i. flagellant confraternities. were religious associations of lay persons devoted to specific pious practices or works of charity. Guilds 'qua' religious associations had the character of confraternities.devastating Romagna. Less fortunate was another great condottiere. in Venice. associated with certain specialized charitable enterprises. and Tuscany. The soldiers who fought under the condottieri were almost entirely heavy-armoured cavalry and were noted for their rapacious and disorderly behaviour. (3) A group of confraternities which spread from the mid-15th century. Francesco Sforza. came to Italy in the 1360s during a lull in the Hundred Years' War and for the next 30 years led the White Company in the confused wars of northern Italy. Italians began to raise mercenary armies. which were conformist offshoots of the partly heterodox flagellant movement of 1260.e. Toward the end of the 15th century. often called compagnie or. perhaps the first example was the Florentine Buonuomini di S.e. It was one of the first to have a formal organization and a strict code of discipline. when the large cities had gradually swallowed up the small states and Italy itself was drawn into the general current of European politics and became the battlefield of powerful armies--French. was one of the most successful of all the condottieri. The Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. who first served one of the viscounts of Milan and then conducted the wars of Venice against his former masters but at last awoke the suspicion of the Venetian oligarchy and was put to death before the palace of St. scuole. Spanish. Muzio's son. and their battles often resulted in little bloodshed. commonly called either Compagnia di S. By the end of the 14th century. developed by the Provençal adventurer Montréal d' Albarno. one of the most famous of the non-Italian condottieri. Carmagnola. Girolamo or Compagnia del Divino Amore ('Company of Divine Love'. and his rival Braccio da Montone. convents of convertite.

and refuges for maidens. but sometimes had their own premises. in addition to giving them a ceremonial role. 1514 in S. While the Doge ranked above the Council.g. contour. "outline") a line around a shape in a work of art. but many ascriptions of leading church reformers to it are without sound foundation and there is no basis for its reputation as a seminal body in the Catholic reform movement. contrapposto (It. e. "Council of Ten") established in 1310. an offshoot and these took the lead in propagating Compagnie del Divino Amore in Italy. the splendid ones of the Venetian scuole grandi. congregation A close community of monasteries within the same monastic order. in Florence. or at least outside the framework of the parish and the diocese. In medieval painting. he had to use considerable personal power if he wanted to win against them.e. Confraternities commonly had chapels in parish churches or in the churches of religious orders. which accompanied condemned prisoners. Great confraternities might exercise public functions: certain Florentine ones concerned with welfare became effectively state magistracies. contour (Fr. relied upon the scuole grandi to distribute funds.g. flat outlines. "placed opposite") An asymmetrical pose in which the one part of the body is counterbalanced by another about the body's central axis. The new congregation of the Clerks Regular called Theatines was. founded c. and appear to be alternately more and less emphatic.i. This recruited some leading churchmen and papal officials (as a confraternity it was unusual in its heavy clerical membership). To this movement belonged the famous Roman Company or Oratory of Divine Love. in the course of the 14th century they acquired more sense of spatial effect. the highest political decision-making body in Venice. however. Ancient Greek sculptors developed contrapposto by creating figures who stand with their . Later. notwithstanding their location. and those which aided imprisoned debtors. e. reformed prostitutes. Consiglio dei Dieci (Ital. tended to be manifestations of lay piety independent of ecclesiastical institutions. contours were initially regular. Other types of confraternity were those of the buona morte. Dorotea in Trastevere. Its members were elected for a fixed term by the Senate. the hall of Orsanmichele housed a devotional and almsgiving confraternity as well as being a grain dispensary. Confraternities. the Venetian parliament of noblemen. its nature depending on the artist's concept and intention. the effect of contour in painting and graphic art became particularly important to artistic movements in which line and draughtsmanship was a prominent factor. while the Venetian government. the Florentine Neri.

conventiculurn. "meeting place") A religious meeting or society. Not until the Protestant Reformation were the Pope and Roman Curia forced to take specific action against abuse of position. the selling of indulgences and excesses in the worship of saints and relics. in three separate sessions between 15445 and 1563. declining moral standards. Pope Paul III (15341549) was responsible for the convocation of the Council of Trent which. . started the process of inner reform in the Church. whose names are inscribed on several works. Reform programs. It is characterized by the use of small pieces of coloured stone and glass in combination with strips of white marble to produce geometrical designs. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer. brick or wood that projects from a wall to support an arch. corbel In architecture. Cosmati work A type of coloured decorative inlay work of stone and glass that flourished mainly in Rome between c. cuprum. the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. Lat. an engraving produced in this way. and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna. They are often ornamented. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s.weight on one leg. did not achieve any lasting results. but there were several families of 'Cosmati' workers and many individual craftsmen. Counter-Reformation Term in ecclesiastical history referring to the reform of the entire Church which was widely believed to be necessary as early as the late Middle Ages. Copperplate engraving (late Lat. executed by imported Italian craftsmen. Cosmati work was applied to church furnishings such as tombs and pulpits and was also used for architectural decoration. large cornice or other feature. who developed a greater range of contrapposto poses. a bracket of stone. for example in the tomb of Henry III in Westminster Abbey (c. Contrapposto was revived during the Renaissance and frequently used by Mannerist artist. aes cyprium. The style spread as far as England. "ore from the island of Cyprus") A method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin. With the Laetere Jerusalem (1544) bull. conventicle (Lat. The term derives from two craftsmen called Cosmas. the movement of the hips to one side being balanced by a counter movement of the torso. 1280). such as those passed by the Councils of Constance (1414-1418) and Basle (1431-1437 and 1448) or the 5th Lateran Council (1512-1517). 1100 and 1300.

due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages.e. usually one set on a much larger dome or on a roof. D dado . a semi-circular vault. a small dome. Constantine the Great. reedy sound. could be hastened by shattering the legs (crurifragium) with an iron club. An ancestor of the oboe. Death. particularly among the Persians. the condemned man. the feet were tightly bound or nailed to the upright shaft. cupola (Lat. crumhorn A wind instrument popular throughout Europe in 16th and 17th centuries. where the upright shaft was already fixed in the ground.craquelure The pattern of fine cracks in paint. abolished it in the Roman Empire in AD 337. There were various methods of performing the execution. the first Christian emperor." dragged the crossbeam of his cross to the place of punishment. Jews. Seleucids. out of veneration for Jesus Christ. The crook is intended to resemble a shepherd's crook. "small vat") In architecture. apparently caused by exhaustion or by heart failure. Stripped of his clothing either then or earlier at his scourging. Carthaginians. Usually. after being whipped. The crossbeam was then raised high against the upright shaft and made fast to it about 9 to 12 feet (approximately 3 metres) from the ground. crucifixion An important method of capital punishment. i. the most famous victim of crucifixion. A ledge inserted about halfway up the upright shaft gave some support to the body. or "scourged. and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. Over the criminal's head was placed a notice stating his name and his crime. cupula. the crumhorn was a double-reed instrument that produced a soft. he was bound fast with outstretched arms to the crossbeam or nailed firmly to it through the wrists. so that shock and asphyxiation soon ended his life. evidence for a similar ledge for the feet is rare and late. it symbolizes the shepherd (the bishop) looking after his flock. crozier The crook-shaped staff carried by a bishop. Next.

consisting of two folding wings without a fixed central area. diakonos. Deacons originally cared for both the sick and the poor in early Christian communities.g. Holbein's woodcut series the Dance of Death is one of the most famous. an expressive use of nature. the style seems to exist even though leading artists did not form a school in the usual sense of the term. often an altarpiece. It is characterized by a renewed interest in medieval piety. "drawing. The term was coined by Theodor von Frimmel (1853-1928). who believed that painting in the Danube River region around Regensburg. "servant") a minister who was below the rank of priest in the Catholic. The term stresses not the literal drawing. diptychos. which was help to be the basis of all art. diptych (Lat. but the concept behind an art work.(1) The section of a pedestal between base and surbase. a live priest dancing with a skeleton priest. e. disegno (It. deacon (Gk. It generally shows skeletons forcing the living to dance with them. design") In Renaissance art theory. flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist acting as intercessors. Major artists whose work represents the style include Lucas Cranach the Elder. decorated diffrently from the upper section. Germany. "folded in two") in medieval art a picture. and elsewhere along the Danube river during the Renaissance and Reformation. since they did not work in a single workshop or in a particular centre. "request") the representation of Christ enthroned in glory as judge or ruler of the world. a favorite late medieval picture subject. Deësis (Gk. Anglican and Orthodox churches. usually in matching pairs. and the introduction of landscape as a primary theme in art. diptychum. danse macabre The dance of death. Gk. Albrecht Altdorfer and Wolf Huber. the relationship of the human figure and events to nature. Passau. (2) The lower portion of the wall of a room. Danube school Refers to a style of painting that developed in Regensburg. the design of a painting seen in terms of drawing. and Linz possessed common characteristics. With the Mannerists the term came to mean an ideal image that a work attempts to embody but can in fact never .

E easel Stand on which a painting is supported while the artist works on it. Dominicans (Lat. their intellectual authority being established by such figures as Albertus Magnus and St. Renaissance illustrations of the artist at work show all kinds of contrivances. The oldest representation of an easel is on an Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom (c. Ordo Praedictatorum. which runs on castors or wheels. The Dominicans were one of the most influential religious orders in the later Middle Ages. Donors sometimes had their portraits included in the work they were donating as a sign of piety. The studio easel. though a few artists. donor (Lat. dilute") A technique of painting in which pigments are diluted with water and bound with a glue.fully realize. hemispherical structure evolved from the arch. 2600-2150 2600-2150 BC). which was seen as appealing to the senses and emotions. is a heavy piece of furniture. it was considered far more important that coloure (colour). "giver of a gift") a patron who commissioned a work of art for a church. a 19th-century invention. Dominic in 1216 to spread the faith through preaching and teaching.Thomas Aquinas. Oil painters need an easel which will support the canvas almost vertically or tip it slightly . also used it on canvas. the commonest being the three-legged easel with pegs. Light folding easels were not made until the 18th and 19th centuries. Order of Preachers) A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. notably Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506). It was usually used for painting wall decorations and frescoes. and served to impress the c1ients of portrait painters. formerly worn under armour. usually forming a ceiling or roof. such as we still use today. distemper (Lat. The Dominicans played the leading role in the Inquisition. when painters took to working out of doors. that from the 15th century referred to a close-fitting jacket. "to mix. As disegno appeals to the intellect. dome in architecture. donator. doublet A male garment. distemperare.

and logos. Hence. sometimes combining panel painting. bound and flogged. Ecce Homo (Lat. ensemble (Fr. "Behold the Man!") The words of Pontius Pilate in the Gospel of St. It consists of the architrave. epitaph (Gk. sculpture. whereas the watercolourist must be able to lay his paper nearly flat so that the wet paint will not run down. in art. full face. epistaphion) Pictures or tables with reliefs and inscriptions erected in honour of the deceased in churches or sepulchral chapels. enamel Coloured glass in powder form and sometimes bound with oil. fresco. the ink remaining in the etched lines being transferred when the plate is pressed very firmly onto a sheet of paper. which is bonded to a metal surface or plaque by firing. en face In portraiture. "together") A combining of several media grouped together to form a composite art work. The term 'easel-painting' is applied to any picture small enough to have been painted on a standard easel. Ink is smeared over the plate and then wiped off.forward to prevent reflection from the wet paint. and the cornice. a pose in which the sitter faces the viewer directly. the part of a building between the capitals of the columns and the roof. the frieze. 5) when he presents Jesus to the crowds. John (19. eschaton. engraving A print made from a metal plate that has had a design cut into it with a sharp point. wearing a crown of thorns and a scarlet robe. "word") . eschatology (Gk. "last". Chapels were among the most notable Renaissance ensembles. and architecture. entablature In classical architecture. a depiction of Jesus.

Equated with the Greek god Pan. which was famous for maiolica. which is called "maiolica. Germany. faun Ancient Roman god of nature. Contarini. Fathers of the Church A title given to those leaders of the early Christian Church whose writings had made an important contribution to the development of doctrine. Italy. Giovanni Morone. and Scandinavia. and is named for Faenza. Vittoria Colonna. It is distinguished from tin-glazed earthenware made in Italy. Jerome. and of the last things. . he is frequently depicted with a goats legs and horns. fields and livestock. convinced of the inefficacy of human works. hence it does not relate at all to the term 'Evangelical' as used in German or English contexts." It has no connection to the ancient objects or material also named faience. celebrated with bread and wine. It developed in France in the early 16th century. notably Cardinal Pole. farmers. which is called "delftware. "thanks") the sacrament of Holy Communion. Carnesecchi and Ochino.the science of the end of the world and beginning of a new world. they stressed the role of faith and the allefficacy of divine grace in justification. Few of them broke with the Catholic Church. 4500 BCE. It has been applied particularly to the so-called spirituali of the Viterbo circle. which was developed in the Near East ca. F faience Tin-glazed European earthenware. to which they sought an answer in the study of St Paul and St Augustine. and also to Giulia Gonzaga. and Gregory the Great were often considered the four principal Fathers of the Church. was influenced by the technique and the designs of Italian maiolica. the most sacred moment of the Christian liturgy. Spain. "good. Gregorio Cortese and Vermigli. particularly ware made in France. protector of shepherds. Such persons combined a zeal for personal religious renewal with spiritual anxieties akin to those of Luther. Marcantonio Flaminio. Eucharist (Gk." and that made in the Netherlands and England." and charis. Evangelism The term is used in an Italian context to designate spiritual currents manifest around 1540 which might be said to have occupied the confessional middle ground between Catholicism and Protestantism.death and resurrection. eu. Augustine. Saints Ambrose.

can in time be seen. 2 . Their attributes are the bow. well-dressed figures are depicted in a pastoral setting. relaxed. "festoons) Architectural ornaments consisting of fruit. and flowers suspended in a loop. usually aristocratic scene in which groups of idly amorous. Only a small area can be painted in a day. a technique known as a secco fresco.festoni (It. frescos in Italy . Although the term fête galante ("gallant feast") is sometimes used synonymously with fête champêtre. and these areas. war.8). Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse the Four Horsemen in the Revelation of St John (Rev 6. Franciscans A Roman Catholic order of mendicant friars founded by St. drying to a slightly different tint. leaves. famine and death. a fact that was highly significant in the development of images of the Madonna in Italian art. The Horsemen personify the disasters about to happen to mankind. black and dun. "fresh") Wall painting technique in which pigments are applied to wet (fresh) plaster (intonaco). and the Franciscans became some of the most important patrons of art in the early Renaissance. In some sculptures the first rider is identified as Christ by a halo. that of the others red. fresco (It. Committed to charitable and missionary work. a swag. In time the absolute poverty of the early Franciscans gave way to a far more relaxed view of property and wealth. The pigments bind with the drying plaster to form a very durable image. which contains the description of the end of the world and the Second Coming of Christ. The colour of his horse is white. such as plague. Small amounts of retouching and detail work could be carried out on the dry plaster. it is also used to refer to a specific kind of fête champêtre: a more graceful. sword and set of balances. carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. fête champêtre (French: "rural feast") In painting. representation of a rural feast or open-air entertainment. they stressed the veneration of the Holy Virgin. fluted of a column or pillar. Francis of Assisi (given papal approval in 1223).

landscape and portraiture. and to a lesser extent for tapestries. just rough enough to provide a bond (sometimes enhanced by scoring) for the final layer of fine plaster. or effects impossible to obtain in true fresco pigments. and the artist set to work with water-based pigments while the plaster was still damp. where the atmosphere was too damp. Genius in classical Rome. a person's invisible tutelary god. the best known example of an entire composition in fresco secco is Leonardo's Last Supper. Final details. or a full-scale cartoon was prepared and its outlines transferred to the intonaco by pressing them through with a knife or by pouncing . genre In a broad sense. (Thus 'pulls' or slices of frescoes could be taken by later art thieves without actually destroying the colour or drawing of the work. G Garter. or fresco secco. usually childish figure. for example. the term is used to mean a particular branch or category of art. That portion of the design was repeated on it either by the same methods or freehand. involved covering the area with a medium-fine plaster. fresco painting was the habitual way of decorating wall surfaces in Italy. diminished the use of frescoes save for covering upper walls. could be added at the end in 'dry' paints. genre painting The depiction of scenes from everyday life. a technique in which pigment was laid on an unabsorbent plaster. The motto is Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil to those who think evil). In art from the classical period onwards. The blue Garter ribbon is worn under the left knee by men and on the upper left arm by women. Elements of everyday life had long had a role in religious works. and the essay and the short story are genres of literature.) It is usually possible to estimate the time taken to produce a fresco by examining the joins between the plastered areas representing a day's work. this allowed them to sink in before becoming dry and fixed. During the 16th century a liking for the more brilliant effect of large canvases painted in oils. both in churches and in private and public palaces. the intonaco.Save in Venice. are genres of painting. or true fresco. the lowranking god was depicted as a winged. Then over the intonaco enough of the final thin layer was applied to contain a day's work. Order of the The highest order the English monarch can bestow. covings and ceilings. Either a freehand sketch of the whole composition (sinopia) was drawn on the wall. pictures in which such elements were the subject of a painting developed in the 16th century with . The technique of buon fresco.blowing charcoal dust through prickholes in the paper. It was founded by Edward III in 1348.

The gisant typically represented a person in death (sometimes decomposition) and the gisant position was contrasted with the orant. The best-known of the 'Giotteschi' are the Florentines Taddeo Gaddi. Gobelins . gisant French term used from the 15th century onwards for a lying or recumbent effigy on a funerary monument. Maria Gloriosa). (2) To have the distinction of one's deeds recognized in life and to be revered for them posthumously: this was glory. The concept did not exclude religious figures (the title of the church of the Frari in Venice was S. glory (1) The supernatural radiance surrounding a holy person. who concentrated on the essential and maintained the master's high seriousness. The nature of true gloria was much discussed. as well as writers and artists. Giottesques A term applied to the 14th-century followers of Giotto. In Renaissance monuments gisants often formed part of the lower register. which represented the person as if alive in a kneeling or praying position. Vermeer being one of its finest exponents. whether the actions that led to it must conform with Christian ethics. how it differed from notoriety. glaze paint applied so thinly that the base beneath it is visible through the layer. whether it must be connected with the public good. Bernardo Daddi. in portraits and on tombs. as determining the lifestyles of the potent and the form of their commemoration in literature. but it was overwhelmingly seen in terms of secular success and subsequent recognition. Giotto's most loyal follower was Maso. where the deceased person was represented as a corpse. and as spurring on men of action. to surpass their rivals including their counterparts in antiquity. and to a lesser extent the Master of St Cecilia. it has been taken as a denial of medieval religiosity ('sic transit gloria mundi'). as a formidable influence on cultural patronage. Then Carracci and Caravaggio developed genre painting in Italy. As such. and thus a hallmark of Renaissance individual ism. Maso di Banco. while on the upper part he was represented orant as if alive.such artists as Pieter Bruegel. but it was in Holland in the 17th century that it became an independent form with its own major achievements.

thereafter it made only tapestries. Golden Fleece. the role of the gonfaloniers was similar to that in Florence. In Florence the gonfaloniers of the companies (gonfalonieri di compagnia) originated during the 1250s as commanders of the people's militia. Their premises became a tapestry factory in the early 17th century. a title of high civic magistrates in the medieval Italian city-states. Gonfaloniers headed the militia from the various city quarters. who appointed Lebrun Director. founded by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1430 in honor of the Apostle Andrew. The holder of this office subsequently became the most prominent member of the Signoria (supreme executive council of Florence) and formal head of the civil administration. which were woven at the Savonnerie factory) required for the furnishing of the royal palaces — its official title was Manufacture royale des meubles de la Couronne. This ratio is approximately 8:13. In the 1280s a new office called the gonfalonier of justice (gonfaloniere di giustizia) was instituted to protect the interests of the people against the dominant magnate class. still in existence today. golden section (Lat. and although it reopened in 1699. and in 1662 it was taken over by Louis XIV. The golden section is arrived at by dividing a line unevenly so that the shorter length is to the larger as the larger is to the whole. Initially it made not only tapestries but also every kind of product (except carpets. while the gonfalonier of justice often was the chief of the council of guild representatives. gonfalonier Italian gonfaloniere ("standard bearer"). The golden section (sometimes known as the golden mean). 1663-75) gives a good idea of the range of its activities. Paris. the symbol of the order is a golden ram's fleece drawn through a gold ring. In 1694 the factory was closed because of the king's financial difficulties. played an important role in Renaissance theories of art. For much of the 18th century it retained its position as the foremost tapestry manufactory in Europe. The Gobelins continues in production today and houses a tapestry museum. which was thought to express a perfect harmony of proportions. 0udry and Boucher successively held the post of Director (1733-70). sectio aurea) In painting and architecture. In other Italian cities. a formula meant to provide the aesthetically most satisfying proportions for a picture or a feature of a building. for the defence of the Christian faith and the Church. . Order of the Golden Fleece a noble chivalric order.French tapestry manufactory. In allusion to the legend of Jason and the Argonauts. named after a family of dyers and clothmakers who set up business on the outskirts of Paris in the 15th century. The celebrated tapestry designed by Lebrun showing Louis XIV Visiting the Gobelins (Gobelins Museum.

1270. which similarly distinguishes it from the preceding Romanesque style. that the effects are to be felt. There is a transcendental quality. In thinking of Nicola (d. whether in the soaring forms of the pointed arches or in the new stress on the humanity of Christ. 1284) or Giovanni Pisano (d. which may well have originated with Alberti as a derogatory term and which certainly corresponds to Vasari's 'maniera tedesca' ('German style'). and likewise it is hard to remember that the spectacular achievements of early Renaissance art are a singularly localized eddy in the continuing stream of late gothic European art. In sculpture and in painting. Denis. like the cultural and commercial. It is not merely at the level of direct exchanges between one artist and another. Amiens. painting. gives a special quality to the work of even those artists such as Giovanni Pisano or Simone Martini who most closely approached a pure gothic style. By northern European standards few Italian works of art can be called gothic without qualification. on sovereigns and other distinguished persons. is properly the descriptive term for an artistic style which achieved its first full flowering in the Ile de France and the surrounding areas in the period between c. interaction was continuous and much of the Italian achievement is incomprehensible if seen in isolation. whether directly from France or through German or central European intermediaries. and lies much deeper than. Nevertheless. the Italian reluctance to distort the human figure. Bohemia and north Italy in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.The kings of France traditionally bore the title gonfalonier of St. and the story of 13th and 14th century Italian architecture is as much one of resistance to the new style as of its reception. The artistic. stained glass and architecture which is epitomized in the great cathedrals of Chartres. from the 13th until the 17th century. The counterflow of influence and inspiration from South to North must likewise not be underrated. the superficial particularities of form. the contribution of Italian painters from Duccio and Simone Martini onwards is central to the evolution of the so-called International Gothic style developing in Burgundy. after 1314) there is same danger of forgetting what had happened in French sculpture half a century or more earlier. 1200 and c. and Reims or in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris. The streaming quality of line which is so characteristic of Brunelleschi's early Renaissance architecture surely reflects a sensitivity to the gothic contribution which is entirely independent of. or the influence of one building. In all the arts the predominantly planar forms of the Romanesque are replaced by an emphasis on line. manuscript or piece of sculpture upon another. and which then spread throughout northern Europe. conditioned by a never wholly submerged awareness of the omnipresent antique heritage. It is characterized by the hitherto unprecedented integration of the arts of sculpture. the vitalizing role of Northern gothic art throughout the early Renaissance and the period leading up to it should never be underestimated. Gothic Gothic. c. . painting. The honorary title of gonfalonier of the church (vexillifer ecclesiae) was conferred by the popes. In particular.

and British artists (such as Nollekens) were sometimes able to support themselves while in Italy by working for the dealers and restorers who supplied the tourist clientele. and above all Italy. and Morris Graves. chiefly to France. known also as poster paint and designer's colour. occasionally. Grand Manner Term applied to the lofty and rhetorical manner of history painting that in academic theory was considered appropriate to the most serious and elevated subjects. Among the native artists who catered for this demand were Batoni. and Piranesi. to silk. The classic exposition of its doctrines is found in Reynolds's Third and Fourth Discourses (1770 and 1771). Canaletto. His friend Poussin and the great Bolognese painters of the 17th century were regarded as outstanding exponents of the Grand Manner. Klee. . It is the medium that produces the suede finish and crisp lines characteristic of many Indian and Islamic miniatures. notably in the writings of Bellori. The idea of the Grand Manner took shape in 17th-century Italy. Gouache paints have the advantages that they dry out almost immediately to a mat finish and. the Netherlands. with sable. Pannini. Dubuffet. It also helped the spread of the fashion for Neoclassicism and an enthusiasm for Italian painting.and hog-hair brushes. with the capacities to be washed thinly or applied in thick impasto and a wide colour range that now includes fluorescent and metallic pigments. the beau idéal of the French. sometimes in the company of a tutor. without visible brush marks. Such tours often took a year or more. starch. It is thinned with water for applying. and it has been used in Western screen and fan decoration and by modern artists such as Rouault. make the medium particularly suited to preparatory studies for oil and acrylic paintings. There was also a flourishing market in guide books. and the great style. Liquid glue is preferred as a thinner by painters wishing to retain the tonality of colours (which otherwise dry slightly lighter in key) and to prevent thick paint from flaking. genius. Grand Tour An extensive journey to the Continent. if required. It had a noticeable effect in bringing a more cosmopolitan spirit to the taste of connoisseurs and laid the basis for many collections among the landed gentry. Honey. to white or tinted paper and card and. or acrylic is sometimes added to retard its quick-drying property. but the greatest of all was held to be Raphael. where he asserts that 'the gusto grande of the Italians. are but different appellations of the same thing'. that became a conventional feature in the education of the English gentleman in the 18th century. These qualities.gouache Gouache is opaque watercolour. Greek cross A cross with four arms of equal length. and taste among the English.

it had no part in the conflicts surrounding the rise of the Medici régime. it most usually refers to those arts that rely essentially on line or tone rather than colour — i. Although its palace was rebuilt c. and Waiblingen. and the chain of Guelf alliances stretching from Naples. Attempts by Guelf propagandists to claim their party as the upholder of liberty and their opponents as the protagonists of tyranny rarely coincide with the truth: power politics. 1216. "gray") A painting done entirely in one colour. however. to Provence and Paris. when Guelf meant a supporter of the Pope and Ghibelline a supporter of the Empire. drawing and the various forms of engraving. Guelf and Ghibelline were applied to the local factions which supposedly originated in a feud between the Buondelmonte and Amidei clans.e. exclude drawing from this definition. internal factions in Florence went under other names. gris. 1418-58 to the designs of Brunelleschi. so that the term 'graphic art' is used to cover the various processes by which prints are created. usually gray. . In Florence. In another sense. then as now. grisaille (Fr. with the Visconti of Milan and the della Scala of Verona emerging as the leading Ghibelline powers. Some writers. after this. the influence of the Parte declined rapidly. generally overrode ideology in inter-state affairs. the terms do not appear in the chronicles until the Emperor Frederick's conflict with the Papacy 1235-50. Presumably introduced into Italy 1198-1218. In 1266-67 the Guelf party. finally prevailed over the predominantly noble Ghibellines. Guelfs and Ghibellines Italian political terms derived from the German Welf. like the Blacks and the Whites who contested for control of the commune between 1295 and 1302. brother of Louis IX.graphic art Term current with several different meanings in the literature of the visual arts. through central Italy. underwritten by the financial interests of the Tuscan bankers. a personal and thence family name of the dukes of Bavaria. became an abiding feature of European politics. After the War of the Eight Saints. The Italian expeditions of Henry of Luxemburg (1310-13) and Lewis of Bavaria (1327-29) spread the terms to northern Italy. when partisans of the Emperor Otto IV (Welf) contested central Italy with supporters of Philip of Swabia and his' nephew Frederick II. From 1266 to 1268. which had recruited most of the merchant class. the term — sometimes shortened to 'graphics' — is used to cover the entire field of commercial printing. Grisaille paintings were often intended to imitate sculpture. In the context of the fine arts. c. the parties taking a multitude of local names. including text as well as illustrations. the French connection became the touchstone of Guelfism. Meanwhile the Parte Guelfa had become a corporate body whose wealth and moral authority as the guardian of political orthodoxy enabled it to play the part of a powerful pressure group through most of the 14th century. when Naples was conquered by Charles of Anjou. however. Factional struggles had existed within the Italian states from time immemorial. the name of a castle of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia apparently used as a battle cry.

they were made responsible for supplying oarsmen for the galleys of the state. and so on) set up to protect its members' rights and interests. commissioning paintings for guildhalls. notably Florence in the 14th century. In origin they were clubs which observed religious festivals together and attended the funerals of their members. Such guilds existed in virtually every European city in the 16th century. The great age of the guilds was the 13th and 14th centuries. such as Brescia and Vicenza. and provided assistance to members in need. surgeons. acted as a court for those who brought their trade into disrepute. The shift from trade to land in the 15th and 16th centuries meant a decline in the social standing of the crafts. [science] héraldique. trades. contributing to the fabric fund of cathedrals and collaborating on collective projects like the statues for Orsanmichele at Florence. for example. guilds (in Italy) Guilds were essentially associations of masters in particular crafts. The guilds were not equal.guild An association of the masters of a particular craft. trade or profession (painters. In Florence in 1378 these groups demanded the right to form their own guilds." from Fr. as some did). outranked the 14 'Lesser Guilds'. In Florence. "[knowledge of] heraldry. there is documentary evidence of guilds in 6th century Naples. In Italy they go back a long way. "herald") . In some towns. and therefore contour and three-dimensionality In crosshatching the lines overlap. H hatching In a drawing. the 7 'Greater Guilds'. The guilds lost their independence and became instruments of state control. In some cities. only guildsmen were eligible for civic office. guild membership actually became a disqualification instead of a qualification for municipal office. print or painting. and unskilled workers like the woolcombers and dyers. heraldry (Fr. Their political function was to participate in the government of the city-state. goldsmiths. and greater hostility between master and man. a series of close parallel lines that create the effect of shadow. The economic recession after 1348 meant fewer opportunities for journeymen to become masters. héraut. including such prestigious occupations as judges and bankers. thus excluding both noblemen (unless they swallowed their pride and joined. In 16th century Venice. but in time they acquired other functions. or professions. Guilds were also patrons of art. The guild also monitored standards of work. Their economic function was to control standards and to enforce the guild's monopoly of particular activities in a particular territory. and in general the guild hierarchy was reflected in the order of precedence in processions. and there were similar movements of protest in Siena and Bologna.

the Waldensian. divisions within the order over the issue of poverty led to religious dissidence. The early Franciscans might be regarded as a movement. At first approved by the Papacy as an order of laymen.e: only by Waldensian superiors or perfecti practising evangelical poverty. Their heresies came to incorporate the millenarian doctrines of the 12th century abbot Joachim of Fiore. One stream of these remained as an approved order within the Catholic Church. his heretical followers prophesied a new Spiritual gospel that would supersede the Bible. indeed. The authentically Christian movements which were expelled from the Catholic Church must in the first instance be distinguished from Catharism.the study of the meaning of emblems and coats of arms. They spread all over western and central Europe but in the long term they came to be largely confined to the Rhaetian and Cottian Alps (the Grisons and Savoy). However. from the start. These Christian heresies had in common an attachment to the ideal of apostolic poverty. normative for churchmen. d. which came to be seen by the ecclesiastical authorities as a challenge to the institutionalized Church. i. they had a recognizable kinship with movements that remained within the pale of orthodoxy. they were condemned in 1184. The Spirituals held up the ideal of strict poverty as obligatory for Franciscans and. 1541) took their origin from the Poor Men of Lyons. following the Papacy's recognition of the Franciscan order as a property-owning body in 1322-23. which represented an infiltration by the originally non-Christian dualist system of Manichaeanism. founded by Peter Valdes or Waldo in the 1170s. The Italian Waldensians in the 16th century resisted absorption by Reformed Protestantism. head of the 'carnal Church'. By contrast. one great missionary community. Joachimite Spiritualists came to see the pope. heresy (pre-Reformation) The heretical movements affecting Italy between the mid-12th and the mid-14th century had their main impact in an area covering the north-west of the peninsula and southern France: it is not possible to speak of distinct Italian and meridional French movements. and regarded themselves as forming. He had prophesied a coming age of the Holy Spirit ushered in by Spiritual monks. as Antichrist. The Waldensians came to teach that the sacraments could be administered validly only by the pure. They were distinguished by a strong attachment to the Bible and a desire to imitate Christ's poverty. with the rules governing their use. The Waldensians or Valdesi (not to be confused with Valdesiani. the Cathars were an anti-church. Alone among the heretical sects existing in Italy they were organized as a church. their position became one of criticism of the institutional Church as such. which was won for the cause of Catholic orthodoxy. while others merged with the Waldensians. the followers of Juan de Valdes. only after their condemnation by the ecclesiastical authorities do they seem to have developed notably eccentric doctrines and to have described themselves as the true Church in opposition to the institutional Church. The main impact of the . together with brethren north of the Alps. Spiritual and Joachimite movements appeared initially as vital manifestations of Catholicism. similar in character to the Poor Men of Lyons. Likewise condemned was the rather similar Lombard movement of the Humiliati.

and which drew on antiquity to make man the focal point. Henry Inman. Kensett. In humanism. J. It went hand in hand with a search for new insights into the spiritual and scientific workings of this world. Durand. Morse. my spouse'. the emancipation of man from God took place. hortus conclusus (Lat. his tranquil works greatly influenced later artists of the school. F. There may have been one or two hetaira called Lais in ancient Corinth. At the same time. and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. Thomas Cole. 'enclosed garden') a representation of the Virgin and Child in a fenced garden. may be said to have been its leader during the group's most active years.movement upon the laity was in southern France. the formative spiritual attitude of the Renaissance. Adapting the European ideas about nature to a growing pride in the beauty of their homeland. Frederick E. absorbing much of the romantic aesthetic of the European painters. and classical literature. mainly in the south. B. "human") philosophical movement which started in Italy in the mid-14th century. Among the other important painters of the school are Asher B. The 19th-century romantic movements of England. S. for the first time a number of American artists began to devote themselves to landscape painting instead of portraiture. and. working from 1825 to 1875. its subjects considered morally elevating. George Inness. One was the model of the celebrated painter Apelles. The garden is a symbolic allusion to a phrase in the Song of Songs (4:12): 'A garden enclosed is my sister. hetaira A courtesan of ancient Greece. American painters were studying in Rome. humanism (Lat. humanus. sometimes accompanied by a group of female saints. Germany. Hudson River school group of American landscape painters. F. whose dramatic and colourful landscapes are among the most impressive of the school. history (usually classical history). From the Renaissance to the 19th century it was considered the highest form of painting. in his earlier work. in Italy it was an affair of various groups of fraticelli de paupere vita (little friars of the poor life). history painting Painting concerned with the representation of scenes from the Bible. Jasper Cropsey. The humanists paid particular attention to the rediscovery . Church. First of the group of artists properly classified with the Hudson River school was Thomas Doughty.

and nurture of the Greek and Latin languages and literature. To this day the term denotes the supposedly ideal combination of education based on classical erudition and humanity based on observation of reality. I icon (Gk. eikon, "likeness") a small, portable painting in the Orthodox Church. The form and colours are strictly idealized and unnatural. The cultic worship of icons was a result of traditionally prescribed patterns of representation in terms of theme and form, for it was believed that icons depicted the original appearances of Christ, Mary and the saints. iconoclasm the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the 16th century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. iconography ((Gk. eikon, "likeness", and graphein, "description") The systematic study and identification of the subject-matter and symbolism of art works, as opposed to their style; the set of symbolic forms on which a given work is based. Originally, the study and identification of classical portraits. Renaissance art drew heavily on two iconographical traditions: Christianity, and ancient Greek and Roman art, thought and literature. ignudi, sing. ignudo (It.) Male nudes. The best-known are the male nudes on Michelangelo's Sistine ceiling. illuminated manuscripts Books written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the 14th century paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the 15th century illumination tended more and more to

follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th and 16th centuries illuminations were added to printed books. illumination The decoration of manuscripts, one of the most common forms of medieval art; because of its monastic origins, usually of religious texts. The practice extends from heavy decorations of initial letters and interwoven margin patterns (as in Celtic examples) to miniatures and and full-page illuminations, often of a formal and grandiose kind (as in Byzantine manuscripts). Rich colors are a common feature, in particular a luxirious use of gold and silver. Illuminations survived the advent of printing for some time and only died out with the rise of printed illustration in the 16 century. illusionism The painting techniques that create the realistic impression of solid, three-dimensional objects (such as picture frames, architectural features, plasterwork etc.) imago pietatis (Lat. "image of pity") A religious image that is meant to inspire strong feelings of pity, tenderness, or love; specifically, an image of Christ on His tomb, the marks of the Passion clearly visible. imitato (It. "imitation") In Renaissance art theory, the ability to imitate, to depict objects and people accurately and convincingly. Derived from classical literary theory, imitato was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. impasto Paint applied in thick or heavy layers. impost In architecture, the horizontal moulding or course of stone or brickwork at the top of a pillar or pier. impresa An emblem, used as a badge by rulers and scholars during the Renaissance, that consisted of a picture and a complementary motto in Latin or Greek. indulgence

In the Roman Catholic Church, the remission of punishment for sins. It dates back to the 10th-century practice of doing penances, from which the Church drew much practical benefit (foundation of churches, pilgrimages). In the early 16th century, the sale of letters of indulgence was an important source of income for the Church. Its degeneration into commercial trafficking became the subject of overt dispute between Martin Luther and Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz in 1517, and consequently became the focal issue leading to the Reformation. initial (Lat. initialis, "at the beginning") the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. ink Coloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe. Inquisition Lat. inquisitio, "examination, investigation") Medieval ecclesiastical institution for hunting down heretics and criminals; from 1231 papal Inquisitors (mainly Dominicans and Franciscans) were appointed. Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) and the collection of decrees published in 1234 made the Inquisition a papal institution ("Sanctum Officium"), and it was later extended to include other offenses such as magic, witchcraft and fortune-telling. insignia the distinguishing marks or symbols of state or personal offices or honours. instruments of the Passion of Christ (Lat. arma Christi, "weapons of Christ") the term for the items central to the Passion of Christ (the scourging, the crowning with thorns, and the Crucifixion). They include the Cross; the spear of Longinus (the staff with the sponge soaked in vinegar) and the bucket containing the vinegar; the nails used to fasten Jesus to the Cross; the crown of thorns; and the inscription on the Cross. From the 13th century onwards, at the time of the Crusades, and particularly after the looting of Constantinople in 1204, countless relics of the Passion made their way to the Western world, and were the objects of special veneration. In art, Christ is shown as the man of sorrows

Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. invention. with God the Father or with Christ on behalf of individuals or whole families. etc. investiture . and the ladder. The terms court style. the cloak and reed scepter that were part of the crowning with thorns. decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. because it was seen as being based on the use of reason. it denominates a kind of behaviour. the veil of St. as well as the heads and hands of Christ's tormentors. originality. models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. beautiful style. inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory. the scourge that was used in the scourging.g. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread. usually the donors of a work of art. In the second half of the 14th century. Derived from classical rhetoric. Donatallo. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e. Judas' thirty pieces of silver. For instance. it gave art a far higher status than a craft and helped to establish the intellectual respectability of painting and sculpture. the rooster of Peter's denial. Masaccio and Jan van Eyck). or of other saints. "invention") In Renaissance art theory. Veronica. inventio (It. landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams. soft style. intonaco The final layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted. intercession a pictorial theme showing the intervention of the Virgin Mary.surrounded by the instruments of the Passion. are also used in art literature. did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. International Gothic European art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. with many further details added. the hammer. the pincers. and they are also depicted on their own. trecento rococo and lyrical style. because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. the ability to create. Human figures. there are representations of the bundle of rods. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which.

Jerome's writings. Andries painted the figures that populated Jan's landscapes. Their main tasks were spiritual welfare and academic work. Both and Berchem. who adopt as far as possible a style based on Italian models or who import Italian motives into their repertory. Berchem occasionally worked in cooperation with the local painters and is said to have supplied figures in works of both Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema. its characteristics are a capital with curled volutes on either side. incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. J Jeronymites Congregation of hermits named after St. consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there. Ionic order One of the classical order of columns that was used during the Renaissance. Berchem's own compositions were largely derived from the Arcadian landscapes of the French painter Claude Lorrain. Nicolaes Berchem. Jesuits The Society of Jesus. principally Dutch. of Utrecht. although they are usually called Romanists. Upon his return to Holland. Jerome of Stridon which followed the Augustinians' rule with additions from St. but is also used of 16th-century Flemings like Mabuse or van Orley. bathed in a golden haze. Andries and Jan Both. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus Breenbergh. were to some degree rivals of the Haarlem-born Berchem. Italianizers Northern artists. The express purpose of the Jesuits was to fight heresy within the Church (they played a leading role in the Counter Reformation). and Jan Asselijn. who traveled in Italy and. Ignatius Loyola in 1534. and to spread the faith through missionary work in the many parts of the world recently discovered by Western explorers and colonists. a typical scene would contain shepherds grazing their flocks among classical ruins. The word is often used of 17th-century Dutch landscape painters like Asselyn.Process by which an ecclesiastical or secular dignitary is appointed to his office. The Both brothers. generally Dutch or Flemish. Italianate painters Group of 17th-century northern European painters. a Roman Catholic teaching order founded by St. .

Leipzig Disputation A debate held in Leipzig in 1519 between Martin Luther and the theologian Johann Eck. One of most famous depictions of the event is a fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Emperor Maximilian I (1459. Louis XII of France (1462-1515) and some Italian states. "golden legend") A collection of saints' legends. These were particularly important as a source for Christian art from the Middle Ages onwards. they became a powerful military and political force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Legenda Aurea (Lat. encouraged by the Crusades. In 1530 Emperor Charles V gave them the island of Malta as a base (hence their name from that date).as the Friars of the Hospital of St. published in Latin in the 13th century by the Dominican Jacobus da Voragine. and his challenge to the doctrinal authority of the Pope and Church Councils. John of Jerusalem . liberal arts . As their military role grew. the rite of communion is based on this. They remained in power there until the end of the 18th century. The central themes were Luther's condemnation of the sale of indulgences. League of Cambrai Alliance against Venice lasting from 1508 until 1510 between Pope Julius II (1443-1513).1519). lectern A reading stand or desk. especially one at which the Bible is read. Archbishop of Genoa. L Last Supper Christ's last meal with His disciples before His arrest and trial.to aid and protect pilgrims in the Holy Land.K Knights of Malta A military religious order established in 1113 . Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516).

John F. . commemorating a marriage. and a hiding of visible brushstrokes. Renaissance loggias were also separate structure. a measuring rod for geometry) and exemplars (e. loggia (It.g. its roof supported by columns. geometry. Tubal for music). love knot A painted or sculpted knot interlaced with initials. then the basis of a philosophical training. Luminism The American landscape painting style of the 1850s-1870s. together with identifying attributes (e. through the use of aerial perspective.) A gallery or room open on one or more sides. such as that over a door or window or in a vaulted roof. painting or sculptural decoration. Leading American luminists were Fitz Hugh Lane (1804-1865). Church (1826-1900). Maria Novella in Florence). that may contain a window. Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900). lunette (Fr. and Frederick E. comprising arithmetic. By the 13th century each had been given a pictorial identity. the theme was left remarkably intact by artists whose own activity (save through the mathematics of perspective) was excluded from it as manual rather than liberal. lintel Horizontal structural member that span an opening in a wall and that carry the superimposed weight of the wall. whether with iconographic completeness (Andrea da Firenze in the Spanish Chapel at S. astronomy and music. that could be used for public ceremonies.These represented the subject matter of the secular 'arts' syllabus of the Middle Ages. "little moon") In architecture. Martin J. loggetta Small loggia: open arcaded walkway supported by columns or pillars. often standing in markets and town squares. often sublime. Loggias in Italian Renaissance buildings were generally on the upper levels. and sometimes refers to Impressionism. the quadrivium. Kensett (1816-1872). rhetoric and dialectic. poetic atmosphere. Heade (1819-1904). Pythagoras for arithmetic.While treated with a stylistic variety that reflected current pictorial concerns. or with narrative (Pinturicchio in the Vatican) or with the nude (Pollaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus IV in St Peter's). It is related to. first the preparatory trivium . a semicircular space. characterized by effects of light in landscapes.g.grammar.

usually for the lute. Sometimes they are even claimed as proto-Impressionists. who were in revolt against academic conventions and emphasized painterly freshness through the use of spots or patches (macchie) of colour. The Macchiaioli had little commercial success. but they are now considered the most important phenomenon in 19th-century Italian painting. with secular texts replacing sacred ones. The luster is typically a golden colour derived from silver or a motherof-pearl effect. active mainly in Florence c. The term originally referred to the island of Majorca (or an alternate theory has it referring to Malaga). and designated only HispanoMoresque lusterware. They were influenced by the Barbizon School. manganese purple. and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901). magna mater (Lat. Boldini and de Nittis were among the artists who sympathized with their ideas. particularly such ware produced in Italy. especially when seen as the guardian deity of a city or state. but they painted genre scenes. but the differences between the two groups are as striking as the similarities. being written. there is often a strong literary element in the work of the Macchiaioli. Silvestro Lega (1826–95). copper green. historical subjects. 1855–65. the goddess Cybele. it is applied onto a bluish-white glaze or blue ground. It is characterized by painted decoration of high quality executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. generally with a final coating of clear lead glaze. who was adopted by the Romans in 204 BC. "almond") . "great mother") A mother goddess. Specifically. mandorla (It. and iron red. The name Macchiaioli (spot makers) was applied facetiously to them in 1862 and the painters themselves adopted it. originating in Italy in the 14th century. madrigal A part song. and accompaniments. with white provided by the tin-glaze material. When white is used for painting. maiolica Tin-glazed earthenware. they never lost a sense of solidity of form. antimony yellow. but since the 16th century it has been used to refer to Italian tin-glazed ware and imitations of the Italian ware. originally sung without accompaniment. It reached the heights of its popularity in the 16th century. for example. One of the leading composers of madrigals was Claudio Monteverdi. and portraits as well as landscapes. Leading members included Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908). and however bright their lighting effects.M Macchiaioli Group of Italian painters. The range of colours is typically limited to cobalt blue.

worn open. Man of Sorrows A depiction of Christ during his Passion. in a specific sense. the Codex manuscriptus. often ornamented with decorative borders. and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. complex and crowded compositions. Leading Mannerists include Pontormo. Parmigianino. the hand-written medieval book. Burgundy. manuscript collective term for books or other documents written by hand.An almond-shaped radiance surrounding a holy person. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque. El Greco and Tintoretto. often seen in images of the Resurrection of Christ or the Assumption of the Virgin. Flanders. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. In architecture. depending on the social class of the wearer. popular during the second half of the 15th century and the 16th century and often lined with fur along the hem and around the collar. style") A movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600. but certain types have been particularly prized by sculptors. mantle An overcoat. and crowned with thorns. there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. "manner. The most famous of Greek white marbles in the ancient world was the close-grained Pentelic. ecclesiastical. sometimes harsh or discordant colors. Manuscripts were usually produced on commission. which was quarried at Mount . it refers to metamorphosed limestones whose structure has been recrystallized by heat or pressure. bound. and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly. marked by flagellation. Mannerism (It. more strictly. Marbles are widely disseminated and occur in a great variety of colours and patterns. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favor of emotional intensity and ambiguity. illuminated initials and miniatures. It reached to the knee or foot. Bronzino. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. In Mannerist painting. marble loosely applied to any hard limestone that can be sawn into thin slabs and will take a good polish so that it is suitable for decorative work. and literary texts. maniera. this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale. strong. and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. Developing out of the Renaissance.

martyrdom (Gk. Widely used also were the somewhat coarser-grained translucent white marbles from the Aegean islands of Paros and Naxos. or stands sorrowing beneath the Cross (Stabat Mater). Without monetary value. medals The medal came to artistic maturity within a remarkably short time of its introduction in 15th century Italy. "pretend marble") A painted imitation of marble. martyrion. Like the finest Imperial coins. Mater Dolorosa The Sorrowing Virgin at two Stations of the Cross. particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506). who often visited the quarries to select material for his work. marmi finti (It. a large ornamental plaquc or disc. The Elgin Marbles are carved in Pentelic. torture and death inflicted on a person on account of his faith or convictions. having finished his training. The pure white Carrara marble. when the Virgin Mary meets her Son on his way to Calvary. Neoclassical sculptors also favoured Carrara marble because of its ability to take a smooth. It was used for the Apollo Belvedere. particularly by Michelangelo. This was partly because ancient Roman coins. the medal's purpose was commemorative. suggested (on a smaller scale) its form: profile portrait bust on the obverse. and Pietra Santa in Tuscany from the 3rd century BC. Carrara. sleek surface. proof") the sufferings. medallion In architecture. which were beginning to be reverently collected. Parian marble was used for the celebrated Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings. gained the rank of'master' in his guild. but it can look rather 'dead' compared with some of the finest Greek marbles. and of non-precious metal (bronze or lead). masterpiece A term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. and was much favoured in the Renaissance. an inscription running round the rim. is the most famous of all sculptors' stones. a different design on the reverse. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman. "witness. it was a way of circulating a likeness to a chosen few. quarried at Massa. it anticipated the use of miniatures and was indeed frequently worn .Pentelicon in Attica.

as it were. particularly. in England. not until the works from 1485 of Niccolò Fiorentino (Niccolò di Forzore Spinelli. Chrysaor and Pegasos spring from her body. the desire for fame and the penchant for summing up temperament in symbols and images. This yields a soft effect in the print. no line drawing is employed. for landscapes and portraits. supposedly to petrify her enemies. mezzotint method of copper or steel engraving in tone. Its pioneer executant was Pisanello. c. The work of these men. 1640. Other symbols of mortality include clocks and candles. The precedents before he began to cast medals in 1438-39 had been few and excessively coinlike. 1452-1526/27). 1430-1514) that Florence produced a medallist of the highest calibre. Medusa In Greek mythology. The process is essentially extinct today. 14601528).round the neck. it is easy to understand how quickly the fashion for commissioning medals spread. Mezzotint was often used for the reproduction of paintings. Other specialists in the medium included Sperandio (Sperandio Savelli. 1467-688). Her head features on Minerva's shield. is given credit for the invention of mezzotint c. When Perseus cuts off her head. L'Antico (Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi. the result being soft without the sharp lines of an etching. hollow-cast and wafer-thin medals of the 1560s and 70s made by Bombarda (Andrea Cambi). In pure mezzotint. The process then came into prominence in England early in the 18th century. the stress on individual character. who reflected them. more commonly it bore a design that purported to convey the 'essence'. Within 10 years he had established the form the medal was to retain until the influence was registered of the reverseless. even grain. a Gorgon. It was. is still coveted because it avoided the two medallistic errors: making a medal look like either an enlarged piece of money or a small sculptured plaque. Caradosso (Cristoforo Caradosso Foppa. often anonymous. A Dutch officer. sawtoothed tool by cradling it back and forth until the surface of the plate presents an all-over. perhaps oddly. Ludwig von Siegen. Memento mori (Latin "remember you must die") An object (most commonly a skull) reminding believers of the inevitability of death and the need for penitence. . Mezzotint involves uniform burring with a curved. And while the reverse could record a historical event or make a propaganda point related to its subject's career. Given the admiration for the men and artefacts of ancient Rome. Pisanello's approach was first echoed by the Veronese Matteo de' Pasti (d. A mortal monster with serpents in her hair and a gaze that turned people to stone. and of the many. 1425-1504). the daughter of Phorkys and Kreto. c. every degree of light and shade from black to white being attainable. The picture is developed in chiaroscuro with a scraper and a burnisher. of the person portrayed on the other side. A danse macabre with only one pair of dancers is also a known as a memento mori.

executed on a very small scale. mirrors Mirrors of glass 'silvered' on the back began to supplement those of polished metal in the 14th century. Many such small versions. painting in gouache on vellum or card. The order came into existence in the 14th century as a reform movement wanting to return to the poverty and simple piety of St. monochrome (Gk. e. The connection between the increasing use of mirrors and the art of make-up (the mirror was a familiar symbol of vanity) and personal cleanliness is unexplored. 1344) 'painted himself with two mirrors in order to get his head in profile'. by Tiepolo and Rubens. 1540) took self-scrutiny to a thoroughly introspective level in his Self-portrait in a (convex) Mirror.miniature Term originally applied to the art of manuscript illumination but later used of paintings. a branch of the Franciscan order. but they had an influence on the development of the self-portrait in painting: Vasari assumed that Simone Martini (d.g. though it was only in the 16th century that high-quality glass ones were made (at Murano) on a scale that made them one of Venice's chief luxury exports. often quite highly finished. usually portraits. "one color") Painted in a single color. motto (Ital. still exist. saying") . monokhromatos. miter A high. "word. Minorites (also called Friars Minor and Observants) In the Roman Catholic Church. which was shown to the person or body commissioning the large work for approval before the final design was put in hand. pointed headdress worn by bishops. modello Italian word used to describe a small version of a large picture. a painting executed in a single color. Francis himself. Most modelli are in oil paint or a combination of chalk. Parmigianino (d. not strictly speaking a preliminary sketch. ink and paint. The earliest miniaturists (16th century) continued to use the materials of the illuminators..

idealistic German painters of the early 19th century who believed that art should serve a religious or moral purpose and desired to return to the spirit of the Middle Ages. It may have parallel aisles on each side. often separated from it by pillars. Isidore. and their work is clear and prettily coloured. The name Nazarenes was given to them derisively because of their affectation of biblical dress and hairstyles. modern taste has been more sympathetic towards the Nazarenes' simple and sensitive landscape and portrait drawings than to their ambitious and didactic figure paintings. Stylistically they were much indebted to Perugino. In general. and lived and worked together in a quasi-monastic fashion. and two other members moved to Rome. The nucleus of the group was established in 1809 when six students at the Vienna Academy formed an association called the Brotherhood of St Luke (Lukasbrüder). Pforr. "ship") the main interior space of a church building. 1816-17. In 1810 0verbeck. Berlin. as distinct from those that were inherited in a family's coat of arms. nave (from Lat. The invention of personal mottos. which cuts across it at the point where the choir begins. a saying usually associated with a visual symbol. Rome. 1817-29). where they occupied the disused monastery of S. and is intersected by the transept. Here they were joined by Peter von Cornelius and others. naturalism (Fr. but often insipid. and for interior vestibules across the western end of later churches.from the Middle Ages. was particularly widespread in the Renaissance period. the paintings are now in the Staatliche Museen. N narthex entrance porches in early basilican churches. One of their aims was the revival of monumental fresco and they obtained two important commissions which made their work internationally known (Casa Bartholdy. and Casino Massimo. They wished to revive the working environment as well as the spiritual sincerity of the Middle Ages. . navis. Nazarenes A group of young. named after the patron saint of painting. naturalisme) a method of depiction in the fine arts and literature in which reality as the result of sensory experience rather than theory is represented as realistically and scientifically precise as possible.

nepotism The accusation levelled against the popes of the Renaissance from Sixtus IV to Paul III (with Alexander VI as an especially opprobrious case). Popes. moreover. where he surrounded himself with a large number of pupils and assistants who in turn carried his style to other German centres. William Dyce introduced some of the Nazarene ideals into English art and there is a kinship of spirit with the Pre-Raphaelites. niello (Lat. and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (17571822). Cornelius had moved in 1819 to Munich. nigellus. placed behind the head of a saint or other sacred personage to distinguish him or her from ordinary people. were usually old when elected. nimbus (Lat.) . but their ideas continued to be influential. The studio of Overbeck (the only one to remain permanently in Rome) was a meeting-place for artists from many countries. "black") The art of decorating metals with fine lines engraved in black. To conduct a vigorous personal policy it was not unnatural that popes should promote men of less questionable loyalty. "aureole") The disc or halo. surrounded by the supporters of their ex-rivals. The design is first cut into the metal and then filled with a black alloy that at high temperatures melts and fuses into the fine lines. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs. confronted by a plethora of Vatican staff members either self-interested or in foreign pay. Nymphaeum (Gk.The Nazarenes broke up as a group in the 1820s. and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825). the style of the Ancien Régime. It subordinated spiritual fervour or trained bureaucratic competence to the accidents of relationship. is as true as it is notorious. the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729). that they appointed nephews (nipoti) and other relations to clerical and administrative positions of importance. usually golden. Neoclassicism A style in European art and architecture from the mid 18th century until the end of the 19th century. its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. But popes were temporal rulers of a large part of Italy as well as spiritual leaders: other rulers did not hesitate to use members of their own family as military commanders or policy advisers. Ingres admired him and Ford Madox Brown visited him. Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo. This sort of favouritism was an abuse of power.

and a capital formed by a pair of spiral scrolls. Greek goddesses of Nature. was the simplest. The Ionic order had a slenderer column. with a sturdy. ogee arches arches composed of two double-curved lines that meet at the apex. its richness of colour. and its greater tonal range. orders of architecture In classical architecture. Oratorians (or the Congregation of the Oratory) In the Catholic Church. "services. . capital. O obsequies (Lat. walnut. The Corinthian order was the most ornate. or poppy. having a very slender column and a capital formed of ornately carved leaves (acanthus). original sin The tendency to evil transmitted to mankind by Adam and Eve's transgression in eating of the Tree of Knowledge. and entablatures. prayer and preaching being central to their mission. the three basic styles of design. oil paint a painting medium in which pigments are mixed with drying oils. The earliest. an order of secular priests who live in independent communities. a small private chapel. oratory (or oratorium) A place where Oratorians pray or preach. Though oils had been used in the Middle Ages. such as linseed. They are seen in the form of the columns. obsequia. It reached Italy during the 1460s and by the end of the century had largely replaced tempera. it was not until the van Eyck brothers in the early 15th century that the medium became fully developed. The Oratorians was founded by St Philip Neri (1515-1595). fluted column and a plain capital. the Doric order.Series of classical fountains dedicated to the nymphs. observances") Rites performed for the dead. inborn sin. a more elaborate base. It was preferred for its brilliance of detail.

'palazzo' in Italian carries no regal connotations. 'kneeling' on elongated volutes. and was in turn influential on late 15th century palaces in Rome (e. and much of the interest of Renaissance designs lies in creative misunderstandings of Vitruvius's text. Palazzo Strozzi). and large windows appeared on the ground floor. although large cloister-like courtyards were introduced.1453) were not taken up by the conservative Florentines. like cities. "palace") Palaces: large urban dwellings. and. with vaulted shop openings on the ground floor. "panel") Altarpiece or a sculptural or painted altar decoration. reached by internal stone staircases opening from an inner court. There are several forms: she can be shown witnessing his ascent of Calvary. The apartments on the 'piano nobile' formed interconnecting suites of rooms of diminishing size and increasing privacy. Italian Renaissance palaces vary in type according to differences of climate. the Cancelleria). Medieval palace architecture probably inherited the insula type of ancient apartment house.g. The classical orders which Alberti introduced to the façade of the Palazzo Rucellai (c. watching as the body of Christ is brought down from the Cross (Deposition). while shops came to be thought undignified. palazzo (It. The atrium and peristyle house described by Vitruvius and now known from Pompeii did not survive antiquity. reflecting theoretical reinterpretations of antiquity and individually influential examples. of which vestiges remain only in the towers flanking the balconies of the duke's private apartments. who continued to build variations on the Medici Palace (Palazzo Pitti. Renaissance developments regularized without changing the essential type. Alberti described the palace as a city in little. or sitting with His body across her lap (Pietà). At Michelozzo's Medici Palace (1444) a square arcaded courtyard with axial entrance lies behind a façade of graduated rustication. tradition and social structure. a classical cornice replacing the traditional wooden overhang. On to these regional stocks were grafted new architectural strains. At Urbino the Ducal Palace (1465) reflected Alberti's recommendations for the princely palace. In the 16th century rustication was reduced to quoins and voussoirs. with biforate windows. designed as a . related to the modest strip dwellings which never disappeared from Italian cities. A harmonious Florentine courtyard and ample staircase replace the embattled spaces of medieval seigneurial castles. P pala (Ital. and the main apartments above. standing at the foot of the Cross. In Florence a merchant palace developed from fortified beginnings. Usually pointed or rounded at the top.Our Lady of Sorrows (or Mater Dolorosa) A depiction of the Virgin Mary lamenting Christ's torment and crucifixion.

Bramante's 'House of Raphael' sets the façade style not only for this new type. and Antonio da Sangallo's Palazzo Farnese (1516) introduces symmetrical planning and Vitrivuan elements. defended by its lagoon and a stable political system. Renaissance forms appear in the unfinished courtyard of the Palazzo Venezia (1460s). lace-like decorations were applied on major parts of buildings. and their sophisticated façades flattered the architectural pretensions of patron and pope (e. It became the most popular basic motif of medieval ornaments. adapted Roman types to suit local conditions. originally evolved in response to specific conditions. panel . like Genoa. cornices and abutments. Palazzo Branconio dell'Aquila). evolved influential types. Codussi's palaces introduced biforate windows and a grid of classical orders into the system. Papal incentives to build. Movement of patrons and architects. Other cities. Italian Renaissance ideas of palace planning. palmette style The word comes from Italian "palm". but also for Renaissance houses all over Europe. Following Oriental patterns. and his plan for the Palazzo da Porto-Festa contains explicit references to Vitruvius's House of the Greeks. In the 16th century vestigial corner towers and shops disappear from cardinals' palaces. Palladio's 4-columned atrium is a Vitruvian solution to the traditionally wide Veneto entrance hall. with its arcade system derived from the nearby Theatre of Marcellus.scholarly retreat. Palazzo Massimi). and Palladio's in Vicenza. Raphael and Peruzzi made ingenious use of difficult sites (Palazzo da Brescia. and in the delicately ordered stonework of the Cancelleria (1485). often built next to their titular churches. like the colonnaded vestibule. In the absence of a merchant class or a cultured nobility in 15th century Rome. and large households. A smaller palace type supplied the needs of an enlarged papal bureaucracy. meant less compact plans for cardinals' palaces.g. meant a diffusion of Roman forms to central and northern Italy. It is a symmetrical ornamental motif imitating palm trees or palm leaves. The traditional Venetian palace has a tripartite structure: long central halls above entrance vestibules used for unloading merchandise are lit on the canal façade by clusters of glazed windows (rare elsewhere). and at the back from small courts with external staircases (as in the Ca' d'Oro). the hereditary aristocracy built palaces open to trade and festivity on the Grand Canal. more ambitious for display than for domestic accommodation.g. especially after the Sack of Rome. tripartite façade) despite its Bramantesque coupled orders and licentious window surrounds. behind a sober Florentine façade. column-caps. while Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro retains vestiges of the Venetian type (small courtyard. The socalled palmette style was a style following Byzantine examples whose contacts are not yet identified. enlivened by Michelangelo's cornice. In Venice. came to be applied all over Europe. it is an element of ancient architectural decoration frequently used either on its own or as friezes. the architectural pace was set by the papal court. where Sanmicheli's palaces in Verona. Through engravings and the illustrated treatises. e. Rich. palmette.

Painters who worked on a small scale often used copper panels (Elsheimer is a leading example). maintaining contact with local churches through the making or licensing of appointments. the receipt of appeals in lawsuits conducted in terms of the Church's own canon law. Until the introduction of canvas in the 15th century. The choice of popes became increasingly affected by the known political sympathies of cardinals. The popes were the heads of the largest bureaucracy in Europe.popes were the rulers of a large part of Italy. wooden panels were the standard support in painting. the. Having a circular plan. could lead to conflict with secular authorities.Term in painting for a support of wood. as it were. thanks to their possession of the Papal State. analysis of the contents of art galleries has yielded a long list. the picture he originally painted was said to reflect the light unpleasantly and slate was used for the replacement to produce a more matt finish. mahogany. teak. the management of clerical dues and taxation. the popes were both the leaders and the continuators of a faith. while oak was the most common wood used in northern Europe. linden. it was one of the most distinctive and original buildings of ancient Rome. and spanned by a single dome. however. To maintain their authority. notably the making of appointments to especially wealthy sees and abbacies. As successors to St Peter. fibre-board. and other synthetic materials as supports. notably by Rubens for his altarpiece for Sta Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova) in Rome. chestnut. Pantheon Temple built in Rome aloout 25 BC by Emperor Agrippa. to influence popes in their favour. extract taxes and check incursions from rival territories they had to act like other. slate has occasionally been used as a support. and even up to the beginning of the 17th century it is probable that as much painting was done on the one support as on the other. For wood panels the Italian masters of the Renaissance preferred white poplar. and modern painters have also used plywood. Until the adoption of canvas in the 15th century nearly all the movable paintings of Europe were executed on wood. larch. including beech. and as men uniquely privileged to interpret and develop Christian doctrine. fir. metal. The third aspect was administrative. and dark walnut are favourites. papacy (in the Renaissance period) Papal rule had three aspects. Then. and in the colonial art of South America copper and tin and even lead and zinc were used. panel painting Painting on wooden panels. enforce law and order. and the pressure and temptations . On a larger scale. as distinct from canvas. becoming fully enmeshed in diplomacy and war. Many other types were used. olive. This in turn led to the practice whereby monarchs retained the services of cardinals sympathetic to their national policies. and walnut. so that they might have a voice at court. secular rulers. or other rigid substance. In the 20th century cedar. A number of matters. or the incidence of taxation. cedar. the disciple charged with the fulfilment of Christ's mission on earth.

Not until 1460 did a pope feel strong enough to make rejection of the theory an article of faith. For the greater part of the 14th century (1309-77) the Papacy funetioned out of Italy altogether. There remained. by being representative of the Christian faithful as a whole. as such. building there (especially the huge Palace of the Popes) on a scale that suggested permanence. considered perfectly suitable for the role played . The return to Rome was challenged by a group of cardinals faithful to France. In this spirit Huss was tried and executed. despite the efforts there of such strenuous papal lieutenants as Cardinal Albornoz (in 1353-67). which seems so inevitable. Thenceforward the creation of a capital commensurate with the authority of the institution it housed continued steadily. could supersede that of a pope. however. Finally the breakdown of central authority in the Papal State. the most appropriate . possess an authority which. Colonna and Caetani. from the point of view of its religious associations. however. The pious hermit Celestine V had in 1294 crumpled under its burden after only a few months. By then.as well. had already forced the popes from time to time to set up their headquarters elsewhere in Italy. On Gregory's death in 1378 their election of a rival or antipope opened a period of divided authority.that could be applied to them. in the eyes of God. it was at last resolved to call together a General Council of the Church. fine buildings and a luxurious style of life were. It was argued that such a council. two of the rival popes were deposed and the other forced to abdicate. a number of reforms relating to the clergy were passed and. This view was expressed again by the Council of Basle. As at Avignon. To resolve the problem of divided authority. of individuals. various and inevitably politicized an office was not for a saint. But the remedy was another blow to the recovery of papal confidence and power. in spite of further absences from Rome. further complicated in 1409 by the election of yet a third pope. the challenge to his authority represented by the conciliar theory itself: that final authority could be vested as well in a group (if properly constituted) as in an individual. if it did no serious damage to the faith. prompted Gregory XI to return to Rome in 1377. The identification of the Papacy with Rome. The insecurity of the shabby and unpopulous medieval city. notably that of Eugenius IV (1431-40). Martin V being elected by a fairly united body of cardinals. Provence ceased to be a comfortingly secure region as the Hundred Years War between England and France proceeded. and bring about an improvement in the standards of education and deportment among the Church's personnel.base for the Papacy had been made clear in the plans of Nicholas V for improving it. The period of authority and cultivated magnificence associated with the Renaissance Papacy was. above all (for this was the only measure with permanent consequences). who governed the Church chiefly from Florence. was long in doubt. prey to the feuds of baronial families like the Orsini. So onerous. which lasted from 1431 until as late as 1449. Though they were by no means in the pockets of their neighbours the kings of France. as Pius II did in his bull 'Execrabilis'. at Avignon. however. to be long delayed. protect the faith from the extension of heresy (especially in the case of the Bohemian followers of John Huss). which met at Constance 1414-18. criticism of undue influence steadily mounted. would. This situation deepened the politicization of the papal office (for support to the rivals was given purely on the basis of the dynastic conflicts in Europe) and confused the minds. the acceptance of the city as the most practical .

and occasionally for printing and bookbinding. as did the parallel discussion of the respective merits of painting and poetry. and the name is often applied to high-quality writng paper. However. Apart from demonstrating an aspect of the interest taken in the arts. Vellum is a fine kind of parchment made from delicate skins of young (sometimes stillborn) animals. not only contributed to an atmosphere of worldliness that aroused criticism. nymphs. The fortunes of the Papacy from its return to Rome can be followed in the biographies of its outstanding representatives. hence the name parchment from the Latin pergamena (of Pergamum). and in 1546 Benedetto Varchi even sent a questionnaire on the subject to sculptors (including Michelangelo and Cellini) and painters (including Pontormo and Vasari). pastoral (Lat. leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. pastor. to a world peopled by shepherds. goat. 330 BC) one of the most famous artists of the classical age. it acted as a stimulus to the development of the language and concepts through which art could be appraised and understood. The first protracted discussion was compiled from passages scattered through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. but may also have diverted the popes from registering the true import of the spiritual movements that were to cause the Reformation conflict of faiths. Paper began to replace parchment from about the 14th century. 420 BC) Greek painter of the late classical period (c. 400-300 BC). as well as a governmental one. but parchment is still used for certain kinds of documents. in classical literature.by the head of the Church: a view exemplified in episcopal and archiepiscopal palaces all over Europe. paragone ('comparison') In an art historical context paragone refers to debates concerning the respective worthiness of painting and sculpture. but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled booth sides of a leaf to be used. and satyrs. 425 BC) and Apelles (c.. It is one of the topics dealt with in Castiglione's The courtier. "shepherd") Relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life. less frequently pig. Passion . it has also been used for painting. Skin had been used as a writng material before this. and other animals. parchment Writing material made from the skins of sheep or calf. the creation of a cultural capital. Parrhasius (c. Pliny says that it ewas invented in the 2nd century BC in Pergamum. scholars and men of letters. and with Zeuxis (c. through lavish patronage of artists.

wealthy citizen.The events leading up to Good Friday. the conspirators were ruthlessly pursued and many (including the archbishop of Pisa) were killed on the spot. pastel A drawing medium of dried paste made of ground pigments and a water-based binder that is manufactured in crayon form. "butterfly. through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model. a region in north-central Italy. hence tent") A lightly constructed. "father") originally a member of the ancient Roman nobility. patrician (Lat. who resented Lorenzo de' Medici's efforts to thwart the consolidation of papal rule over the Romagna.) or pasticcio (It. include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss. Meanwhile. pavilion (Lat. unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. but not necessarily a direct copy. patricius. 1478). But the people of Florence rallied to the Medici. and so on. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo Riario. Peter cutting off Malchus's ear. An assassination attempt on the Medici brothers was made during mass at the Cathedral of Florence on April 26. which focus on the Suffering Christ. Francesco Salviati. projecting either centrally or at both ends. Portrayals of the Passion. whom Lorenzo had refused to recognize. ornamental building. a small. other conspirators tried to gain control of the government. Pazzi conspiracy Pazzi conspiracy (April 26. such as a garden summerhouse. the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. Giuliano de' Medici was killed by Francesco Pazzi. . ornamental structure built onto a palace or cháteau. beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial.) A work of art using a borrowed style and usually made up of borrowed elements. and also the archbishop of Pisa. a prominent section of a monumental façade. pastiche (fr. the crown of thorns. from the Middle Ages onwards a term for a noble. 1478. but Lorenzo was able to defend himself and escaped only slightly wounded. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. papilio. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature.

see clearly") The method of representing three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. "hanging. and its principles were set out by the architect Alberti in a book published in 1436. "nature". The most important form of perspective in the Renaissance was linear perspective (first formulated by the architect Brunelleschi in the early 15th century). The use of linear perspective had a profound effect on the development of Western art and remained unchallenged until the 20th century. "make") an imaginary person conceived as representing a thing. and facere. concept or deity. Perspective gives a picture a sense of depth. in particular the face. and it was agreed that subjects should follow the religion of their rulers. that settled the religious conflict in the German states. "person". in which the real or suggested lines of objects converge on a vanishing point on the horizon. and gnomon.The failure of the conspiracy led directly to a two-year war with the papacy that was almost disastrous for Florence. pergola (It. pendant (Fr. "interpreter") the external appearance of a person. But the most important effect was to strengthen the power of Lorenzo. or related elements within an art work. Peace of Augsburg A treaty. physiognomy (Gk. though they are sometimes revealed when the top layers of paint are worn away or become translucent. pentimenti (Italian "regrets") Changes undertaken by an artist in the course of painting a picture. The first artist to make a systematic use of linear perspective was Masaccio. perspicere. concluded in 1555 between Emperor Ferdinand I and the German Electors. persona. . "to see through. personification (Lat. The Lutheran and Roman Catholic Churches were given equal legal status within the Empire. perspective (Lat. physis. They are usually visible under the final version only with the help of X-rays. often in the middle of the composition (centralized perspective).) A passageway covered by a trellis on which climbing plants are grown. who not only was rid of his most dangerous enemies but also was shown to have the solid support of the people. dependent") One of a pair of related art works.

exemplified. Peter's. usually above the ground floor. striking the imagination with the force of painting. One of the bestknown examples is Michelangelo's "Pietà" (1497-1500) in St. A pier is generally larger than a column. but full of variety. Developing in Germany in the 14th century. in the work of Girtin and (early in his career) of Turner.) The main floor of a building. and the Picturesque generated a large literary output. to be expressed in painting. Pietà (Lat. the plane occupied by the physical surface of the work. proper to take a landscape from. . remarkable for singularity. Perspective appears to recede from the picture plane. and interesting textures — medieval ruins were quintessentially Picturesque. pigmentum. It indicated an aesthetic approach that found pleasure in roughness and irregularity. Picturesque Term covering a set of attitudes towards landscape. or resin to make paint. "colour substance") coloured powder mixed with binding agents such as oil.piano nobile (Ital. Rome. containing the public rooms. picture plane In the imaginary space of a picture. but may consist of a cluster of columns. Most Holy Mary of Pity) A depiction of the Virgin Mary with the crucified body of Jesus across her lap. pigment (Lat. both real and painted. and objects painted in trompe-l'oeil may appear to project from it. curious details. that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Natural scenery tended to be judged in terms of how closely it approximated to the paintings of favoured artists such as Gaspard Dughet. affording a good subject for a landscape.' The Picturesque Tour in search of suitable subjects was a feature of English landscape painting of the period. and in 1801 the Supplement to Samuel Johnson's Dictionary by George Mason defined 'Picturesque as: 'what pleases the eye. pier One of the massive supports on which an arch or upper part of a church stands. Picturesque scenes were thus neither serene (like the beautiful) nor awe-inspiring (like the Sublime). much of it was pedantic and obsessive and it became a popular subject for satire. glue. [Maria Santissima della] Pietà. and an attempt was made to establish it as a critical category between the 'beautiful' and the 'Sublime'. the Pietà became a familiar part of Renaissance religious imagery. for example.

in other words the surface is lined with parallel grooves. and in the Italy of the 15th and 16th centuries the main effect of the disease in art is to be found only in the frequent portrayal of the plague saints. despite regional variations. Cristóbal de Villalón first used the term in 1539 while comparing the richly ornamented facade of the Cathedral of León to a silversmith's intricate work. perhaps. comprising the bubonic and still more deadly septicaemic and pneumonic forms of the disease. it is unlikely that population began to rise significantly before the 1470s. Preventive measures included the boarding up of infected families. such as Florence and Genoa. moreover.pilaster (Lat. pilastrum. main architectural style in Spain during the late 15th and the 16th centuries. Thirty per cent of the population of Venice died in the outbreak of 1575-7. the burning of 'infected' clothing. religious feeling and the art which mirrors it seem to assume more sombre forms and to reflect less the human and more the divine. that during the second half of the 14th century plague reduced the population of Italy by a half and at certain centres. transcendent and threatening aspects of faith. it is difficult to find. it has a base. Rocco and Sebastian. evidence of cultural change which could be attributed to plague. During 1348 the Black Death. low-relief decorative strip on a wall that corresponds to a column in its parts. since it was characterized by an intricate and minutely detailed relief ornament that is generally applied to the . the isolation of sufferers in plague hospitals. In the 15th century. swept town and countryside in a series of attacks whose horror was strikingly portrayed by Boccaccio in his preface to the Decameron. outside Tuscany. in October 1347. but none worked or mitigated the feeling of hopelessness. which was commemorated by Palladio's church of the Redentore. It seems probable. plague Plague. also used in Spain's American colonies. returned along eastern trade routes to strike the peninsula. Large claims have been made in the field of the arts and of human sensibility for the influence of plague. however. "pillar") A flat. plague recurred periodically until the 18th century. though in less widespread. for instance. were often able to remove themselves from areas where plague had broken out). Thenceforward. which had been extinct in Italy from the 8th century. The plague's social effects are an object of controversy. Yet the black rat and its plague-bearing flea could find a more hospitable environment in the hovels of the poor than in the stone-built houses of wealthy patrons of the arts (who. a shaft. Later the name came to be generally applied to late Gothic and early Renaissance Spanish architecture. In Florence and Siena from 1348 to 1380. since. more sporadic outbreaks. It is none the less interesting to recall that it was against a stark background of continual menace from plague that the human achievements of the Renaissance came into being. It is often fluted. and thereafter all Europe. Plateresque Spanish Plateresco (Silversmith-like). and capital. sharply accentuated an economic depression which had already set in during the 1340s. For this reason.

and Renaissance elements are used with only imperfect understanding. in which High Renaissance structural and decorative elements clearly predominated over late Gothic ones. i. he continued to develop his philosophy after the master's death in 399. Thus empirical science does not have a central role . Plato and neo-Platonism The Renaissance revival of Platonism and neo-Platonism was one of the characteristic intellectual features of the Renaissance. The buildings of Alonso de Covarrubias and of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón. or simply the Plateresque. the Renaissance-Plateresque. Philebus. Even the balance and correctness of the style seemed excessively rich to the sombre young man who became King Philip II in 1556 and supervised construction of the severe El Escorial. In fields ranging from literature (Castiglione and Ronsard) to science (Bruno and Galileo) it exerted a great influence in all parts of Europe from Portugal and Scotland to Hungary and Poland. termed the Isabelline style because it flourished during the reign of Isabella I. placement. The first phase. and sinuous scrolls. The Plateresque style went through two distinguishable phases. The founder of one of the two most influential ancient schools of philosophy. In contrast with Aristotle. which lasted only a few decades. In the Granada Cathedral (1528-43) and other buildings.e. Plato (428-348 BC) was born at Athens. harmonious. correct classical orders became frequent. in which architectural ornamentation seems free from all external dictates and pursues its own life without regard to scale. The architect and sculptor Diego de Siloé (d. Plato's philosophy has a distinctly other-worldly character. and nonstructural Gothic ribbing tended to disappear in favour of Italianate round arches and domical vaults. more severe. Phaedo. Phaedrus. Writing in a forceful and compelling style mostly cast in dialogue form.. the Symposium. Clusters of this jewelry-like ornament contrast with broad expanses of flat wall surface. lasted from about 1525 to 1560.surface of buildings for extravagant decorative effect and without regard for structural articulation. not so much dependent upon sense experience as on inspiration and direct mental contact with the supra-sensible sources of knowledge. Favourite motifs of this florid ornament include twisted columns. The second phase. composition. emphasizing the spiritual and non-material aspects of reality. heraldic escutcheons. are the masterworks of the second style. A student of Socrates. Theatetus and the Laws. utilized Mudejar ornament -. the forms of late Flamboyant Gothic still predominate. The first phase. or appropriateness. he gives knowledge and philosophy an intuitive and intellectual basis. lasted from about 1480 to about 1540. and unified style using massive geometric forms. Diego evolved a purer. Timaeus. particularly the latter's facade of the University of Alcalá de Henares (1541-53). The Isabelline style is well represented in the buildings of Enrique de Egas and Diego de Riaño and is typified by the facade of the College of San Gregorio in Valladolid (1488). like its successor. In this phase (also known as the Gothic-Plateresque style). the intricate and elegant decorative patterns used by Moorish artists working in Christian-ruled Spain. Plato was the author of some 30 works of lasting fame including the Republic. and was in turn the teacher of Aristotle. 1563) helped inaugurate this phase.

Ficino was also the founder of the informal Platonic Academy which met at the Medici villa at Careggi. Plotinus. partially. A new Latin translation. 1539) and Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (c. while at the same time giving the philosophy a more coherent form. though various dialogues were rendered into Italian and French. have ensured that his works were widely read for many centuries. 'Neo-Platonism' resulted from these modifications and those of other ancient Platonists. including those of Plotinus. There was no complete translation into a vernacular language during the Renaissance. Among his Italian followers Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Francesco da Diacceto (1466-1522) were perhaps the most important. The first Greek edition of Plato's works was published by Aldus at Venice in 1513 . as well as the rigorous analyses of central moral doctrines such as justice and happiness. among them those attributed to Hermes Trismegistus and Orpheus. 1467-1519) and Thomas More (1478-1535) in England. The impact of Ficino's work gradually made itself felt be yond the confines of Italy. Ficino's translations of Plato and the neo-Platonists were reprinted frequently and were the standard sources for knowledge of Platonism for several centuries. Latin translations of several works were made in the early 15th century. prepared by Jean de Serres (1540-98) to accompany Estienne's edition. seeing them as parallel paths to the truth connected at source. but only with Ficino were the entire writings first made available in Latin (published 1484). replaced Ficino's. 1472-c. Iamblichus. and Proclus and a range of pseudonymous texts. Only a small proportion of Plato's works was known during the Middle Ages in western Europe. for example with Symphorian Champier (c. but the later edition published at Paris in 1578 by Henri Estienne achieved perhaps even greater fame. He emphasized the close kinship between the Platonic philosophy and the Christian religion.in Plato's thought. the greatest of his ancient disciples. and the Chaldaic Oracles. with many internal contradictions and points left unresolved. but not completely. the interest in Plato and neoPlatonism was largely outside the universities. and he utilized many other writings. 1460-1536) in France and John Colet (c.1577) becoming particularly popular. Unlike the case of Aristotle. Petrarch favoured Plato over Aristotle as an authority and set the tone for the great Renaissance revival of interest in Platonism. systematized and added to what Plato had done. The real re-emergence of Plato began around 1400. and holding that Plato had had access to the Pentateuch and absorbed some ideas from it: he agreed with Numenius (2c. the translations of Louis Le Roy (d. It was especially in a number of academies in France and . turning the tradition in an even more mystical and spiritual direction. and Agostino Steuco (c. his works were already subjected to critical analysis and amplification by his earliest followers. near Florence. though mathematics is consistently stressed as being an important gateway to the natural world. Such themes as poetic inspiration and harmony. all of which he also translated into Latin. when Greek manuscripts of most of his works came into Italy from Constantinople. 1497-1548) developed Christian Platonism into a 'perennial philosophy'. Rather unsystematic. Ficino's interpretation went far beyond what could be found in the text of Plato. AD) that Plato was a 'Greek-speaking Moses'. though indirect knowledge of Platonic doctrine through many late ancient sources secured a significant fortuna down to the 15th century.

The numerous editions and translations show that there was a wide general demand for his writings. The pointed arch is characteristic of Gothic architecture. The latter was held for 14 years by Francesco Patrizi of Cherso. plinth (Gk. one of the most forceful and original Platonic philosophers of the Renaissance. "columned hall") Usually open porch supported by columns or pillars on the main entrance side of a buildings. Plato was read in the universities. "folded many times") A painting (usually an altarpiece) made up of a number of panels fastened together. an arch rising to a point (instead of being round. or statue. as in classical architecture). portrait (in the Italian Renaissance) The Roman portrait bust survived in the form of life-sized reliquaries of saints. "tile") square or rectangular section forming part of the base of a pillar. if on a very limited scale: for example various dialogues were read from time to time as part of Greek courses. where a pectoral is used to close it. polyptych (Gk. but it was in 15th century Florence that the individual features and character of a contemporary sitter were accurately recorded by . pluvial (Med. It is worn by bishops and priests as a ceremonial vestment on occasions other than mass. polychrome decoration the gilding or coloured painting of a work of sculpture. Frequently supports a pediment. "rain cloak") a long cloak in the shape of a semicircle which is open at the front. portico (Lat. Lat. column. the panels being housed in richly carved and decorated wooden frameworks. Some polyptychs were very elaborate.Italy that there was a focused reading of Platonic texts. plinthos. Duccio's "Maestà" (1308-1311) is a well-known example. pluviale. In the 1570s special chairs of Platonic philosophy were established at the universities of Pisa and Ferrara. such as processions and consecrations. porticus. pointed arch In architecture. poluptukhos.

include the narrative scenes of the Gonzaga court painted by Mantegna (completed 1474. Colleoni. Palazzo Pubblico) and the posthumous portrait of Sir John Hawkwood (1436. Royal Collection) being an idealized concept of a collector rather than an individual. Portraits were also incorporated into religious narratives. Poussinist (French Poussiniste) Any of the supporters of the supremacy of disegno ("drawing") over colour in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that erupted in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671. Palazzo della Cancelleria) and Salviati (after 1553. Lotto's Andrea Odoni (1527. Florence.sculptors such as Donatello. Palazzo Farnese). decorating whole rooms. National Gallery). flattened image. was superseded by the three-quarter and frontal portrait. Piero della Francesca and Botticelli. and only a decorative accessory to form. Another form of political portraiture derived from antiquity was the commemorative portrait medal designed by artists such as Pisanello. Desiderio da Settignano. Mino da Fiesole and the Rossellino. Venice). The 16th century portrait became generalized. The realism of the clear. Florence (1486-90). Colour to the Poussinists was temporary. was revived in the 14th century. Maria Novella. Campidoglio). Siena. whilst other statesmen ordered their own images to be erected in public places. Gattarnelata. Group portraits.e. The Venetian Republic ordered imposing monuments from Donatello (1447. the use of line to depict form) or colour in the art of painting. The carved or painted profile portrait became popular in the 1450s. inessential. The equestrian portrait. based on antique statues such as the Marcus Aurelius monument (Rome. A similar degree of realism occurs in 15th century tomb sculpture. Mantua. The Poussinists (followers of Nicolas Poussin) supported the Platonic concept of the existence in the mind of ideal objects that could be reconstructed in concrete form by a reasoned selection of beautiful parts from nature. directly relating themselves to the military heroes of ancient Rome. and the . which gives the illusion of a 3-dimensional statue seen from below. Palazzo Ducale) and the elaborate schemes commissioned by the Farnese family in Rome from Vasari (1546. painted under the influence of Flemish examples by the Pollaiuolo brothers.. Padua) and Verrocchio (14799. psychologically more complex. Cathedral) by Uccello. The quarrel was over the preeminent importance of drawing (i. Two examples in fresco are Simone Martini's Guidoriccio (c. such as Leonardo's enigmatic Mona Lisa (Paris. Louvre) with her momentary smile or Andrea del Sarto's arresting Portrait of a Man (London. the Carracci. as in Ghirlandaio's fresco cycle painted for Giovanni Tornabuoni in S. 1328. Fine holes are pricked along the contours of the drawing on the cartoon and then dabbed with fine charcoal powder so that a faint outline appears on the new ground. pouncing A technique for transferring the design on a cartoon to another surface. The Poussinists extolled the virtues of antiquity and Raphael.

took on the dramatic role of Old Testament prophets as if laying claim to divine inspiration. The flow of Borromeo's grandiose and sometimes emotive style shows how he. in their appeals for communal religious renewal." and Rubens was a Fleming who had been expelled from France when it was suspected that he was spying for the Spanish Netherlands. For the 16th century there are the Capuchin Ochino. several of whom became bishops." preachers The field of preaching was dominated by the religious orders. the Franciscans Franceschino Visdomini (1514-73). Cornelio Musso (1511-74). Ochino's unadorned style was peculiarly limpid and conveys a winged emotionality. Fiamma's sermons. together with the Dominican Savonarola. star preachers journeyed all over Italy. bishop of Asti. The call to repentance was a major feature of Lenten sermons: here Bernardino da Feltre stood out for his harsh. minatory exhortations. to discharge their preaching duties. The major collections of sermons published in the 16th century came from friars or monks. was versed in classical and patristic . As Poussin was a Frenchman. and Peter Paul Rubens. sometimes referred to as the "French Raphael. Outstanding preachers of the 15th century whose sermons are extant are the Franciscans S. the Augustinian Canon Gabriele Fiamma (1533-85). Savonarola's by contrast was cultivated and his last sermons were complex and arcane. and. primarily the mendicants. who stated officially that "the function of colour is to satisfy the eyes. by contrast with the mendicant preachers. however. and Francesco Panigarola (1548-94). Correggio. The styles of S. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre (d. This pre-eminence was not challenged even in the 16th century. Quite apart from the notorious incompetence of the secular clergy. Mendicants of the 15th century castigated the vices of society. his forte was allegorical explication of scriptural references. bishop of Chioggia. In 1672 the debate between colour and drawing was temporarily halted by the chancellor of the Academy. Bernardino da Siena and Bernardino da Feltre were earthy. Panigarola is particularly noted for his literary conceits and has been viewed as a significant precursor of the literary Baroque. members of regular orders were the acknowledged masters of pulpit oratory. when reformers called for the secular clergy engaged in the pastoral ministry. bishops especially. bishop of Bertinoro and Bitonto. but 16th century ones were more cautious here. Borromeo. Savonarola and Musso. of the sermon as an art form. 1494). who had as their ideal masters Titian. are not florid in style. sermons of bishops not drawn from the orders are hard to find. The sermons of Visdomini. there was a strong nationalistic stake in the Poussinists' motivation. from the secular clergy. The great preaching events of the year were still the Lenten sermons given by friars or monks of repute. not least those of statesmen and prelates. abrasive even. whereas drawing satisfies the mind. Charles Le Brun.severe art of Poussin and were opposed by the party of the Rubenists. Musso and Panigarola on the other hand often strain after emotional effect by accumulation of rhetoric and largesse of poetic vocabulary.

Louis of Toulouse (1317. presbyterion "Council of Elders") . presbytery (or choir) (Gk. who in 1848 formed the PreRaphaelite brotherhood. like the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel showing scenes from the life of Moses answered by scenes from that of Christ. aiming to produce work in the spirit which imbued Italian artists before Raphael's move to Rome. The first datable example seems to be that in Simone Martini's S. In general 16th century sermons were very free in their formal organization and in no way bound to the principles of construction laid down in medieval preaching manuals. The New Testament references in these would. the Sybils as the pagan counterparts of the Prophets). "altar step") An Italian word for the small strip of paintings which forms the lower edge or socle of a large altarpiece (pala). These preoccupations were unified by a kind of seriousness which turned painting into a moral as well as an aesthetic act.they are not usually more than 25-30 cm high. Such a polyptych consists of a principal. as well as providing some extremely recondite reasons for the choice of Old Testament subjects. the temptations of Adam and Christ.rhetoric. among them Holman Hunt. though often relatively very wide .g. Joseph sold into captivity/the betrayal of Christ. stained glass and designs for fabric and wallpaper. and a predella: the predella usually has narrative scenes from the lives of the Saints who are represented in the panels above.the notion that aspects of the life and mission of Christ were in many respects prefigured or foreshadowed in the Old Testament . central panel with subsidiary side and/or top panels. prefiguration Typology . predella (It. Naples). Noah's Ark prefiguring the Church as a means of human salvation. tapestries. disregarding what they considered to be the arbitrary rules of academic art. this fascination with parallels gave rise to whole cycles. Millais and Rossetti.they were frequently used for pictorial experiments that the painter did not wish to risk making in the larger panels.had become popularized visually by the 14th century through versions of works like the Biblia pauperum with their pairs of illustrations: Brazen Serpent/the Crucifixion. The movement was a mixture of romantic medievalism and the desire to return to a realistic depiction of nature. Strengthened by the 15th century wish to find anticipations of Christian teachings in the ancient world (e. The group also had an impact on the decorative arts through painted furniture. however. Moses receiving the tablets of the Law/the Sermon on the Mount. Because of the small size of predelle . have been caught at the time because of the continued popularity of typological analogies in sermons and devotional literature. Pre-Raphaelites A group of English artists. and so forth.

The prizes are still awarded and the system has been adopted by other countries. Prizes for architecture began to be awarded regularly in 1723. and Ingres among painters and Clodion. and prizes for engravers and musicians were added in the 19th century. The following are important: 1. The term is perhaps a little too freely applied. these highly finished drawings. prie-dieu A prayer stool or desk with a low. 2. "lost profile") A pose in which the figure's head is turned away from the viewer so that only an outline of the cheek is visible. seem to have first assumed an importance in the bottega of Verrocchio. the quadrature. founded concurrently with the French Academy in Rome (1666). notably David. Fragonard. the Canon of Proportion. proportio. proportion (Lat. sculpture and architecture. "evenness") in painting. and Houdon among sculptors. the golden section. projecting shelf on which to kneel. They acquired under Leonardo and especially Michelangelo the role of high art for a privileged few. 3. a mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The prizes were meant to perpetuate the academic tradition and during the 18th and 19th centuries winning the award was the traditional stepping stone to the highest honours for painters and sculptors. presentation drawings Evolving naturally as a consequence of contemporary workshop practice. the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work. Prix de Rome A scholarship.The raised space at the end of a church's nave which contains the high altar and is reserved for members of the clergy. The praying person's arms rested on the upper part. Girardon. again indicative of the purpose they served. intended as complete works of art in themselves. so that A:B are in the same relationship as B:C. that enabled prizewinning students at the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris to spend a period (usually 4 years) in Rome at the state's expense. which uses the square . Many distinguished artists (as well as many nonentities) were Prix de Rome winners. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso (1:7 or 1:10). a line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B. profil perdu (Fr. That the recipients of these drawings studied them carefully is made clear in contemporary letters.

Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations. the history of a work's ownership since its creation. triangulation. quatrefoil decorative motif in Gothic art consisting of four lobes or sections of circles of the same size. . architecture and figures surge towards the heavens with breathtaking bravura.as a unit of measurement. one half the length of the other). The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. many artists relied on specialists called quadraturisti to paint the architectural settings for their figures (see Guercino and Tiepolo. Q quadrature A type of illusionistic decoration in which architectural elements are painted on walls and/or ceilings in such a way that they appear to be an extension of the real architecture of a room into an imaginary space. provenance The origins of an art work. a fifth = 2:3. It was common in Roman art. for example an octave = 1:2 (the difference in pitch between two strings. They can be either sacred (angels) or secular (the attendants of Venus). Ignazio. "boys") Plump naked little boys. The greatest of all exponents of quadratura was probably Pozzo. an analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments. and 5. putti sing. which uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction. psalter A manuscript (particularly one for liturgical use) or a printed book containing the text of the Psalms. a fourth = 3:4. 4. provisor A cleric who stands in for a parish priest. the steward or treasurer of a church. for example). putto (It. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity. in whose celebrated ceiling in S. and reached its peaks of elaboration in Baroque Italy. Unlike Pozzo. most commonly found in late Renaissance and Baroque works. harmonic proportions. Rome. was revived by Mantegna in the 15th century.

Among the . relicquiae. relic (Lat. R Realism Realism (with an upper case "R"). the great orders of monks.g. Reformed churches Churches that rejected the authority of the Pope from the 16th century. or the Jesuits. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message.Quattrocento (It. or a body of persons bound by simple vows and generally having a looser structure than an order. In 16th century Europe. It was preceded by the Trecento and followed by the Cinquecento. Botticelli. There are three basic forms: low relief (bas-relief. "four hundred") The 15th century in Italian art. religious orders and congregations An order is a body of men or women bound by solemn vows and following a rule of life. in which figures are seen half round. Fra Angelico and others. in which figures are almost detached from their background. or some item connected with a saint. denotes a mid-nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. The term is often used of the new style of art that was characteristic of the Early Renaissance. refectory (Med. in particular works by Masaccio. A congregation may be either a subsection of an order. relevare. in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. in which figures project less than half their depth from the background. also known as the Realist school. and high relief (alto rilievo). friars and nuns. relief (Lat. refectorium) Monastic dining hall. Among the old orders there was both fusion and fission. medium relief (mezzo-rilievo). Lat. Brunelleschi. canons regular. the two main denominations were the Lutherans and the Calvinists. "to raise") A sculptural work in which all or part projects from the flat surface. Donatello. e. "remains") a part of the body of a saint. with the Anglican Church developing in England. basso rilievo). hermits. the object of particular veneration.

developed from 1419 under the leadership of the Venetian Lodovico Barbo. After the repression of the Spirituals. the grant of abbacies 'in trust' to non-resident outsiders to the order. they are to be distinguished from secular canons who serve cathedral and collegiate churches. whose foundation is especially associated with Gabriel Condulmer (later Eugenius IV) and S. That of S. Lorenzo Giustiniani. Salvatore. the great issue of contention being the strict observance. who had no overall organization originally. was the congregation of S. were mostly grouped into congregations by the 16th century. and their more institutionalized brethren. rather on the model of Eastern monasticism. Maria di Fregonaia. Two major congregations arose from reform movements in the 15th century: that of S. there was dissidence and fractionalization in almost all of the old orders and congregations. Canons Regular of St Augustine follow a rule and are basically monks. The Hermits of St Jerome (Hieronymites or Gerolimini) appeared from the 15th century and included the Fiesole and Lombard congregations and that of Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa.contemplative orders. continued to hold the order's great basilicas. Bologna (1419). the great dispute in the order was primarily a legalistic one: the division was between the Conventuals.e. The Hermits of St Augustine and the Carmelites were originally contemplative eremetical orders which turned to the active life of friars. A body genuinely monastic and contemplative in spirit. originally autonomous houses tended to group themselves into congregations. whose friaries were technically non-property owning. although technically of secular canons. they followed a distinctive eremetical rule of life. their resources being in the hands of trustees. Padua. In 1517. S. whose friaries were corporate property-owners. The Conventuals. At the same time. hence the formation of the Monte Corona congregation. The Benedictines. He was particularly concerned to develop sacred studies and eventually there were certain designated houses of study for the entire congregation. it became the Cassinese congregation. presided over by chapters general. the most notable being S. the great patriarch of Venice. A major stimulus to such reform movements was concern for mutual defence against the abuse of commendams. however. 'The Observance' did not necessarily designate a very straitened rule of life but in the 15th century a strict movement of the Observance developed whose leading figures were S. Founded by St Romuald c. Benedetto. The Friars Minor (Franciscans) had been split after their founder's death by disputes between the Spirituals. which was given precedence over the Conventuals. having absorbed St Benedict's original monastery. Giustina. The Camaldolese were an offshoot of the Benedictines. Venice (1404). The Silvestrines. and the Lateran one (1446) which grew from S. and the generally moderate Observants. Celestines and Olivetines were old congregations. In the second decade of the 16th century Paolo Giustiniani led a movement for a revival of the strict eremetical ideal. Giovanni da Capestrano and Giacomo della Marca. with hermitages linked to matrix monasteries. with their ideology of an absolute apostolic poverty. the Conventuals. Giorgio in Alga. Mantua. various groups were fused in the latter body. 1012. i. The same bull . which was to become the main Italian one. Bernardino of Siena. Lucca. In 1504. the bull 'Ite vos' of Leo X instituted the Great Division between Friars Minor (Conventual) and Friars Minor of the Observance.

Gerolamo Aemiliani. Filippo Neri. One of the few significant innovations among the female orders were the Ursulines. the ecclesiastical authorities forced the Ursulines into the mould of an enclosed contemplative order. however. however. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. emerged from the Roman Oratory of Divine Love in 1524. the settlement was in effect a formal recognition of Lutheranism. a Venetian noble castellan turned evangelist. the Dominicans were substantially reunited under the generalate of the great Tommaso di Vio da Gaeta (1508-18). Failure to implement this clause caused a splinter movement of zealot groups which finally coalesced into the Capuchins and the Reformed (canonically recognized in 1528 and 1532 respectively). most notably the Cassinese Benedictine congregation. an offshoot of the Brescian Confraternity of Divine Love. Antonio Maria Zaccaria in 1533. founded in 1535 by S. certain sections of contemplative orders were distinguished for humanist studies and related forms of religious scholarship. this congregation specialized in the upbringing of orphan boys. a historical period. who included Ambrogio Traversari in Florence and a group of scholars at S. while the Congregation of the Oratory was founded in Rome in the 1560s by S. who had many of the marks of secular clergy but who lived a common life. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th century to the second or third generation of the 16th . The Order of Preachers (Dominicans) underwent similar if less serious crises over the issue of poverty and a body of the strict observance was established in the late 14th century. Other orders of Friars were the Minims. on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner. The Somaschi were founded at Somasca near Bergamo in 1532 by S. Angela Merici. Angela's intention was that they should be a congregation of unenclosed women dedicated to the active life in charitable and educational work. the Lateran Canons (especially of the Badia Fiesolana) and the Camaldolese. The first. also. founded by S. Generally they were devoted to pastoral and welfare work. Though it merely postponed the final settlement of the issue until the next diet. The 16th century produced the Jesuits (founded in 1541) and several rather small congregations of clerks regular. Religious Peace of Nuremberg A temporary settlement of Germany's religious conflicts agreed in 1532 between Emperor Charles V and those German princes who supported the Reformed Churches. S. Venice.provided for special friaries within the Observance for those dedicated to a very strict interpretation of the Rule. While the friars basically remained attached to scholastic philosophy and theology. Gaetano da Thiene. The Barnabites were founded at Milan by S. Michele in Isola. and the Servites following the Augustinian rule. Francesco da Paola in 1454 on the primitive Franciscan model. the Theatines. founded by Giampietro Caraffa (later Paul IV) and the Vicentine aristocrat S.

he saw them as an age of intellectual sleep. Perhaps the sense of living in a new mental atmosphere can be compared to the exhilaration that followed the realization that Marxist analysis could be used to look afresh at the significance of intellectual and creative. Thanks to his fame not only as a scholar but also as a poet and a voluminous correspondent. To a northern European world (whence the alertest scholars and popularizers came). . the Renaissance became both the scene and the work of Renaissance Man. this sense of living in an age of new possibilities was rapidly shared by others who worked within the intellectual framework which came to be known as Humanism. morally confined by Protestantism and social decorum. of scholarship. as well as political. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. and because the scholarly excitement about the need to imitate the achievements of the Roman (and. and the world (and its expanding physical and mental horizons) was his oyster. 'Renaissance' became a mercurial term: not just a label for a period or a movement but a concept. of an energetic revival of interest in.century. and his own as potentially one of light. 'Renaissance' became a symbol of ways of conduct and thought that were either to be castigated (John Ruskin. even Amoralism. Greek) past was sustained by evidence from contemporary art and literature that it could be done. life. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled 'La Renaissance' was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it. For Petrarch the challenge to understand and celebrate the achievements of ancient Rome led him to scorn the intervening centuries which had neglected them. Even when the Wars of Italy had inflicted grievous humiliations on Italian pride. man had escaped from the medieval thought-dungeon. not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after. the historical reality of antiquity. All-Roundness. too long forgotten glories. which had begun early in the 14th century. of letters. The humanistic enthusiasm lasted so long. as only coming near its close with the death of Michelangelo in 1564. increasingly. of arts. if only in terms of the chronological selfawareness of contemporaries. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth. 1875-86). however. because it was uncontroversial (save when an assassin borrowed the aura of Brutus. there is some justification for seeing a unity within it. For long. was so vast and potent. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or rebirth of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. of 'darkness'. however. it was a 'renaissance' of this or that. whose The stones of Venice of 1851-53 had anticipated the art-morality connection) or envied (John Addington Symonds's avidly nostalgic Renaissance in Italy. or a paganizing faddist mocked Christianity). because its core of energy. culture was linked to personality and behaviour. Thereafter. Vasari could still see a process of restored vigour in the arts. a concept redolent (in spite of Burckhardt's precautions) of Individualism. and competition with.

(3) There is not a true.A term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was bound to attract criticism. and mass media. etc. spiritual and perhaps psychological aspiration: the new start. (4) To define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole. gratefully. statues. congruence between. a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style. Probably the most well-known retable is that in the Basilica . candlesticks. The panel is usually made of wood or stone.with all its shabbiness . It is for this additional.erased. Though thus challenged. Repoussoir figures appear frequently in Dutch figure painting where they function as a major force in establishing the spatial depth that is characteristic of painting of the seventeenth-century. 'culture' and 'history' during the period. The challenges are to be accepted. however. especially in the High Gothic period. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. the shelf behind an altar on which are placed the crucifix. of industrialization. mobilized nationalism. retables can be detached and. Although frequently forming part of the architectural structure of the church. let alone a uniform. etc. as having led to an enormous extension of knowledge and sensitivity. sometimes. 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice. Caravaggio had become famous for his paintings of ordinary people or even religious subjects in repoussoir compositions. During this century it has been challenged chiefly on the following points. the term retains most of its glamour and much of its usefulness. mocked (the 'so-called Renaissance'). as in the case of the famous retable by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. It is surely not by chance that 'rebirth' rather than the 18th century and early 19th century 'revival' (of arts. the previous record . (2) Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. There was an early. later still to Genoa. subjective reason a term to be used with caution. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science. retable Ornamental panel behind an altar and. though sometimes of metal. Ghent). Landscapists too learned to exploit the dramatic effect of repoussoir to enliven their renderings of the flat uneventful Dutch countryside.) and genially debased ('the renaissance of the mini-skirt'). because it applies to a society the resonance of a personal.) was the term chosen. (1) There is no such thing as a selfsufficient historical period. repoussoir (French: "to push back") Repoussoir is means of achieving perspective or spatial contrasts by the use of illusionistic devices such as the placement of a large figure or object in the immediate foreground of a painting to increase the illusion of depth in the rest of the picture. or mosaics depicting the Crucifixion or a similar subject. and other liturgical objects. in the more limited sense. letters. "The Adoration of the Lamb" (1432. aped (the 'Carolingian' or 'Ottonian' renaissance. both thriving centres of political and commercial activity. and is decorated with paintings. Cathedral of SaintBavon. consist merely of a painting.

and the German architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753). painting. As the name suggests. is primarily an architectural term that has been extended to the other arts of the period. almost simultaneously. it is applied to a distinctive style that emerged. It is characterized most obviously by a new massiveness of scale. Rococo was elegant and ornately decorative. in several countries .of St Mark in Venice. Spain . Rococo A style of design. and architecture dominating the 18th century. retables have become extinct. Originally commissioned in 976. Because of its expressionistic distortion of natural form. The dominant art of the Middle Ages was architecture. Developing in the Paris townhouses of the French aristocracy at the turn of the 18th century. for "pebble") Small stone and shell motifs in some eighteenth century ornamentation. Italy. is a typical product. and sometimes Romanesque is used to cover all the developments from Roman architecture in the period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the flowering of the Gothic roughly AD 500-1200. With the development of freestanding altars. with little of the naturalism and humanistic warmth of classical or later Gothic art. rocaille (French. Louis XV furniture. The forms of nature are freely translated into linear and sculptural designs which are sometimes majestically calm and severe and at others are agitated by a visionary excitement that can become almost delirious. "relief") In painting. the first style to achieve such international currency. Romanesque Style of art and architecture prevailing throughout most of Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries. Rococo gave way to Neo-classicism.in the 11th century. like 'Gothic'. Germany. literally. has had to wait for the revolution in sensibility brought about by the development of modern art in order to be widely appreciated. and 'Romanesque'. as with other great non-naturalistic styles of the past. . it indicates a derivation from Roman art. richly decorated with organic forms. Mark's retable was enlarged and enriched in the 13th century. reflecting the greater political and economic stability that followed a period when Christian civilization seemed in danger of extinction. often considered the last stage of the Baroque. its mood lighthearted and witry. which is one of the most remarkable examples in existence of the craft of the jeweler and goldsmith. the impression that an object is three-dimensional. however. More usually. rilievo (It. Romanesque art. Leading exponents of the Rococo sryle included the French painter Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732-1806). Romanesque painting and sculpture are generally strongly stylized. that it stands out from its background fully rounded.France. the St.

making it the centre of the High Renaissance. romanticism A term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th and 19th centuries. school of School of Italian painting of importance from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. Both Michelangelo and Raphael worked in Rome.Romanist Name used to describe Northern artists of the early 16th century whose style was influenced by Italian Renaissance painting. and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. van Reymerswaele are important Romanists. van Orley. Pannini and Mengs. Q. romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution. The colourists pointed to the art of Peter Paul Rubens (whence their name) as one in which nature and not the imitation of Classical art predominated. van Heemskerk. Mabuse. Massys and M. rosette A small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or molded a circular. is to deceive the eye by creating an imitation of life or of nature and by manipulating colour. usually as a result of a visit to Italy. the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator. they maintained. From the 17th century the presence of classical remains drew artists from all over Europe including Poussin. the development of nationalistic pride. M. The aim of painting. such as red ochre. in the 17th century it was the centre of the Baroque movement represented by Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. Rubenist (French Rubéniste) Any of the artists and critics who championed the sovereignty of colour over design and drawing in the "quarrel" of colour versus drawing that broke out in the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in Paris in 1671 (see also Poussinist). The dispute raged for many years before the Rubenists emerged victorious. Piranesi. Claude. B. . In addition. stylized design representing an open rose. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity. ruddle Any red-earth pigment. Rome.

but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents. and Protestant churches. holy orders. Written primarily in ottava rima. The Roman Church has fixed the number of sacraments at seven: baptism. but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. Angelo but for a week Rome itself was subjected to a sacking of a peculiarly brutal nature. the Eucharist. Many compositions were anonymous. Clement escaped into Castel S. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions.S Sack of Rome Climax of the papal-Imperial struggle and a turning point in the history of Italy. "holy conversation") A representation of the Virgin and Child attended by saints. There is seldom a literal conversation depicted. confirmation. sacra rappresentazione A dramatic form that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany. though as the theme developed the interaction between the participants . pious legend and hagiography. or those chosen by the patron who commissioned the work. whose Rappresentazione dei SS. In the . The saints depicted are usually the saint the church or altar is dedicated to. penance. There were no limits on time. sacraments The interpretation and number of the sacraments vary among the Roman Catholic. a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment. from the Old and New Testaments. multiple sets used in succession. the Duke of Bourbon being killed at the first assault. Sacra Conversazione (It. author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449). it continued to occupy Rome until February 1528. matrimony.greatly increased. gutted. Subjects were nominally sacred. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. the Sack of Rome resulted from Clement VII's adhesion to the League of Cognac (1526). The Duke of Bourbon marched on Rome. glance and movement . and Rome was attacked and taken on 6 May. when it finally left the city it had devastated. Orthodox. and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. among them Feo Belcari (1410-84).expressed through gesture. and impoverished. Eastern independent. Imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon left Milan and joined an army of mainly Lutheran landsknechts (January 1527). and Lorenzo de' Medici. local saints. Although the army was then brought back under some kind of control. the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati. and anointing of the sick. supported by lay confraternities. A truce made by the Pope and Lannoy failed to halt this advance. but others were the work of well-known figures. hoping to force Clement to abandon the League and to provide money for the pay of the Imperial army.

sometimes including as many as 10 or 12. the Bentivoglio. the Rocca Paolina.) Hall. which is the symbolic direction of the Antichrist. baptism consists of a triple immersion that is connected with a triple renunciation of Satan that the candidates say and act out symbolically prior to the immersions. baptism and the Eucharist. Candidates first face west. the Exasperated by the overriding of their privileges by papal governors.i. Saracens . the Perugians seized on Pope Paul III's order of 1540. chrismation (anointing with consecrated oil) takes place. The classical Protestant churches (i.e. The "holy acts" of the Orthodox Church are symbolically connected to its most important mysteries. and then face east. The chief focus of discontent. replaces the Lord's Supper. though Luther allowed that penance was a valid part of sacramental theology. as in the Church of the Brethren. and Reformed) have accepted only two sacraments . used for drawing. The theology of the Orthodox Church. foot washing. sanguine Red chalk with a rownish tinge. the area containing the houses of the old ruling family. They were still seeking aid." which are called sacramentals.. the sun of righteousness." sala (Ital. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. notably from Florence and in Germany. and the baptized believers receive the "seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. that the price of salt should be increased. the symbolic direction of Christ. as an excuse to revolt. and hit by the rise in price of provisions after two disastrous harvests. when a papal army forced the city to surrender and swear allegiance to the legate sent to govern it. Salt War. Lutheran. chapter 13. The New Testament mentions a series of "holy acts" that are not. spit three times to symbolize their renunciation of Satan. large room.. though baptism and the Eucharist have been established as sacraments of the church. Hence. sacraments. Immediately following baptism. such as on Holy Thursday in the Roman Catholic Church and as a rite prior to the observance of the Lord's Supper. the Orthodox Church does not. which in the Gospel According to John. Thus. Though the Roman Catholic Church recognizes a difference between such "holy acts. designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger. fixed the number of sacraments at seven.early church the number of sacraments varied. It is still practiced on special occasions. was buried under a new fortress. in principle. was not maintained as a sacrament. and sacraments.e. strictly speaking. make such strict distinctions. Anglican.

are lost. Often depicted as the attendant of the Bacchus. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c. 270 BC). particularly those who fought against the Christian Crusades. whose writings. satyr In Greek mythology. legs and horns of a goat. Michel de Montaigne (1533-92). and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy. made of stone.c. 160 . Schildersbent (Dutch: 'band of painters') A fraternal organization founded in 1623 by a group of Netherlandish artists living in Rome for social intercourse and mutual assistance. Little known in the Middle Ages. 210 AD). Scepticism This generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. the god of wine. and sometimes (especially among the Greeks and Romans) carved with inscriptions and reliefs.During the Middle Ages. pl. owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ). the Arabs or Muslims. the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. wood or terracotta. 360 . sarcophagus. 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion. sarcophagi (Gk. in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible. Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD). "flesh eating") A coffin or tomb. The publication of Latin (1562. the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Its members called themselves Bentvueghels or 'birds of a flock' and . 45 BC).c. and many others. human-like woodland deities with the ears. scalloped niche A real or painted niche which has a semi-circular conch in the form of a shell. along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition.

Meanwhile the temporal power of the Roman popes survived despite Urban's gift for quarrelling with all his allies. Most of the Italian states stood behind Urban but in Naples Queen Giovanna I of Anjou provoked a popular and baronial revolt by sheltering Clement. Schism. thus leaving the way open for the election in 1417 of Martin V (1417-31). Although the schism was caused by acute personal differences between Urban and the cardinals. from time to time both he and his opponents. elected the Frenchman Robert of Geneva (Clement VII). than their medieval predecessors. one of the early leaders. who recognized the Roman pope. who had the support of the Avignon pope. the Emperor and most other princes remained loyal to Urban. scholasticism . who drove north through Rome to threaten central Italy. As a result. Castile and Scotland supporting Clement. causing the Florentines and most of the other Italian states to throw their weight behind a group of cardinals from both camps who met at Pisa and elected a third pope. Alexander V. the scene was dominated by the expansionist policies of Giangaleazzo Visconti of Milan until his death in 1402. having declared their election of the Neapolitan Bartolomeo Prignano (Urban VI) 5 months previously to be invalid because of the undue pressure exerted by the Roman mob. while England. the Florentines. and therefore far more purely Italian princes. on his death the Roman papacy fell under the domination of King Ladislas of Naples. was called Bamboccio. the Great It began 20 September 1378 when a majority of the cardinals. and for the next 20 years the kingdom was contested between. 1384) and Louis II of Anjou. on the other. In northern Italy. practical politicians (often the same people) seized the chance to extend their jurisdiction at the Church's expense. in June 1409. who set about the task of restoring the shattered power and prestige of the Holy See. with France and her allies Aragon. flirted with the Avignon popes in the hope of obtaining French support.for example Pieter van Laer. the Renaissance popes were much more dependent on their Italian resources. were deeply unhappy over the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. while devout Christians agonized. It was the continued pressure of Ladislas that finally compelled Alexander's successor Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII) to summon the Council of Constance (1414-18}. The 39-year schism killed the supranational papacy of the Middle Ages. Charles III of Durazzo (d. and. 1386) and his son Ladislas. However. being Frenchmen.they had individual Bentnames . Louis I (d. In 1720 the Schildersbent was dissolved and prohibited by papal decree because of its rowdiness and drunkenness. most of whom. on one side. Christendom divided along political lines once the double election had taken place. but with little effect. for. and was considerably built up by his able successor Boniface IX (1389-1404). This Council healed the Schism by deposing both John and the Avignon pope Benedict XIII and accepting the resignation of the Roman pope.

The term is ambivalent. and Islamic literature. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old. Thus in Giotto's Betrayal in the Arena Chapel. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. The colours were either tempera or pigments ground in lime-water. arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). In Christian angelology the seraphim are the highest-ranking celestial beings in the hierarchy of angels. as it is easier to add details in this way. and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition.moral philosophy. Often called the burning ones. textual scholarship. In art the four-winged cherubim are painted blue (symbolizing the sky) and the six-winged seraphim red (symbolizing fire). As such. Medieval scholars. and theology. Christian. In Italian Renaissance art the finishing touches to a true fresco would often be painted a secco. with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. Serenissima (Ital. seraphim in the Old Testament appear in the Temple vision of the prophet Isaiah as six-winged creatures praising God. the plaster had to be damped before painting. scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest. with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries. It was because the central concerns of humanism . history and rhetoric . that scholasticism was left. such passages have frequently flaked off with time. university-based study.) seraph (plural seraphim) In Jewish. notably Aquinas. as it were. None the less. were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. secco (Italian: dry) Term applied to a technique of mural painting in which the colours are applied to dry plaster. the details of many of the soldiers' weapons are now missing. it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought. if lime-water was used. theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. on one side. It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy. the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers. especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. a method described by Theophilus and popular in northern Europe and in Spain.) . in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. rather than wet plaster as in fresco. celestial being variously described as having two or three pairs of wings and serving as a throne guardian of God. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio). Padua. moreover. (See also: fresco.were different from those of medieval. because the secco technique is much less permanent.

just as the male prophets of the Bible did. in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible.) Member of a mendicant order founded in 1233. were at first used to spread information of all sorts and were later used as leaflets and visual polemics. there was only one Sibyl. the governing body of some of the Italian city states. sibyls (Gk. sfumato A technique. Originally. Silverpoint was already in use as a drawing instrument in the 14th century. In early Christianity it was further raised to 12. "lordship") from the late Middle Ages. Med. in the period of classical antiquity. Lat. Sibyls foretold the Birth. Silverpoint drawing must be done on a specially prepared surface. sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect. in analogy to the 12 prophets of the Old Testament. The many Sibylline prophecies were kept in Rome and consulted by the Senate. usually presided over by individual families. sinopia . "prophetess") In antiquity.Abbreviation of La Serenissima Repubblica Venezia. and the delicate. at the same time. Passion and Resurrection of Christ. sibylla. an expression of Venetian self-confidence. which describes the splendour and dignity of Venice and is. the number gradually rose to ten. which were all identical in thickness. made it a particularly popular artistic tool throughout the course of the 15th century. "the most serene republic of Venice"). In Christian legend. in use since the Middle Ages. brass.. largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci. Servite (Lat. silverpoint metal pencil made of copper. Signoria (It. term. They first appear in alpine monasteries. single-leaf woodcuts the earliest works in linear book printing which were produced between 1400 and 1550 as single sheets with black lines in high relief. light-gray lines produced by the silver tip. women who could prophesy. or bronze with a silver tip fused to it.

The principal subject is the Madonna playing with the Christ Child and these are sometimes called Schöne Madonnen . pronounced as French. In the highly specialized world of the Dutch painters of the 17th century this was very often the case. "mark. figures which are not really essential and could be added by another painter. stigma (Gk.) Wooden ceiling decoration. sing. at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th centuries. and. spandrel (1) The triangular space between two arches in an arcade. so that a landscape painter like Wynants rarely did his own staffage. staffage This word. . Sculpture and the earliest woodcuts show the style even more clearly than painting. is characterized by soft and gentle rhythms. whereas Canaletto or Guardi always did. in other words.'Beautiful Madonnas'. It is very closely related to International Gothic. rooms) The suite of rooms in the Vatican decorated by Raphael. (2) The curved surface between two ribs meeting at an angle in a vault. Stanze (Ital. the red chalk used to make such a drawing. soft style A name given to the style found principally in Germany (where it is called Weiche Stil).The preparatory drawing for a fresco drawn on the wall where the painting is to appear. One of the most familiar examples in Renaissance art is the stigmatization of St. especially in the flow of drapery. stigmata. brand. tattoo") The five Crucifixion wounds of Christ (pierced feet.. Ital. as the name implies. sotto in sù (It. "up from under") Perspective in which people and objects are seen from below and shown with extreme foreshortening. hands and side) which appear miraculously on the body of a saint. Francis of Assisi. and by a sweet and playful sentiment. soffit (Lat. is used in both English and German to describe the figures and animals which animate a picture intended essentially as a landscape or veduta.

malleable plaster made from dehydrated lime (calcium carbonate) mixed with powdered marble and glue and sometimes reinforced with hair.were published in the 1760s to great acclaim). The studiolo became a symbol of a person's humanist learning and artistic refinement. whose verses actually fabrications . helped shape the attitudes that led to Romanticism. but stucco is a different substance from plaster (which is calcium sulphate). The cult of the Sublime had varied expressions in the visual arts. both external and internal. studioli (It. with that for the Picturesque. the term is applied to a plaster coating applied to the exterior of buildings. studiolo. Sublime Term that came into general use in the 18th century to denote a new aesthetic concept that was held to be distinct from the beautiful and the Picturesque and was associated with ideas of awe and vastness. notably the taste for the 'savage' landscapes of Salvator Rosa and the popularity among painters of subjects from Homer. John Milton. Among the best known are those of Duke Federico da Montefeltro in Urbino. pl. notable exponents being the artists of the School of Fontainebleau and Giacomo Serpotta. supremacy . By adding large quantities of glue and colour to the stucco mixture stuccatori were able to produce a material that could take a high polish and assume the appearance of marble. This book was one of the first to realize (in contrast with the emphasis on clarity and precision during the Age of Enlightenment) the power of suggestiveness to stimulate imagination. The vogue for the Sublime. It is used for sculpture and architectural decoration. The outstanding work on the concept of the Sublime in English was Edmund Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Stucco in the more restricted sense has been known to virtually every civilization.stipple engraving Printmaking process that achieves tonal areas by directly engraving short flicks or dots. stucco A type of light. and Isabella D'Este in Mantua. Indeed. In Europe it was exploited most fully from the 16th century to the 18th century. and Ossian (the legendary Gaelic warrior and bard.) A room in a Renaissance palace in which the rich or powerful could retire to study their rare books and contemplate their works of art. usually in conjunction with engraved or etched lines. In a looser sense. sometimes it is difficult to distinguish from real marble without touching it (stucco feels warmer).

graduated tones being created by adding lighter or darker dots or lines of color to an area of dried paint. many others that await liberation from whitewash or later panelling. But the Italians did not make them. "to mix in due proportion") A method of painting in which the pigments are mixed with an emulsion of water and egg yolks or whole eggs (sometimes glue or milk). his own headquarters. were made in Brussels from the full-scale coloured patterns. now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Tempera was widely used in Italian art in the 14th and 15th centuries. Nor is it clear whether imported tapestries were used habitually or simply to add grandeur to special occasions. the king not the Pope is acknowledged as the supreme head of the Church of England. into Italy. when Cosimo I set up a manufactory in Florence. The most famous of all 'Italian' tapestries. doubtless. tenebrism A style of painting especially associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usually from an identifiable source. was being decorated with frescoes. T tapestry (in Italian Renaissance) As historical climatologists have not shown that Renaissance Italian winters and springs were warmer than they are now. These are all in situations where northern patrons would have used tapestries. 1407). the Arthurian scenes of Pisanello and the courtly ones of Mantegna in the Ducal Palace of Mantua. those for the Sistine Chapel designed by Raphael. London. Tempera colors are bright and translucent. The subject is underexplored.and. To hardiness or stinginess (tapestry was by far the most expensive form of wall decoration) we owe the existence of such secular frescoed decorative schemes as the labours of the months in the castle at Trent (c. Salviati and Allori. tempera (Lat. The influence of their hunting and ceremonial scenes in particular registered on Italian 'gothic' painting or illumination and stained glass. the delicious calendar fantasies of Cossa and others in the Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara .e. or cartoons. the Palace of the Signoria (now the Palazzo Vecchio). chiefly from Flanders. then being replaced by oil paint. These were imported. though because the paint dried very quickly there is little time to blend them. temperare.Historically. and working from designs by court artists of the calibre of Bronzino. Established legally by the Act of Supremacy in 1534. i. . and in literature. it is puzzling that Italy did not fabricate tapestries to decorate and draught-proof the stony rooms of its palaces until 1545. Even when Cosimo's manufactory was in being. the supremacy of the English king over the English Church. both for panel painting and fresco.

"fields. and later to subdivide gable ends. pl. and other surfaces. widely used form. tondi (It.terracotta (It. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. topiary (Gk. "firm land") The mainland forming part of the Venetian Doge's sovereign territory. topoi (Gk. "round") A circular painting or relief sculpture. terraferma (Ital. topos. and profile. triumphal arch. three-quarter face artistic term denoting a particular angle from which the human face is depicted. tondo. "a commonplace") In literature. vessels. gardens") The craft of cutting bushes and trees into decorative shapes. Trajan's Column . Depending on how far the head is turned away from a fully frontal angle en face. It was particularly popular in Florence and was often used for depictions of the Madonna and Child. in the architecture of ancient Rome. usually those of animals or geometrical forms. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. the picture is described as three-quarter face (in which a good deal of the face can be seen). tracery the geometrical architectural ornamentation which is used in Gothic architecture to subdivide the upper parts of the arches belonging to large windows. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. quarter face. theme or motif. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. walls. and sculptures. model. pl. the strip of coastline immediately next to the lagoon. figure of speech. in art. "baked earth") Unglazed fired clay. The tondo derives from classical medallions and was used in the Renaissance as a compositional device for creating an ideal visual harmony. though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. topia. i. It is used for architectural features and ornaments.e.

' This aspect of the theme was magnificently realized in Titian's great woodcut 'The Triumph of the Faith'. Dante gave one to Beatrice in Purgatorio XXIX: 'Rome upon Africanus ne'er conferred / Nor on Augustus's self. only to the sole commander of a major victory over a foreign army of whom at least 5000 were slain. Its centrepiece was the chariot of the victor himself. they soon appeared in illuminated manuscripts. usually an altarpiece.A monumental column erected in Rome in 113 AD to commemorate the deeds of Emperor Trajan. chastity. time and eternity. beside it the army of martyrs. Meanwhile. or wings. behind it. "threefold") A painting in three sections. Just before his death Savonarola published his 'Triumph of the Cross'. loot and prisoners was given sparingly. in an age which did not like the idea of large numbers of victory-flushed soldiers parading through its streets. But it was tentatively with the relief carvings on the Triumphal Arch (1452-66) at Castelnuovo in Naples commemorating Alfonso the Magnanimous. that the visual reconstruction of a Roman triumph became complete. the military triumph became sublimated. consisting of a central panel and two outer panels. the term used for the existence of one God in three persons: the Father. a car so brave'. Disseminated soon after his death. The knowledge that the privilege of being commemorated by one of these enormous and costly processions of warriors. Other 'triumphs' were invented: of the seasons.poems describing the processions commemorating the triumphs of love. and finally with Mantegna's superb Triumph of Caesar cartoons (Hampton Court). Early triptychs were often portable. patriarchs and prophets. Battista Sforza. in which the reader was invited to imagine 'a four-wheeled chariot on which is seated Christ as Conqueror.and the ceremony which marked their success: the victor's triumph. of both sexes'. added to the glamour of the triumph. "threefold") in Christianity. of virtues and of the arts. Nor was the theme allowed to be simply a profane one. into a number of less controversial forms. This was largely under the influence of Petrarch's 'Trionfi' . fame. triptych (Gk. trinitas.' Before it go the apostles. most beautifully of all on the backs of Piero della Francesca's portraits of Federigo da Montefeltro and his wife. the Son and the Holy Spirit. come the prisoners: 'the serried ranks of the enemies of the Church of Christ. . after 'a countless number of virgins. In many medieval triptychs the two outer wings were hinged so that could be closed over the center panel. decorated marriage chests and other paintings. Around its entire length is carved a continuous spiral band of low relief sculptures depicting Trajan's exploits. the wars by which they were won . Trinity (Lat. death. as it were. and the triumph scene became a popular one for woodcuts. triumph With growing interest from the early 14th century in the history of ancient Rome came a fascination with the city's conquests. tryptychos.

The Tudor dynasty lasted until 1603 (death of Elizabeth I). marrying Richard's niece Elizabeth of York and thus symbolically ending the dynastic wars of the Roses. The triumphal archway was revived during the Renaissance. creates the illusion that the objects depicted are actually there in front of us. often decorated with sculptures or mosaics. Tudor An obscure Welsh family. trumeau Stone pillar or column supporting the lintel of a monumental portal at its centre. It incorporates Renaissance features. tromp l'oeil was revived in the 15th century and became a distinctive feature of 17th-century Dutch painting. they usually consisted of a large archway flanked by two smaller ones. Tudor is also the name of a transitional Late Gothic building style during the reigns of the two Henrys. In medieval architecture. "drum") In classical architecture. the semi-circular area over a a door's lintel. In Renaissance painting they appear as allusion to classical antiquity. tromp l'oeil (Fr. tympanum (Lat. Lancastrian Henry VII was its first crowned representative.triumphal arch In the architecture of ancient Rome. it is usually decorated with carvings. "deceives the eye") A type of painting which. enclosed by an arch. through various naturalistic devices. Often decorated with architectural features and relief sculptures. tusche A thick. the triangular area enclosed by a pediment. viscous black ink. typology . though usually as a feature of a building rather than as an independent structure. that seized the English throne in 1485 by defeating the Yorkist king Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth. first recorded in 1232. often decorated with sculptures. a large and usually free-standing ceremonial archway built to celebrate a military victory. Dating from classical times.

and Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629) . and of Pietro Paolo Boscoli against the Medici in 1513. while the Pazzi conspiracy in Florence was seen by Alamanno Rinuccini as an emulation of ancient glory. Such typological links were frequently used in both medieval and Renaissance art. In Christian thought. 1590-1624). Intellectuals who combined a taste for violence with a classicizing republicanism featured largely too in the plots of Stefano Porcari against Nicholas V (1453).) The Renaissance "universal man". lanterns. U uomo universale (It.A system of classification. e. the story of Jonah and the whale prefigured Christ's death and resurrection.g. Typological studies were based on the assumption that Old Testament figures and events prefigured those in the New. tyrannicide Assassination of rulers (often in church. So the killing of Galeazzo Maria Sforza (1476) was carried out by three Milanesi patricians inspired in part by the teachings of the humanist Cola Montano. were popular with them also. slayer of Goliath. Their subjects are frequently religious ones. of the Roman Academy against Paul II (1468). and other sources of artificial light are characteristic and further underscore the indebtedness to Caravaggio. The numerous candles. Back in the Netherlands the "Caravaggisti" were eager to demonstrate what they had learned. knew his former patrons. . the drawing of parallels between the Old Testament and the New. Although none of them ever actually met Caravaggio (d. such as five works devoted to the senses. and David. Utrecht school Principally a group of three Dutch painters . especially his half-length figural groups. 1610). From the end of the 14th century these deeds came frequently to be gilded by biblical and classical references: to the precedents of Brutus (condenmed by Dante as an arch-traitor. but brothel scenes and pictures in sets.who went to Rome and fell fully under the pervasive influence of Caravaggio's art before returning to Utrecht. Gerrit van Honthorst (1590-1656). each had access to his paintings. where they were most accessible.Dirck van Baburen (c. Judith. which were boldly derived from Caravaggio and occasionally passed off as the deceased master's works. a many-talented man with a broad-ranging knowledge of both the arts and the sciences. and was influenced by the work of his follower Bartholomeo Manfredi (1580-1620/21). and often by cadets of their family) had long played an important part in the Italian political process. then raised by such republican enthusiasts as Michclangelo to heroic stature). killer of Holofernes.

a work's richness of subject matter. it was used to decorate furniture. and the pointlessness of earthly ambitions and achievements. Common vanitas-symbols include skulls. mixed in. vesper. painting at both the Dutch and English courts. and even flowers (which will soon fade). often gold. the groin vault. "variety") In Renaissance art theory. consistong of a framework of diagonal ribs supporting interlocking arches. guttering candles. the point on the horizon at which sets of lines representing parallel lines will converge. Terbrugghen is generally regarded as the most talented and versatile of the group. veduta (Italian for view) a primarily topographical representation of a town or landscape that is depicted in such a life-like manner that the location can be identified. V vanishing point In perspective. snuff boxes and other objects. "evening") . The vanitas theme became popular during the Baroque. It was developed by and named for the Martin brothers. There are a wide range of forms. vanitas (Lat. varietà (It. Vespers (Lat. Also varietas (Lat. The development of the various forms was of great structural and aesthetic importance in the development of church architecture during the Middle Ages. hour-glasses and clocks. vernis Martin Refers to lacquer (coating) produced in France during the 18th century in imitation of Japanese and Chinese lacquers. and the rib vault.). vault A roof or ceiling whose structure is based on the arch. formed by a continuous semi-circular arch. formed when two barrel vaults intersect. overturned vessels. The basic ingrediant in copal varnish with powdered metal. carriages.Although Honthorst enjoyed the widest reputation at the time. Parisian craftsmen. including the barrel (or tunnel) vault. "emptiness") A painting (or element in painting) that acts as a reminder of the inevitabiliry of death. with the vanitas still life flourishing in Dutch art.

Lust. "forecourt") The anteroom or entrance hall of a building. Anger. The seven Virtues were: Faith. and wooden towers are decorated with finials at the top. Gothic decorative attic over doors and windows. vimperga Of German origin. vestibulum. even reckless (but not feckless) man from his conventionally virtuous counterpart. Attics with tracery in the shape of isosceles triangles are decorated with crockets and cornices. The route is marked by the 14 Stations of the Cross. virtù could be used. virtù The Italian word commonly means 'virtue' in the sense of Hamlet's admonition to his mother. "not exposed to winds". and Justice. Vestibule (Lat. The route taken by Christ in the Passion on the way to Golgotha. the church service at which these prayers are said. vite (Lat. for example. the vestibule was situated before the entrance to the house. to convey an inherently gifted activism especially in statecraft or military affairs. actual or latent. Under the influence of the classical 'virtus'. Vices and Virtues In the medieval and Renaissance Christianity there were seven principal virtues and seven principal vices. a classification that brought together both ideals of both Christianity and classical Antiquity. Temperance. "life") . vita. pl. as it most frequently was by Machiavelli. to possess virtù was a character trait distinguishing the energetic. 'Assume a virtue. in which the word signifies efficacy. and Sloth. Hope. 'excellence' (with a strongly virile connotation). rendering him less vulnerable to the quirks of Fortuna. Covetousness. Via Crucis The Way of the Cross. In ancient Roman dwellings.Prayers said in the evening. Prudence. Personifications of both appear in medieval and Renaissance art. Fortitude. but during the Renaissance it increasingly carried the force of Edmund Burke's 'I have in general no very exalted opinion of the virtue of paper government'. The seven Vices (also known as the seven Deadly Sins) were: Pride. The Marian Vespers are prayers and meditations relating to the Virgin Mary. Gluttony. Charity. Envy. if you have it not'.

The wars were also recognized as different in kind from their predecessors by those who lived through them: 'before. came virtually to an end with the Habsburg-Valois treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai in 1529. 1472. And because the wars forced the rest of western Europe into new alliances and a novel diplomatic closeness. Though foreign intervention in Italian affairs was certainly no novelty. by general consensus the Wars of Italy are held to be those that began in 1494 with Charles VIII'S invasion of the peninsula. fall into a different category from those that preceded them. the demoted status of the previously quarrelsome but in the main independent comity of peninsular powers. published in 1550 and 1568. provides detailed accounts of the lives of many of the most important artists of the Renaissance. The best-known writer of the vita in the Renaissance was Vasari. Marcus (1st cent. AD) Roman architect whose ten books of architecture formed the basis of Renaissance architectural theory. or recovery from illness has been made. No previous series of combats had produced such lasting effects: the subjection of Milan and Naples to direct Spanish rule and the ossification of politics until the arrival in 1796 of a new Charles VIII in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte.g. in fact. they were from the 18th century . usually when a prayer for good fortune. and of Ferrara. protection from harm. Vitruvius Pollio. as a transition between horizontal and vertical elements. 1482-84). and the occasional wars thereafter (e. the peninsula had never before been seen so consistently by dynastic contenders as both prize and arena. Campaign followed campaign on a scale and with an unremittingness sharply different from those which had interrupted the post-Lodi peacefulness. Sculptors and Architects"). 1478-80.An account of someone's life and work. those of Volterera. and were finally concluded with the European settlement of Cateau-Cambresis in 1559. votive painting/image A picture or panel donated because of a sacred promise. a biography. whose Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori. W Wars of Italy In spite of the endemic warfare which characterized Italy from the 14th century to the Peace of Lodi in 1454. and appalled recognition of. scultori e architetti italiani ("Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Painters. volute A spiral scroll found particularly on (Ionic) capitals and gables. The wars from 1494 do. 1494' and 'after 1494' became phrases charged with nostalgic regret for. of the Papacy and Naples against Florence.

until comparatively recently seen as marking the turn from medieval to recognizably modern political times. The wars, then, were caused by foreign intervention. In these terms they can be chronicled with some brevity. After crossing the Alps in 1494 Charles VIII conquered the kingdom of Naples and retired in 1495, leaving the kingdom garrisoned. The garrisons were attacked later in the same year by Spanish troops under Gonzalo de Cordoba, sent by King Ferdinand II of Aragon (who was also King of Sicily). With this assistance Naples was restored to its native Aragonese dynasty. In 1499 the new King of France, Louis XII, assumed the title Duke of Milan (inherited through his grandfather's marriage to a Visconti) and occupied the duchy, taking over Genoa later in the same year. In 1501 a joint FrancoSpanish expedition reconquered the kingdom of Naples. The allies then fell out and fought one another. By January 1504 Spain controlled the whole southern kingdom, leaving France in control of Milan and Genoa in the north. A third foreign power, the German Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I entered the arena in 1508 with an abortive invasion of the Veronese-Vicentino. He countered the rebuff by joining the allies of the anti-Venetian League of Cambrai: France and Aragon assisted by Pope Julius II and the rulers of Mantua and Ferrara. In 1509 their victory at Agnadello led to the occupation of the whole of the Venetian terraferma apart from Treviso. The eastward extension of French power gained by this victory (won by a mainly French army) drove Julius and Ferdinand to turn against Louis and in 1512 the French - now also under pressure from a fourth foreign power interesting itself in Italian territory, the Swiss - were forced to evacuate their possessions in Lombardy. Louis's last invasion of the Milanese was turned back in 1513 at the battle of Novara and the duchy was restored to its native dynasty, the Sforza, in the person of Massimiliano; he ruled, however, under the supervision of Milan's real masters, the Swiss. In 1515, with a new French king, Francis I, came a new invasion and a successful one: the Swiss were defeated at Marignano and Massimiliano ceded his title to Francis. To confirm his monopoly of foreign intervention in the north Francis persuaded Maximilian I to withdraw his garrisons from Venetian territory, thus aiding the Republic to complete the recovery of its terraferma. With the spirit of the Swiss broken, the death of Ferdinand in 1516 and of Maximilian I in 1519 appeared to betoken an era of stability for a peninsula that on the whole took Spanish rule in the south and French in the north-west for granted. However, on Maximilian's death his grandson Charles, who had already become King of Spain in succession to Ferdinand, was elected Emperor as Charles V; Genoa and Milan formed an obvious land bridge between his Spanish and German lands, and a base for communications and troop movements thence to his other hereditary possessions in Burgundy and the Netherlands. Equally, it was clear to Francis I that his Italian territories were no longer a luxury, but strategically essential were his land frontier not to be encircled all the way from Provence to Artois. Spanish, German and French interests were now all centred on one area of Italy and a new phase of the wars began.

Between 1521 and 1523 the French were expelled from Genoa and the whole of the Milanese. A French counter-attack late in 1523, followed by a fresh invasion in 1524 under Francis himself, led, after many changes of fortune, to the battle of Pavia in 1525; not only were the French defeated, but Francis himself was sent as a prisoner to Spain, and released in 1526 only on condition that he surrender all claims to Italian territory. But by now political words were the most fragile of bonds. Francis allied himself by the Treaty of Cognac to Pope Clement VII, previously a supporter of Charles but, like Julius II in 1510, dismayed by the consequences of what he had encouraged, and the Milanese once more became a theatre of war. In 1527, moreover, the contagion spread, partly by mischance - as when the main Imperial army, feebly led and underpaid, put loot above strategy and proceeded to the Sack of Rome, and partly by design - as when, in a reversion to the policy of Charles VIII, a French army marched to Naples, having forced the Imperial garrison out of Genoa on the way and secured the city's navy, under Andrea Doria, as an ally. In July 1528 it was Doria who broke what had become a Franco-Imperial stalemate by going over to the side of the Emperor and calling off the fleet from its blockade of Naples, thus forcing the French to withdraw from the siege of a city now open to Spanish reinforcements. By 1529, defeated in Naples and winded in Milan, Francis at last allowed his ministers to throw in the sponge. The Treaty of Barcelona, supplemented by that of Cambrai, confirmed the Spanish title to Naples and the cessation of French pretensions to Milan, which was restored (though the Imperial leading strings were clearly visible) to the Sforza claimant, now Francesco II. Thereafter, though Charles took over the direct government of Milan through his son Philip on Francesco's death in 1535, and Francis I in revenge occupied Savoy and most of Piedmont in the following year, direct foreign intervention in Italy was limited to the localized War of Siena. In 1552 the Sienese expelled the garrison Charles maintained there as watchdog over his communications between Naples and Milan, and called on French support. As an ally of Charles, but really on his own account, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, took the city after a campaign that lasted from 1554 to 1555. But in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis of 1559, by which France yet again, and now finally, renounced Italian interests, Cosimo was forced to grant Charles the right to maintain garrisons in Siena's strategic dependencies, Orbetello, Talamone and Porto Ercole. The Wars of Italy, though caused by foreign interventions, involved and were shaped by the invitations, self-interested groupings and mutual treacheries of the Italian powers themselves. At the beginning, Charles VIII was encouraged by the Duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, jealous of the apparently expanding diplomatic influence of Naples, as well as by exiles and malcontents (including the future Julius II) who thought that a violent tap on the peninsular kaleidoscope might provide space for their own ambitions. And the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai did not put an end to the local repercussions of the Franco Imperial conflict. France's ally Venice only withdrew from the kingdom of Naples after the subsequent (December 1529) settlement negotiated at Bologna. It was not until August 1530 that the Last Florentine Republic gave in to the siege by the Imperialist army supporting the exiled Medici. The changes of heart and loyalty on the part of Julius II in 1510 and Clement VII in 1526 are but illustrations of the weaving and reweaving of alliances that determined the individual fortunes of the Italian states within the interventionist framework: no précis can combine them.

A final point may, however, be made. Whatever the economic and psychological strain produced in individual states by their involvement, and the consequential changes in their constitutions or masters, no overall correlation between the Wars and the culture of Italy can be made. The battles were fought in the countryside and peasants were the chief sufferers from the campaigns. Sieges of great cities were few, and, save in the cases of Naples in 1527-28 and Florence in 1529-30, short. No planned military occasion had so grievious effect as did the Sack of Rome, which aborted the city's cultural life for a decade. War of the Eight Saints (1375-78) Conflict between Pope Gregory XI and an Italian coalition headed by Florence, which resulted in the return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome. In 1375, provoked by the aggressiveness of the Pope's legates in Italy, Florence incited a widespread revolt in the Papal States. The Pope retaliated by excommunicating the Florentines (March 1376), but their war council, the Otto di Guerra (popularly known as the Eight Saints), continued to defy him. In 1377 Gregory sent an army under Cardinal Robert of Geneva to ravage the areas in revolt, while he himself returned to Italy to secure his possession of Rome. Thus ended the papacy's 70-year stay in France. The war ended with a compromise peace concluded at Tivoli in July 1378. watercolour Pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a painting surface, usually paper; the term also denotes a work of art executed in this medium. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting and in this form is known as body colour, or gouache; it can also be mixed with casein, a phosphoprotein of milk. Watercolour compares in range and variety with any other painting method. Transparent watercolour allows for a freshness and luminosity in its washes and for a deft calligraphic brushwork that makes it a most alluring medium. There is one basic difference between transparent watercolour and all other heavy painting mediums - its transparency. The oil painter can paint one opaque colour over another until he has achieved his desired result. The whites are created with opaque white. The watercolourist's approach is the opposite. In essence, instead of building up he leaves out. The white paper creates the whites. The darkest accents may be placed on the paper with the pigment as it comes out of the tube or with very little water mixed with it. Otherwise the colours are diluted with water. The more water in the wash, the more the paper affects the colours; for example, vermilion, a warm red, will gradually turn into a cool pink as it is thinned with more water. The dry-brush technique - the use of the brush containing pigment but little water, dragged over the rough surface of the paper - creates various granular effects similar to those of crayon drawing. Whole compositions can be made in this way. This technique also may be used over dull washes to enliven them.

Westwerk German word. usually restorers. they were responsible for the artistic quality of the print.Weltanschauung (Gr. during its subsequent history. usually linear. a philosophy of life. The design is drawn on a smooth block of wood and then cut out. treasury or a place where justice was administered. X X-ray photos X-ray photos are used to examine the undersurfaces of a painting. woodcut A print made from a wood block. "Western work of art". wood block carvers craftsmen who carved the work into the wood block according to the design drawn on it. They allow scholars to see what changes were made during the original painting or by other hands. It was intended to have a variety of functions. While they are not usually identified by name in the early period and are difficult to distinguish from the artist producing the design. Y no article Z zoomorphic ornament Ornament. based on stylization of various animal forms. but it was associated with the emperor or aristocrats: it served as a chapel. pompous on the floor above. Central space at the Western façade of medieval cathedrals vaulted on the ground floor. leaving the design standing up in relief the design to be printed. "world view") A comprehensive world view. gallery. . The person who carved the woodcut often worked to a design by another artist.

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